Titration of Acids and Bases

Names: Andrew Yaksic, Christopher Pond Purpose: To become familiar with the techniques of titration; to determine the molecular weight of a solid acid. Equipment: 2 50-mL burets, 1000-mL Erlenmeyer flask, 3 250-mL Erlenmeyer flasks, weighing paper, ring stand, ring, wire gauze, analytical balance, Bunsen burner, rubber hose, 1-quart bottle with screw top, squirt bottle, buret clamp, stopcock, microspatula, small beaker Materials: 19 M NaOH, potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP), phenolphthalein solution, citric acid (H3C6H5O7), distilled water, petroleum jelly, unknown HCl solution Introduction: One of the most common and familiar reactions in chemistry is the reaction of an acid with a base. This reaction is called neutralization, and the essential feature of this process in aqueous solution is the combination of hydronium ions with hydroxide ions to form water. In this experiment, this reaction will be used to determine accurately the concentration of a sodium hydroxide solution. The process of determining the concentration of a solution is called standardization. The technique of accurately measuring the volume of a solution required to react with another reagent is termed titration. The titration process is shown in Figure 20.2 below:

1

In slightly more acidic solutions it is colorless. An indicator changes colors when equivalent amounts of acid and base are present. and hydrochloric acid. In this experiment. KHP. changes from colorless to pink at a pH of 9.An indicator solution is used to determine exactly when an acid has neutralized a base or vice versa. the indicator used in this experiment. sodium hydroxide will be titrated against three solutions: KHP. and in more alkaline solutions it is pink. Indicators change colors at different pH values. Phenolphthalein. citric acid. is a molecule with the following structural diagram: 2 . or potassium hydrogen phthalate. The color change is termed the “end point” of the titration.

Steps 4 and 5 were repeated for the two other Erlenmeyer flasks.2 in the Introduction.4 and . Standardization of NaOH solution 1. the formula must be as follows: molarity = moles solute/volume of solution in liters. NaOH solution was slowly added to one of the flasks containing KHP solution while gently swirling the contents of the flask.The goal of this experiment is to standardize sodium hydroxide against KHP. Between 15 and 50 mL of the boiled water was added to each Erlenmeyer flask. Each KHP sample was placed into a separate 250-mL Erlenmeyer flask. to determine the molecular weight of citric acid. 3 . 3. Three samples of pure KHP were weighed with weighing paper. Carbon-dioxide free water was prepared by boiling tap water. The initial buret reading was recorded. The buret reading was recorded. The stopcock was then turned to the closed position. 2. Between . Some NaOH solution was poured into the buret and allowed to flow through the buret. as indicated in Figure 20. and to determine the concentration of the unknown hydrochloric acid. It was collected in a small beaker. In order to determine the concentration of the hydrochloric acid. 6. NaOH solution was added until the KHP turned completely pink. 4. The contents of each flask were swirled.6 grams of KHP were obtained per sample. 5. Two to four drops of phenolphthalein solution were added to each flask. Procedure: A. The buret was then completely filled to the 0-mL mark with NaOH solution.

The buret was then completely filled to the 0-mL mark with NaOH solution. Analysis of citric acid 1. Some distilled water was added to each flask for better visibility. Analysis of unknown hydrochloric acid solution 1. 4. Each citric acid sample was placed into a separate 250-mL Erlenmeyer flask. The initial buret reading was recorded. as indicated in Figure 20. Three samples of pure citric acid were weighed with weighing paper. The buret reading was recorded. Steps 3 and 4 were repeated for the two other Erlenmeyer flasks. Between 15 and 50 mL of the previously boiled water was added to each Erlenmeyer flask. 5. Some NaOH solution was poured into the buret and allowed to flow through the buret. NaOH solution was slowly added to one of the flasks containing citric acid solution while gently swirling the contents of the flask. C. Two to four drops of phenolphthalein solution were added to each flask. 2. Twice as much HCl was placed into another Erlenmeyer flask. three times as much as the original amount of HCl was placed into a third Erlenmeyer flask. It was collected in the same small beaker used in step 4 of part A. The stopcock was then turned to the closed position. The contents of each flask were swirled. A few drops of phenolphthalein solution were added to each flask. clean buret. NaOH solution was added until the citric acid turned completely pink. An arbitrary amount of HCl was placed into an Erlenmeyer flask from a second. 4 . 3.3 grams of citric acid were obtained per sample. Between .2 in the Introduction.B.2 and .

