Hospital

by Robert F. Carr NIKA Technologies, Inc. for VA Office of Construction & Facility Management (CFM) Revised by the WBDG Health Care Subcommittee Last updated: 12-30-2010

Within This Page
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Overview Building Attributes Emerging Issues Relevant Codes and Standards Major Resources

OVERVIEW
"A functional design can promote skill, economy, conveniences, and comforts; a non-functional design can impede activities of all types, detract from quality of care, and raise costs to intolerable levels." ... Hardy and Lammers Hospitals are the most complex of building types. Each hospital is comprised of a wide range of services and functional units. These include diagnostic and treatment functions, such as clinical laboratories, imaging, emergency rooms, and surgery; hospitality functions, such as food service and housekeeping; and the fundamental inpatient care or bed-related function. This diversity is reflected in the breadth and specificity of regulations, codes, and oversight that govern hospital construction and operations. Each of the wide-ranging and constantly evolving functions of a hospital, including highly complicated mechanical, electrical, and telecommunications systems, requires specialized knowledge and expertise. No one person can reasonably have complete knowledge, which is why specialized consultants play an important role in hospital planning and design. The functional units within the hospital can have competing needs and priorities. Idealized scenarios and strongly-held individual preferences must be balanced against mandatory requirements, actual functional needs (internal traffic and relationship to other departments), and the financial status of the organization.

VAMC Bay Pines, FL

In addition to the wide range of services that must be accommodated, hospitals must serve and support many different users and stakeholders. Ideally, the design process incorporates direct input from the owner and from key hospital staff early on in the process. The designer also has

to be an advocate for the patients, visitors, support staff, volunteers, and suppliers who do not generally have direct input into the design. Good hospital design integrates functional requirements with the human needs of its varied users. The basic form of a hospital is, ideally, based on its functions: bed-related inpatient functions outpatient-related functions diagnostic and treatment functions administrative functions service functions (food, supply) research and teaching functions

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Physical relationships between these functions determine the configuration of the hospital. Certain relationships between the various functions are required²as in the following flow diagrams.

These flow diagrams show the movement and communication of people, materials, and waste. Thus the physical configuration of a hospital and its transportation and logistic systems are inextricably intertwined. The transportation systems are influenced by the building configuration, and the configuration is heavily dependent on the transportation systems. The hospital configuration is also influenced by site restraints and

opportunities, climate, surrounding facilities, budget, and available technology. New alternatives are generated by new medical needs and new technology. In a large hospital, the form of the typical nursing unit, since it may be repeated many times, is a principal element of the overall configuration. Nursing units today tend to be more compact shapes than the elongated rectangles of the past. Compact rectangles, modified triangles, or even circles have been used in an attempt to shorten the distance between the nurse station and the patient's bed. The chosen solution is heavily dependent on program issues such as organization of the nursing program, number of beds to a nursing unit, and number of beds to a patient room. (The trend, recently reinforced by HIPAA, is to all private rooms.)
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BUILDING ATTRIBUTES
Regardless of their location, size, or budget, all hospitals should have certain common attributes.

Efficiency and Cost-Effectiveness
An efficient hospital layout should: Promote staff efficiency by minimizing distance of necessary travel between frequently used spaces

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Allow easy visual supervision of patients by limited staff Include all needed spaces, but no redundant ones. This requires careful pre-design programming. Provide an efficient logistics system, which might include elevators, pneumatic tubes, box conveyors, manual or automated carts, and gravity or pneumatic chutes, for the efficient handling of food and clean supplies and the removal of waste, recyclables, and soiled material

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Make efficient use of space by locating support spaces so that they may be shared by adjacent functional areas, and by making prudent use of multi-purpose spaces Consolidate outpatient functions for more efficient operation²on first floor, if possible²for direct access by outpatients Group or combine functional areas with similar system requirements Provide optimal functional adjacencies, such as locating the surgical intensive care unit adjacent to the operating suite. These adjacencies should be based on a detailed functional program which describes the hospital's intended operations from the standpoint of patients, staff, and supplies.

if properly planned.VAMC Albuquerque. This system also uses walk-through interstitial space between occupied floors for mechanical. Therapeutic Environment . and bid. designed. easily accessed. for instance positioning "soft spaces" such as administrative departments. this provides continuing adaptability to changing programs and needs. and easily modified mechanical and electrical systems y y y y Where size and program allow. with no first-cost premium. NM Flexibility and Expandability Since medical needs and modes of treatment will continue to change. rather than highly specific ones Be served by modular. be designed on a modular system basis. y Be open-ended. with well planned directions for future expansion. adjacent to "hard spaces" such as clinical laboratories. and plumbing distribution. hospitals should: Follow modular concepts of space planning and layout Use generic room sizes and plans as much as possible. The VA Hospital Building System also allows vertical expansion without disruptions to floors below. such as the VA Hospital Building System. For large projects. electrical.

and pattern should all give cues. and staff all need to know where they are. see VA Signage Design Guide.) Some important aspects of creating a therapeutic interior are: Using familiar and culturally relevant materials wherever consistent with sanitation and other functional needs y y Using cheerful and varied colors and textures. texture. Every effort should be made to make the hospital stay as unthreatening. (As an example. and stress-free as possible. comfortable. photo murals of nature scenes are helpful where outdoor views are not available Designing a "way-finding" process into every project. loss of visual acuity. and how to get there and return. y y y Admitting ample natural light wherever feasible and using color-corrected lighting in interior spaces which closely approximates natural daylight Providing views of the outdoors from every patient bed.) For an in-depth view see WBDG²Therapeutic Environments. disorient older or impaired patients. . particularly some psychiatric patients . keeping in mind that some colors are inappropriate and can interfere with provider assessments of patients' pallor and skin tones. identify. and elsewhere wherever possible. Building elements. visitors. as well as artwork and signage. and abusiveness. or agitate patients and staff. The interior designer plays a major role in this effort to create a therapeutic environment. color. (See VA Interior Design Manual. A hospital's interior design should be based on a comprehensive understanding of the facility's mission and its patient profile. A patient's sense of competence is encouraged by making spaces easy to find. Patients. other physical and mental disabilities. and use without asking for help.Hospital patients are often fearful and confused and these feelings may impede recovery. what their destination is. The characteristics of the patient profile will determine the degree to which the interior design should address aging.

if federally funded or owned. .Cross-section showing interstitial space with deck above an occupied floor Cleanliness and Sanitation Hospitals must be easy to clean and maintain. be designed so as to be easy to use by the many patients with temporary or permanent handicaps Ensuring grades are flat enough to allow easy movement and sidewalks and corridors are wide enough for two wheelchairs to pass easily Ensuring entrance areas are designed to accommodate patients with slower adaptation rates to dark and light. This is facilitated by: Appropriate. y Accessibility All areas. Much of this circulation should be controlled. finishes. casework. marking glass walls and doors to make their presence obvious Controlled Circulation A hospital is a complex system of interrelated functions requiring constant movement of people and goods. and details for spaces which are to be kept sterile. durable finishes for each functional space Careful detailing of such features as doorframes. The new antimicrobial surfaces might be considered for appropriate locations. both inside and out. such as integral cove base. should: Incorporating O&M practices that stress indoor environmental quality (IEQ) y y y y Comply with the minimum requirements of the Americans with Disability Act (ADA) and. the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) In addition to meeting minimum requirements of ADA and/or UFAS. and finish transitions to avoid dirt-catching and hard-to-clean crevices and joints y y y y Adequate and appropriately located housekeeping spaces Special materials.

