Acronyms

CBOs CBS CSOs CPA CRMA DDR DFID FAO FFAMC FGM FMOGE GBV IDPs INGOs JAM JDB KAP NCP NGOs RRR SHHS SIFSIA SPCRP SPLM / A UNDAF UNDP UNHCR UNICEF UNMAO UXOs WES WFP

Community Based Organizations Census Bureau of Statistics Civil Society Organizations Comprehensive Peace Agreement Crisis and Recovery Mapping and Analysis Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Department for International Development Food and Agriculture Organization Fiscal and Financial Allocation Monitoring Commission Female Genital Mutilation Federal Ministry of General Education Gender Based Violence Internally Displaced Persons International Non Governmental Organizations Joint Assessment Mission Joint Defence Board Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices National Congress Party Non-Governmental Organizations Return, Reintegration and Recovery Sudan Household Health Survey Sudan Institutional Food Security Information for Action Sudan Productive Capacity Recovery Program Sudan People’s Liberation Movement / Army United Nations Development Assistance Framework for Sudan United Nations Development Program United Nations Higher Commission for Refugees United Nations Children and Education Fund United Nations Mine Action Organization Unexploded Ordinances Water, Environment and Sanitation World Food Programme

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Table of Contents Executive Summary................................................................................................ 6 Section A................................................................................................................. 7 1. Introduction....................................................................................................... 7 2. General Background......................................................................................... 7 2.1 Physical Environment.................................................................................. 8 2.1.1 Topography........................................................................................ 8 2.1.2 Hydrology........................................................................................... 9 2.1.3 Climate............................................................................................... 10 2.1.4 Soils.................................................................................................... 10 2.1.5 Vegetation and Land Use................................................................... 12 2.2 Population................................................................................................... 14 2.2.1 Demography...................................................................................... 14 2.2.2 Ethnic distribution and migration....................................................... 15 2.3 Poverty and Basic Services....................................................................... 15 2.3.1 Health Services................................................................................. 16 2.3.2 Water and Sanitation......................................................................... 18 2.3.3 Basic Education................................................................................. 19 2.4 Economic Situation..................................................................................... 23 2.5 The State of Women................................................................................... 25 2.6 State Funding............................................................................................. 27 3. Conflict and Peace in Blue Nile State.............................................................. 28 3.1 Political History of Blue Nile....................................................................... 28 3.1.1 Native Administration and Land Use................................................. 28 3.1.2 Causes of the War............................................................................. 29 3.2 Current Political Situation........................................................................... 30 3.2.1 Power Sharing................................................................................... 30 3.2.2 Security Reform................................................................................ 30 3.2.3 Wealth Sharing.................................................................................. 31 3.3 Threats to Community Stability.................................................................. 32 3.3.1 Roseires Dam heightening................................................................ 32 3.3.2 Disputes between farmers and pastoralists....................................... 34 3.3.3 Disputes between small farmers and large holding farmers............. 37 3.3.4 Disarmament and Reintegration........................................................ 37 3.3.5 Landmines, UXOs and lack of integrating infrastructure................... 38 3.3.6 Limited peace dividend...................................................................... 40 3.3.7 Urbanization...................................................................................... 41 3.3.8 High rate of unemployment............................................................... 41 3.3.9 High rates of HIV / AIDS................................................................... 42 4. Conclusion....................................................................................................... 43 Section B Outcome 1: Peacebuilding.................................................................................... Outcome 2: Governance and Rule of Law............................................................ Outcome 3: Livelihoods and Productive Sectors................................................... Outcome 4: Basic Services and Infrastructure......................................................

44 47 49 51

List of Maps Figure 1 Slope classes of the Blue Nile State......................................................... 9 Figure 2 Distribution of soil units ............................................................................ 11 Figure 3 Land Cover Distribution ........................................................................... 13
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Figure 4 Health Facility Coverage........................................................................... 17 Figure 5 Water Supply Coverage............................................................................ 19 Figure 6 Schools Coverage..................................................................................... 22 Figure 7 Expected Expansion of the Roseries Dam Reservoire............................ 33 Figure 8 Large Scale Farms and Seasonal Livestock Migration Routes................ 36 Figure 9 IDPs and Returnnes ................................................................................. 38 Figure 10 Perceived SALW Threats ....................................................................... 40

List of Tables Table 1: Rainfall by locality...................................................................................... 10 Table 2: Population by locality................................................................................. 14 Table 3: Children under 5 by locality....................................................................... 14 Table 4: Comparative child health indicators........................................................... 16 Table 5: Health facilities by locality.......................................................................... 16 Table 6: Medical staff by locality.............................................................................. 16 Table 7: Comparative water and sanitation statistics.............................................. 18 Table 8: Improvements in basic education (2008 – 2009) ..................................... 20 Table 9: Improvements in enrolment in basic education (2002 – 2007) ................ 20 Table 10: Out of School Boys and Girls by State 2008-2009 School Year............. 20 Table 11: Government Teachers by Status of Training and Sex............................ 21 Table 12: sources of rural household income.......................................................... 23 Table 13: Summary of road assessment and road clearance................................. 25 Table 14: Marital status........................................................................................... 26 Table 15: UN/IOM organized IDPs and Refugees return 2006-2009..................... 37 Table 16: Distribution of HIV/ AIDS........................................................................ 42

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Executive Summary The objective of this document is to produce a consolidated situation analysis that will, in turn, guide programming and planning support for Blue Nile State. The document is comprised of two main parts. Part A provides an in-depth Situation Analysis for Blue Nile State and Part B develops an Analysis Framework to guide programming in the area. The report is based on the outcomes of the UNDP threat and risk mapping process conducted in June 2008 – January 2009 and the follow-up consultations with key stakeholders in Blue Nile State that took place in October 2009. Information produced through the initial CRMA mapping process was subsequently validated and re-affirmed, while additional information from broader studies and surveys was gathered and grafted onto this basis. Individual consultations included state government officials, influential civil society organizations, national and international NGOs and UN agencies. These follow-up discussions focused largely on existing gaps in the recovery and development effort and the measures required to address them. The input of different people and groups, throughout the process, drew heavily upon their respective areas of expertise, articulating core concerns for the state either on an individual or collective basis. The information contained in Section (B), is primarily a reflection and summary of participants’ views around the strategic outcomes established by the UNDAF. The UNDAF captures the need to inform priorities for a common longer-term development vision, promoting sustained peace in Sudan and ensuring national ownership of the process. It is a joint framework for both the UN and the government. Discussions in preparation for this document thus covered all four strategic outcomes envisaged by the UNDAF framework – peace building, governance and rule of law, livelihoods and productive sectors, and basic services. If the promise of sustained peace and development is to be delivered for Blue Nile State, the following steps for immediate action emerged throughout the consultation process: 1. Identify and form a land tenure system that recognizes the rights of local communities (peasants and pastoralists) to control and access land, and that can mediate in conflicts over land; 2. Invest in basic infrastructure for the state to ensure equitable access for and integration of all communities and geographical areas; 3. Improve the provision of basic services, particularly for war affected areas and areas that are growing fast (returnee areas, urban centres, areas of nomadic settlement); 4. Enhance the full integration between NCP and SPLM elements in the civil service, administration of state localities, security and military. 5. Provide skills for employment and access to financial services to alleviate the high unemployment rate in the state, especially among youth.

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SECTION A: Situational Analysis 1. Introduction This report follows the first cycle of threat and risk mapping for Blue Nile State which was completed in January 2009. The information contained in this document is designed to guide the identification of policy priorities in Blue Nile State and inform strategic planning activities at the State level. On the side of UNDP, targeting and development of particular interventions will draw upon the information provided through this process. Individual consultations for Blue Nile state were carried out in preparation for this report, engaging government staff that are currently active at both state and locality levels. Consultations with civil society organizations, NGOs and UN Agencies, working in Blue Nile, were also built into the process. Cumulatively, these actors helped fill important information gaps for the state and finalize an analysis necessary for evidence-based planning processes. The report is broken down into two sections. Section (A) provides analysis of the context in Blue Nile State across a wide variety of areas including geography, demography and the state economy. Further, the section addresses the political history of the state as well as specific matters relating to the CPA and the successful implementation of its provisions. Finally, the section addresses areas that are of concern to policymakers and to the population of Blue Nile alike. These issues are: Roseires Dam heightening; disputes between nomads and pastoralists; disputes between small farmers and large holding farmers; displacement and return; landmines and UXOs; the limited peace dividend; urbanization. A firm grasp of this context is essential for effective project design in the region. Section (B) of the report develops an Analysis Framework for Blue Nile State based upon the priorities laid down by the UNDAF. The UNDAF was developed by joint UNGovernment Technical Working Groups based on JAM cluster working groups with the aim of consolidating the national and state five-year strategic plans (2007-2011) through recovery and development programmes in support of CPA milestones, guided by the goals and targets of the Millennium Declaration. The UNDAF thus captures the varying needs to inform priority setting for a common longer-term development vision, promoting sustained peace in Sudan and ensuring national ownership of the process. In turn, discussions in preparation for this document covered all four strategic outcomes envisaged by the UNDAF framework – peace building, governance and rule of law, livelihoods and productive sectors, and basic services. 2010 is a crucial year for CPA implementation in Blue Nile. At the same time, policy makers are shifting from a humanitarian to an early recovery setting, focusing on long term development. This document hopes to provide context and analysis for actors working in this shifting policy landscape. The conclusion of this report draws together the important issues, priorities, activities and ‘gaps’ highlighted by the processes of mapping and consultation.

2. General Background Blue Nile State is one of the three areas identified under the CPA as a transitional area subject to a special protocol. The state is located in central east Sudan, between latitude 9° 30 and 12° 30 North and longitude 33° 5 and 35° 3 East. It
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borders Ethiopia to the east, Upper Nile State to the west and south, and Sennar State in the north. The capital city of the state, Ad Damazin, is some 550 km south east of Khartoum on road. According to CRMA GIS measurement (based on CBS 2008 map), the total area of the state is slightly more than 40000 km2. The state was created in 1994 under the federal government law and it is divided administratively into six localities / counties: 1. Ed Damazin, capital Ed Damazin (also the capital of the State), is the smallest and richest locality. 2. Rosaires, capital Rosaires, is economically strategic because of the hydroelectric Blue Nile River Dam and the Dindir Park. It is mainly a grazing area and has experienced instability due to intertribal and border disputes. 3. At Tadamon, capital Boot, is a new locality formed in May 2007 out of Damazin territory. It is covered by farming schemes from the 1970s and is scarcely populated. It experiences seasonal land disputes. 4. Baw, capital Baw, is a rich grazing area, with unexploited resources in the Ingessana Hills and oil in the West that cause some disputes over land and resources. 5. Qeissan, capital Qeissan, is a locality neighboring Ethiopia, rich in gold, fertile land and grazing areas. It experiences some insecurity over border disputes, nomadic migration and the presence of small arms. The capital of the locality remains completely isolated during the rainy season. 6. Kurmuk, capital Kurmuk, is the locality most affected by the war. It is highly militarized, and was under SPLA control until January 2008. It is also rich in unexploited resources and remains isolated for half the year. 2.1 The Physical Environment 2.1.1 Topography Generally, the state is considered a flat plain punctuated by some pockets of small hills and escarpments in the central, south, and southeastern parts of the state. The topography of the state has two key implications for farming systems. First, nearly 80% of the state is below a 2% slope class, which has potential for mechanized and irrigation agriculture but also risk of flooding. More than 14% of the landscape is characterized as gentle slope area with 2-5% inclination. The Ed Damazin, El Rosaries and Tadamon localities are predominantly plains, while the other localities have diverse landscapes including small mountains. Second, more than 2/3 of the state lies between 500 and 1000 meters above sea level. This has important implications for agriculture practices in the state. Generally, the moisture availability is better in areas whose elevation is above 500 meters. Dependence on rainfall and low input agriculture are characteristic features of impoverished areas of in the state, especially Kurmuk locality.

