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(liquids and gases) in motion. It has several subdisciplines itself, including aerodynamics (the study of air and other gases in motion) and hydrodynamics (the study of liquids in motion). Fluid dynamics has a wide range of applications, including calculating forces and moments on aircraft, determining the mass flow rate of petroleum through pipelines, predicting weather patterns, understanding nebulae in interstellar space and reportedly modeling fission weapon detonation. Some of its principles are even used in traffic engineering, where traffic is treated as a continuous fluid. Fluid dynamics offers a systematic structure that underlies these practical disciplines, that embraces empirical and semi-empirical laws derived from flow measurement and used to solve practical problems. The solution to a fluid dynamics problem typically involves calculating various properties of the fluid, such as velocity, pressure, density, and temperature, as functions of space and time. Historically, hydrodynamics meant something different than it does today. Before the twentieth century, hydrodynamics was synonymous with fluid dynamics. This is still reflected in names of some fluid dynamics topics, like magnetohydrodynamics and hydrodynamic stability—both also applicable in, as well as being applied to, gases.[1]

**Terminology in fluid dynamics
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The concept of pressure is central to the study of both fluid statics and fluid dynamics. A pressure can be identified for every point in a body of fluid, regardless of whether the fluid is in motion or not. Pressure can be measured using an aneroid, Bourdon tube, mercury column, or various other methods. Some of the terminology that is necessary in the study of fluid dynamics is not found in other similar areas of study. In particular, some of the terminology used in fluid dynamics is not used in fluid statics.

fluid dynamics

Dictionary: fluid dynamics Sponsored Links MS Dynamics BI Business intelligence, dashboards, KPIs, analytics for MS Dynamics. www.dataself.com/dynamicsgp.html PIV Systeme Intelligente Imaging Systeme PIV, LIF, Spray, Strain www.lavision.com Home > Library > Literature & Language > Dictionary n. (used with a sing. verb) The branch of applied science that is concerned with the movement of gases and liquids.

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[show]Laws [show]Solid mechanics [hide]Fluid mechanics Fluids Fluid statics · Fluid dynamics Surface tension Navier–Stokes equations Viscosity: Newtonian. showing the pressure distribution as the thickness of the black line and showing the velocity in the boundary layer as the violet triangles. Non-Newtonian [show]Rheology [show]Scientists v•d•e Typical aerodynamic teardrop shape. The green vortex generators prompt the transition to turbulent flow and prevent back-flow .

density. Cutting the shape into halves results in an aerofoil with the low pressure region on top leading to lift (force). including calculating forces and moments on aircraft. Historically.1 Terminology in incompressible fluid dynamics o 2.7 Magnetohydrodynamics o 1.2 Mathematical equations and concepts .1 Fields of study o 3. hydrodynamics meant something different than it does today.6 Subsonic vs transonic. as well as being applied to. where traffic is treated as a continuous fluid.2 Viscous vs inviscid flow o 1.5 Newtonian vs non-Newtonian fluids o 1. In physics. they also face the problem of flow separation in their divergent parts. The solution to a fluid dynamics problem typically involves calculating various properties of the fluid. understanding nebulae in interstellar space and reportedly modeling fission weapon detonation.also called flow separation from the high pressure region in the back. The Kammback also prevents back flow from the high pressure region in the back across the spoilers to the convergent part. fluid dynamics is a sub-discipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow—the natural science of fluids (liquids and gases) in motion. Some of its principles are even used in traffic engineering. including aerodynamics (the study of air and other gases in motion) and hydrodynamics (the study of liquids in motion). like magnetohydrodynamics and hydrodynamic stability—both also applicable in. predicting weather patterns. Putting stuff inside out results in tubes.[1] Contents [hide] • • • 1 Equations of fluid dynamics o 1. as any turbulence here will reduce the energy of the airflow.8 Other approximations 2 Terminology in fluid dynamics o 2. determining the mass flow rate of petroleum through pipelines. hydrodynamics was synonymous with fluid dynamics. supersonic and hypersonic flows o 1.1 Compressible vs incompressible flow o 1. Before the twentieth century.3 Steady vs unsteady flow o 1. such as velocity.4 Laminar vs turbulent flow o 1. that embraces empirical and semi-empirical laws derived from flow measurement and used to solve practical problems. Fluid dynamics offers a systematic structure that underlies these practical disciplines. The surface in front is as smooth as possible or even employs shark like skin. This is still reflected in names of some fluid dynamics topics.2 Terminology in compressible fluid dynamics 3 See also o 3. so called diffusers. and temperature. Fluid dynamics has a wide range of applications. It has several subdisciplines itself. gases. as functions of space and time. pressure.