including incapacitated patients. and offices Compatibility of exterior design with its physical surroundings y y y y y y Security and Safety In addition to the general safety concerns of all buildings. and detail Bright.y y y y y Outpatients visiting diagnostic and treatment areas should not travel through inpatient functional areas nor encounter severely ill inpatients Typical outpatient routes should be simple and clearly defined Visitors should have a simple and direct route to each patient nursing unit without penetrating other functional areas Separate patients and visitors from industrial/logistical areas or floors Outflow of trash. or because they may be highly visible public buildings with an important role in the public health system. natural materials. recyclables. and textures Use of artwork Attention to proportions. scale. and staff Safe control of violent or unstable patients Vulnerability to damage from terrorism because of proximity to high-vulnerability targets. open.) It is important in enhancing the hospital's public image and is thus an important marketing tool. color. attractive. food and building maintenance services Aesthetics is closely related to creating a therapeutic environment (homelike. generously-scaled public spaces Homelike and intimate scale in patient rooms. and soiled materials should be separated from movement of food and clean supplies. consultation rooms. and both should be separated from routes of patients and visitors y y Aesthetics Transfer of cadavers to and from the morgue should be out of the sight of patients and visitors Dedicated service elevators for deliveries. including drugs Protection of patients. hospitals have several particular security concerns: Protection of hospital property and assets. Aesthetic considerations include: Increased use of natural light. A better environment also contributes to better staff morale and patient care. y y y y Sustainability . day rooms.

These regulations put emphasis on acoustic and visual privacy. see WBDG Integrate Technological Tools y y y Need to balance increasing attention to building security with openness to patients and visitors Emergence of palliative care as a specialty in many major medical centers A growing interest in more holistic. This might include providing mini-medical libraries and computer terminals so patients can research their conditions and treatments. and locating kitchens . and may affect location and layout of workstations that handle medical records and other patient information.Hospitals are large public buildings that have a significant impact on the environment and economy of the surrounding community.3 MB. paper and electronic. decentralized patient care. for example. patient-centered treatment and environments such as promoted by Planetree.2 of VA's HVAC Design Manual is a good example of health care facility energy conservation standards that meet EPAct 2005 (PDF 1. VA's Physical Security Manuals State laws requiring earthquake resistance. This might require computer alcoves and data ports in corridors outside patient bedrooms. 550 pgs) and Executive Order 13423 requirements." BACK TO TOP EMERGING ISSUES Among the many new developments and trends influencing hospital design are: The decreasing numbers of general practitioners along with the increased use of emergency facilities for primary care y y y y y y The increasing introduction of highly sophisticated diagnostic and treatment technology Requirements to remain operational during and after disasters²see. designing hospitals as all-inclusive "wellness centers" Use of hand-held computers and portable diagnostic equipment to allow more mobile. as well as patient accommodations. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) (PDF 740 KB. For more information. Also see LEED's (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) USGBC LEED for Healthcare Related Issues The HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accessibility Act of 1996) regulations address security and privacy of "protected health information" (PHI). both in designing new buildings and retrofitting existing structures Preventative care versus sickness care. 310 pgs) provides additional requirements for energy conservation. Section 1. and a general shift to computerized patient information of all kinds. They are heavy users of energy and water and produce large amounts of waste. Because hospitals place such demands on community resources they are natural candidates for sustainable design.

particularly in laboratory areas. including Standards for Health Care Facilities (NFPA 99) and the Life Safety Code (NFPA 101). BACK TO TOP MAJOR RESOURCES WBDG Federal Mandate . equipment lists. including: y o Design Guides for planning many different departments and clinics. space planning criteria. Many of these standards are applicable to the design of non-governmental facilities as well. and to be accredited. and construction of their facilities. Like other buildings. federal facilities on federal property generally need not comply with state and local codes. Federal agencies are usually in compliance with the IBC except NFPA 101 (Life Safety Code). The Architectural Barriers Act Accessibility Guidelines (ABAAG) or the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) apply to federal and federally funded facilities. master specifications. See WBDG Accessible Regulations of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) also affect the design of hospitals. design manuals of technical requirements.and dining areas on inpatient units so family members can prepare food for patients and families to eat together. they must also meet federal standards. Generally. Among them are: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Many states adopt the FGI Guidelines for Design and Construction of Hospitals and Health Care Facilities. but follow federal regulations. design must comply with the individual state licensing regulations. Federal agencies that build and operate hospitals have developed detailed standards for the programming. and thus that volume often has regulatory status. design. and standard details. they must meet standards of the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO). The technical requirements do not differ greatly from the ADA requirements. the federal government and JCAHO refer to the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) model fire codes. BACK TO TOP RELEVANT CODES AND STANDARDS Hospitals are among the most regulated of all building types. they must follow the local and/or state general building codes. The American with Disabilities Act (ADA) applies to all public facilities and greatly the building design with its general and specific accessibility requirements. However. Office of Construction & Facilities Management Technical Information Library contains many guides and standards. listed below as a resource. NFPA 70 (National Electric Code). To be licensed by the state. and Architectural Barriers Act Accessibility Guidelines (ABAAG) or Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) takes precedence. State and local building codes are based on the model International Building Code (IBC). room finishes." Since hospitals treat patients who are reimbursed under Medicare.

Irving. color.. Government Printing Office. Development Study²VA Hospital Building System by Building Systems Development and Stone. by Jain Malkin. 2011. Rapp. y y Tools UFC 4-510-01 Design: Medical Military Facilities See WBDG Health Care Facilities for generic health care facilities publications . Healthcare Design²A quarterly magazine with design articles and presentations of recent projects Medical and Dental Space Planning: A Comprehensive Guide to Design. Lammers. Inc. 2002.²Innovative design solutions in key areas such as lighting. Inc. y Emergency Department Design: A Practical Guide to Planning for the Future by John Huddy and Michael T. Leibrock and Debra Harris.Executive Order 13423 Technical Guidance Products and Systems Building Envelope Design Guide Websites See WBDG Health Care Facilities for generic health care facilities websites Publications y Design Details for Health: Making the Most of Design&apos. 2005. The Planning and Design Process. New York: John Wiley & Sons.. Md. Floods. Texas: ACEP (American College of Emergency Physicians) 2000. DC: U. 2007. rev.. Rockville. 2nd ed. Hardy and Lawrence P. Washington. FEMA. 1996. Marraccini & Patterson. Health Administration Press and the American College of Healthcare Executives. ACHA. 1977. FAAHC. and finishes y y Design Guide for Improving Hospital Safety in Earthquakes. y Healthcare Facility Planning: Thinking Strategically by Cynthia Hayward. 3rd Edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 1992. and High Winds: Providing Protection to People and Buildings. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Inc.s Healing Potential. y y y y Hospitals. 2nd Edition by Cynthia A. and Clinical Procedures. AIA.S.: Aspen Publishers. Hospital Interior Architecture: Creating Healing Environments for Special Patient Populations by Jain Malkin. acoustics. Equipment. by Owen B.

