Rally Car Breaking System Progress Report II

Hisham Elkholy Chris Kazmierczak Jimmy Tam Sameh Helmy Nick Li

0744637 0766589 0853392 0840041 0759935

SPI: Dr. Wu

PW05
1 MECH ENG 3E05 Progress Report II Rally Car Braking System

Table of Contents
Summary of First Progress Report ............................................................................................................ 3 Dust Gate Design ..................................................................................................................................... 3 Impact Analysis........................................................................................................................................ 4 Shear analysis .......................................................................................................................................... 5 Compression analysis............................................................................................................................... 6 Heat Transfer Analysis ............................................................................................................................. 6 Hydraulic circuit ....................................................................................................................................... 8 Brake bias .............................................................................................................................................. 10 Anti-Lock Braking System (ABS) ............................................................................................................. 11 Design Materials .................................................................................................................................... 11 Next Steps ............................................................................................................................................. 12 References............................................................................................................................................. 14

2 MECH ENG 3E05 Progress Report II Rally Car Braking System

Summary of First Progress Report
The objective of this project is to design a braking system for rally cars on gravel surfaces. In the relevant background information section, several designs are explored and compared in the first progress report. Subsequently, the ram air duct design is chosen from three conceptual designs. The advantages of this braking system include its lighter weight, faster cooling rate and its simplicity compared to other designs. Further details are shown in the comparison chart from the first progress report.

The background in the first progress report also states that brakes are repeatedly used in many corners of the rally stage and creates high temperatures in both the brake pads and the brake rotors. In the second progress report, more analysis will be covered to maximize the performance of the brake, including fluid analysis, heat dissipation analysis, impact restitution analysis, shear and compression analyses and finally, the hydraulic circuit and brake bias will be analyzed.

Dust Gate Design (See Appendix 1 Dust Gate Drawing)

Essentially, just a mesh dust catcher; this design is implemented in front of the brake duct air entrance and runs on smooth guide rails. It has a range of motion of five centimeters into the brake duct with a dust filter made from a fine mesh grid using stainless steel to defend against cracks and fracture from impact of pebbles at high speeds. The guide rails allow the
3 MECH ENG 3E05 Progress Report II Rally Car Braking System

structure to move backwards

acceleration. Upon deceleration the gate will move forward

and impact the opening of the duct and expel the collected dust on the filter. This is to prevent buildup of dust during the race. The expulsion is done using the momentum of the dust buildup. During the impact, the dust will continue to travel in its initial velocity and thus will be expelled from the filter.

Impact Analysis (see Appendix 2)

Because the vehicle will perform on terrains that contain a lot of gavel, we must ensure that the rotor will not fracture upon impact with small pebbles from the road. This can be done by ensuring that the kinetic energy with which the pebble hits the rotor does not exceed the rotor s impact strength. Traditionally, rotors are made of stainless steel and hence, the impact strength of the rotor will be the impact strength of the steel.

Some assumptions were made in order to perform our calculations; the first of which was that the vehicle will not exceed a velocity of 200 km/h. Additionally, it was assumed that the largest possible pebble would have the volume of an equivalent sphere with a diameter of 3 cm. The pebbles were also assumed to be stationary; this is due to the fact that at the maximum velocity of the vehicle, there will be no slippage of the front wheel and hence, no pebbles will shoot from under that tire and head towards the rotor. The density of pebbles/rocks was also found to be around 2300 kg/m3 [source] to be used in our calculations.
4 MECH ENG 3E05 Progress Report II Rally Car Braking System

Applying our factor of safety of 1.5, the maximum kinetic energy of a pebble hitting the rotor was discovered to be around 75J which is half the impact energy of steel [source]. Because we applied extreme conditions in terms of the volume of the pebble and the velocity of the vehicle and the kinetic energy obtained is extremely small in terms of the impact energy, then it was determined that the rotor is at no harm from fracturing due to the impact of the pebbles.

Shear analysis (see Appendix 3)

Upon braking, the brake rotors as well as the fasteners will be under shear stresses. Using the highest coefficient of friction possible between gravel and rubber, the largest torque will be created. Since the rotors will be steel and needed to be rust proof, it will be fabricated from stainless steel.

The friction created by the gravel creates a torque about the centre of the wheel; since the rotor size and the hub for the fasteners are known, the shear for the bolts can be calculated. Utilizing the material shear yield stresses, the bolt diameter is found to be 5/8in and a total of four bolts will be used to fasten the rotors to the vehicle.