90 mL 0. The contents of the flask were gently swirled during this titration.30 mL Trial 3 15.5311 g Final buret reading 20.00 mL 0. The initial buret reading was recorded. NaOH solution was added until the HCl turned completely pink. The stopcock was then turned to the closed position.00 mL Trial 2 .00 mL B.30 mL 0.00 mL 0.00 mL Trial 3 . Observations: ± will not be factored into results for part A.65 mL Trial 2 10.00 mL 10. NaOH solution was slowly added to the first Erlenmeyer flask containing HCl. For buret readings.4730 g .2. Some NaOH solution was poured into the original buret and allowed to flow through the buret.00 mL 0.00 mL Initial NaOH buret reading 0.00 mL C. The buret reading was recorded.2527 g 36.50 mL Initial buret reading 0.80 mL Initial buret reading 0. Analysis of citric acid Trial 1 Mass of citric acid used .. A.00 mL 7. 3.05 mL. The buret was then completely filled to the 0-mL mark with NaOH solution. ± is .2456 g Final buret reading 34. 4. For mass observations. It was collected in the same small beaker used in step 4 of part A.5159 g 22.95 mL 5 . Steps 2 and 3 were repeated for the two other Erlenmeyer flasks. ± is .00 mL Final NaOH buret reading 3.0001 g. Analysis of unknown hydrochloric acid solution Trial 1 Amount of HCl used 5.30 mL 0.2407 g 34. Standardization of NaOH solution Trial 1 Trial 2 Mass of KHP used .00 mL Trial 3 .90 mL 23.

(. .02290 L = .0007 M Trial 2.90 mL – 0.02380 L = .002316 moles KHP.1101 M Standard deviation (|Average molarity minus individual molarities|) = Trial 1.1093 M| = .0008 M 6 .2 grams KHP)) = Trial 1.1101 M .1093 + .002526 moles NaOH / . (.002601 moles KHP.80 mL. Trial 3.1108 M| = . 23.002316 moles NaOH / .002601 moles KHP (1 mole NaOH/1 mole KHP)) = .90 mL – 0.2 g)) = .1108 + . (.1093 M Trial 3. Trial 2. (. Trial 3. Trial 2.5159 g KHP (1 mole/204.002601 moles NaOH. Moles of KHP used (mass of KHP used times (1 mole KHP/204.002526 moles NaOH.. Moles of NaOH used (moles of KHP used times (1 mole NaOH/1 mole KHP)) = Trial 1.00 mL = 22.Results: A.5311 g KHP (1mole/204. Trial 2.1108 M Trial 2.002316 moles NaOH.2 g)) = . Standardization of NaOH solution mL of NaOH used (final buret reading minus initial buret reading) = Trial 1.1103) / 3 = .002601 moles NaOH / . (. 22. Molarity of NaOH (moles of NaOH divided by (mL of NaOH used/1000)) = Trial 1.90 mL.002526 moles KHP.4730 g KHP (1 mole/204.1103 M Average molarity (sum of molarities divided by 3) = (.02090 L = . |. 20. Trial 3.002526 moles KHP (1 mole NaOH/1 mole KHP)) = . (.00 mL = 20.90 mL. .2 g)) = . |.1101 M ..002316 moles KHP (1 mole NaOH/1 mole KHP)) = .80 mL – 0. .00 mL = 23.