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Figure 1 Slope classes of the Blue Nile State

2.1.2 Hydrology The most outstanding natural feature of the state’s landscape is the Blue Nile River, which rises in Lake Tana in Ethiopia and enters Sudan in the area south of Roseires, at Eldaim village. The state is dissected equally by the Blue Nile and White Nile catchments around the central Ingessana hills. The eastern slope carries intermittent rivers and streams that drain towards the Blue Nile while the western ones flow towards the While Nile. The Rosaries dam, built in 1961, forms an artificial lake that extends from Damazin
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town to the Ethiopian border covering a total area of 188 km2 and containing up to 3 billion m3 of water. Prior to completion of the Merowe dam, this reservoir was the major source of hydroelectric power generation capacity of Sudan. Its economic and strategic importance has made the state a place of political struggle, both during the period of armed conflict and now. Other than hydroelectric power generation, the reservoir is put to no significant use. Some fishing and irrigation agriculture is practiced along the shores. 2.1.3 Climate Blue Nile state lies in the tropical climate zone, which is characterized by high temperatures and heavy rainfall. The average daily temperature ranges from 31 degrees in summer to 22 degrees in winter. The annual rainfall average is around 700 mm, with heavier rainfall in the southern part of the state. Rainfall is probably the most important factor determining the agricultural livelihood of the people. In the rain fed farming sector, early maturing sorghum varieties are cultivated in the north of the state where annual rain fall does not exceed 700 mm, while the late maturing varieties are found in the south of the state. Pastoralism activities concentrate in the north and centre of the state. In the southern part of the state, selling wood and bamboo are important sources of income for rural people together with petty trade on food crops (sorghum) and cash crops (sesame and groundnut). An estimation of Mean Annual Rainfall in mm per locality (for 1971 – 2000, adapted from SIFSIA/FAO 2008) confirms that the southern part of the state receives more rainfall than its northern neighboring localities.
Table 1: Rainfall by locality Locality El Rosaries Ed Damazine El Tadamon Geissan Baw El Kurumuk Estimated rainfall (mm) 699 619 590 724 652 760

2.1.4 Soils The soils in Blue Nile are predominantly clay soil, which are the soils most suited to agriculture. All of the major mechanized and irrigated agriculture farms cultivate on this soil. According to FAO soil classification nomenclature, soils in Blue Nile state are categorized as follows: Vertisols (eutric and dystric) Vertisols are the most common soils in the state (see Map 2 below for geographic distribution of soil types). They are heavy clay soils in flat areas, with a pronounced dry season during which they shrink and have deep cracks in a polygonal pattern. They have fairly good agricultural potentialities, with nearly 94% of the Large Scale Farming Scheme holdings land on this kind of soil. However, the soils present some difficulties. Land preparation is difficult, dry soils are hard and wet soils are sticky, so that the moisture condition of the surface layer is only during a short period favourable to prepare land. Since the permeability of the subsoil is very low, very often these soils are flooded or have stagnant water during the rainy season. Rooting
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depth might be restricted because of the swelling and shrinking properties of the soil. Free CaCo3 is often present as nodules in the profile, so that when precipitation is limited, salinity problems might occur. Because of the low permeability and the difficult drainability of the subsoil, it is very difficult to improve such soils.

Figure 2 Distribution of soil units

Fluvisols (eutric and calcaric) Fluvisols are generally good agricultural soils and often intensively used, although land use has to be adapted to seasonal flooding. Along the Khor Dolyb in the west and all the way from Damazine along the Blue Nile river, this soil covers 3.7% of the total area.
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Chromic Luvisols These soils cover insignificant area in Blue Nile. They are found at the hill bottoms in some pockets of land around Ullu and the southern peripheries of the Dindir Park. Luvisols have good agricultural potentialities. Base saturation is high and they have weatherable minerals. In some cases permeability might be low, and drainage and good root distribution can be hindered. Along the Blue Nile River, banana and other fruits orchard and vegetable farms are cultivated on these soils. Humic Nitosols Nitosols are deep, clayey red soils that cover some 2.6% of the state’s area. They are found on almost flat to sloping terrain in high rainfall areas along the Ethiopian border. They have rather good potentialities for agriculture, with a uniform profile, porous quality, a stable structure and a deep rooting volume. Their moisture storage capacity is high. Hapic Alisoils These soils are acidic, poorly drained and thus prone to aluminum toxicity and water erosion. Area along the foot of the mountains where the Blue Nile River enters Sudan and large swath north of it are predominantly covered by these soils. Liming and fertilization are essential to their agricultural use, primarily for growing maize, sorghum or cotton. 2.1.5 Vegetation and Land Use Rich savannah trees and shrubs dominate the vegetation cover of Blue Nile state and woodland/forests occupy about 26% of the state area, making the state one of the richest in forests and grazing lands. The woodlands in the state are characterized by a large presence of Acacia seyal and Balanites aegyptica tree species. Before the vegetation cover was fragmented into a mosaic patch of tree clusters, small scale farms, large scale agricultural schemes and open shrub lands, large part of the state was covered by vast woodlands. Large tracts of savanna range lands, with significant tree density cover, have been cleared in recent years for large scale semi mechanized agriculture. Yearly fire destroys considerable amounts of natural vegetation. These fires are mostly lit by pastoralists to suppress bushy vegetation and promote the growth of fresh grass for their cattle. Deforestation took place during the war throughout the State, reducing forests by almost 75%, with small parts remaining mainly in the North-western Dindir National Park1 and some southern parts of the state, particularly SPLA controlled areas. Drought in the 1980s also resulted in desertification in the West. CRMA data shows a cluster of community perceptions of deforestation risk in Baw, which confirms this threat to development. As a result of desertification in the West and war in the South, the eastern part of Blue Nile became the main supplier of the wood production for northern markets.

The park, which takes the name of a seasonal river flowing from Ethiopia, was registered in 1935 as a wildlife reserve; its dimensions expanded in 1986 and in 2002.

1

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Figure 3 Land Cover Distribution

According to CRMA’s GIS analysis based on the map provided and later verified by the State Ministry of Agriculture, Bureau of Investments and Agriculture projects administration, one quarter of the entire state is occupied by large scale farms. This is the allocated land for investors, which does not necessarily mean the land is under any form of productive land use at the moment. Of these 10478 km2 (2.6 million feddan) of land allocated to farmers, more than 51% has been reallocated to small
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scale farmers as some of the investors could not start the full investment as agreed when they received the land. Further, the State is rich in minerals and oil, particularly in the hilly areas of Kurmuk, Giessan, Bow and Roseires (Ingessana Hills), where local communities mine gold in their traditional quarries. Chromites and mangnetite are also available in the Ingessana Hills, but have not yet been fully exploited. Oil concessions in the NorthWest part of the State, in Khor Adar (block 7) and in the North (block 8), have not been exploited yet. All oil resources are national, according to the CPA. 2.2 Population 2.2.1 Demography The state population is estimated at 832,112 (Sudan Census 2008) with an annual growth rate of 3%.The average family size is 5 and average population density is 21 people / km². Women represent 47% of the population; people between the ages of 6 and 24 represents 46.4% of the population, making Blue Nile State one of the youngest states in Sudan. 74.3 % of the population lives in rural areas, making a living either as small farmers or as seasonal labor in large mechanized schemes. Livestock raising, traditional gold mining and trading are also common livelihoods.
Table 2: Population by locality

T o ta l R o se ir e s D a m azin T a da m o n Bau G e iss an K urm u k B lu e  N ile  S ta te   2 1 5 ,8 5 7   2 1 2 ,7 1 2       7 ,6 6 8 7   1 2 7 ,2 5 1       7 ,8 0 9 8   1 1 0 ,8 1 5   8 3 2 ,1 1 2

P o p u lat io n   U n d e r 1 6             1 1 4 ,7 9 3            1 0 2 ,8 3 8               3 8 ,6 5 3              6 7 ,8 9 8              4 6 ,2 7 8              5 7 ,8 7 8            4 2 8 ,3 3 8

P o p u la tio n  D e n sit y  (p e o p le/ k m 2 ) 2 5 .8 6 1 0 9 .4 6 9 .1 8 1 6 .6 3 2 4 .1 4 1 0 .4 1                           2 0 .4 5

Source: Blue Nile State Census Bureau of Statistics 2008

The population figures for BNS are still contested. The table below reports figures obtained from the state directorate of immunization. The differences between these figures and those reported by the census bureau (above) are significant.
Table 3: Children under 5 by locality

Damazin Rosaires Bau Kurmuk Geissan Tadamon Total

Children under 5 47,840 55,004 26,131 51,705 20,572 19,271 220,523

Total population 300,881 345,937 164,346 325,189 129,384 121,201 1,386,937

Source: Directorate of Children Immunization, Blue Nile State. Polio Campaign Report 2009

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2.2.2 Ethnic distribution and migration Blue Nile state is often called the “small Sudan” since it hosts many Sudanese tribes living together with indigenous groups. Historically, tribes lived together peacefully throughout the State as a result of their complementary life style. The interaction has created social linkages and mixed marriages. The current unique diversity in the social fabric of Blue Nile state is a result of continuous waves of migration from other parts of Sudan and abroad, intermingling with the indigenous tribes over centuries The people of Blue Nile can be classified into three main population groups: indigenous tribes (Berta, Ingassana, Funj, Hamaj, Jebalaween, Buroon, Uduk, Ragarig, Kuma, Genza, Surkum, Jumjum, Kedallo, Gumoz, Wataweet and Dwalla); Northern traders and religious men emigrated during the Funj Kingdom; and Arab tribes from North and East Sudan who settled in Geissan, Roseires, Damazin and Kurmuk. During the late 1960s and early 1970s the agricultural sector witnessed a huge expansion in rain fed mechanized schemes. As a result, significant numbers of seasonal agricultural workers (mainly from Darfur and Kordofan) migrated to Blue Nile and settled permanently in villages near to large commercial farms particularly in the western areas of Ad Damazin and At Tadamon localities. Ecological deterioration and drought in Darfur and Kordofan during the 1980s forced more people to migrate to Blue Nile and other parts of Sudan. Blue Nile also received an influx of southerners displaced from Upper Nile during the civil war. Blue Nile has also received influxes of West African tribes, who originally settled in Western Sudan and then moved eastwards toward Blue Nile, including the Fulani, Hausa and Barno. There are also a number of tribes living on the border between Blue Nile and Ethiopia’s Beni Shangol-Gumuz region, who move from side to side of the border depending on security conditions. 2.3 Poverty and Basic Services Limited livelihood opportunities, war and displacement have led to a high incidence of poverty among Blue Nile citizens, coupled with a lack of basic services, particularly among rural households. According to available records from the Ministry of Social Affairs and Guidance, 85 % of the state population is below poverty line. Poverty and the effects of war have resulted in a number of social problems in families and communities. The numbers of vagrants, orphans, school drop-outs and child laborers (often in physically demanding work, such as brick loading and off loading) are increasing. There are also many physically and mentally disabled people, widows and separated women, and child soldiers / demobilized children. The economic and social indicators for the population according to the State Strategic Plan for 2007-2011 are: • Illiteracy rate: 74.2% • Malaria infected: 45.6% • Access to clean water: 23.7% • Knowledge of aids prevention: 15.7% • Registration of births: 48.2% • Maternity mortality rate: 515/100,000 • Under-five mortality rate: 178.2 / 1,000 • Average life expectancy (men): 49
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Average life expectancy (women): 51.2

2.3.1 Health services Blue Nile State remains the worst among the central Sudan states in health indicators, particularly in primary health care. Infant and child mortality are higher than compared to other neighbouring states like Sennar. However the state is making considerable progress in the provision of child health care (for example, on child immunization rates). The table below illustrates some health indicators for the state compared to other central region states.
Table 4: Comparative child health indicators State Infant mortality Child mortality rate per 1000 rate per 1000 live birth live birth Blue Nile 99 88 Sinnar 62 39 Gezira 52 11 White Nile 57 35 Source: SHHS 2006 Sever child nutrition 10 8.9 4.3 8.7 mall Children health care 68 55.1 43.0 46.2

According to the SHHS (2006), these high levels of child mortality and morbidity can be partly attributed to a number of wide-spread bad hygiene practices: open defecation, improper use and maintenance of latrines, lack of hand washing, and unhygienic water collection, water storage, food storage and food preparation. According to the state health authorities, current health facilities fulfil national standards in terms of size and coverage, but not in terms of capacity and quality of services (such as availability of well trained medical cadre and adequate equipment). Furthermore, accessibility to health units is rendered difficult by the absence of roads and ambulance services (see map indicating walking distance to nearest health facility).
Table 5: Health facilities by locality Locality Hospital Health Center Health Unit Damazin 4 9 23 Roseires 3 6 48 Kurmuk 2 1 35 Bow 2 2 35 Geissan 2 1 42 Tadamon 2 3 07 Total 15 22 190 Source: Malaria Control Department, State Ministry of Health, BN 2009 Table 6: Medical staff by locality Locality SpeciGenrDoctor Doctor Total 36 57 38 39 45 12 227

