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strain (perpendicular to the applied load), to the extension or axial strain (in the direction of the applied load). When a material is compressed in one direction, it usually tends to expand in the other two directions perpendicular to the direction of compression. This phenomenon is called the Poisson effect. Poisson's ratio ν (nu) is a measure of the Poisson effect. The Poisson ratio is the ratio of the fraction (or percent) of expansion divided by the fraction (or percent) of compression, for small values of these changes. Conversely, if the material is stretched rather than compressed, it usually tends to contract in the directions transverse to the direction of stretching. Again, the Poisson ratio will be the ratio of relative contraction to relative stretching, and will have the same value as above. In certain rare cases, a material will actually shrink in the transverse direction when compressed (or expand when stretched) which will yield a negative value of the Poisson ratio. The Poisson's ratio of a stable, isotropic, linear elastic material cannot be less than −1.0 nor greater than 0.5 due to the requirement that Young's modulus, the shear modulus and bulk modulus have positive values [1]. Most materials have Poisson's ratio values ranging between 0.0 and 0.5. A perfectly incompressible material deformed elastically at small strains would have a Poisson's ratio of exactly 0.5. Most steels and rigid polymers when used within their design limits (before yield) exhibit values of about 0.3, increasing to 0.5 for post-yield deformation (which occurs largely at constant volume.) Rubber has a Poisson ratio of nearly 0.5. Cork's Poisson ratio is close to 0: showing very little lateral expansion when compressed. Some materials, mostly polymer foams, have a negative Poisson's ratio; if these auxetic materials are stretched in one direction, they become thicker in perpendicular directions. Anisotropic materials can have Poisson ratios above 0.5 in some directions. Assuming that the material is stretched or compressed along the axial direction (the x axis in the diagram):

where ν is the resulting Poisson's ratio, is transverse strain (negative for axial tension (stretching), positive for axial compression) is axial strain (positive for axial tension, negative for axial compression).

Mathematically. the behavior is said to be linear. meaning.In mechanics. There is a negative sign on the right hand side of the equation because the restoring force always acts in the opposite direction of the displacement (for example. He first stated this law in 1660 as a Latin anagram. Hooke's law is named after the 17th century British physicist Robert Hooke. Materials for which Hooke's law is a useful approximation are known as linear-elastic or "Hookean" materials. . Hooke's law states that where x is the displacement of the end of the spring from its equilibrium position (in SI units: "m"). Hooke's law in simple terms says that strain is directly proportional to stress. and k is a constant called the rate or spring constant (in SI units: "N·m-1" or "kgs-2" or kg/s2). so the force". F is the restoring force exerted by the material (in SI units: "N" or kgms-2 or kgm/s2). and physics. When this holds. sic vis. "As the extension. the line should show a direct variation.[1] whose solution he published in 1678 as Ut tensio. when a spring is stretched to the left. it pulls back to the right). Hooke's law of elasticity is an approximation that states that the extension of a spring is in direct proportion with the load applied to it. If shown on a graph. Many materials obey this law as long as the load does not exceed the material's elastic limit.

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