With the bolts in place, there will be a reduction in area of the rotor that creates a larger stress. The rotor will be under a torsion shear from the torque provided by friction. The
5 MECH ENG 3E05 Progress Report II Rally Car Braking System

analysis proves that the material is sufficient in preventing the part to be failed in shear as the shear yield stress is higher than that of the stresses generated in the part.

As the analysis shows, the part will be sufficient to be operational without failure using the specified bolts and size of rotor.

Compression analysis (see Appendix 4)

Similar to shear during braking as shown previously, the brake rotors will also be subjected to a compression stress. This stress is developed in the hub of rotor due to the rims of the car compressing inwards at the attachment point. The situation happens when the car is performing turns or sliding on the surface of the course. Assuming that the car is sliding at a maximum speed of 200 km/h, the analysis shows that the compression developed during the slide will be well below the yield strength of the material. Therefore, the part will not fail under compression during a slide at maximum velocity.

Heat Transfer Analysis (see Appendices 5 & 6)

The major design consideration of this project was to ensure that the braking system does not overheat so as to adversely affect performance or safety. This was a major concern and thus, the worst case scenario was always considered for the calculations.
6 MECH ENG 3E05 Progress Report II Rally Car Braking System

The first analysis was to estimate the maximum heat transfer to the braking system. For this, using a free body diagram (appendix 5), we assumed that the only force acting on the car to slow it down was the static friction between the rubber and wet gravel; this was a worst case scenario because air resistance would also be present and our braking system incorporates an anti-lock braking system, hence we used the static and not the kinetic friction coefficient. The normal force used was equal to the weight of the car and the coefficient of static friction between rubber and wet gravel was taken as 0.4. Equating the energy required to stop the rally car from 200km/hr to zero with the frictional force multiplied by distance gave us the minimum stopping distance. Using kinematics, the braking acceleration and stopping time required were found. From this, assuming all the energy required to stop the car is transferred completely into the braking system as heat, we found the maximum heat generated for the worst case scenario.

To analyze how the braking ducts with fins cool the braking system, we approximated our design as one with externally forced convection over an array of cylinders (fins) with forced convection over a disk. Referring to the calculations in Appendix 6, it can be seen that using fins is far more superior than not using them to dissipate heat. In addition, copper fins are only marginally worse at dissipating heat than silver fins making copper fins much more cost effective. Because the heat dissipated at operational temperature will be greater than the heat generated by stopping the rally car, the brakes will not overheat.

7 MECH ENG 3E05 Progress Report II Rally Car Braking System

Hydraulic circuit
Provided below is a schematic of how a disc brake will work. It was created using Adobe Photoshop.

Figure 1: Schematic of an operating disc brake

8 MECH ENG 3E05 Progress Report II Rally Car Braking System

Figure 2: Brake pedal

1. When the brakes are applied, the pushrod pushes the master cylinder piston which increases the pressure of the brake fluid. 2. Fluid flows from the reservoir to the piston housing through the compensating port to prevent suction. Since air is a compressible fluid, its presence in the master cylinder will affect the pressure in the fluid. That is why suction is unwanted. 3. The brake fluid flows through the hydraulic lines to the brake callipers, which house the calliper piston and brake pads. The pressure of the fluid causes the piston to push the brake pads against the brake disc. 4. The friction between the pads and disc stops the disc s motion. 5. Applying the brakes will increase the temperature of the fluid, causing it to expand. When the brakes are released, the pressure of the fluid around the return spring will force excess from the expanded fluid back into the reservoir. This helps the piston return to its original position while maintaining the same amount of brake fluid.

9 MECH ENG 3E05 Progress Report II Rally Car Braking System

The bleed valve is very important as it is used to purge the brake fluid of any air bubbles. Also, because the brake fluid temperature can get as high as 150 degrees celsius, some of it can evaporate creating vapour bubbles. The presence of air or fluid vapour will make the brakes unpredictable since applying the brakes would compress the vapour rather than increase the fluid pressure. Finally, the bleed valve is used to replace the old with new brake fluid. This is a necessary maintenance procedure.

Brake bias
To bias the brakes, a balance bar is to be used. The balance bar is an adjustable lever that pivots on a spherical bearing and uses two separate master cylinders for the front and rear brakes. When it is centred, it pushes equally on both master cylinders creating equal pressure because of the fact that the master cylinders are the same size bore. When adjusted as far as possible toward one master cylinder, it will push approximately twice as hard on that cylinder as the other.