Technicians

MedAssist

Health Visitor

Damazin 12 48 NA 10 12 Roseires 3 NA NA 21 4 Kurmuk NA 2 1 10 1 Bow NA 1 NA 3 3 Geissan NA 2 NA 1 1 Tadamon NA 4 NA 1 1 State Total 15 57 1 65 22 Source: Department of Health Planning, Ministry of Health, BN 2009

Legal Birth Attendant 59 186 36 22 66 NA 369

Nurse

155 101 16 25 27 06 330

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Figure 4 Health Facility Coverage, Shortfalls and Density of Perceived Health Facility Gaps

Health risks identified in CRMA community workshops give some insight into the issues in different areas of the state. The cluster in Kurmuk locality and the three clusters in the centre of Geissan locality indicate a shortfall in health services, that is insufficient medical resources, including doctors, for the existing population (not a total lack of facilities). Along the border between Damazin and Roseires locality, a cluster of health risks relates partly to shortfalls in health services (insufficient
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resources), but also to sanitation problems resulting from the housing of livestock in towns. The clusters of risks in the east of Geissan locality and in the northeast of Baw locality indicate a complete lack of health facilities. 2.3.2 Water and Sanitation During the last few years, a considerable improvement has been made in water supply particularly in the rural areas. The percentage of people who have access to clean water sources increased from 23% to 40.5 %. The State Government has identified water and sanitation as a priority issue. State water and sanitation data shows that the percentage of the state population with access to safe water sources has increased since 2006. The map below shows that there are 876 hand pumps in the state (88% functioning, serving 30% of the population), 42 motorised pumps (89% functioning, serving 23% of the population), and 3 large water supply systems (all functioning, serving 10% of the population) (UNICEF WES database, 2008). However, Blue Nile state continues to be one of the poorest states in terms of water and sanitation facilities. According to SHHS (2006), 59% of people in Blue Nile do not have access to improved drinking water, mainly in non-urban areas and in the western parts of the state, and 89% of people do not have adequate sanitation facilities. Water quality is problematic even in towns like Damazin and Roseires, where the Water Supply Corporation pumps water directly from the river without any purification or chemical treatment. Western parts of the state (At Tadamon locality and some of Baw locality, around Ulo) experience acute annual water shortages during the dry season (February to June). Access to safe water sources is very difficult at this time, with people often walking long distances to fetch water. The At Tadamon locality authority has sometimes had to resort to tankering water from Damazin. These shortages could be attributed to climatic changes (shortage of rainfall, drought), the rocky nature of the area and the existence of land mines and UXOs (which can prevent drilling new boreholes or water yards). Low capacity to manage water at the community level and a shortage of spare parts are key reasons resulting in non-functioning hand pumps. More generally, there is a significant inadequacy of qualified staff, equipment and supplies on the ground that is hindering further improvements in this sector. The table below shows the water and sanitation situation in Blue Nile compared to other neighbouring states:
Table 7: Comparative water and sanitation statistics State % use improved % using sanitary sources of water means (latrines) Blue Nile Sinnar Gezira White Nile Source: SHHS 2006 40.5 80.7 77.9 46.4 10.7 26.1 31.9 31.0 % of those who using improved water and Sanitary means 5.7 23.1 30.2 22.5

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Figure 5 Water Supply Coverage, Shortfalls and Density of Non Functioning Water Points

Water-related risks identified in CRMA community workshops give some insight into the issues in different areas of the state. The cluster along the border between Damazin and Roseires locality looks much like the cluster of health risks. This is likely because the reported risks related to water are mainly water-borne diseases and guinea worm (with some mention of the difficulty to conserve water for the dry season). The large cluster in Baw locality and smaller one in At Tadamon locality
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make reference mostly to seasonal shortfalls in water (during the dry season). The clusters in Geissan locality and the small cluster in the north of Kurmuk refer to a complete lack of safe drinking water, with communities reporting poor water distribution facilities and long distances from safe water sources. It is also worth noting that among risks relating to shortfalls in basic services (water, health and education), risks relating to water are the most often cited in the state, which mirrors the high priority afforded water and sanitation by the State Government. 2.3.3 Basic Education The education sector in the state has shown some improvement in recent years.
Table 8: Improvements in basic education between 2008 and 2009 2008 2009 % increase institutions 375 382 2 pupils 111685 117683 5 teachers 4367 4572 4 Source: Ministry of Education progress indicators in basic education, October 2009 Table 9: Improvements in enrolment in basic education between 2002 and 2007: Year population age 6-13 # of pupils enrolled enrollment percentage Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total 2002 73565 69472 143037 29411 20660 50011 39.9 29.6 35 2007 78780 74705 153485 56493 42795 99288 71.7 57 64.1 Source: State Education Conference 2009, Working Papers

However, the education sector still faces three key challenges: lack of resources, high drop-out rates, lack of qualified teachers and the added complication of administering a dual education system. Resources for schools and teachers remain low. For example, only 17% of teachers are university graduates and only 20% of schools have surround walls. Class sizes are reported to be very large. School dropout rates, estimated at 39% (Edris 2007) are also a big challenge. Despite the considerable improvement in basic school enrolment due to the advocacy campaigns and improvement of school environment the drop out rate is still high (33 %). The table below shows the dropout rate according to the FMOGE statistical report for 2009:
Table 10: Eastern and Transitional States Out of School Boys and Girls by State School Year State Pop6-13 In-school In school In School Out of Total Boys Girls School Total Blue Nile 190,837 68895 122,786 S Kordofan 337,946 149121 273,102 Red Sea 306,725 110,707 62299 Kassala 406,758 105862 182,372 El Gedaref 319,776 122548 222,083 East/Trans 1,562,042 911,050 508,725 States North Sudan 6,852,323 4,870,464 2,629,549 Total % 23% 19% 19% (Source: Annual Statistical Report of the FMOGE) 53891 123981 48408 76510 99535 402,325 2,240,915 18% 68051 64844 196018 224386 97693 650,992 1,981,859 33% 2008-2009 Out of School Boys 29,468 25,006 119,683 126,996 41,751 342,904 980,270 Out of School Girls 38,583 39,838 76,335 97,390 55,942 308,088 1,001,591

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The main reasons behind drop-out rates are high rates of child labor (50.2%) and early marriage (22.1%). This second reason points to the particular difficulties in assuring access to education for girls, rates of which remain at a significantly lower level than for boys. The gap percentage between girls and boys in basic education is 29.1 % (Edris2007). The major challenges associated with girls’ drop out from schools relate to the poor quality and perceived irrelevance of education. Evidence for poor quality of basic education is in the quality of learning outcomes for children. To pass the grade 8 examination, a student has to secure at least 50% of marks on aggregate. The barriers to and the value of girls’ education have been well documented in the 2004 Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) study on Girls’ Education, the 2006 Sudan Household Health Survey (SHHS), the 2007 Situation Analysis Of Basic Education among Small Population Groups in Blue Nile State and more recently in the 2007 participatory reviews of the situation of Girls Education in all 15 States of the north of Sudan. Perhaps the toughest challenge is the dual educational system. Arabic is the main language of the state, but due to population displacement during the war, new languages, mainly English, but also Amharic and Tigris, are common in the state. There are hence two operating curricula – the Government of Sudan Curriculum, taught in Arabic and the East Africa Curriculum, taught in English. The SM0E is the sole service provider in the areas referred to as Northern Kurmuk where one education system is being applied. However, in the area referred to as Southern Kurmuk, there is a wide range of school syllabuses, including New Sudan Curriculum, Ethiopian Curriculum and Kenyan Curriculum, using English as a means of instruction. In the same area, the SM0E is also present in some schools. Students who have completed primary school under the East African system face a complete lack of secondary facilities (DFID, 2008). Attempts at integrating the education system with a dual Arab-English curriculum have been made, but the system is yet to be functional. Many believe that an efficient dual system is necessary in the State for the full integration of returnees and war affected localities. (Kurmuk education conference 2009). Another challenge is the lack of well trained certified teachers. According to the report from the Federal Ministry of General Education (FMOGE), there are more than 200 volunteer teachers who used to be teachers in IDP and refugee camps during war time. UNICEF has earlier successfully advocated with the M0F to pay them a monthly incentive of SDG 100. Now, efforts are being pursued to complete the recruitment of these volunteer teachers within the SM0E. The other group of volunteer teachers is those doing teaching as part of their military service period. This table shows number of well trained certified school teachers in BNS compared to untrained ones
Table 11: Government Teachers by Status of Training and Sex State/Status Trained Untrained Trained Untrained Female Female Male Male Blue Nile 705 2517 527 813 South 1657 1800 2257 1200 Kordofan Red Sea 1624 773 839 441 Kassala 1510 2075 1065 818 Gedaref 1597 1997 1317 862 Total 5 7,073 9,162 6,005 4,134 States Source: FMOGE 2009 Total Trained 1232 3914 2463 2575 2914 13,098 Total Untrained 3330 3000 1214 2893 2859 13,296

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The provision of education in the state is partly decentralized. The State Ministry of Education is the planning and implementation body, but education administration at locality level is responsible for construction of schools, provision and distribution of leaning materials, teachers' salaries and supporting Parents Teachers Associations (PTAs). Schools in remote areas are often paid for almost entirely by parents (including teachers’ salaries), with the resultant exclusion of poorer children (DFID, 2008). Finally an estimated 25% of the total population are from communities that haven’t been enabled to develop any interest in sending children to school. They include Ingessana, Kuma-Gunza, Howsa, Fallata, Um-Bararo, Burno and others is the first and foremost challenge.

Figure 6 Schools Coverage, Shortfalls and Density of Non Functioning Primary Schools 22

Education-related risks identified in CRMA community workshops give some insight into the issues in different areas of the state. The small cluster along the border between Ad Damazin and Roseires locality and the multiple clusters in Geissan locality relate mainly to a lack of education infrastructure (most often no or insufficient school buildings). The large cluster in the northeast of Baw relates to a lack of resources in schools (teachers and materials). The scattered clusters in Kurmuk describe a complete lack of access to education in these areas. 2.4 Economic Situation Agriculture (farming and livestock) is the main source of income and livelihood for most rural households in Blue Nile State, with 74.3% of the state population living in rural areas. The average household farm size is estimated to be less than 5 feddan (one Jadaa). Sorghum, sesame and groundnuts are the main crops cultivated in dry land farms while vegetables, maize and fruit trees are the main crops in orchards and irrigated plots. Traditional rain fed farming supports 90% of rural communities. Early maturing sorghum varieties are cultivated in the north of the state where annual rain fall does not exceed 700 mm, while the late maturing varieties are found in the south of the state. Pastoralism activities concentrate in the north and centre of the state, while in the south cutting wood and bamboo are the main sources of income for rural people together with petty trade on food crops (sorghum) and cash crops (sesame and groundnut). In the hilly areas in Kurmuk, Giessan, Bow and Roseires, local communities mine gold in their traditional quarries.
Table 12: sources of rural household income Source of income Percentage of households Rain fed agriculture 70.1 Horticulture 8.0 Livestock 4.6 Fishing 3.0 Agric- labor 1.2 Non- agric 5.0 Undefined (others) 8.1 Total 100 Source: SPCRP bench mark Survey Report. Blue Nile, March 2009.