Understanding the interrelationship with the other WBDG design objectives (i. resistance from the users due to impacts on operations. and standoff requirements. industry benchmarks. Realizing this goal is often a challenge due to funding limitations. productivity and accessibility. A balance between the security and safety goals and the other design objectives and needs of the facility can be attained. and the impacts on the surrounding environment and building architecture due to perimeter security. is an essential step in overcoming the obstacles commonly encountered in the achievement of a secure and safe building. hardening. and project managers.e. Sustainable. Accessible. Secure / Safe by the WBDG Secure/Safe Committee Last updated: 12-14-2010 Within This Page y y y y Overview Related Issues Emerging Issues Major Resources OVERVIEW The design and construction of secure and safe buildings continues to be the primary goal for owners. and planning tips. early in the design process. architects. Cost-Effective. DC .. engineers. Aesthetic & Functional Security Measures on Pennsylvania Ave near the White House²Washington. The establishment of an integrated design process where all of the design team members understand each other's goals can aid in overcoming these challenges and will lead to the development of a solution which addresses all of the requirements. Functional/Operational and Productive).y SpaceMedGuide-A Space Planning Guide for Healthcare Facilities²a popular planning tool providing state-of-the-art planning methodologies. Historic Preservation. Aesthetics.

such as providing window views and lighting. to ensure a given facility is protected from unwanted intruders. a primarily technical approach might stress camera surveillance and warning sirens. thereby lessening equipment and operating costs. There are a number of defined assessment types to consider that will lead the project team in making security and safety design decisions. fences." and establishes a likely consequence of occurrence or "risk. to retain the defensiveness of physical elements. Conversely. This effort identifies the resources or "assets" to be protected. Integrating Safe and Secure Design There are times when design requirements addressing all the various threats will pose conflicts in arriving at acceptable design and construction solutions. . and Maintenance. Maintenance is a key element to preserve lines of sights for surveillance. Clear differentiation between public. site design and security can compliment each other such as the design of a stormwater management requirement that doubles as a barrier. In practice. The first step in this process is to understand the various threats and the risks they pose. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) is a proven methodology that not only enhances the performance of these security and safety measures. Natural Access Control supplements physical security and operational measures with walls. pavement treatment. and continuity of operations from multiple hazards. and flowers are examples of ways to express ownership. Territoriality.Designing buildings for security and safety requires a proactive approach that anticipates²and then protects²the building occupants. but also provides aesthetics and value engineering. and physical safety methods. Most security and safety measures involve a balance of operational. Good communication between the design team. semi-public. and physical safety methods. Natural surveillance follows the premise that criminals do not wish to be observed. and private spaces by using signage. increases the perceived risk to offenders. and CPTED measures are best applied at the beginning of a project. the cost-effectiveness of the measures proposed. ravines. or even hedges to define site boundaries. structure. a primarily operational approach might stress the deployment of guards around the clock. technical. while a primarily physical approach might stress locked doorways and vehicle barriers. reduces fear for bonafide users. and to project a sense of care and ownership. and access control measures that prevent intrusion. safety. and to reduce access points and escape routes. resources. Examples include Blast Resistive Glazing. as well as lessening reliance on only camera surveillance. fire protection and security design team specialists through the entire design process is necessary to achieve the common goal of safe and secure buildings and facilities. security. acceptable levels of risk. Territoriality involves strategies to project a sense of ownership to spaces such that it becomes easier to identify intruders because they don't seem to belong. overlapping principles: Natural Surveillance. technical. Together. and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) light pollution reduction and security lighting objectives. and use of the building. all approaches are usually employed to some degree and a deficiency in one area may be compensated by a greater emphasis in the other two. art. For example. Natural Access Control. Based on these assessments and analysis. but may also restrict emergency egress. which may impede emergency egress in case of fire. Their selection will depend on the security requirements. construction. building owners and other invested parties select the appropriate safety measures to implement. CPTED utilizes four (4) primary. For total design efficiently and cost effectiveness. placing legitimate 'eyes' on the street. to channel legitimate users to designated entrances. fences." This assessment is weighed against the vulnerabilities specific to the site or facility. and the impact these measures have on the design. Security programming is a useful practice to identify security design requirements necessary to satisfy stakeholder concerns. highlights the possible perils or "threats. the principles of CPTED increase the effectiveness of operational.

shelves. typically account for over threequarters of the cost of a building. and other natural disasters. In contrast. and braces. y Resist Natural Hazards Each year U.S. Examples of structural mitigation measures include building material and technique selection (e. structural and non-structural components can potentially interact during an incident. floods. engineered. soil considerations). These can usually be prevented by measures that take into account issues such as indoor air quality. seismic and other loads. electrical safety. high performance buildings.g. requiring a deliberative approach to implementing a comprehensive agenda of structural and non-structural mitigation actions. including general building contents. and/or furniture. including repairing damaged buildings and infrastructure. such as columns.g. and utility systems. y y Ensure Occupant Safety and Health Some injuries and illnesses are related to unsafe or unhealthy building design and operation. Non-structural mitigation actions include efforts to secure these elements to the structure or otherwise keep them in position and to minimize damage and functional disruption. and cladding. fall protection. it is useful to characterize risk reduction strategies as either structural or nonstructural. and accident prevention. or non-engineered in nature. foundations. fixtures and equipment (FF&E) such as desks. mechanical. Note: Information in these Secure/Safe pages must be considered together with other design objectives and within a total project context in order to achieve quality. tornados. and site selection (e. beams. ergonomics. . non-structural components. electrical. delay. taxpayers pay over $35 billion for recovery efforts. it is useful to identify four fundamental principles of multi-hazard building design: Plan for Fire Protection Planning for fire protection for a building involves a systems approach that enables the designer to analyze all of the building's components as a total building fire safety system package. non-structural strategies focus on risks arising from damage to non-load-bearing building components. and other material contents. building code compliance. These measures may be prescriptive. Consistent with areas of professional responsibility. y Provide Security for Building Occupants and Assets Effective secure building design involves implementing countermeasures to deter.. A significant percentage of this could be saved if our buildings properly anticipated the risk associated with major natural hazards. life safety. decorative ornamentation.In addition to the operational/technical/physical taxonomy. from the impacts of hurricanes. It should be noted that in any given building. and respond to attacks from human aggressors. earthquakes. Structural mitigation measures focus on those building components that carry gravity. Additionally. wind. blizzards. this figure can be even higher for specialized occupancies such as medical facilities. detect.. and plumbing (MEP) components such as HVAC. including architectural elements such as partitions. It also provides for mitigating measures to limit hazards to prevent catastrophic damage and provide resiliency should an attack occur. use of ductile framing and shear walls).

