BODY DETAILS Carriage is the term for the vehicle jolting with 5miles/hour to the smooth comfort

vehicle with a km/min. in the early version i.e. 1896 -98 Body is nothing but a convenient seat for the driver and a cover for the engine and other chassis. Initially horse carriage builder build the body to a steel framing/chassis. To reduce the weight and to get difference in shape, sheet metal panels replaced hardwood framing reinforced with ironwork. Around 1909-Vehicle speed 12miles/hr-design of body took place. In 1913 Henry Ford started mass production of cars-Ford Model-T with slogan Car for everyone This car took few man-hours to assemble engine but several man-hours for body manufacture. In the next model Model-A many wooden components are replaced. In 1930 Butt corporation of Philadelphia made all metal body, using sheet metal pressings-jointed by welding. In 1930 only Spot welding had been introduced. First style-Two seater open and equipped with sheets for covering the driver and passengers during inclement weather. Later a glass screen was erected in front of the driver. Four-seater style with collapsible hood and celluloid side screen - all weather body. Popular saloon model-enclosed body, glass windscreen, wind-up windows and sheet metal roof. In 1950 integral construction was introduced in passenger car construction. Types of Car body

The features of Two door and Pillar less saloon are as same that of Four door saloon. . Saloon or Sedan i) Four door saloon ii) Two door saloon iii) Pillar less saloon iv) Hatch back v) Fast back vi) Notch back 2.35-0.In Pillar less saloon.ventelation system and styling are the fetures of the model. there not be center pillar and In case of Two door saloon. Sports Coupe 6. Limousine 4. This is most popular passenger car Passenger comfort such as easy Entery and Exit. .1.heating. Estate car 5.5 . Coupe Saloon Saloon is a passenger car with two rows of seats and adequate passenger space in the rear compartment for passengers.Drag co-efficient is about 0. Good A/C. there is only Two doors are available. Convertibles 3. . The vehicle usually has a separate rearboot for luggage.

The roof is on one plane. May be 3 or 5-door and 2 to 5 seats. with continuous slope from the roof to the base of the Boot. The chassis of a limousine may have been extended by the manufacturer or by an independent coach builder.Notch back. . especially one with a lengthened wheelbase.It is provided with components and equipments of high quality and better finish. -Cusion seats. Campaing van . -The other names are Universal . It is usually provided with a partition between the passenger compartment and driver compeartment. -Thus more luggage space and longer wheel base are the speciality of this model. 2. where the passenger volume is clearly distinct from the trunk volume of the vehicle (when seen from the side). cooling glass etc are the features of this model. Eastate car -The luggage compartment is countinuation of the passenger of the passenger compartment without partition between them. Station wagen . . and the trunk lid is also parallel to the ground.Fast back sedan is a two-box sedan.Fast back. .Notchback sedan is a three-box sedan.Hatch back. generally parallel to the ground. Limousine . the rear window at a sharp angle to the roof. converting it from an enclosed to an open-air vehicle. Convertibles A convertible is a type of automobile in which the roof can retract and fold away.Identified by a rear door including the back window that opens vertically to access a storage area not separated from the rest of the passenger compartment. A/C.limousine is a luxury sedan or saloon car.. 3. . Kombi . 4. but excludes the Hatback feature.

It is assumed that the upward angle of the vertical visibility should be such as to enable the driver to see the trafic lights etc and this must be taken into consideration at the design stage.3 6. Visibility Good allround visibility is now one of the main requirements of body design. -Light weight combined with rigidity. Ease entery is possible by suitably shaping doors( as shown by dotted line) at the expence of a more complecated structure. On the other hand the problem of entry is increased. Sports Coupe -It is a two seater with fixed roof. -Drag Co-efficient is 0. since the distance between the seat and the pillar is decreased. -Convertible limousine has provited with windup window and foldind roof. . There are no strict regulations regarding visibility.This is clearely depends on the size of the window openings and their position relative to the occupents. In military vehicles the downward visibility is improtant and the driver must be positioned as high as possible in relation to the lower edge of the windscreen. -Better Aerodynamic shape to better acceleration. Coupe -Similar to sports coupe but with two small seats at back. 5.Break van .2-0. Forward visibilty can be improved by bringing the front seats of the passenger car closer to the front windscreen.