Arable lands in Blue Nile State are estimated at 6 million feddan, but current cultivated land is about 1.5 million feddan. Three types of agriculture can be identified based on machinery usage in the agricultural operation: mechanized, semimechanized and traditional agriculture. Mechanized farming is done by large companies and commercial farmers. More common in the state are semimechanized operations that use seasonal labour in weeding and harvesting. Sorghum, sesame, sun flower and cotton are the main crops of mechanized and semi-mechanized farming. Farming studies show that productivity is remarkably low in mechanized farming operations. At best sorghum and sesame productivity is 2 sacks / feddan. This can be attributed to fluctuations in rain fall and perhaps more to loss of soil fertility due to absence of crop rotation. Moreover, using only a disc plough in land preparation for a long time has led to pulverizing the topsoil and accelerating physical damage and reducing the humus content. Inadequate pest control and scarcity in seasonal labor can also affect productivity. However, mehcanized farming tends to produce more consisten outputs, as it uses irrigation techniques that avoid vulnerability to variable rainfall.
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In traditional farming, small plots (1-5 feddan) are cultivated for subsistence production and can be easily controlled by the farmer and his/her family. Here, productivity is relatively better than in the mechanized farming sector. Studies show that sorghum productivity is 5 sacks / feddan and sesame is 2.5 sacks / feddan. However, this sector does not benefit from agricultural extension, the provision of improved seeds and tools, or post-harvest facilities (particularly marketing). WFP reports that many households have unreliable income sources, such as sale of grass, firewood and food aid, providing them with very limited access to cash and restricting market purchases to sorghum (WFP, 2008). CRMA workshops identified the sole dependency on agriculture for livelihood as a threat across the state. They also identified clusters of severe food security risk in Kurmuk (around the villages of Yabos, Wadaka, Shima, Shali al Fil and Gambi). Livestock rearing is the second economic activity for the nomadic population (who represent about 12% of the state population). This population owns six to eight million heads of livestock, making the state third in size in terms of animal wealth in Sudan, following North Kordofan and South Darfur. However, this huge wealth has little effect on the economic welfare of nomadic communities because they consider its social value instead of its value as a source of economic returns. Moreover, some of these herds are made up of animals that yield relatively little meat and milk produce. The urban populations of Ad Damazin and Roseires work mainly in the nonagricultural sector, concentrating in government institutions and private sector. There are few other livelihood opportunities in the state, given the absence of developed industrial or services sectors. Despite the presence of natural resources and the existence of Roseires dam (which generates one third of the hydroelectric power in Sudan) no significant industrial investments have taken place in the state, mainly because the poor infrastructure makes investment difficult. Chromium mining in the Ingessana hills is the only industrial activity that takes place besides traditional gold mining in some parts of the state (Kurmuk and Roseires localities). Currently the state has a plan to start investing in the sugar industry, fruit and vegetable canning, and paper industry to ensure better utilization of the available raw material. The services sector is growing slowly, with most investment going to national telecommunication companies. In the state there are four telecom companies (Sudatel, Zain, MTN and Canar) providing mobile and internet services with networks that cover approximately 80 % of the state. Media coverage (radio and TV) has also improved in recent years. Blue Nile radio can be clearly heard anywhere inside the state and neighbouring states, but local TV hardly reaches beyond a 20 km radius around Damazin town. Banking and insurance services are concentrated mostly in Damazin (eight commercial banks and two insurance companies). The Agricultural Bank of Sudan (ABS) is the only bank that currently has a branch outside Damazin, in Geissan locality (in Abu Gumai village, 68 km south of Damazin). Continued insecurity has delayed the reopening of ABS in Kurmuk town. Poor state infrastructure further hampers development of other potential service sectors, such as tourism. The transport infrastructure remains underdeveloped, with most existing transport linking the state capital to North Sudan. The only asphalt road connects Damazin to Khartoum (550 km). Roads linking localities with Damazin are unviable in the rainy season, leaving many of these localities isolated for several months of the year. There is one airport in Damazin and two airstrips in Kurmuk and Yabos. The State Government has an ongoing plan to invest some 210 USD million over 15 years in
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private sector loans to improve roads (Damazin-Kurmuk 165 Km, Damazin-Qeissan 176 Km and Damazin-Menza 106 Km). UNMAO has certified that major roads in the state have been cleared from landmines2 but the presence of UXOs is still a threat.
Table 13: Summary of road assessment and road clearance Total Activity Class Length in Km Road Assessment Road Clearance 1856.3 1411.6 Number of roads Number of infected roads Mines UXO Fragments Number of Items Destroyed

46 22 8 4 13 42

Source: UNMAO, December 2009

Construction of paved roads, rehabilitation of railway lines and investment in building hotels and recreation facilities are the prerequisites for improvement of the state agricultural, industrial and tourism sectors, and hence key to economic development and an improvement in livelihood opportunities. Livelihood-related risks identified in CRMA community workshops give some insight into the issues in different areas of the state. In Baw locality, communities reported that outside investments in agriculture and mining often do not benefit the local population (and can lead to communities outright refusing investment. Around the locality capital, there is a concentration of risks relating to high unemployment, often the result of high illiteracy especially among youth, lack of skills and work experience, ultimately resulting in migration. In Geissan, livelihood risks are largely related to a lack of agriculture equipment and difficulty in marketing products. In Kurmuk and the southern area of Roseires, unemployment is a particular problem of the returnee community, with unemployment rates soaring up to 75%. 2.5 The Status of Women Women represent 47% of the state population, about 30-40 % of the total labour force in the public and private sectors and 50-60 % of agricultural labour. Formally there are two women’s institutions: the General Union for Sudanese Women and the Women’s Labour Association. The percentage of women in the legislative council is 15-20% and two women represents the state at the National Assembly in Khartoum. Women face two major constraints in Blue Nile. First, they often have difficulty accessing agricultural lands and credit. Women have less access than men to productive resources such as land, markets to sell products, finance and financial institutions and inputs to improve productivity. Some women are now organized into cooperatives to receive small grants from a savings bank. Second, the norms and traditions that control rural life and the availability of basic services do not favour women. Parental attitudes and socio-cultural practices also tend to militate against girls’ participation in education. The 2004 study showed that in many communities the traditional roles of women and girls in reproduction and nurturing of children remains unchanged. This influences household decisions on who goes to school and
UNMAO operates in Rosaires, Qeissan, Baw and Kurmuk (no landmines were denounced in Damazin and Attadamon).
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for how long. Women are especially affected by the combined effects of war, early marriage and traditional customs. (20.8 % according to SHHS 06) and traditional customs (polygamy marriage which represents 29.3%). This is one of the reasons for high maternal and under-five deaths in Sudan. The practice of early marriage often leads to the end of a girls' formal education. Early withdrawal from school to domestic and farm work is common. Due to chronic poverty and the disruption of the social fabric due to conflict, there are some changes in some gender roles and responsibilities. Women shoulder the burden of much of the farm labour, and therefore have little time for domestic duties. This has led to high levels of illiteracy, high rates of poverty among rural women, lack of access to primary health care and some harmful practices (FGM rate is 58.2 % according to SHHS 20006).3 The administration is willing to assist women and girls against negative traditional practices, but has no capacity to enforce, and often the support does not answer to the needs expressed by the women themselves. According to a social study carried out by department of social welfare in 2006 divorced, widowed and separated women represent 34 % of all women in the state, as shown below. This is a particular concern as female-headed households tend to have fewer livelihood opportunities, and suffer disproportionately in times of economic uncertainty and crisis.
Table 14: Marital status Marital Status Percentage Single 23 Married 43 Divorced 13 Widow 14 Separate 7 Total 100 Source: interview with director of social welfare, MoSAG Blue Nile State 2009

Another report produced by the Child Protection Program Unit of the State Ministry of Social Welfare in 2007 shows that the situation of rural Blue Nile women and girls is strongly shaped by social norms which support widespread discrimination. Major elements/determinants in this respect are: • Women are generally regarded as subordinate to their male counterparts, have less voice, less autonomy, fewer opportunities and lowered self-esteem, from childhood to old age. Scarce resources are less likely to be directed to their needs. The deprivations and suffering they face are not fully taken into account, and the significant contribution they make to household is undervalued; • Although they are the principal caregivers to children, the quality of their parenting is affected by their level of education and their ability to participate in decision making; • The household and social values related to the position of women in the household or in society form a powerful part of children's learning and development, tending to reinforce the norms for future generations. Women are subjected to widespread discrimination. Some of the discrimination is caused by deeply entrenched traditional norms but increasingly by changes to household structures, and gender roles and responsibilities, resulting from
Information on critical issues comes from the focus group that CRMA ran with the participation of the Umbrella for Women’s Development (health, education and HIV awareness), the Adviser to the Wali on women’s issues, the Women’s League Liberation Movement, SPLM, Women’s Labor Union, Nomad Union representatives.
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chronic poverty; While women are among the hardest working in rural communities, and are usually responsible to put food on the table, social taboos on women's behavior and on the type of work they are able to carry out has restricted their access to a decent livelihood preventing them from maintaining their assets; The structure of Blue Nile society has changed as a result of intergenerational chronic poverty and the decades old conflict. In spite of that, the extended family institution has not disintegrated although its nature is changing. The elderly, especially elderly women, and the young, are increasingly playing a critical role in caring for children orphaned after the death or the “disappearance” of the children's father. Violence against women is one social mechanism which perpetuates women's subordinate position in relation to men. The extent of gender-based violence (GBV) is difficult to know as few incidents are reported either because the women fear reprisals, are ashamed, expect to endure violence at the hands of male family members, or feel that there is no one of trust to report to. FGM/C, with a prevalence rate of 58.2% among women aged 15-49 years (Sudan Household Health Survey, 2006), represents a clear form of GBV manifestation.

A change in male-female relationships would address some of the vulnerabilities and improve the chances of women and gils to better participate in recovery and rehabilitation. 2.6 State Funding The supply of basic services throughout the State is severely affected by lack of resources. The central Government increased released funds for war affected areas in 2007, and Blue Nile has a representative in the FFAMC to follow up4. However the share of funds received by FFAMC in 2008, was 6.4 %, (some 12 million USD out of the 60 million USD)5. Another 2.5 million USD were received in August 2008, on the occasion of the visit of President Bashir for the opening ceremony of the heightening of the Rosaires Dam6. Blue Nile was further entitled 175 million SDG over 3 years (starting 2006) from the NRDF. A clear updated overview of fund transfers to Blue Nile by the Ministry of Finance might be of use7. Beyond funds provided by the central Government, income of the State comes from fees over land, animals, forest and agricultural products. As for international contributions, the State affirms that the MDTF is not fully functional and disbursement is slow. The CHF has served better, but has a short term perspective.8 In-kind funding from UN agencies and international NGOs (provision of basic services and training) has a considerable effect on the state budget. According to the state strategic planning council the international community contributes 43 % of the total state's achievements (MoF Annual report 2009) The majority of funds received in 2005, 2006, 2007 were used for maintaining the civil service (around 1000 persons).

AEC Mid Term evaluation report of 9th July 2008 See FFAMC report and figures. 6 Even if that situation concern all northern States, as there is lack of transparency and clarity over the criteria of allocation of funds from GoNU, Blue Nile situation is still peculiar, with the least amount of funds received after River Nile. 7 AEC Mid Term Evaluation report of 9th July 2008 8 Stability and Development in the Three Areas, ODI/DFID report for Donors steering committee, April 2008
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3. Conflict and Peace in Blue Nile 3.1 Political History of Blue Nile The political development of Blue Nile State goes back to the early sixteenth century. In 1504-5 the Funj-Arab alliance overthrew the Alawa Christian kingdom in Soba and established the Funj Kingdom, al-Saltana al-Zarqa (the black sultanate), in Sennar. Like other parts of the Sultanate, Blue Nile enjoyed autonomous rule throughout its five Meshyakhat (Sheikhdoms): Roseires, Fazogoli, Kaili, Goli and Olu. In 1821, the Turko-Egyptian army conquered the Funj kingdom and established a centralized state for the first time in northern Sudan. Blue Nile became one of the first six Mudeeriah (provinces): Fazogoly province, with its capital at Famaka (now a small village in Geissan locality) initially, and then at Roseires from 1837. Mohamed Ali Pasha’s main reason to conquer Sudan was to exploit its resources in order to build his Empire. In Blue Nile, this resulted in an increase in slave raiding and trading, gold mining and the collection of tributes. Following its defeat of the Turks, the Mahdist state kept the administrative divisions of the Turkish state, and continued slave trading. The Anglo-Egyptian rule that followed the Mahdist state divided Sudan into fourteen provinces. Blue Nile province was then administered from Wad Medani. In 1920, the British introduce the Closed Districts Ordinance (CDO) in some parts of the country to guarantee full separation between the North and South. The CDO required that people from the North hold a permit to travel to the South. The Ingessana hills and some southern parts of Kurmuk were treated under this ordinance. There were no administrative changes in Blue Nile after independence in 1956. Between 1958 and 1964, following Ibrahim Abood’s military coup in 1958, Roseires Dam was built in order to hold water for a planned expansion in irrigated schemes in Rahad and Kenana, in central Sudan. The State's elderly still recall those days bitterly, as hundreds of households were forced to leave their homes and seek new safe settlements. The May 1969 coup brought Nimeiri to power. In 1972, Nimairi signed the Addis Ababa peace agreement, ending the war and giving South Sudan the right to establish a regional government with full autonomy. Nimairi’s violation of the peace agreement in 1983 and his introduction of Sharia’ law started a second North-South civil war. Blue Nile was not a part of this war initially, but when the SPLA changed its fighting strategy to expand the war to the north, some people from Blue Nile and South Kordofan joined the SPLA. Kurmuk and some towns on the border between Ethiopia and Geissan locality changed hands between the SBN/SPLA and the government several times between 1987 and 1997. 3.1.1 Native Administration and Land Use There are four historic chiefdoms, or makships, in Blue Nile: Guli (Damazin and Attadamon, part of Baw), Rosaires (eastern bank of the Nile, now Rosaires locality), Keli (Kurmuk) and Fasugli (Qeissan and part of Baw). The traditional Native Administration is therefore composed of 4 Maks (Rosaires mak is now the paramount chief), four Omdas for each makship, and a number of Sheiks for each Omda, who are the direct link to the people. The Maks inherit their rights by blood, upon formal approval of the Omdas, whose elections is done by the Sheiks. The Mak election is endorsed by the Wali, or at a lower level by the Commissioners.