public health or safety. The WBDG page Security for Building Occupants and Assets explains this type of occupant threat and reviews design solutions to mitigate them. Biological. and operational procedures are all important parts of Emergency Plans. whether physical or virtual. the public is even more interested in efforts to protect people. BACK TO TOP EMERGING ISSUES Building Information Modeling (BIM) can be a useful tool for building security. and the various stages of a project to achieve the goal of a high performance building. Renewed Emphasis on Chemical. This will be accomplished by pre-emergency planning. and networks. planners and designers of a wide variety of building types and spaces now consider strategies to mitigate CBR threats. state. or any combination thereof." Legal counsel should be obtained on how best to protect such sensitive information from unauthorized use within the provisions of applicable local. project delivery teams must carefully maintain the security of any information that pertains to vulnerabilities. design disciplines. establishing specific functions for Operational staff and occupants. so vital to the United States that their incapacitation or destruction would have a debilitating effect on security.BACK TO TOP RELATED ISSUES Information Sensitivity As a result of the heightened level of interest in homeland security following the attacks of 11 September 2001. national economic security. and structural design characteristics for seismic versus blast design. instructing occupants of appropriate responses to emergency situations and evacuation procedures. Development and Training on Occupant Emergency Plans Occupant Emergency Plans should be developed for building Operations staff and occupants to be able to respond to all forms of attacks and threats. saboteurs. buildings. Clearly defined lines of communication. BACK TO TOP . intelligent objects in 3D provide better understanding of vulnerabilities and better correlation with other design aspects like building and site access. For that reason. or others with malevolent intent. and operations from disasters. and conducting actual drills. critical infrastructure is defined as "the assets. For example. Emergency Plans are an essential element of protecting life and property from attacks and threats by preparing for and carrying out activities to prevent or minimize personal injury and physical damage. and Radiological Threats Because of increased concern with post 9/11 international terrorism. training Organization personnel in appropriate functions. location and types of doors and windows. BIM will further the integration between project team members. This presents both benefits and challenges. or facility infrastructure particularly when the building is part of a critical infrastructure or system. because much of the same information that can be used to gather support for mitigation can also be of use to potential terrorists. Per Department of Homeland Security (DHS). and federal laws. responsibilities. systems.

Editors. DC: National Academy Press. Lemer. 1991. Websites y y y Interagency Security Committee (ISC) The Infrastructure Security Partnership (TISP) Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) Plan for Fire Protection by the WBDG Secure/Safe Committee Last updated: 06-03-2010 . The White House. FEMA 386 Series. National Research Council. Mitigation Planning How-To Guide Series FEMA 386-2. Uses of Risk Analysis to Achieve Balanced Safety in Building Design and Operations by Bruce D. Washington. Committee on Risk Appraisal in the Development of Facilities Design Criteria. Understanding Your Risks: Identifying Hazards and Estimating Losses FEMA 426 Reference Manual to Mitigate Potential Terrorist Attacks against Buildings FEMA 452 Risk Assessment²A How-To Guide to Mitigate Potential Terrorist Attacks Against Buildings International Building Code The National Strategy for "The Physical Protection of Critical Infrastructure and Key Assets". February 2003. McDowell and Andrew C.MAJOR RESOURCES WBDG Design Objectives Historic Preservation²Accommodate Life Safety and Security Needs Tools LEED®-DoD Antiterrorism Standards Tool Publications y y y y y y y y Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Service. P100 by the General Services Administration (GSA).

egress/smoke. The Fire Protection Engineer should be involved in all phases of design. The Society of Fire Protection Engineers has developed and published (in collaboration with NFPA) the SFPE Engineering Guide to Performance-Based Fire Protection Analysis and Design of Buildings and the SFPE Code Official's Guide to Performance-Based Design Review (developed and published in collaboration with ICC). recovery.e. containing. Identify critical systems: diesel generators. organizational operations). information. real and personal property. cost-effective passive and automatic fire protection systems. designers. New facilities and renovation projects need to be designed to incorporate efficient.Within This Page y y y y y y y Overview Performance-Based Design Recommendations Related Issues Emerging Issues Relevant Codes and Standards Major Resources OVERVIEW The United States has the highest fire losses in terms of both frequency and total losses of any modern technological society.). Planning for fire protection in/around a building involves an integrated systems approach that enables the designer to analyze all of the building's components as a total building fire safety system package. . and controlling and/or and extinguishing a fire event in the early stages. BACK TO TOP PERFORMANCE-BASED DESIGN (PBD) The success of any complex project hinges on getting all the stakeholders.. or solve problems brought upon by new projects with unique circumstances. special consultants. owners. that is. BACK TO TOP RECOMMENDATIONS Issues to address in developing a successful fire protection design usually include: Design Team²It is most important that the project delivery team include a Fire Protection Engineer with adequate experience and knowledge in fire protection and life safety design. Therefore. and AHJs working together in a collaborative manner to achieve performance-based design solutions. building and fire codes are intended to protect against loss of life and limit fire impact on the community and do not necessarily protect the mission or assets. from planning to occupancy. The analysis requires more than code compliance or meeting the minimum legal responsibilities for protecting a building. etc. These systems are effective in detecting. Fire protection engineers must be involved in all aspects of the design in order to ensure a reasonable degree of protection of human life from fire and the products of combustion as well as to reduce the potential loss from fire (i. it is necessary to creatively and efficiently integrate code requirements with other fire safety measures as well as other design strategies to achieve a balanced design that will provide the desired levels of safety (evacuation.

hose valves. y Coordinate with security measures Fire hydrants Building Construction Requirements. including statutory requirements. suppression. key boxes. allowable height. o o Accommodate the access of fire apparatus into and around the building site Comply with local authorities having jurisdiction to accommodate the access of fire apparatus into and around the building site and to coordinate access control point layout.)²to be utilized by the design team. etc. and systems y y y y y y Occupancy types Interior finish Exit stairway enclosure . Fire department access y o Design buildings with uncomplicated layouts that enable firefighters to locate an area quickly. at a minimum will address the following elements: Construction type.Design Standards and Criteria (i. and requirements that are sometimes imposed by insurance carriers on commercial projects. materials.. and area Exposures/separation requirements Fire ratings. Site Requirements²A quality site design will integrate performance requirements associated with fire department access. voluntary requirements addressing owner's performance needs. etc. annunciators. elevators and stairs. Building Code.e. and separation distances and site/building security. o Provide rapid access to various features such as fire department connections (FDCs).