They are expressed using the Reynolds Transport Theorem. momentum.3 Types of fluid flow 3. and energy conservation equations.6 Applications 3. temperature.5 Fluid phenomena 3. Consequently. For fluids which are sufficiently dense to be a continuum. conservation of linear momentum (also known as Newton's Second Law of Motion). which is a non-linear set of differential equations that describes the flow of a fluid whose stress depends linearly on velocity gradients and pressure. However. and velocity are taken to be well-defined at infinitesimally small points.4 Fluid properties 3. These are based on classical mechanics and are modified in quantum mechanics and general relativity. conservation of mass. The unsimplified equations do not have a general closed-form solution. The equations can be simplified in a number of ways. The fact that the fluid is made up of discrete molecules is ignored. the momentum equations for Newtonian fluids are the Navier-Stokes equations. and have velocities small in relation to the speed of light.• • • 3. In addition to the above. In addition to the mass. and conservation of energy (also known as First Law of Thermodynamics). Fluids are composed of molecules that collide with one another and solid objects. so they are primarily of use in Computational Fluid Dynamics. pressure. the continuum assumption considers fluids to be continuous. properties such as density. rather than discrete. Some of them allow appropriate fluid dynamics problems to be solved in closed form. a thermodynamical equation of state giving the pressure as a function of other thermodynamic variables for the fluid is required to completely specify the problem. fluids are assumed to obey the continuum assumption.7 Miscellaneous 4 References 5 Notes o o o o o 6 External links Equations of fluid dynamics The foundational axioms of fluid dynamics are the conservation laws. do not contain ionized species. An example of this would be the perfect gas equation of state: . specifically. all of which make them easier to solve. and are assumed to vary continuously from one point to another.

Acoustic problems always require allowing compressibility. which is a ratio between inertial and viscous forces. Compressible vs incompressible flow All fluids are compressible to some extent. Otherwise the more general compressible flow equations must be used. As a rough guide. Viscous vs inviscid flow Viscous problems are those in which fluid friction has significant effects on the fluid motion. compared to inertial terms. Mathematically. However. . i. whether the incompressible assumption is valid depends on the fluid properties (specifically the critical pressure and temperature of the fluid) and the flow conditions (how close to the critical pressure the actual flow pressure becomes). high Reynolds numbers indicate that the inertial forces are more significant than the viscous (friction) forces.. we may assume the flow to be an inviscid flow. the Mach number of the flow is to be evaluated. In this case the flow can be modeled as an incompressible flow. that is changes in pressure or temperature will result in changes in density.where p is pressure. such that inertial forces can be neglected compared to viscous forces.e. an approximation in which we neglect viscosity completely. This additional constraint simplifies the governing equations. which is the sum of local and convective derivatives. M is the molar mass and T is temperature. incompressibility is expressed by saying that the density ρ of a fluid parcel does not change as it moves in the flow field. to determine whether to use compressible or incompressible fluid dynamics. Ru is the gas constant. compressible effects can be ignored at Mach numbers below approximately 0. since sound waves are compression waves involving changes in pressure and density of the medium through which they propagate. Stokes flow is flow at very low Reynolds numbers. On the contrary. Therefore. where D / Dt is the substantial derivative. especially in the case when the fluid has a uniform density.3. For flow of gases. in many situations the changes in pressure and temperature are sufficiently small that the changes in density are negligible. The Reynolds number. Re<<1. can be used to evaluate whether viscous or inviscid equations are appropriate to the problem. ρ is density. For liquids.