30 mL – 0.1101 ± .00380 ± .0006 M (34.00003 mol Trial 2. (.1101 ± .54% M (.003997 ± .0002 M Average deviation (Sum of standard deviations divided by 3) = (.00001 moles citric acid Trial 2.00003 mol = . (.0008 M + .1101 ± .03450 ± .00 mL = 36.30 mL Trial 3.00003 mol NaOH (1 mole citric acid/3 moles NaOH)) = (.00378 ± .50 ± .54% M (.1101 M .0006 M B.68% mol) = .69% mol) = . Analysis of citric acid mL of NaOH used (final buret reading minus initial buret reading) = Trial 1.03430 ± .0007 M + . 34.00003 mol NaOH (1 mole citric acid/3 moles NaOH)) = 7 .79% moles citric acid / 3) = (.00003 mol = .00380 ± .003776 ± .00380 ± .00400 ± .05 mL/1000)) = (.30 mL Moles of NaOH used (molarity of NaOH times (mL of NaOH/1000)) = Trial 1.14% L)) = (.14% L)) = (. |.79% moles citric acid) = . 34.00126 ± . (.00400 ± .00126 ± . (.003798 ± .00003 mol Trial 3.00 mL = 34.03630 ± .00003 mol Moles of citric acid used (moles of NaOH used (1 mole citric acid/3 moles NaOH)) = Trial 1.05 mL/1000)) = (.15% L)) = (.50 mL – 0.0006 M (36.003776 ± .30 mL – 0.00 mL = 34. (..05 mL/1000)) = (.0002 M) / 3 = .68% mol) = .54% M (.003798 ± . 36.30 ± .1101 ± .Trial 3.0006 M (34.30 ± .00003 mol = .1103 M| = .1101 ± .50 mL Trial 2.003997 ± .1101 ± .

0 g/mol Standard deviation (|Average molecular weight minus individual molecular weight|) = Trial 1. |192.9 g/mol| = 2.9 g/mol Trial 2.0 g/mol| = 2.0 g/mol Trial 3. (.00133 mol) = 190. 3. (.0 g/mol Average deviation (Sum of standard deviations divided by 3) = (2.9 + 2.2527 g / . 7.0 g/mol| = 1.00001 moles citric acid Trial 3.0) / 3 = 2.00001 moles citric acid Molecular weight of citric acid (grams of citric acid divided by moles of citric acid) = Trial 1.2456 g / . (.0 g/mol – 190.00 mL = 7.9 g/mol Trial 2.95 mL Moles of NaOH used (molarity of NaOH times (mL of NaOH/1000)) = 8 .0 g/mol – 194.00 mL = 3.65 mL Trial 2.95 mL – 0.75% moles citric acid / 3) = (. 10.75% moles citric acid) = .30 mL – 0.9 + 190.30 mL Trial 3.0) / 3 = 192.00126 ± .0 g/mol Trial 3.0 g/mol – 191. |192.00133 ± .00133 ± .00 mL = 10. Analysis of unknown hydrochloric acid solution Amount of NaOH used (final buret reading minus initial buret reading) = Trial 1.00378 ± .0 + 1.0 + 191.00126 ± .79% moles citric acid / 3) = (.0 g/mol Average molecular weight (sum of molecular weights divided by 3) = (194.00126 mol) = 194.2407 g / .79% moles citric acid) = .00003 mol NaOH (1 mole citric acid/3 moles NaOH)) = (.0 g/mol C.00378 ± .00400 ± . (. |192.00126 mol) = 191.65 mL – 0.(.

1101 ± .05 mL / 1000) = (.33% L)) = (.081 ± . (.74% mol HCl / (.08 ± 1.0006 M (7.54% M (.000402 ± .00001 mol Moles of HCl used (moles of NaOH (1 mole HCl / 1 mole NaOH) = Trial 1.000402 ± .00 ± .25% mol HCl / (.081 ± 1.00121 ± .080 ± . Trial 2.16% M) = .05 mL/1000)) = (.00730 ± . .30 ± .0006 M (10.1101 ± .00001 mol (1 mol HCl / 1 mol NaOH) = .00121 ± . (.68% L)) = (.00080 ± .0804 ± 2.1101 ± .000804 ± 1.00080 ± .05 mL/1000)) = (.37% L)) = (. (.00121 ± .0006 M (3.00365 ± 1.91% mol) = .000402 ± 1.000402 ± 1.74% M) = .00 ± .00001 mol (1 mol HCl / 1 mol NaOH) = .001206 ± 1.00001 mol Trial 3.05 mL / 1000) = (. (. .05 mL / 1000) = (.54% M (.22% mol) = .0150 ± .05 mL/1000)) = (.75% M) = .000007 mol (1 mol HCl / 1 mol NaOH) = .83% mol HCl / (.001 M 9 . .002 M Trial 2. (.01095 ± .001 M Trial 3.Trial 1.000007 mol.65 ± .00001 mol HCl / (10.00500 ± 1.1101 ± .000007 mol HCl / (5.000007 mol Trial 2. (.0100 ± .00080 ± 1.00% L)) = (.00001 mol HCl / (15.00080 ± .000402 ± .46% L)) = (.00% mol) = .50% L)) = (.00 ± . Molarity of unknown HCl solution (moles of HCl used / (Amount of HCl used/1000))= Trial 1.95 ± .00001 mol.54% M (.000402 ± .080 ± .00001 mol.00121 ± .1101 ± .1101 ± . Trial 3.00121 ± .00080 ± .