Lighting. at a minimum will address the following elements: Water supply Type of automatic fire extinguishing system y y o o y Water-based fire extinguishing system Non-water-based fire extinguishing system Standpipes and fire department hose outlets Emergency Power. at a minimum will address the following elements: Survivability of systems Electrical Safety Distributed Energy Resources y y y Special Fire Protection Requirements. at a minimum will address the following elements: Exit stairway remoteness Exit discharge Areas of refuge Accessible exits Door locking arrangements (security interface) y y y y y Fire Detection and Notification System Requirements. at a minimum will address the following elements: Detection Notification Survivability of systems y y y Fire Suppression Requirements.Egress Requirements. at a minimum will address the following elements: . and Exit Signage.

criminal activity. Site security designers need to balance security with access. equipment and systems. Notices can be sent over loudspeakers. it is important to balance security/safety goals with those for sustainability for example. chemical spill. Provide adequate roof hatches and other access points for firefighters. Further. BACK TO TOP EMERGING ISSUES Green Roofs With the proliferation of vegetative roofs on buildings to reduce heat island effect and control stormwater runoff. or act of terrorism. For example. The Americans with Disabilities (ADA) Act calls for spacing bollard 36 inches apart to meet clear opening requirements. Another example is the increased need to coordinate HVAC design and proper automatic emergency operations in the event of a fire or chemical/biological/radiological (CBR) event. . Mass Notification Notifying building occupants and visitors both inside and outside facilities of hazardous events has become a critical aspect of personnel safety and health. Thus. consider life-cycle cost when making decisions on materials. Virtually every project that requires fire protection must also meet sustainability goals. perimeter protection measures must be well-designed to ensure that fire departments can still access sites and buildings. hardened street furniture. See UFC 4-021-01 Design and O&M: Mass Notification Systems Bollard Spacing Bollard spacing for accessibility related to access for fire vehicles and personnel. Mass notification systems can be employed in single buildings or on campuses and military bases. everyone in the vicinity of such events must be warned so they know whether to shelter in place or flee²including which direction to go.y y y y Engineered smoke control systems Fireproofing and firestopping Atrium spaces Mission critical facility needs BACK TO TOP RELATED ISSUES Balancing Safe and Secure Design Requirements The concern for terrorist attacks has caused design and engineering professionals to address integrated fire protection and security measures for the building site as well as within the building. to computer monitors and to cell phones. considering bollard location and spacing respective to vehicular traffic. Whether it is a fire. and pedestrian traffic. specify fire resistant materials that are durable and can meet green products standards whenever possible. consideration must be given to firefighters having to ventilate a structure during a major fire event. bus stops.

L. P100 GSA: Fire Safety Retrofitting in Historic Buildings by Advisory Council on Historic Preservation and General Services Administration.L. Coordinate with site designer/landscape architect to ensure permeable pavement selected will meet load requirements of emergency vehicles. BACK TO TOP RELEVANT CODES AND STANDARDS Building codes and fire codes vary across the nation.Permeable Pavement Permeable pavement is being specified more frequently as a means of controlling stormwater runoff from building sites. consult with the appropriate federal agency or the Contracting Officer.Evacuation. NIST²a compendium of research and position papers on multi-hazard evacuation theory DOD: UFC 3-600-01 Design: Fire Protection Engineering for Facilities GSA: Facilities Standard for the Public Building Service. For federal projects. 1988 P. 93-498²Federal Fire Prevention and Control Act. 100-678. 1974 P. Not all types of permeable pavement are designed to hold emergency fire and rescue vehicles. Legislation y y y y Federal Guidelines y y y y y Other Publications y Fire Publications . HUD: Fire Ratings of Archaic Materials and Assemblies VA: Fire Protection Design Manual OMB Circular A-119²Federal Participation in the Development and Use of Voluntary Consensus Standards and in Conformity Assessment Activities P. Another option to consider is to use permeable pavement in parking lots for passenger vehicles and standard pavement for access roads. 1989. 102-522²Fire Administration Authorization Act of 1992 (aka Federal Fire Safety Act) BACK TO TOP MAJOR RESOURCES WBDG . For non-federal projects consult with the appropriate building code and fire code official.L. Section 21²Public Building Amendments. for minimum and recommended fire safety measures. loading docks and driveways to building entrances.

(ICC) National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Underwriters Laboratories Inc. P.. Comply with Accessibility Requirements Design Discipline Fire Protection Engineering Standards and Code Organizations y y y y y y Associations y y y y Laboratories y Universities y y y Oklahoma State University School of Fire Protection and Safety University of Maryland Fire Protection Engineering Worcester Polytechnic Institute Fire Protection Engineering and Center for Fire Safety Studies NIST Building and Fire Research Lab American Fire Sprinkler Association (AFSA) Automatic Fire Alarm Association (AFAA) National Fire Sprinkler Association (NFSA) Society of Fire Protection Engineers (SFPE) American National Standards Institute (ANSI) ASTM International FM Global International Code Council. (UL) Fire Protection Engineering by Morgan Hurley.Historic Preservation Accommodate Life Safety and Security Needs. Inc.E. SFPE Last updated: 06-02-2009 Within This Page .

it wasn't until the later part of the 20th century that fire protection engineering had matured to the point that it included the fundamental tenets of a distinct. training. and/or extinguished. When designing new buildings or renovations to existing buildings. arrangement. Professional Definition Fire protection engineering is the application of science and engineering principles to protect people and their environment from destructive fire.y y y y y Introduction Description Emerging Issues Relevant Codes and Standards Major Resources INTRODUCTION Fire protection engineers use science and technology to protect people and property from fire. the primary objective of fire protection engineering was to limit a fire to its building of origin. this objective was refined to limit a fire to its object or room of origin. 1989). and can be detected. A fire protection engineer by education. construction. structures. controlled. Early application of fire protection engineering was intended to prevent conflagrations. Until the early 1900s. and use of buildings y y y y y materials. which could destroy entire cities. installation and maintenance of fire detection and suppression and communication systems. and post/fire investigation and analysis. which includes: analysis of fire hazards mitigation of fire damage by proper design. BACK TO TOP DESCRIPTION A. However. fire protection engineers develop the plan for fire protection. and experience: is familiar with the nature and characteristics of fire and the associated products of combustion y y understands how fires originate. professional discipline (Lucht. Fire protection engineering has evolved significantly over the past several centuries. and transportation systems the design. spread within and outside of buildings/structures. As fire protection engineering advanced. and . industrial processes.