may require that the viscosity be included. When the flow is everywhere irrotational and inviscid. is to use the Euler equations away from the body and the boundary layer equations. especially in computational fluid dynamics. the flow is considered to be a steady flow. a body in an inviscid fluid will experience no drag force.This idea can work fairly well when the Reynolds number is high. Steady vs unsteady flow Hydrodynamics simulation of the Rayleigh–Taylor instability [2] When all the time derivatives of a flow field vanish. laminar flow over a sphere is steady in the frame of reference that is stationary with respect to the sphere. certain problems such as those involving solid boundaries. in a region close to the body. A turbulent flow can. Viscosity often cannot be neglected near solid boundaries because the no-slip condition can generate a thin region of large strain rate (known as Boundary layer) which enhances the effect of even a small amount of viscosity. However. Bernoulli's equation can be used throughout the flow field. In a frame of reference that is stationary with respect to a background flow. flow is called unsteady. Such flows are called potential flows. Therefore. the flow is unsteady. Otherwise. be statistically stationary. and thus generating vorticity. Whether a particular flow is steady or unsteady. The standard equations of inviscid flow are the Euler equations. As illustrated by d'Alembert's paradox. For instance. According to Pope:[3] . can depend on the chosen frame of reference. however. Another often used model. Turbulent flows are unsteady by definition. Steady-state flow refers to the condition where the fluid properties at a point in the system do not change over time. to calculate net forces on bodies (such as wings) we should use viscous flow equations. which incorporates viscosity. The Euler equations can be integrated along a streamline to get Bernoulli's equation.

Often. Laminar vs turbulent flow Turbulence is flow characterized by recirculation. however. The results of DNS agree with the experimental data.t) is statistically stationary if all statistics are invariant under a shift in time. especially in the guise of detached eddy simulation (DES)—which is a combination of RANS turbulence modeling and large eddy simulation. It should be noted. Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations (RANS) combined with turbulence modeling provides a model of the effects of the turbulent flow. Transport aircraft wings (such as on an Airbus A300 or Boeing 747) have Reynolds numbers of 40 million (based on the wing chord). that the presence of eddies or recirculation alone does not necessarily indicate turbulent flow —these phenomena may be present in laminar flow as well. makes it possible to simulate turbulent flows at moderate Reynolds numbers. Such a modeling mainly provides the additional momentum transfer by the Reynolds stresses. turbulence models will be a necessity for the foreseeable future. Restrictions depend on the power of the computer used and the efficiency of the solution algorithm. Steady flows are often more tractable than otherwise similar unsteady flows. based on the Navier–Stokes equations. eddies. moving faster than 72 km/h (20 m/s) is well beyond the limit of DNS simulation (Re = 4 million). and apparent randomness. It is believed that turbulent flows can be described well through the use of the Navier– Stokes equations. The governing equations of a steady problem have one dimension less (time) than the governing equations of the same problem without taking advantage of the steadiness of the flow field. turbulent flow is often represented via a Reynolds decomposition. Flow in which turbulence is not exhibited is called laminar. Most flows of interest have Reynolds numbers much too high for DNS to be a viable option[4]. Newtonian vs non-Newtonian fluids . given the state of computational power for the next few decades. in which the flow is broken down into the sum of an average component and a perturbation component. Direct numerical simulation (DNS). Another promising methodology is large eddy simulation (LES). and this is constant too in a statistically stationary flow. This roughly means that all statistical properties are constant in time. Any flight vehicle large enough to carry a human (L > 3 m). Mathematically. although the turbulence also enhances the heat and mass transfer. the mean field is the object of interest.The random field U(x. In order to solve these real-life flow problems.

in aerodynamics) occur at high fractions of the Mach Number M=1 or in excess of it (supersonic flows). Subsonic vs transonic. which depends on the specific fluid. The fluid flow equations are solved simultaneously with Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism. such as emulsions and slurries and some viscoelastic materials (e. It is often used in free convection problems where density changes are small. supersonic and hypersonic flows While many terrestrial flows (e. transonic instability in a regime of flows with M nearly equal to 1.g. have more complicated non-Newtonian stress-strain behaviours. or flow field around. • • • • • The Boussinesq approximation neglects variations in density except to calculate buoyancy forces.g.Sir Isaac Newton showed how stress and the rate of strain are very close to linearly related for many familiar fluids. in which surface gradients are small. The shallow-water equations can be used to describe a layer of relatively inviscid fluid with a free surface. liquid metals. shock waves for supersonic flow. honey. Other approximations There are a large number of other possible approximations to fluid dynamic problems. . Examples of such fluids include plasmas. a long slender object in a viscous fluid. The Boussinesq equations are applicable to surface waves on thicker layers of fluid and with steeper surface slopes. some polymers). New phenomena occur at these Mach number regimes (e. However. some of the other materials. Slender-body theory is a methodology used in Stokes flow problems to estimate the force on. Lubrication theory and Hele-Shaw flow exploits the large aspect ratio of the domain to show that certain terms in the equations are small and so can be neglected. Magnetohydrodynamics Main article: Magnetohydrodynamics Magnetohydrodynamics is the multi-disciplinary study of the flow of electrically conducting fluids in electromagnetic fields.g. non-equilibrium chemical behavior due to ionization in hypersonic flows) and it is necessary to treat each of these flow regimes separately. These materials include sticky liquids such as latex. many flows of practical interest (e.g. flow of water through a pipe) occur at low mach numbers. and lubricants which are studied in the sub-discipline of rheology. These Newtonian fluids are modeled by a coefficient called viscosity. Some of the more commonly used are listed below. blood. such as water and air. and salt water.