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Relations between the State and the native administration were historically good. The Native administration authorities covered the judiciary, the security, and the supervision of water and of range and pastures resources. The Mak is the Commissioner’ interlocutor as the Native Administration facilitates some of its functions (i.e. tax collection, smuggling control, monitoring of infrastructures and services, land conservation and demarcation, reporting of incidents). Tribal chiefs historically mediate to mitigate and solve tribal and individual conflicts. The Omdas are the administrators of the justice. They chair rural courts and mediate with the police, applying customary law, based on local traditions and norms, and also special laws through special jurisdiction courts. The advent of the first mechanized schemes in the 1970s and the advent of formal administration first altered the established system and regulations9. The native administration lost power over the land and the advisory role they held in the past. In 1970, the “Unregistered Land Act’ gave the Government the ownership of any land that was not privately owned, and in 1971, the ‘Abolition of Native Administration Act’, finally deprived local communities and tribal groups of ownership, recognizing only rights of land use10. The concession of farming schemes in Blue Nile started in the late 1960s in what is now Attadamon, with the establishment of State farms in the Agadi and Garabeen areas, with the support of the World Bank. In 1975, the Mechanized Farming Corporation Ordinance gave official authority to Khartoum to grant licenses to external farmers. At the beginning these areas were well delineated, the schemes numbered and villages’ vicinity and cattle routes respected. Following the opening up of the international market to Sudanese cereal crops (particularly sorghum and millet), the central government expanded mechanized farming in rain fed agricultural areas in Blue Nile, South Kordofan (Nuba mountains) and northern parts of Upper Nile. Consequently, thousands of feddans of fertile lands were distributed to retired government and military officials, and to big national and Arab commercial companies (250,000 to Arab Sudanese Agric Co, 168,000 to Sudanese Egyptian Agric Co, 150,000 to SMA, etc). In 1984, the ‘Civil Transaction Act’ was passed, as part of the September laws under the Nimeiri regime. Land now belonged to God, and the Federal State was made successor and owner of it. All provisions of land registration were then to be reconsidered and, after several amendments in the 1990s, any legal redress against the State became impossible11. 3.1.2 Causes of the War Blue Nile leaders concur that the underdevelopment, inequality and marginalization experienced by the state throughout its history were the main causes of the war in the state. Some believe that most post-independence federal governments purposefully ignored and marginalized the state. Some studies suggest that increased investment in mechanized farming during the 1970s was one of the causes of the war. The investment authority in Khartoum allocated land by referring to the 1971 Land Act, which assumed that all unregistered lands in Sudan belong to the government, who then had the right to distribute them. Thus, indigenous farmers who had cultivated their customary land for hundreds of years found themselves landless. The resulting inequality and marginalization led some Blue Nile citizens to take up
9

‘The State is seen as successor to the tribe and State leaders replace tribal leaders’ (Bruce 1989) Prof. Mohamed El Amin Abdelgadir 11 Prof. Ahmed Abdel Ghaffar.
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arms and fight for their rights to customary land tenure, justice and balanced development. This marginalization of the local population continued through the 1990s. In the early 1990s, the central Government allocated State lands to foreign investors taking into account only their financial situation (not their origin). Vicinity to villages, cattle routes, type of soil and negative environmental impact were not considered. There was no consultation with tribal chiefs, and no compensations offered for lost resources. Economic growth and livelihood opportunities for local communities became increasingly limited, as many companies employed outsiders (Egyptian or Sudanese from the North). Farming schemes were not fully mechanized, so local labourers were often used as seasonal cheap labour, transforming their traditional subsistence farming.

3.2 Current Political Situation The signing of the CPA in May 2005 ended the longest civil war in Africa and opened a new era of peace and development in the country. Southern Kordofan, Abyei and Blue Nile were treated in the CPA as transitional areas with a special protocol (Protocol on the Resolution of the Conflict In Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile States (May 2004)). This protocol grants some degree of power sharing, security reform and wealth sharing. It establishes a rotating governorship and power sharing formula for all branches of government (45% SPLM, 55% NCP); there are guarantees that funds from the central government will be made available; and elections are planned for the end of the interim period. The agreement is now approaching its final year of its implementation and interim period, however both parties feel that people of Blue Nile State are not satisfied with what has been achieved to date. 3.2.1 Power Sharing There have been some achievements in terms of power sharing. The rotating governorship has been established, with the NCP holding office the first 18 months and the SPLM taking over in July 200712. However, the presence of other political parties and opposition is weak (NDA, UMMA, North/South Funj, Unionist party, Communist, Arab Bath), revealing a limited and disorganized civil society. The State's executive and legislative bodies are in place and functioning well, but the third pillar, the judiciary system, has still not been redesigned to fit the protocol requirements. The cooperation between State institutions, on the other hand, is good. However, they are limited by the capacity of the administration, particularly in war affected localities (Kurmuk, Baw, and Geissan). Furthermore, the commissions required by the CPA (the State Civil service and the State Land commissions) have not been established. At the executive level, integration between the two partners is artificial, and SPLA elements are not fully integrated in the civil service. 3.2.2 Security Reform The only considerable integration has been in the army, security and police forces (although exact figures of SPLA members in these forces are not available). The 6000 JIU troops deployed in the State during the interim period, as a symbol of
12

Turnover was delayed due to late establishment of SKS Government, as rotation was meant to happen simultaneously.

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National Unity, are co-located in 8 battalions but not yet integrated, like in the rest of Sudan. No joint training has happened but SAF-SPLA relations are satisfactory, since troops often come from the same area. The only reported difficulties were in Kurmuk, where after SPLA redeployment, the SAF component refused to move into town because they felt unsafe. The ceasefire agreement signed on October 15th, 2002, is holding. Assembly areas were formed in Bikori, Dindiro and Wadabok for SAF and in Ulu, Sali and Ufud Shatiyo for the SPLA, as per the CPA. In January 2008 the SPLA redeployed peacefully from Kurmuk to Samari area, 7 km from the border in Southern Sudan (Upper Nile)13. SAF complained over their final destination, partly due to lack of clarity over the North/South demarcation. The issue was sent to JDB but has not been resolved: the area is inaccessible due to continued presence of landmines and the North/South Border committee reconnaissance phase could not completed. This dispute over border demarcation with Upper Nile in Kurmuk locality affects the credibility of SPLA redeployment. Redeployment of SAF outside the state, on the other hand, has not taken place. Instead of demobilizing SAF, new soldiers are being recruited. No OAGs are officially registered in the State but there is a certified presence of PDF in northern localities: the ‘Mobile Police’ (Shatta Zaina) in Attadamon; the ‘Popular Police’ (AlShurtta AlShabia), and some elements of the ‘Battalion who never sleeps’, (Katiba Ma-Yanoom), a group of armed nomadic Fulani tribes. The ‘2 areas Committee’ of the Parties agreed the OAGs would absorbed in the SAF army by the end of August 2008. Finally, the ongoing DDR process is key to finalizing security reform. According to verbal statements by the State Government the situation regarding DDR in Blue Nile State is as follows: approximately 4,000 adult ex-combatants14 are expected to be disarmed and demobilized. In addition 88 SPLA child soldiers have been demobilized. The figure for women associated with armed forced groups is yet to be ascertained (only SPLA). In all, 3,500 SAF and PDF ex-combatants and 332 SPLA were expected to go through DDR processes in 2008. Given the lack of infrastructure and a weak economic environment, significant challenges are expected during reintegration. 3.2.3 Wealth Sharing Issues of land ownership and landuse are the critical wealth sharing concerns in Blue Nile State. With the CPA, land became the responsibility of the State. The Minister of Agriculture is reorganizing the land system in the State and has mapped land, farming schemes and investors. The State has adopted some criteria for allocation of land resources, such as cancelling licenses for farming schemes not cultivated in the past 5 years, assessing investor capabilities, introducing divisions with indigenous farmers, reducing the size of farming schemes allocations to accommodate more investors, mapping community land reserves and defining gum arabic plantation areas. The Native Administration is mobilizing communities to reintroduce customary laws, based on the assumption that people know their rights to use/access the land. Customary law offices have been established in Damazin and Kurmuk for the protection of land resources. There are peace and reconciliation committees in all
13

According to the CPA, while SAF redeployment from Southern Sudan was meant to b completed by 9th July 2007, SPLA troops from the North shall withdraw as soon as the JIUs are formed and functioning. 14 SAF / PDF: 3,500 (Source: NSDDRC), SPLA: 332 (Source: SSDDRC)

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localities which act as mediators on an ad-hoc basis in case of disputes. These are all positive developments in implementing the wealth sharing aspects of the CPA. However, the critical issue for resolving land tenure issues and preventing disputes that might otherwise emerge is the formation of a State Land Commission (one of the explicit requirements of the CPA). The formation of a this commission has not happened and its establishment remains an intractable political issue. 3.3 Threats to Community Stability This section addresses specific issues that are of concern to policymakers and to the population of Blue Nile alike: Roseires Dam heightening; dispute between nomads and pastoralists; dispute between small farmers and large holding farmers; displacement and return; landmines and UXOs; the limited peace dividend; urbanization. The issues emerged through CRMA workshops, focus groups and follow-up interviews. 3.3.1 Roseires Dam heightening The Rosaries Hydroelectric Dam provides power supply to the central Sudan region up to Khartoum. The Dam regulates the flow of the Nile and thus has a direct impact on both the Sudanese and regional economies. The heightening of Roseires dam is the biggest development project in the state. The project aims to store about 7.5 billion cubic meters of water to irrigate big investment schemes in Kenana and Rahad. There is some debate about the effect of the heightening on the local population. Some available information estimates that about 44 villages will be flooded. Socio-economic studies conducted by local researchers suggest that the project will affect about 20% of the state’s population directly and up to 50% indirectly. A UNDP CRMA model designed to predict areas that will be flooded after the heightening process estimates almost twice the flooded area predicted by the Dams Implementation Unit. The dam heightening will put pressure on resettlement operations in the state and will force a change in the social fabric of the affected areas. Some ethnic groups are likely to emerge as more dominant; some tribal and native administrates (such as Hamaj’s Omodiaj) are likely to diminish in importance. The CRMA workshop in the area of the Dam reported a potential threat to community stability linked to the expansion of the dam, as forceful relocation of settlements could lead to civil unrest and violence. The heightening is also likely to damage the biodiversity and dam lake aqua structure. Critics of the project believe that there is no clear information about environmental impacts and no transparency in terms of community participation in the overall project cycle phase nor in the resettlement process. There is also little communication and coordination between ministries in planning governmental action on relocation, compensation and other issues related to the effects of the heightening project on the local population. In an interview with the director general of Ministry of Physical Planning who is the state chair man for the follow up committee formed by the state Wali / governor to coordinate between DIU, affected communities and the state related authorities, the DG mentioned that they received a booklet showing the planned resettlement projects. These projects are composed of two sectors: the housing project and the livelihood improvement project. The CRMA advisor got a chance to see this booklet, however he received no answer regarding the other issues like compensations, environmental impact and socio-cultural changes that might occur because of affected communities merging with existing groups.
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Figure 7 Expected Expansion of the Roseries Dam Reservoire

State government officials highlight that the project would foster further prosperity and growth in Sudan. The state governor held a meeting with leaders of those affected in October 2009, where he declared he was comfortable with the project and stressed the full co-operation of the state government in developing the Sudan and the areas affected by the heightening (http://diu.gov.sd/roseires/en/index.php). The UNDP CRMA team failed to meet DIU in Damazine for more consultation on these fears and hopes. Information on this critical issue remains a taboo.