Although the protection that would be required in these stores would be similar. When designed by fire protection engineers. construction. and materials Equal or better fire safety Maximization of cost/benefit y y y y Conversely. and maintained. Strategies for Achieving "Whole Building" Design Objectives For most projects. fire protection engineering is largely practiced through the application of prescriptive codes and standards. Consider.y is able to anticipate the behavior of materials. For more information on the role of the Fire Protection Engineer in the design of fire protection systems. ensure that access control to a building does not also make it more difficult to quickly exit a building in the event of a fire or similar emergency. delays can result as the fire protection engineer analyzes the problem and develops solutions. Prescriptive codes and standards have the benefit that they are easy to apply and enforce. exactly how individual fire protection systems are to be designed. fire protection engineers can ensure that security related provisions designed into a building do not diminish fire safety to occupants." Fire protection engineers design systems that. for example.sfpe. At this stage there may be reduced design flexibility available and resistance to change by team members from other disciplines. smoke control). The benefits of involving a fire protection engineer at this stage include: Greater design flexibility Innovation in design. as would a store that sold liquor in bottles. and processes as related to the protection of life and property from fire. structures. However. Professional Role in 'Whole Building' Design Fire protection engineers exemplify the concept of "whole building design. Additionally. It is beneficial to involve fire protection engineers in a design at the earliest stages of planning. . see the SFPE Position Statement on The Engineer and the Technician: Designing Fire Protection Systems at www. the fire hazard presented by these stores would be different. architectural (means of egress design). tested. buildings designed to prescriptive codes and standards have a good history of performance in fires. stores classified as mercantile occupancies. B. C. or structural (fire resistance design). fire-fighter's standpipes. prescriptive codes and standards identify. For example. This is particularly true in cases where fire protection problems are not identified until plans are submitted for regulatory approval. apparatus. installed. Additionally. in very specific terms. if portions of the project design have been completed and decisions approved. generally at the feasibility or concept design stage. fire and life safety strategy. electrical (fire alarm). they do not result in uniform levels of safety or cost-benefit. For broad classifications of occupancies or fire hazards. could be considered mechanical (fire sprinklers. taken individually. machines. these systems are coordinated into a comprehensive.org. if a fire protection engineer is not brought in to a project team until after problems are identified. A store that sells greeting cards would fall under this occupancy classification.

"Performance-based design" is a tool that can be used to look at fire safety from a "whole building" perspective. 2000). egress. performance-based codes and design guides have been published. (2) analysis of fire scenarios. mission continuity. such as clean agents. the entire building will not be designed on a performance basis. provided that they provide an equivalent or greater level of safety. performance-based design offers opportunities to achieve desired aesthetics or functionality in a building. When using performance-based designs. However. that the design of fire protection-related systems be coordinated with each other and with other building systems and the overall building design. such as the building owner and code enforcement officials. "Performance-based design" is an engineering approach to fire protection design based on (1) established fire safety goals and objectives. After fire protection strategies are developed. or fire endurance. Historically. Relationship to Building Systems and Relevant Codes and Standards Fire protection engineers generally design the following types of systems: Fire sprinklers Standpipes Fire detection and alarm Special hazards systems. they are evaluated using engineering tools and models to determine whether the fire safety goals are met for each of the fire scenarios. such as detection. suppression. Designing from a "whole building" approach does not require that design be on a performance-basis. The types of fire protection strategies that are used in performance-based design are no different than those that are used when applying prescriptive codes. It also ensures that the fire performance of the whole building will be considered as more than an agglomeration of single systems. Within the last few years. These goals may include life safety. and environmental protection. water mist. fire protection engineers frequently collaborate with other design professionals in the design of the following systems: Structural fire resistance y . Emerging Issues. performance-based design has been practiced by use of "equivalency" or "alternate methods and materials" clauses found in most prescriptive codes. Fire scenarios are descriptions of the types of fires from which the building is intended to provide protection. It is necessary. all of the building will likely be designed using prescriptive codes. These goals are subsequently refined into quantitative measures of building performance through engineering analysis and consultation with building stakeholders. property protection. fire safety goals for a building are identified. and for relatively simple buildings. See following section. however. These clauses permit the use of strategies other than those specified in the code. or CO Smoke management   y y y y y Additionally. The next step is the selection of design strategies. D. and (3) quantitative assessment of design alternatives against the fire safety goals and objectives using engineering tools. methodologies. Much of the building will be designed using prescriptive codes. Next. fire scenarios are established. For most buildings. and performance criteria (SFPE.

This attention may result in changes in the way buildings are designed. including the International Performance Code and performance-based options within the NFPA Building Construction and Safety Code and the NFPA Life Safety Code.g. Additionally. are receiving increased attention. In the U. BACK TO TOP EMERGING ISSUES Performance-based design has been practiced for decades through the use of "equivalency" clauses and "alternate methods and materials" clauses found in most prescriptive codes. performance-based design was applied on an ad-hoc basis. Performance-based design facilitates designing fire protection from a "whole building" perspective.y y E. BACK TO TOP RELEVANT CODES AND STANDARDS . and wiring penetrations) coordination of means of egress with architectural designs. ductwork. or an affirmation of current approaches. performance-based design has become more formalized. In these cases. Additionally. several guides have been published by the Society of Fire Protection Engineers that provide information intended to facilitate performance-based design... piping. several issues. Over the last decade. with the approach used developed between the designer and code enforcement official. Interaction with Other Disciplines Fire rated construction Means of egress Designing a building from a 'whole building' approach requires a fire protection engineer to coordinate the different types of fire protection that are designed into buildings including: coordination of sprinkler system zoning with fire alarm system zoning coordination of sprinkler system water flow and tamper switches with the fire alarm system y y y y y y y coordination of fire alarm and egress system with building security coordination of smoke control systems with detection and HVAC system designs coordination of fire separations with architectural designs coordination of penetrations of fire rated assemblies with mechanical and electrical designs (e. in the wake of 9/11. as it requires that interactions between all fire protection systems with the building and its occupants be considered. several performance-based codes have been published.S. including the SFPE Engineering Guide to Performance-Based Fire Protection Analysis and Design of Buildings. such as structural fire protection and means of egress of high-rise buildings.

Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems NFPA 72. Organizations y ASTM International²Through its E-5 committee. Secure / Safe²Ensure Occupant Safety and Health Professional Associations y Society of Fire Protection Engineers (SFPE)²The professional association for fire protection engineering. . Uniform Fire Code NFPA also publishes several codes and standards which cover specific aspects of fire protection and fire related hazards. products. ASTM International. y International Code Council (ICC)²The mission of the ICC is to provide codes. formally known as the American Society for Testing and Materials. standards. Life Safety Code NFPA 1. the International Fire Code. The association produces publications and education programs on subjects pertinent to fire protection engineering. The ICC publishes model codes that are adopted throughout the United States. y International Code Council o o International Building Code International Fire Code ASTM publishes several fire protection related standards through its E-5 committee. BACK TO TOP MAJOR RESOURCES WBDG Design Objectives Aesthetics²Engage the Integrated Design Process. The most frequently used codes and standards include: National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) y o o o o o NFPA 13. National Fire Alarm Code NFPA 101. and services for all concerned with the safety and performance of the built environment. These include the International Building Code. Secure / Safe²Plan for Fire Protection. publishes a number of fire test standards that address issues such as flame spread and structural fire resistance. and the International Performance Code.Fire protection is impacted by a number of codes and standards.