A point in a fluid flow where the flow has come to rest (i.• • Darcy's law is used for flow in porous media. and works with variables averaged over several pore-widths. In particular. Clancy writes[5]: To distinguish it from the total and dynamic pressures. the concepts of total (or stagnation) temperature and total (or stagnation) density are also essential in any study of compressible fluid flows.e. the quasi-geostrophic approximation assumes an almost perfect balance between pressure gradients and the Coriolis force. the actual pressure of the fluid. In addition to the concept of total pressure (also known as stagnation pressure).J. some of the terminology used in fluid dynamics is not used in fluid statics. L. regardless of whether the fluid is in motion or not. such as air. To avoid potential ambiguity when referring to temperature and density. In Aerodynamics.) To avoid potential ambiguity when referring to pressure in fluid dynamics. many authors use the term static pressure to distinguish it from total pressure and dynamic pressure. Static pressure is identical to pressure and can be identified for every point in a fluid flow field. which is associated not with its motion but with its state. The static pressure at the stagnation point is of special significance and is given its own name—stagnation pressure. (These two pressures are not pressures in the usual sense—they cannot be measured using an aneroid. In rotating systems. is often referred to as the static pressure. Pressure can be measured using an aneroid. but where the term pressure alone is used it refers to this static pressure. A pressure can be identified for every point in a body of fluid. the stagnation pressure at a stagnation point is equal to the total pressure throughout the flow field. the temperature and density are essential when determining the state of the fluid. Bourdon tube. Terminology in fluid dynamics The concept of pressure is central to the study of both fluid statics and fluid dynamics. mercury column. many authors use the . In incompressible flows. It is useful in the study of atmospheric dynamics. Some of the terminology that is necessary in the study of fluid dynamics is not found in other similar areas of study. Terminology in compressible fluid dynamics In a compressible fluid. Terminology in incompressible fluid dynamics The concepts of total pressure and dynamic pressure arise from Bernoulli's equation and are significant in the study of all fluid flows. speed is equal to zero adjacent to some solid body immersed in the fluid flow) is of special significance. or various other methods. Bourdon tube or mercury column. It is of such importance that it is given a special name—a stagnation point.

but where they are used they mean nothing more than enthalpy and entropy respectively. the total (or stagnation) entropy is by definition always equal to the "static" entropy. Many authors use the terms total (or stagnation) enthalpy and total (or stagnation) entropy. A similar approach is also taken with the thermodynamic properties of compressible fluids. See also Fields of study • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Acoustic theory Aerodynamics Aeroelasticity Aeronautics Computational fluid dynamics Flow measurement Hemodynamics Hydraulics Hydrology Hydrostatics Electrohydrodynamics Magnetohydrodynamics Rheology Quantum hydrodynamics Mathematical equations and concepts • • • • • • • • • Airy wave theory Bernoulli's equation Reynolds transport theorem Benjamin–Bona–Mahony equation Boussinesq approximation (buoyancy) Boussinesq approximation (water waves) Conservation laws Euler equations (fluid dynamics) Darcy's law . The terms static enthalpy and static entropy appear to be less common.terms static temperature and static density. Because the 'total' flow conditions are defined by isentropically bringing the fluid to rest. and static density is identical to density. The temperature and density at a stagnation point are called stagnation temperature and stagnation density. Static temperature is identical to temperature. and the prefix "static" is being used to avoid ambiguity with their 'total' or 'stagnation' counterparts. and both can be identified for every point in a fluid flow field.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Dynamic pressure Fluid statics Helmholtz's theorems Kirchhoff equations Manning equation Mild-slope equation Morison equation Navier–Stokes equations Oseen flow Pascal's law Poiseuille's law Potential flow Pressure Static pressure Pressure head Relativistic Euler equations Reynolds decomposition Stokes flow Stokes stream function Stream function Streamlines. streaklines and pathlines Types of fluid flow • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Cavitation Compressible flow Couette flow Free molecular flow Incompressible flow Inviscid flow Isothermal flow Laminar flow Open channel flow Secondary flow Superfluidity Supersonic Transient flow Transonic Turbulent flow Two-phase flow Fluid properties • • • Density List of hydrodynamic instabilities Newtonian fluid .