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3.3.2 Dispute between farmers and pastoralists15 Annually, the state police authorities report a number of cases of tension and dispute between farmers and nomads over field crops and horticultural crops. There are 12 historical migration routes marked, many running parallel to the Nile on both banks, going southwards in the dry season up to May (Masyaf, summer pasture), to the two main grazing areas in southern Kurmuk up to Khore Yaboos, and in the big region of east Baw, Geissan and Rosaires; and northwards from June (Makhraf, autumn pasture) up to Sennar. 7 khors, or resting areas, of 5km on each side of the rivers, can also be identified. Historically, nomads crossed Wadabok Khore (Baw) only after January 1st, and crossed it back by June 30th, leaving farming areas before the harvest time. Approximately 2 million cattle, 3 million sheep, 300 thousands goats and 40 thousands camels (figures change every year), move across the land twice a year. Farmers claim that they suffer crops losses because of livestock assault and accidental fires caused by nomads as they pass through. Nomads counter that there has been an expansion of crop land at the cost of grazing areas. In fact, prior to the 1970s there was no tension between farmers and pastoralists over natural resources (water and grazing land) because at that time land was abundant and small holding farmers were able to live on the same land through which animal routes passed. Routes were opened and supervised by the local authorities with assistance from the Native Administration. In the 1970s, following expansion of large mechanized farming and the abolition of native administration in 1971, nomadic groups found themselves blocked by large farms. This narrowing of migration routes was compounded by small farmers moving to cultivate on animal routes – the only land not taken up by large farmers. This provoked continuous expansion/diversion of the routes, as nomads looked for grazing areas and water points (the main khors and hafirs fell within farming schemes). Old routes were abandoned, without previous consultation with locals and relevant stakeholders, resulting in disputes between locals, nomads and farmers. The loss of power of the native administration contributed to the growing of disputes, as the old system of monitoring, demarcation and dispute regulation was no longer in place. The war also altered the historic equilibrium of land access and land use between sedentary communities and nomads. Community identification with either of the two major actors in the war added an ethnic and political dimension to the dispute between farmers and pastoralists, and created grievances and hostile attitudes that today represent an obstacle to finding solutions that could ensure sustainable peaceful coexistence. With the onset of the North/South conflict in Blue Nile in 1985, the intensity of disputes between nomads and locals reached its climax as pastoralists were denied access to traditional grazing sites at the upper parts of the migratory routes16. The SPLA blocked the routes south of Baw (at the Ingessana Hills) and Geissan, forcing nomads to roam in the areas of Attadamon and North Rosaires, concentrating along the Nile and going towards Ethiopia. The higher frequency of interactions, scarcity of resources, ecological hazard (deforestation) and dessertification of the land in the resting areas provoked new disputes in the north and in the central string of the state that had not been an issue before the war. The
The Head of the Planning Department (ElHadi Hassan) expressed a divergent view from that outlined in this section. He writes: “The current slogans raised by some of ethnic groups in the state is new and just a movement against the the existence of Arab and northern Sudanese tribes who owned these land through official licenses and cultivated it for tens of years. From my own point of view I can say that conflict over land due to violation of customary rights for the indigenous communities remains a vague story and some thing that just appear recently after signing of the CPA.” 16 Prof. Mohamed Elamin Abdelgadir
15

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areas of Bout and Wadabok were particularly affected. Furthermore, nomads concentrating in reduced grazing areas and on narrower routes intensified disputes among different pastoral groups in key water points and over grazing land, especially in the east (Rosaires). The war also altered dispute intensity as more arms were brought in. The Fellata tribe are were heavily armed and played a major role during the war. Proliferation of weapons within these communities is still high and the nomadic routes of Fellata are conflict prone as they interact with farmers. An additional reason for dispute is that the herd sizes have gradually increased over the past decades, resulting in a vicious circle: extra cattle require expansion of nomadic routes, which on the contrary have become narrower, and the bigger the herd size, the higher the cost for vaccination and animal fodder, therefore the need for more cattle to sell. The CRMA map below offers a synthesis of community perceptions of nomadic / pastoralist disputes in the state. The map broadly shows that dispute over land tends to occur away from densely populated areas, along migration routes and on the border with mechanized farms. Roseires, Baw and parts of Geissan show a concentration of community identified threats. These areas are also reported to have concentrations of SALW proliferation among the civilian population. CRMA workshop participants report that most disputes are seasonal (coinciding with harvest periods between October and December), and can be typified into six categories: 1. Low level, high frequency disputes between nomads and farmers in the northern/eastern areas associated with damage to plantations and over lack of water and land access; 2. Low level disputes between nomads and Dindir Park authorities over land access17; 3. Medium/high intensity of disputes between nomad groups in the eastern Blue Nile, mainly, over lack of water and grazing land; 4. High intensity, but limited, recent disputes between Fellata and communities over land access in Geissan and north Kurmuk as nomads move southwards, after the CPA; 5. High intensity, but limited, recent disputes between Fellata and SPLA soldiers in north Kurmuk (Ulu and Malkan); 6. High intensity, but limited, cross border dispute between nomads and Ethiopian militias (from Rosaires), limited but possibly expanding out of Kurmuk.

17

Dindir Park in North-East Rosaires is a wildlife reserve, under national control. Its expansion in the last years has resulted in conflicts over land access between nomads and the park administration as the area included in the park was an important dry season grazing land for pastoralist.

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Figure 8 Large Scale Farms and Seasonal Livestock Migration Routes

Both sides agree that demarcation of livestock routes, improvement of grazing lands and development of mediation mechanisms between the parties are important in reducing farmer – nomad friction. Finally, the reduction in pastoralist resources illustrated above has led to an overall deterioration in pastoral conditions, Many nomads are therefore faced with the challenge of developing adaptable and flexible livelihood strategies. The lack of land
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and the adaptive nature of the nomads are creating a new tendency to settle and start alternative economic activities, and social behaviour is already changing18. This may lead to new threats to stability, including difficulties in access to basic services . 3.3.3 Dispute between small farmers and large holding farmers Disputes between small farmers and big commercial agricultural schemes arise when boundaries of large mechanized scheme overlap with village buffer zones. Village buffer zones are the 4km radius around a village that (according to the state buffer zone law) should be kept for the usage of agro-forestry activities and should not be allocated for agricultural investment. Villages near big mechanized farms are vulnerable to the illegal expansion of commercial farms at the cost of their buffers. Owners of large mechanized farms have defeated villagers’ claims by stating that the agricultural authorities and the surveying office have given them the land without making the necessary demarcation of the village buffer zone. The State Ministry of Agriculture, the Native Administration and the Farmers’ Union all recommend two corrective procedures to reduce this dispute: (i) increase the buffer zone to at least 7 km radius, and (ii) clearly demarcate it prior to land allocation for agricultural investment. 3.3.4 Displacement and return During the last two decades, Blue Nile State has experienced two waves of displacement and return. The first took place in 1987, when the SPLA occupied Yabos, Kurmuk and Giessan towns in the southern part of the state. Hundreds of civilians fled to safe areas inside the state and to Ethiopia. IDPs from Kurmuk and Yabos settled in Damazin, Giessan IDPs settled in Roseires, the remaining IDPssettled in villages near to their origins (such as Dindro and Bulang). After the government army took Kurmuk and Giessan back, some IDPs returned home. Others left some of their family members in Damazin and Roseires and sent young people home to cultivate farms, engage in petty trade and cut wood and bamboo. 1997 witnessed the second assault of the SPLA on Yabos, Kurmuk and Giessan. At the same time, NDA forces captured the Kedallo area in the southeast of Roseires locality. An estimated 120,000 IDPs and refugees resulted from this situation. (Abdalla, 2007). After the end of the civil war in 2005, some IDPs and refugees went home with assistance from UNHCR, IOM and international NGOs. From 2006 to date, about 2,973 IDPs and 20,962 refugees have returned home in Blue Nile state (see the table below).
Table 15: UN/IOM organized IDPs and Refugees return 2006-2009: IDPs Refugees 2006-07 2008 2009 total 2006-07 2008 2009 total 2973 0 0 2973 16047 4816 99 20962 Source: UNMIS, RRR. Statistical Overview 2009 Total Returnees 23935

Return, resettlement and reintegration are highly sensitive issues to the establishment of peace and security. In particular, to achieve peace it is crucial to resolve issues of land tenure that have arisen as a result of displacement and return. When Kurmuk citizens were displaced to Damazin, the government allocated residential land for all IDPs and provided them with essential services. Some
18

See ‘Transforming pastoralism: a case study of the Rufa’a al Hoi Ethnic Group in Blue Nile State’, Ahmed 2008, and ‘Pastoralist-State Relationship among the Hadendowa Beja of Eastern Sudan’, Leif Manger, 2001.

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Damazin citizens claimed that this land had been their small farms and requested the government pay them compensations. The IDPs on the other hand noted that they have no access to agricultural land because it belongs to Damazin citizens, forcing most of them to work as cheap agricultural labor. In Kurmuk, returnees went home to find other Blue Nile tribes living in their houses. The new settlers refused to leave, saying that returnees have no rights to their houses and belongings because they fled to Damazin instead of defending their rights. The state Governor has ordered new settlers to return the houses to their owners, and promised to give each family of new settlers a piece of land inside Kurmuk town. At the time of writing, no considerable action has been taken to solve this issue.

Figure 9 IDPs and Returnnes 38

Another issue of concern is the willingnes of refugees and IDPs to voluntarily return. Studies show that most IDPs, particularly those who spent more than ten years in the towns and cities they fled to, find it very difficult to return to their old villages. Many of these villages do not provide basic services. Futhermore, many young IDPs were born and grew up in urban areas, so they have no strong ties to their origins and prefer to stay in towns where there are better opportunites for education and employment (Abdalla, 07). The government will have to find ways to motivate this displaced rural youth to go back to their remote areas and participate in their development. The total number of IDPs and refugees who could be returning to Blue Nile State is estimated in the range of 165,000-200,000 people. Most of them could be coming back home in a spontaneous manner and probably in the form of mass movement. Finally, returns are having a big impact on the demographic ratio and economic sustainability of Damazin and Kurmuk localities, the major destination areas. High concentrations of landmines affect the return of IDPs and refugees in Southern Blue Nile and development in the area. Basic services, already stretched beyond capacity, are inadequate to meet the needs of these returning populations. 3.3.5 Land mines, UXOs and the lack of integrating infrastructure During the civil war (1987-2005), the parties fought for control of many strategic parts of the state. Both SAF and SPLA made heavy use of UXOs and land mines to stop movements of the other faction. This resulted in blockage of vital roads and areas of the state. Land mines and UXOs continue to block access to roads, water resources, farming and pasture. Kurmuk is the most affected locality, followed by Bow, Geissan and Roseires. Beyond the immediate safety concerns, the presence of landmines and UXOs is a further threat to stability because it hinders the development of integrating infrastructure. Poor infrastructure, especially roads are a source of instability, because the absence of communication entrenches isolation and underdevelopment, especially in war-affected areas. This isolation hinders peacebuilding by making social integration physically impossible. Particularly, the isolation and lack of integration of former SPLA-areas (especially Kurmuk, but also Geissan) with the rest of the state reinforces resentment. Northern Blue Nile connects to and benefits from the economic vitality of Sennar, Wad Medani and Khartoum, while southern and south-eastern Blue Nile languishes.