the most commonly used models are those that are published by NIST. fire dynamics.org. y SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering is a comprehensive compendium of the fire science that underpins fire protection engineering. The National Fire Protection Association's codes and standards provide criteria associated with the design of fire safety in buildings. The most widely used are sprinkler hydraulic calculation programs. UL tests and certifies a number of fire protection products for compliance with fire test standards. y Underwriters Laboratories (UL)²is a product-safety testing and certification organization.y National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)²The mission of the NFPA is to reduce the worldwide burden of fire and other hazards on the quality of life by providing and advocating scientifically-based consensus codes and standards. y National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)²The Building and Fire Research Laboratory at NIST conducts fire research and develops fire models. The NIST web page provides links to all recent NIST fire related publications and free downloads of all fire models published by NIST. Training y y Post graduate training Continuing education . design calculations. Fire test data can also be downloaded from the NIST site.sfpe. Primarily because they can be obtained for free. fire hazard calculations. and also provides information on some basic fire science. A comprehensive listing of fire models is available at www. Publications and Reference Books y Fire Protection Handbook²provides valuable information on the basis for their codes and standards. Design and Analysis Tools There are several computer models available that can be used to simulate fires. Established in 1896.firemodelsurvey. and education. However. The Handbook provides information in the areas of the fundamental science and engineering concepts that are applied in fire protection engineering. several tools are available to perform other types of fire protection calculations. These programs are generally proprietary. training. There are also a number of programs available for performing calculations associated with the design of other types of fire protection systems. several proprietary models are also available. and fire risk analysis. research. NFPA publishes 300 codes and standards using a codedevelopment process that is accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Several other publications related to fire protection engineering are available from www. Additionally.com.

. electrical mishaps account for thousands of people sustaining shock injury or burns. y y The National Fire Protection Association offers a number of courses that are designed to help students better understand the codes and standards that NFPA publishes. post-graduate education in fire protection engineering is available from the University of Maryland and Worcester Polytechnic Institute. 1 (2). 2000. The two largest sources of continuing education are: The Society of Fire Protection Engineers provides courses on a number of aspects of fire protection engineering." article in Journal of Fire Protection Engineering by Lucht. electrical safety is a concern shared by all in the building industry. contractor. manufacturer. Courses are offered in both classroom and distance-learning formats. 35-48. both also offer distance-learning programs. Over 800 people die annually due to fires caused by electrical faults. Approximately 300 deaths occur each year by accidental electrocutions. 1989. Cherock. and whether one's business is electrical in nature or not. MA: SFPE. 2007 Profile of the Fire Protection Engineer (PDF) ± A survey conducted by the Society of Fire Protection Engineers. Last updated: 06-22-2010 Within This Page y y y y y Introduction Description Application Relevant Codes and Standards Additional Resources INTRODUCTION As an engineer. Electrical Safety by Michael A. RCDD Principal. Powerhouse Design Architects and Engineers Ltd. Additional Resources y y y "Coming of Age. While both programs are located on the east coast. PE. or maintenance personnel. Engineering Guide²Performance-Based Fire Protection Analysis and Design of Buildings by National Fire Protection Association. D. and electrical failures cause over 1. pp.3 billion dollars in property damage. Quincy. Each year.In the United States.

such as fuel cells and microturbines. Electrical safety is an essential element to any successful building project from conception to day-to-day operation. One without the others results in exposure to the hazardous or potentially hazardous effects of electrical energy and its impact on personnel and equipment. the perspective defines a frame of reference. Understanding the importance of electrical safety. Electrical safety issues related to photovoltaic systems and distributed energy resources. Each topic is independent but all three rely on the availability and enforcement of the others for full implementation of safety measures. an electrician installing a junction box outdoors inspects the box for defects that may have occurred during the manufacturing process and verifies that it is intended for outdoor installation. Besides familiar electrical equipment and systems. the importance of continued building operation is more critical. electrical safety is broken down into three distinct topics of discussion: Perspectives and Responsibilities. Modes of Electrical Safety. For full understanding. perspective determines the impact electrical safety has on one's work. how to recognize the forms that electrical safety can undertake. and providing resources for implementing electrical safety in one's work are all required to institute an electrical safety program. BACK TO TOP DESCRIPTION A. newer technologies like renewable energy systems and on-site power generation are increasingly becoming integral parts of many projects. Implementation of an adequate electrical safety program requires an electrician to be aware of not only the installation methods associated with mounting outdoor rated enclosures but also to be aware of the standards that an enclosure must meet in order to be rated for outdoor exposure. So. The four perspectives are defined by recognized and accepted roles within the building industry: Engineer Contractor Maintenance Manufacturer y y y y A perspective does not imply or indicate an individual's role or title within an organization.(Courtesy of Tim Matyas) As building systems become more integrated and the industry further embraces sustainable and environmental concepts into design. are evolving and must not be overlooked. and Electrical Safety Resources. For example. The electrician can identify with both the contractor's and manufacturer's . Perspectives and Responsibilities The proper mind frame is the first step to establishing responsibility to enforce standards of electrical safety. Rather.

and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment. Contractor's Perspective The contractor's perspective identifies measures necessary for electrical safety in the installation process. General responsibilities include: Proper mounting of equipment Adequate tightening or torque of connections Use of correct tools Minimizing of insulation abrasion Onsite coordination with other contractors Adherence to applicable codes y y y y y y . instead. Fig. Hence. For example. includes all disciplines involved in the process of engineering. the engineer's perspective evolves into a responsibility that ensures electrical safety from conception of a need to the implementation of an idea. the mechanical engineer must responsibly contribute needed electrical data for heating. 1: Perspective Interrelationships Engineer's Perspective The engineer's perspective identifies measures necessary to achieve electrical safety in the engineering design process. Hence. and controls. General responsibilities include: Equipment ratings Conductor ampacities Selective coordination of overcurrent protective devices Adherence to applicable codes Supply/demand equality General power distribution methods y y y y y y The term engineer is not reserved only for the electrical engineer but.perspectives during this "simple and routine" installation. the contractor's perspective evolves into a responsibility that ensures electrical safety from implementation of an idea to complete realization of that idea. 1. see Fig. All perspectives must be fully understood to achieve the utmost level of electrical safety in one's work. ventilating.

This perspective is one that deciphers the preventative. Hence. the mechanical contractor must responsibly utilize the proper method of installation of the mechanical equipment for interconnection of electrical feeds including elevators. instead. the maintenance perspective evolves into a responsibility that ensures electrical safety by implementation of preventative programs and ongoing system monitoring. includes all trades. General responsibilities include: Preventative maintenance Monitoring of equipment parameters Use of safety measures when working on equipment Following tag out procedures Use of correct tools Thorough knowledge of systems Adherence to applicable codes y y y y y y y Manufacturer's Perspective The manufacturer's perspective identifies measures necessary for electrical safety in the creation and construction of equipment and devices. Maintenance Perspective The maintenance perspective identifies measures necessary for electrical safety in the operation of a system. The employment of the other three perspectives and understanding end user utilization must align singularly for the purpose of electrical safety. General responsibilities include: . and reactive actions available to continued system operation. real-time.(Courtesy of Joe Tedesco) The term contractor is not reserved only for electrical contractor but. and controls. Hence. For example. the manufacturer's perspective evolves into a responsibility that ensures electrical safety by implementing the other three perspectives during the respective phases of the manufacturing process. HVAC equipment.