• • • • • Non-Newtonian fluid Surface tension Viscosity Vapour pressure Compressibility Fluid phenomena • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Boundary layer Coanda effect Convection cell Convergence/Bifurcation Drag (force) Hydrodynamic stability Lift (force) Ocean surface waves Rossby wave Shock wave Soliton Stokes drift Turbulence Venturi effect Vortex Vorticity Water hammer Wave drag Applications • • • • • • • • • • • • Acoustics Aerodynamics Cryosphere science Fluid power Hydraulic machinery Meteorology Naval architecture Oceanography Plasma physics Pneumatics Pump Slosh dynamics Miscellaneous • • Important publications in fluid dynamics Isosurface .

London: Pitman Publishing Limited. M. Shinbrot. D. Theoretical Hydrodynamics (5th ed. Lectures on Fluid Mechanics. Aerodynamics. ISBN 0521458684. Batchelor. 5. ISBN 0521663962. Gordon and Breach. Originally published in 1938. Pergamon Press. ISBN 0750627670. Pope.• • • • • • Keulegan–Carpenter number Rotating tank Sound barrier Beta plane Immersed boundary method Bridge scour References • • • • • • • • • Acheson. Lamb. Course of Theoretical Physics (2nd ed. Landau. Elementary Fluid Dynamics. ISBN 0198596790. Macmillan. Turbulent Flows.. ISBN 978-0-415-49271-3. ix. M. Clancy. L. Fluid Mechanics. L. Aerodynamics. ISBN 0273011200. (1975). Clarendon Press. ISBN 3527405135. L. Applied Hydrodynamics: An Introduction to Ideal and Real Fluid Flows. Chanson. L. ^ Clancy. Lifschitz. the 6th extended edition appeared first in 1932. page 75. An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics. page 21 External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Fluid dynamics . Originally published in 1879. page 344.). (1987). 478 pages. ISBN 0677017103. Milne-Thompson. H.). Notes 1. (1968). ^ Eckert. ^ See Pope (2000). E. J. K. M. Stephen B. 2. (1990). ^ See Pope (2000). (2009). Hydrodynamics (6th ed. Leiden. Horace (1994). ^ Shengtai Li.). (1967). 4. J. The Dawn of Fluid Dynamics: A Discipline Between Science and Technology. Wiley. Hui Li "Parallel AMR Code for Compressible MHD or HD Equations" (Los Alamos National Laboratory) [1] 3. Taylor & Francis Group. Cambridge University Press. CRC Press. (1973). (2000). ISBN 0521598869.J. p. Michael (2006). G. The Netherlands. Cambridge University Press. D. Cambridge University Press.

.. the leading user-contributed encyclopedia. Where do you Fill the brake fluid on a 1959 oldmobile dynamic 88? Read answer.org/applied_mechanics Fluid Dynamics Idaho National Laboratory Performs Fluid Dynamics Research. What is fluid-fluid level in ultrasound? Read answer. containing films on several subjects in fluid dynamics (in realmedia format) List of Fluid Dynamics books Fluid Mechanics. fluid & solid mechanics.. containing several galleries of fluid motion National Committee for Fluid Mechanics Films (NCFMF). Help us answer these: Differentiate fluid statics from fluid dynamics? What is computational fluid dynamic? What are fluid flow dynamics? ...Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Fluid mechanics • • • • eFluids.gov/research/ Related topics: Aerodynamics (science) Hydrodynamics (science) Fluid Mechanics (science) Related answers: Fluid dynamics use in day to day life? Read answer.. It may not have been reviewed by professional editors (see full disclaimer) Donate to Wikimedia Sponsored Links Applied Mechanics Reviews View & submit papers on applied mechanics. A short course for physicists [show] v•d•e Dimensionless numbers in fluid dynamics [show] v•d•e General subfields within physics This entry is from Wikipedia. www. www.asmedl.inl.

any question . It uses material from the Wikipedia article Fluid dynamics.to the WikiAnswers community: þÿ Copyrights: Dictionary.Post a question . Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. Read more . This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Fourth Edition Copyright © 2007. Read more Wikipedia. Updated in 2009. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language. All rights reserved.