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Figure 10 Perceived SALW Threats

3.3.6 Limited peace dividend There is widespread concern that many people in Blue Nile misunderstand the provisions for a popular consultation in the CPA (and thus their option to join the south), especially in former SPLA-controlled areas. The false expectation of these communities mix dangerously with the lack of peace dividends they have received.
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In Kurmuk, pressing human development challenges (infant mortality is highest in northern Sudan, PHC coverage is only 40%, illiteracy is near worst in the country, only 40% are in primary school education) and economic development deficits (lack of vocational/technical training, limited agricultural capital, few passable rural roads) are thus also burning political grievances. In general, and despite the ‘special attention’ granted by the CPA, there have been extremely limited peace dividends accruing to the people of Blue Nile. This is especially so in the most war-affected areas, that are also experiencing high numbers of returnees. The present calm depends upon people’s patience and their belief in the promise of peace. 3.3.7 Urbanization Damazin and Roseires, the main towns in the state, suffer from all the classical symptoms related to rapid urbanization, such as lack of livelihood opportunities, high prevalence of insecurity in the shanty settlements around the town, lack of capacity to effectively handle garbage and human waste, and limited capacity to absorb the increased demand for health and education services. A number of environmental threats result from such rapid urbanization (water and land pollution, spread of water related diseases (malaria), floods during the rainy season) and are compounded by the population’s lack of environmental and health awareness. 3.3.8 High rate of unemployment As a result of the war, many children have missed their chance to go to school due to adverse conditions and displacement. Their right to enjoy primary education has been widely violated. In addition to that poverty, poor school environment and irrelevance of the formal curriculum to community social needs and necessities has resulted into poor enrollment and retention rates, so a considerable number of youth failed to achieve any kind of education and most of them lack the basic knowledge, social and vocational skills needed for acquiring a sustainable livelihood. The provision of vocational and basic business skills training in specific economic sectors, especially to vulnerable groups such as youth, women and ex-combatants, would contribute to the improvement of employability and creation of income generating alternatives. An entire generation has had very little access to education, trapping current young people into a vicious circle of poverty, illiteracy, unemployment and social exclusion. Their chance to enjoy decent work is very low as they are not equipped with any kind of livelihood skills which in turn creates more social ills particularly poverty, marginalization, low self-esteem, moral degradation, decomposition of family, and disruption of social fabric. Unemployment should be consider as a ticking time bomb and soon could generate violence especially in communities recently emerging from war and characterized by widespread availability of weapons. The opening up of Sudanese markets following the CPA is generating public and private investment and job opportunities are expected to rise in the medium term. As the peace process consolidates, the demand for labor not only expands but rapidly changes from non-skilled to semi-skilled and better skilled. Many young people are needed in different sectors, such as civil work, agriculture and construction. Contractors operating in BNS have repeatedly expressed difficulties in finding workers with basic skills. Provision of livelihood and vocational skills is essential to enable young people in BNS to compete for employment opportunities.
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Furthermore, other opportunities in self-employment are opening up as the result of increasing access to financial services supported by microfinance initiatives endorsed by government to support vulnerable groups and as a central component of the poverty reduction strategy. Training of eligible candidates for financial services is essential and providing them with technical and vocational skills plays a crucial role in their success. The state ministry of finance has opened new department of microfinance but efforts to encourage formation of saving and credit associations, productive cooperatives and saving groups are still absent. No attempts have been made to disseminate awareness messages to further promote involvement of individual, community-based and grass root organizations especially in remote and rural areas. The sector is faced with many constraints and challenges including the limited financial resources allocated to microfinance and lack of entrepreneurship development institutions. If peace is to be sustained the international communities should focus on these two issues – skills for employment and access to financial services - besides the focusing on land tenure and basic infrastructure. 3.3.9 High rates of HIV / AIDS Blue Nile state is one of the states experiences considerable HIV positives cases. The available information from the voluntary diagnosis centers in Damazin and Rosaries’ hospitals is alarming: Number of People Living With HIV/AIDS Number of Orphans due to AIDS Number of Orphans Receiving Care No. of Deaths Due to AIDS (2007)
Table 16: distribution of HIV/ AIDS

257 36 18 15

Source: Dept of HIV/ ADIS, SMoH 2009

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4. Conclusion Blue Nile state is at a critical juncture. Timely implementation of the CPA and the special protocol for the state is essential in consolidating peace. At the same time, attention should be paid to addressing the root causes of the conflict in Blue Nile – marginalization, poverty and insecurity over land tenure. To prevent the development of renewed internal conflict, galvanize the peace process and promote development a number of issues need careful consideration. 1. Identify and form a land tenure system that recognizes the rights of local communities (peasants and pastoralists) to control and access land, and that can mediate in disputes over land. During the last century, the state population has suffered from government control over land with little consideration for local communities' customary rights. Existing dispute over land have been compounded by displacement and return. Displacement due to the heightening of the Roseires Dam is an upcoming issue. Leaving land tenure issues unresolved weakens rural dwellers, leaving rural communities in poverty despite other efforts to provide livelihood and development opportunities to these communities. 2. Invest in basic infrastructure for the state to ensure equitable access for and integration of all communities and areas. Basic infrastructure is a determining factor for development and peace in Blue Nile and one that needs to be address before any other development interventions takes place. Of particular importance is the construction of paved roads and feeder roads to link remote productive areas with state and national markets. This will require a completion of the demining process. 3. Improve the provision of basic services, particularly for war affected areas and areas that are growing fast (returnee areas, urban centres, areas of nomadic settlement). Improving conditions for war affected communities and preventing conflicts over scarce resources in growing settlements are both essential for a sustained peace. 4. Ensure the full integration between NCP and SPLM elements in the civil service, administration of state localities, security and military. This is a requirement of CPA implementation and a necessity for sustained peace in the State. 5. Provide skills for employment and access to financial services to alleviate the high unemployment rate in the state, especially among youth. This is essential both to ameliorate livelihood opportunities and to promote stability and reintegration of war affected groups. Throughout the consultation process, government officials and communities highlighted more detailed areas of concern and recommended actions. It is to these broader issues of recovery and development that the report now turns in detail in Section (B).

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  SECTION (B) Situation Analysis Framework Situation Analysis Intersect with Expected Outcomes The following analytic framework was developed by CRMA as a tool to improve the crucial link between data collection, participatory analysis and the development of programmatic priorities by actors operating in Blue Nile State. The basis for this framework is the data and information produced by CRMA. This information has been further validated through consultations with various state departments, UN agencies and civil society actors. The analysis therefore rests on ideas, opinions and information generated and consolidated within the consultation process. The framework integrates the strategic directions established in the State Strategic Plan for 2007-2011 with the expected outcomes developed through UNDAF, bringing State-level and UN-led workplans into a single framework. Accordingly, the framework addresses four main outcomes: peacebuilding, governance and rule of law, livelihoods and the productive sector, and basic service provision. The objective of Section (B) is to provide a common consolidated information base outlining sectoral priorities and ideas for implementing actors in the state. This report does not attempt to evaluate validity of the State Strategic Objectives or UNDAF outcomes per se, nor does it provide a concrete framework for implementation. Nevertheless, it is hoped that the information contained here will inform future state planning processes and assist partners in their review of programmatic priorities and modalities for implementation. Outcome 1: Peace Building Security in Blue Nile State is fragile, due mainly to governance/rule of law issues (examined below) and the lack of peace dividends, further stretched by returnees’ needs. The resultant civil unrest can turn into a threat to peace, particularly given the wide spread availability of arms throughout the state as a result of war, mainly among unemployed youth and nomads. Two groups are of special concern to peacebuilding: returnees and nomadic pastoralists. Returnees present a particular set of challenges for peacebuilding. Lack of infrastructure and proper return planning, particularly in Kurmuk, can lead to discontent and civil unrest. In many places, returnees are also likely to face high rates of unemployment related to the poor economic opportunities and little reintegration (especially for excombatants). Disputes over land – involving nomadic pastoralists and settled farmers – are the most prevalent in the state. Nomadic pastoralists face the additional challenge of adapting to diminishing resources for pastoralism and the consequent changes in livelihood strategies for those that decide to settle. The war has destroyed traditional conflict resolutions mechanisms and the native administration is very weak. Building the police capacity and reinforcing local conflict resolution mechanisms are key priorities for the state. Enacting laws that facilitate conflict resolution is also crucial. The CPA gives the State Land Commission the authority over the land, and their work requires the support of the international community. Finally, demining is an important step to building a lasting peace – it will guarantee full access to and presence in all localities across the State.

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Demining work is done by UNMAO and NGOs, with external funds. At the actual speed and with existing funds, complete demining of the area, slowed by the rainy season, will take long time according to UNMAO.
Related state strategic objectives: 1. Raising awareness of peace culture and conflict prevention among state communities and political organization. 2. Empowerment of native administration leadership to carry out its responsibility in enhancing social peace and security. 3. Development of laws and legislations that respect the state diversity. Sub-outcome Issues Priority Areas Response Gap 1. Sudanese society a. Weak local capacities • Training of political and community • Some NGOs have • Currently no identified budgets / programs to and Government for conflict resolution. leadership on peace building and carried out training and conduct such training. have enhanced conflict mitigation. workshops. capacity to use conflict mitigating . mechanisms. b. Continuing land • Create a State Land Commission; • ARD held a Sudan • Action from the Ministry of Agriculture for the disputes, both between • Draft state regulations on land use and customary Land creation of a State Land Commission, nomads and farmers and Tenure Program in regulations and demarcations; access; between small farmers • Clearly demarcate nomadic routes, April 2008, on land • Functioning veterinary services only in and large holding ownership and Damazin, Rosaires and Bot, absent in Ulu, and water points and veterinary facilities, farmers. preparation for the Malkan; with the involvement of all relevant establishment of the stakeholders; • Resolution of ongoing disputes in Baw locality: State land commission. tribal leaders charging fees to allow cattle from • Construct/rehabilitate animal water • Two nomad-farmer other settlements to cross into their land, points and veterinary facilities along reconciliation tensions between nomadic pastoralists coming new routes; conferences in from Abu Garin to Bulang; • Define village buffer zones that Kurmuk; one in March • Resolution of ongoing disputes in Roseires mechanized farms must respect; 2006 (USAID, PACT locality: periodic dispute between nomads • Establish local mechanisms for the and ARD) was (Kenana, Fulani, Rufaha) and sedentary resolution of ongoing disputes (focusing considered a success. communities (Kadalu) between Takamol and on Baw, Roseires and Kurmuk Belgouha, dispute between nomads and localities). farmers in the area between Umm Gadaya, Abu Regeiba and El Gerri, dispute between nomads and farmers in the area southwest of Wad daf Allah; • Resolution of ongoing disputes in Kurmuk locality: resting areas in Surkum and Gambarda; • Resolution of ongoing disputes in Attadamon:

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2. Individuals and communities in conflict affected areas face significantly reduced threats to social and physical security from mines, ERW and small arms

a. Many roads blocked by mines.

still

• Kurmuk, Bow, Geissan and Roseires are most affected by mines (in decreasing order of severity).

• Since 2006 UNMAO has cleared 1412 Km and assessed 1856 km. • From January 2010, UNMAO will work on surveying and clearing 32 suspected hazardous areas, 76 dangerous areas (battle area, ammunition and UXO clearance sites) and 29 confirmed minefields.

the Saudi Agriculture project and AAAID were authorized by the government in 1972 to operate in the areas of Agadi, Rouro, Buk and Gulli, denying land use to local villagers, which has resulted in civil unrest and poverty. • Resolution of ongoing dispute between local small farmers and large farm in Wedabok (Baw locality). • Improved coordination with UNMAO and State ownership of the process ; • Funds to boost the seasonal demining process.

3. Sustainable solutions for waraffected groups are supported by national, subnational and local authorities and

b. Areas where disputes between nomads and farmers concentrate are also reported to have concentrations of SALW proliferation among the civilian population. c. Some remaining security risks after SPLA redeployment a. No clear mechanism to address disputes over property relating to IDPs / returnees b. Unbalanced development of communities, with high

• Baw, Roseires, Kurmuk and some parts of Geissan.

• DDR activities focusing on these communities; • Coordination between UN DDR and State authorities involved in conflict mediation.

• Kurmuk • Kurmuk and Damazin localities as the major destination areas. • Integration of demobilized combatants; • New livelihoods opportunities for returnees and demobilized combatants. • Start of the DDR program.

• Support transition to a civilian authority in Kurmuk. • Action from the Ministry of Agriculture for the creation of a State Land Commission, regulations and demarcations. • Increased financing and attention to the DDR element of reintegration; • Programming to create income generating

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institutions with active participation of communities.

levels of unemployment and poverty among waraffected groups

activities for war-affected groups. • Development of a long term plan to help waraffected communities.

  Outcome 2: Governance and Rule of Law The key priority in the area of governance and rule of law is the integration of the SPLM and the NCP. The State needs to build its identity and enact decentralization. A key priority is the transformation (demilitarization/integration) of Kurmuk locality. In parallel to this, developing the capacity of the government administration, police and judiciary is essential to lasting peace and development. An essential element of strengthening the capacity of government should be establishing local mechanisms for conflict and dispute resolution. Strengthening the Native Administration and fostering links between it and the State Government are important steps in developing such a conflict resolution mechanism.
Related State strategic objectives: 1. Strengthening decentralized government system and support locality governments. 2. Empowerment of state police and legal systems. 3. Issuing of state laws and legislations that enforce transparency and accountability in civil services. Sub-outcome Issues Priority Areas Response 1. Individuals and a. The State judiciary is • Extend modern justice delivery systems • Establishment of new communities, in place in the capital but to other localities than Damazin, building for Attorney especially groups is not decentralized. especially to rural areas. General in Roseires with specific needs, b. Absence of police • Kurmuk, Geissan, Baw and south have increased presence in rural areas Rosieres access to equitable and efficient justice and democratic governance processes. 2. Sudanese society a. Lack of legal • Coordination over conflict resolution experience improved framework for local competencies and equitable government and limited democratic role of native governance administration and no processes. coordinated competences with the formal authorities b. Limited integration of • Partial integration of

Gap • Establishment of judiciary system in Tadamon and Kurmuk localities • Training and funding for police in priority areas.