2. The three modes combined form an all inclusive approach to maintaining electrical safety as an integral part of any process or program involving electricity. Modes of Electrical Safety Equipment ratings Conductor ampacities Selective coordination of overcurrent protective devices Adherence to applicable codes Supply/demand equality General power distribution methods Proper mounting of equipment Adequate tightening or torque of connections Use of correct tools Preventative maintenance Monitoring of equipment parameters Once perspectives and responsibilities are determined.(Courtesy of Peter L. Fig. 2: Mode Interrelations .) y y y y y y y y y y y B. electrical safety is further defined by mode. There are three major modes: Preventative Real-Time Reactive y y y Each mode constitutes a different approach to safety and is defined by the work performed. Jr. Jannitto. see Fig.

A list of actions for the preventative mode should include: Implementation of preventative maintenance programs Requiring tagout/lockout procedures Instituting second-checks requirements for de-energizing during troubleshooting Resourcing applicable codes during design y y y y The initial step towards developing an electrical safety program for an individual or agency is to generate a list of administrative actions identified as "preventative" with respect to the nature of their work. 3: Effects of Electric Shock Levels) CPR training Electrical shock victim identification Emergency planning y y y y y . A list of actions for the real time mode should include: Preventative maintenance being performed Tagout/lockout procedures being completed during system repair Second-checks while de-energizing equipment Applying code requirements during design Correct installation procedure Proper tie-offs on equipment supports Torque checks y y y y y y y An electrical safety program for an individual or agency should generate a list of procedural actions identified as "real time" with respect to the nature of their work and to coordinate those actions with the preventative mode actions. The reactive mode tends to be the main focus of many established programs and generally garners the most attention by others outside the building industry because of the detrimental effect electrical mishaps can cause. Real-Time Mode The real-time mode is identified by procedural actions to ward off or prevent electrical mishaps while performing work. the realtime mode is the implementation of actions identified in preventative mode. Reactive Mode The reactive mode is identified by procedural and administrative actions utilized to address electrical mishaps that are occurring or have occurred. A list of actions for reactive mode should include: Fire suppression training Electrical shock training (see Fig.Preventative Mode The preventative mode is identified by administrative actions utilized to ward off or prevent electrical mishaps prior to work being performed. In many cases.

size. The perspectives. 3: Effects of Electric Shock Levels @ 60Hz* Amps 1-15mA 15-100 mA 100 mA > 2 Amps Description Perception of electrical current. Lastly. and resources presented in this Resource Page should be used to establish the framework necessary for one or one's organization to develop or realign an electrical safety program better tailored to meet one's needs. or required by one's agency should be noted and made available to all users. Equally important is the ability to access different media types. BACK TO TOP RELEVANT CODES AND STANDARDS . The building industry and all those immediately affected by it often dictate the rules governing one's actions for the benefit of the end user. A dedicated area on the computer network for electrical information is an excellent way to manage and identify resources on hand and those becoming available. An "Electrical Safety Library" is a start to organizing and making the vast information easier to access. C. * Assume worst case body resistance of 300Ohms with varying voltage applied to reach listed currents. With so many resources available. not only is access to the Internet a necessity but multiple entry points are suggested.y Fig. It is important to note that the first step to any effective safety program is structure. an electrical safety program should implement a method of sourcing the information into a manner that is easily accessible. for those in the building industry. followed by education and implementation. age. etc of the victim. Current levels and effects remain approximate due to factors such as health. An electrical safety program for an individual or company agency should generate a list of procedural and administrative actions identified as "reactive" with respect to the nature of their work and coordinate those actions with the preventative and real-time modes. modes. However. BACK TO TOP APPLICATION Electrical safety has been a concern for all since the time electricity became an essential part of everyone's daily lives. Electrical Safety Resources Resources abound that enable one or one's agency to better recognize perspective and responsibility for electrical safety. electrical safety resources should be categorized by Perspectives and Modes. Today. Within the database. ownership of electrical safety is a necessity. all electrical safety resources enforced by local ordinance or codes. electrical safety requires a proactive approach most often initiated at an organizational level. Ventricular fibrillation of the heart occurs. Electrical system orientation Muscles contract and cannot release. severity determined by current level. Body receives major burns due to "frying" effect. Therefore.

y National Electrical Installation Standards²The NEIS gives definition to "neat and workmanlike manner" as required by the National Electrical Code. verifying and maintaining safe and compliant electrical systems. is available with IEEE membership or by buying a printed or electronic version of the code. This code provides information on the installation.NFPA 70²The NEC is the accepted standard for protection of persons and property from electrical installations. like the NEC. y National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)²The NFPA is the definitive source for everything related to fire protection. Each standard is submitted for approval by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). and is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. y Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA)²OSHA is the main governmental source for effective safety practices. state. Information. The association has developed numerous standards that have been adopted by federal. and maintenance of electrical systems. The website is a vast. operation. Secure / Safe²Ensure Occupant Safety and Health Products and Systems Federal Green Construction Guide for Specifiers: . Secure/Safe²Plan for Fire Protection. Familiarization with NFPA 70 is a must for any one whose responsibility is designing.y National Electrical Code (NEC) . The intent of the publication is the safeguarding of persons performing the work. and local jurisdictions as enforceable standards. BACK TO TOP ADDITIONAL RESOURCES WBDG Design Objectives Productive²Promote Health & Well-Being. Information can be found through the NFPA website with a membership or printed and electronic versions of the code can be purchased from NFPA and other suppliers. y National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)²NIOSH is similar in mission to OSHA but differs by the singular perspective that NIOSH is the federal agency responsible for the prevention of work related disease and injury. y National Electrical Safety Code (NESC)²The NESC is a product of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). The site has plenty of free information but more specific information is restricted to members only. installing. readily accessible information resource with a thorough search engine.

(UL) .net .y y y y y y y y Organizations/Associations y y y y y Others y y y y y y y 11 13 00 (11160) Loading Dock Equipment 11 28 00 (11680) Office Equipment 11 30 00 (11450) Residential Equipment 23 70 00 (15700) Central HVAC Equipment 26 50 00 (16500) Lighting 48 14 00 (13600) Solar Energy Electrical Power Generation Equipment 48 15 00 (13600) Wind Energy Electrical Power Generation Equipment 48 30 00 (13600) Biomass Energy Electrical Power Generation Equipment Electrical Safety Foundation International (ESFI) National Electrical Contractors Association (NECA) National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) National Safety Council (NSC) National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE) Arc Fault Circuit Interrupters (AFCI) Bureau of Labor Statistics Electrical Construction and Maintenance Ground-Fault Protection on Construction Sites National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) .Safety First Underwriter's Laboratories Inc.Electricity Division Safteng.