not considered within the science of fluid dynamics. Fluid dynamics. For example. the sub-field of hydrodynamics addresses problems having to do with the motion of waves on the surface of a body of water. In fact. the effects of relativity or quantum physics are usually ignored. respectively. is the branch of physics that deals with the flow of fluids. That is. also often called fluid mechanics. the sub-field of . the Citizens' Compendium Jump to: navigation. i.All rights reserved Liquid flow across the tubes in a nuclear power plant heat exchanger. It is an adaptation of Newton's laws of motion to a medium that is treated as if it were continuous.[1][2] Since the most common liquid on Earth is water.e. Also. These unapproved articles are subject to a disclaimer. fluid dynamics encompasses the descriptions of water and air.Fluid dynamics From Citizendium.. although a special case of "hydrodynamic testing" evaluates waves in the high-explosive compression system of nuclear weapons. and the most common gas is air. liquids and gases. you can help to improve it. in most of fluid dynamics the underlying mechanical laws are taken as those of classical physics. Similarly. [edit intro] © Photo: Office National d’Etudes et Recherches Aérospatiales (ONERA) . hydrodynamics and aerodynamics. search Main Article Talk Related Articles [?] Bibliography [?] External Links [?] This is a draft article.. i. One therefore classifies fluid dynamics as being a continuum theory. the molecular structure of matter is. one of the major results of fluid dynamics is the understanding that over a wide range of conditions the flow of air and the flow of water can be addressed using the same set of equations from physics. sometimes called. under development and not meant to be cited. There are unique areas of either subject that require special considerations. for the most part.e.

through theory and experiments. and applications or usages in fields of study such climate. than the basic mathematical properties of the governing equations. The field of computational fluid dynamics or CFD. theory and analysis. engineers and applied mathematicians have made contributions to it. models and concepts. References . the Navier-Stokes equation) are simplified versions. superfluids and others. Newtonian and non-Newtonian). the field of experimental fluid dynamics employs ever more sophisticated techniques involving lasers and high-speed imaging. Physicists and engineers typically proceed with their analyses under the assumption that the basic mathematical equations have the properties necessary to describe a physical system. the phenomenology of fluid flows is considerably better understood. While fluid dynamics may be considered a mature subject. Issues of fluid dynamics are addressed by experiment.e. viscous and inviscid. Sub-fields of fluid dynamics There are various sub-fields of fluid dynamics. it still holds many unresolved problems. the differential equations used to solve systems (e.. even though some of these properties have not been proven and present major challenges. fluid properties and phenomena. as it is often called. engineering. has grown immensely in step with the increasing power of computers and the development of ever more efficient and ingenious algorithms for flow simulation.. since it has been pursued for several centuries and most of the great physicists. hydraulics. Similarly. The problem of turbulence is usually cited as one of the great unsolved mysteries of fluid dynamics and by extension of classical mechanics. Many of the images produced by experiment or computation of fluid flows have great aesthetic appeal.aerodynamics (often referred to as gas dynamics) addresses problems involving the compression of gases.g. i. meteorology. mathematical equations. The more important sub-fields are: • • Aerodynamics Computational fluid dynamics Hydrodynamics • • • Hydrostatics Magnetohydrodynamics Rheology • The overall study of fluid dynamics also includes: types of fluid flow (laminar and turbulent. [3] and have smooth solutions [4]. each with their own flavor and distinct set of problems and issues. and increasingly by computation. Indeed. Oftentimes. a deductive theory of turbulence from the basic equations of fluid dynamics has not been given. While many properties of turbulent flows are understood. that they are well-posed. geophysics. oceanography.

↑ D. Batchelor (1967). Oxford University Press.K. ↑ A system of equations is well-posed if it has a unique solution that changes continuously if the initial data change continuously. 1st Edition. 1st Edition.1. ↑ A curve or function is called smooth if its derivative is continuous. An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-19-859679-0.J. 4.citizendium. Acheson (1990). Elementary Fluid Dynamics. 2.org/wiki/Fluid_dynamics" Categories: CZ Live | Physics Workgroup | Engineering Workgroup | Chemistry Workgroup | All Content | Physics Content | Engineering Content | Chemistry Content Hidden categories: Physics tag | Engineering tag | Chemistry tag Views • • • • Page Discussion View source History Personal tools • Log in Search þÿ Go To Page Search Read • • • • Welcome to Citizendium Live Articles Random Page Recent Changes Dive In! • • • Register Quick Start Start Article . ↑ G. ISBN 0-521-04118-X. Retrieved from "http://en. 3.

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