080 + . or the formation of a gas that escapes from solution. Some sources of error in this experiment include faulty equipment. The true value is 192. If the buret was leaking at all.Average molarity (sum of molarities divided by 3) = (. the formation of a weak electrolyte or nonelectrolyte. If there was any petroleum jelly in the hole of the stopcock. distorting volumetric readings.080 M Discussion: The value obtained for the molecular weight of citric acid was 192.1 g/mol. then the volume reading would have been too low.1)/192.1 * 100 = -. or single-replacement. The experiment was very accurate.1/192.080 + . a new procedure was learned and practiced extensively.05% error. Ramifications of this experiment are both personal and general. as they did in this experiment. then this would have served as an impurity. If there were any air bubbles in the buret. The theory associated with this experiment is the process of metathesis reactions. The percent error calculation is as follows: (observed-true)/true * 100 (192. because the meniscus would have been pushed upwards. then the reading would have been inaccurate.0 g/mol. There are three driving forces for metathesis reactions to occur: the formation of a precipitate. Specific technical applications of this experiment include titrating to determine the acid or base content of a solution. This value is very close. In general. reactions occur in the following form: AX + BY → AY + BX. Metathesis reactions occur to neutralize acids and bases. Metathesis.1 * 100 = -.081) / 3 = .0-192. For ex- 10 .

11 . the molarity reading would have been too low because the number of moles of NaOH measured would have been too low. This can be done with any solution.002182 mol NaOH (1/2) = . Thus. To find the molarity of the malonic acid solution. If the KHP sample were contaminated with NaCl before standardization. If beer is too acidic or too basic. it will not taste the way it should.001091 mol / . molarity = moles / liters molarity = .0900 M 4.100 M * .002182 mol NaOH Then calculate the number of moles of malonic acid needed. first find the number of moles of NaOH used. The balanced chemical equation for the reaction of KHP with NaOH is: KHC8H4O4(aq) + NaOH(aq) → H2O(l) + KNaC8H4O4(aq) 2. titration can be used to determine the acid content of beer. mol malonic acid = mol NaOH (1 mol malonic acid / 2 mol NaOH) mol malonic acid = . mol NaOH = molarity * liters mol NaOH = .ample. 3.02182 L = . titrating a small sample of beer against a base like sodium hydroxide while using an indicator like phenolphthalein will reveal the acid content. To find the molarity of the sulfuric acid.001091 mol malonic acid Then calculate the molarity of malonic acid. first find the number of moles of sodium carbonate used. Questions: 1.01212 L = .

0 g) = .00400 M oxalic acid Conclusion: The experiment was completed with a high degree of success. 5. To find the molarity of the solution.0223 L = . Titration techniques were learned and practiced.mol sodium carbonate = . molarity = moles / liters molarity = .00408 mol sodium carbonate (1 mol sulfuric acid / 1 mol sodium carbonate) = .00408 mol / .252 g oxalic acid (1 mole / 126.00408 mol Then find how many moles of sulfuric acid were used. mol sulfuric acid = . molarity = moles / liters molarity = .183 M sulfuric acid.00200 mol / . .432 g sodium carbonate (1 mol / 106. first determine the number of moles.0 g) mol sodium carbonate = .00408 mol sulfuric acid Then calculate the molarity of the sulfuric acid. 12 .00200 mol oxalic acid Then calculate the molarity of the solution. and the molecular weight of a solid acid was determined accurately.500 L = .