Figure 3: Rear biased braking

10 MECH ENG 3E05 Progress Report II Rally Car Braking System

To adjust the bias represented in figure 3, the master cylinder push rods are threaded through their respective clevises. Threading one rod into its clevis, threads the other out as much. The bias bar, master cylinders and brake pedal are to be purchased from www.polyperformance.com.

Anti-Lock Braking System (ABS)
There are four main components in ABS; a control unit, speed sensors, a pump and valves. Sensors are put on the wheels to measure their rotational speed to reflect how much traction there is on them. These sensors report back to an ABS control unit. With the traction data in hand, the control unit releases pressure or applies more pressure on each wheel as needed. If the valves are open, pressure from the master cylinder is applied directly to the brakes. If there is little traction on any of the wheels, the valves are shut to prevent excess braking pressure to prevent wheel locking until the wheel regains its traction. If there is too much traction on any of the wheels, the valves release some of the pressure from the brakes. A suitable supplier for these components is still to be found.

Design Materials
For the design of braking systems, it is essential that all materials be resistant to corrosion and are able to operate at high temperatures in order to avoid creep. High strength is also very desirable in order to avoid deformation at high stresses. Traditionally, rotors for braking systems have been made out of stainless steel. This is because of its resistance to
11 MECH ENG 3E05 Progress Report II Rally Car Braking System

corrosion, high strength and resistance to creep. This makes it the ideal material for our rotors. We also utilized four bolts in our design that would be hot dip galvanized. These specialty bolts are able to handle high shear stresses.

In addition, the material chosen for our ducts was a carbon fibre composite (CFC). These were chosen for their light weight because the duct was one the biggest components in our braking system. Also, carbon fibre composites exhibit high impact resistance which is critical in the rally car design conditions. This high strength allows pebbles and gravel to rebound off it without causing fracture.

Next Steps
In order to complete the design of the braking system for a rally car, a cost analysis, cost optimization, and weight reduction analysis must be performed. A cost analysis will include analyzing the possibility of using less material and cheaper materials and a cost optimization analysis would be used to reduce the costs of the design while meeting the basic constraints. Furthermore, in order for the braking system to perform at a high performance racing level, the system should be as light as possible, so a weight reduction analysis is to be executed. Additionally, analysis into the number of fins, length of fins and their diameters along with the fluid flow analysis of the air in the duct must be done before completing our design.

12 MECH ENG 3E05 Progress Report II Rally Car Braking System

With regards to the ABS system, a suitable supplier for each of the components is to be found. The valves must withstand braking pressures. The pump must be able to increase the brake fluid pressure enough to stop the brake rotors, because the pressure could be released if needed as per the ABS control unit.

13 MECH ENG 3E05 Progress Report II Rally Car Braking System

References
Disc Brake Rotor Design Science; [Online] http://www.aa1car.com/library/2003/bf10312.htm Article 255A ± 2011, Specific Regulations for Super 200 (Rallies) / WRC;[Online] http://argent.fia.com/web/fiapublic.nsf/92B8777DD7239078C1257802003B3157/$FILE/255A_2011.pdf Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences,Vol. 294, No. 1411, New Fibres and Their Composites (Jan. 21,1980), pp.583-590 Erjavec, Jack (2004). Automotive Technology: A Systems Approach, Delmar, Cengage Learning. ISBN 1401848311 Auto Repair Help The Master Cylinder; [Online] http://auto-repairhelp.com/automotive_maintenance/master_cylinder.php Part 5 How the Master Cylinder Works; [Online] http://www.tegger.com/hondafaq/mastercylinderreplace/howworks.html StopTech: Balanced Brake Upgrades; [Online] http://www.stoptech.com/tech_info/wp_howto_bleedbrakes.shtml

YouTube Brake Bias; [Online] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jKScCLCh70UFormula 1 The Official F1 Website; [Online] http://www.formula1.com/news/technical/2010/842/807.html Density of Pluto; [Online] http://www.reference.com/topic/Density-ofPlutohttp://www.rwc.uc.edu/koehler/biophys.2ed/friction.html Cengel, Yunus; McGraw Hill Companies; Heat Transfer: A Practical Approach; 4th edition

14 MECH ENG 3E05 Progress Report II Rally Car Braking System