Heat toughened glass. Front and rear bulkheads complete the box form provide torsional stability. Herlomatic flash or Horn. 5. Prototype Car prototype can be considered to be the test model of a new car design that is . Car body Construction -Four door saloon considered as a hollow tube with holes cut in the sides. cross member and heelboard. Ability to see 2. -Floor-complete panel from front to rear. only when all four doors are perfectely locked. Wheel arch. 6.Rearward visibility has assumed considerable importance in modern trafic conditions and the increase in glass area required to maintain a given rear view veartical angle with a Fast Back window is shown in fig. Ability to be seen Safety Safety equipments for cars: Bumber design: The bumber should be designed to absorb more energy. Ignition switch should be connected with door lock that ignition can be switched . Fitted with integral straightening ribs to prevent buckling. Airbag and Safety bags have to be used. 3.Roof stable structurecurved shape-prevents misalignment. -With sill. 4. Collapsible steering. Visibility can be divided into two aspects 1. 2.strongest part of the body.

Sometimes. By subjecting these car prototypes to numerous tests. Then. A car prototype can also be referred as a test car. These car prototypes are developed to demonstrate the new qualities of their product to clients. as impact forces (approximately) remain the same as with a frontal impact test. the car designer proceeds to rework the design through the car prototype until the car reaches the objectives of the designer. These car prototypes are specialized machines that are supposed to showcase new innovations and designs that the car manufacturer carries. the participating cars in a race are also called prototypes. These car prototypes are the models for future mass-produced cars the manufacturer will be creating. Offset tests: in which only part of the front of the car impacts with a barrier (vehicle). but can also be vehiclevehicle tests. Tests: -Initial tests -Crash test Types crash test y Frontal-impact tests: which is what most people initially think of when asked about a crash test. by gathering this information. but a smaller fraction of the car is required to absorb all of the force. SUV s have been singled out in these tests for a while. The reason for this is that these cars are not mass -produced. y y y . More recently dynamic rollover tests have been proposed as opposed to static crush testing (video). without first creating a prototype of it. Roll-over tests: which tests a car s ability (specifically the pillars holding the roof) to support itself in a dynamic impact. weaknesses. This type of testing is done by the IIHS and Euro CAP Side-impact tests: these forms of accidents have a very significant likelihood of fatality. These tests are often realized by cars turning into oncoming traffic. mistakes and limitations in a new car project. as cars don t have a significant crumple zone to absorb the impact forces before an occupant is injured.intended to be produced in mass quantity. There is no company that goes out and starts mass production of a new car. the car designer gets to see the strengths. based on the results of the tests on the car prototype. due to the high ride-height that they often have. These are important. These are usually impacts upon a solid concrete wall at a specified speed.

These tests are performed to show the advancements in crashworthiness y Dummies and Instrumentation Crash test dummies are full-scale anthropomorphic test devices (ATD) that simulate the dimensions. roll and yaw measurement Measurement of steering wheel Ex. Germany. and are usually instrumented to record data about the dynamic behavior of the ATD in simulated vehicle impacts. Denmark. Non-contact optical speed & distance measurement systems EEP-2. EEP-3. Steering torque / angle measurement system Dynamic simulation software Correlation software n code Ride quality meter Fuel flow meters (positive displacement type) High speed multi-channel data acquisition systems Draw bar pull measuring Equipment 8 Channel thermal array recorder ADAMS . light poles and similar appurtenances do not pose an undue hazard to vehicle occupants. or two different generations of the same car model. M/s Datron Messtechnik. Gyro platform for pitch. weight proportions and articulation of the human body. Micro EEP-10 and DAS 1A Pass by noise measurement system Ex. and also to ensure that guard rails. Old versus new: Often an old and big car against a small and new car . sign posts.y Roadside hardware crash tests: are used to ensure crash barriers and crash cushions will protect vehicle occupants from roadside hazards. M/s Bruel & Kjaer.