• Local government / native administration needs to be established and strengthened, especially where it is essential to law and order enforcement roles.

• Integration of SPLM qualified officers to the civil

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SPLM and NCP. • • Education on the upcoming popular consultation and elections.

police and army.

service. • Further political integration at the executive level of government • Enhance civil society organization and awareness, throughout the State, supporting creation of training centers, gender sensitive, replicating existing success initiative.

c. Low level of civil education on the CPA provisions.

• Mercy Corps initiative in Kurmuk, in cooperation with local organizations • PACT initiative of a consortium of NGOs to support governance and institution building.

3. National, subnational, state and local institutions have improved public administration, planning, and budgeting for people-centred, socially inclusive and decentralized development.

a. Heavy financially dependency of the state on the central government and low capacity of the state civil service. b. There is a lack of political consensus on political strategy for the state (all political parties and civil society organizations).

• Reducing administration and financial corruption in civil services (state and localities level)

• GoNU support and international donors financial commitments are still behind; • An institutional assessment of capacity building and training need for civil servants should be the first priority. • State strategic planning council is established to fill the gap in strategic planning and enhance federal support for state strategic priorities that match with national ones • International community support to the strategic planning process.

4. Gender inequities addressed in all governance processes and development initiatives.

a. Customary laws and practices hinder the opportunities of women.

• Early marriage (reduces women’s access to education, thus limiting their livelihoods opportunities)

• Training on gender issues to government officials and tribal leaders.

         

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Outcome 3: Livelihoods and Productive Sectors Blue Nile State is rich in natural resources (land, animals, forests, mining, oil), but limited government control, capacity and funds have historically resulted in low exploitation of resources. Clear state regulations could not only reduce resource-based conflict (see outcome 1), but also boost the state’s economy. In particular, following the CPA the government has control over land, which is an opportunity to improve agriculture and pastoralist economy by overcoming threats related to nomads/famers competition over resources, land ownership and environmental degradation. The opportunities for agriculture are strong given the high fertility of the soil and presence of water in the east, but are limited by the lack of funds, infrastructure and capacities to run the sector. In fact, there are few industries and little investment in the state. High unemployment is prevalent among the urban population, especially among returnees, youth and demobilized people. Finally, the heightening of the Roseires Dam poses a particular threat to the livelihoods of affected communities.  
Related State Strategic objectives: 1. Support small producers in the agricultural sector. 2. Diversify livelihood opportunities particularly for vulnerable populations in war affected areas. 3. Encourage and direct foreign aid and investment to address low income and poverty issues. Sub-outcome Issues Priority Areas Response 1. More rural a. Absence of micro • Encourage the formation of small • Banks have been households, finance services and producers cooperatives (localities) directed to finance including agricultural extension, • small business and womenheaded resulting in dependence enterprises that help households, are on rain fed farming vulnerable groups decently employed increase their incomes with increased • Some agricultural sustainable inputs (improved seeds agricultural and tools) were productivity and distributed by MoA, diversification. FAO and NGOs 2. Individuals and a. Inadequate provisions • Kurmuk, Shali al Fil: large number of communities, for ex-combatants and returnees causing friction over access especially youth and returnees to available farming land. vulnerable groups including excombatants, mine victims, WAAFG and CAAFG, have access to improved income generation

Gap • Funds allocated by banks are limited and restricted; • Further agricultural inputs and training on agricultural methods is required.

• Mechanisms for the allocation of farmland to returnees / ex-combatants; • Provision of agricultural inputs and extension services (returnees and IDPs areas); • Better implementation of the reintegration aspect of DDR.

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opportunities and employment through decent work. 3. Transportation networks and market infrastructure to facilitate the movement of people, goods and services, and commodities improved and expanded, thereby fostering increased agricultural and industrial production. 4. National and state authorities and communities improve sustainable natural resource management and increase resilience to natural disasters and the impact of climate change. 5. A more equitable, competitive and socially responsive private sector in place.

a. Poor market infrastructure, often related to lack of paved roads and communication network.

• Construction of Kurmuk-Damazin road, Roseires and Menza road and Damazin- Geissan road.

• Work has started on Kurmuk-Damazin road and other feeder roads in Damazin and Tadamon localities to link agricultural production areas with the state’s main markets

• Giessan-Damazin road is waiting for funding from federal government. Other donors like EC proposed funding part of this road, butthe state budget needs to be supported; • State has limited capacity to manage large projects and contractors.

a. Few provisions for communities affected by the heightening of the Roseires Dam.

• Clear communication to affected communities about provisions being made.

• Governor’s meeting with leaders of affected communities in October 2009.

• Produce a comprehensive plan for support to affected communities and communicate it to them.

b. Lack of private sector investment.

• Investment in the industrial sector is especially low; • Linking investment to local benefits.

• Engage national and international investors to encourage investment in the state.

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Outcome 4: Basic Services and Infrastructure Basic services and infrastructure are somewhat lacking throughout the state, with Baw, Geissan and Kurmuk localities, as well as war affected areas particularly ill-served. The geographical concentration of returnees in Kurmuk locality further stresses basic services and infrastructure. Access is often particularly problematic for women. CRMA workshops assessed that people perceive the lack of basic services and infrastructure as the major threat to both security and development. Increased, but also more strategic distribution of health and education facilities and trained staff, especially in the rural areas, is thus a key priority.  
Related State Strategic objectives: 1. Special focus on improving health care, with a focus on women’s health care 2. Improve educational facilities, with a concentration on technical education 3. Concentrate efforts in areas affected by the war Sub-outcome Issues Priority Areas 1. Policies, systems, a. Rural hospitals are • Rural areas that are inaccessible during infrastructure and mainly health centres, the rainy season; human resource there is an urgent need • Kurmuk, Geissan and South Roseires, capacity improved to to support them with where basic health services are most provide equitable primary health and lacking. and affordable emergency facilities. access to basic quality health, reproductive health b. 70% of medical staff is • Kurmuk, and rural areas of Geissan and and nutrition in Damazin and South Roseires. services. Rosaires, rural areas are critically understaffed. 2. Community a. General lack of • Consequent high mortality of women members have reproductive health and girls is particularly acute in rural improved preventive services (facilities and areas. health care and staff) across the State, . awareness particularly shortage of extending to midwives. reproductive health and nutrition; b. Early marriage leading • Rural areas where young mothers have corollary reduction in to pregnancies at a very an average of 6-8 children. harmful practices young age. c. Lack of basic nutrition • In rural areas, high mortality rates awareness resulting in among young women due to over-work

Response • There is a monthly coordination mechanism on health interventions for State/ WHO/ NGOs.

Gap • The withdrawal of NGOs resulted in noticeable gap in basic health services; • Support is required to build basic infrastructures in high priority areas.

• There is a nursing college and a medical academy now open in Damazin. • Damazin Hospital started 6 months courses in midwifery and reproductive health twice a year. • • Damazin Hospital has a Nutrition Unit with a

• Federal support is required to increase staffing, especially in high priority areas; • Measures to ensure higher staff retention. • Federal support is required to increase staffing, especially in high priority areas; • Measures to ensure the retention of staff.

• Awareness raising programs and community discussions. • Expansion of nutritional programs targetting women in rural areas.

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3. Vulnerable groups have increased and sustainable access to, and use of, safe water and basic sanitation, and have adopted improved hygiene practices. 4. Policies, knowledge base, systems and human resource capacities are improved to enable decentralised and sustainable integrated water resources management and WASH service delivery. 5. Children and youth have increased, equal and complete access to quality education in learner-friendly environments.

frequent miscarriages and serious long-term reproductive health problems due to bad diet during pregnancy and lack of basic health/ hygiene education. d. Severe illness or death caused by infection from FGM and lack of medical response. a. Inadequate access to safe drinking water.

in combination with bad diet. Carrying of heavy items (water, wood) daily and for long distances. •

small nutrition program for the State, but it does not reach the rural areas, or other localities. • • Awareness raising programs and community discussions. • NGOs withdrawal resulted in noticed gap in basic water services; • Support required to build basic infrastructures and train staff in high priority areas. • In some areas, building of dams can be a permanent solution as water is scarce on the ground and hand pumps are not feasible • Make spare parts available on the ground; • Train staff for maintenance, repair and management.

• FGM is more prevalent in rural areas. (Agadi area in El Tadamun is particularly affected). • Mainly non-urban areas, but in the western parts of the state and in Damazin and Roseires towns; • Areas where hafirs and khors are now part of farming schemes. • In Kurmuk, Tadamon and Baw there are seasonal shortages of water and economy depends on the rainy season.

• .

b. Seasonal shortages.

water

a. Low capacity to manage water at the community level

a. Inadequate provision of school facilities and teachers to cater to all students.

• Provision of basic education is especially inadequate in Kurmuk, Geissan and South Roseires; • Schools in remote areas are most likely to not be free of cost; • Vocational training centers are lacking in Bow, Geissan and Tadamon.

• Considerable funds have been allocated for basic education; • Strong contribution of NGOs in this sector; • There is already one vocational training centre in Damazin.

• NGOs withdrawal resulted in noticed gap in basic water services; • Support required to build basic infrastructures and train staff in high priority areas.

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6. National, subnational and state Ministries of Education have improved policy analysis, educational planning, sector coordination, budgeting, monitoring and reporting. 7. HIV infection is reduced and care of those infected and affected is increased, through better access to and utilisation of quality, gendersensitive prevention, care, treatment and support services.

b. Low participation of girls in education. a. Lack of clarity over integration of the dual education system.

• Rural areas

• Awareness raising programs. • Implement integration in a way that benefits all children.

a. Lack of focus on HIV/AIDS prevention.

• The HIV/AIDS situation is worse in Kurmuk (GOAL estimates 6% of the population is affected; the average for the whole state is 2.6%).

• Targeted programming addressing HIV/AIDS prevention. • Support Primary prevention programs among the general population with emphasis on the most vulnerable groups. • Promote policies and support activities to prevent HIV-Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT). • Support and promote the VCCT polices and activities. • Increase uptake of the existing HIV/AIDS treatment services. • Protection and Support of People affected with HIV/AIDS; • Reduce stigma and discrimination against PLWHA. • Support policies and planning for HIV/AIDS response.

 

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References Blue Nile Legislative Council (2005): Blue Nile State Interim Constitution 2005. Camilla Toulmin and Julian Quan (2000): Evolving Land Rights, policy and tenure in Africa. IIED and Natural Resources Institute, Edinburgh. Douglas H. Johnson (2005): The Root Causes of Sudan Civil Wars, updated to CPA. The international African Institute and Indiana University Press. Federal Ministry of Health (2007): Sudan Household Health Survey 2006-2007. Ministry of Education (2009): Statistical book, Department of Educational Statistics and Planning, Ministry of Education Blue Nile State. (In Arabic) Ministry of Finance and Economy (2004): Investment map, agricultural sector. Monier E. A. Elshayeb (2007): Socio-economic changes in displaced communities in Blue Nile State, case study IDPs in Damazin town. A dissertation submitted for Master Degree in development planning, University of Khartoum. (In Arabic) Rehab Ahmed Musa (2008): Constraints of rural Woman Development in Sudan, case study rural woman in Kedallo area, Blue Nile. A dissertation submitted for Master Degree in Sustainable Rural Development. Ahfad University for Women. Shukri Ahmed Ali (2008): Roseires Dam; the disparate past, hurtful present and dark future: analytical view for the dam heightening project and its socio-economic and environmental implications. A paper published in ALmeydan and Ajrass Elhoria daily news papers. (In Arabic) State Strategic Planning Council (2009): Five year strategic plan 2007-2011. Sudan Productive Capacity Recovery Program (2009): Benchmark Survey Report, Blue Nile State. UNDP (2006): Nomads' settlement in Sudan: experience, lessons and future action (study 1) .UNDP, Sudan. ODI (2008): Stability and Development in the Three Areas, Sudan. AEC (2008): Mid Term Evaluation Report. Gademary Babker Hassan (2006): ‘Tribal structure in the Blue Nile State and the issue of belonging’. Khalid Ammar Hassan (2006): ‘The uprooted minorities in Southern Blue Nile region – Sudan. Case study: the Kadalo Minority Dilemma’. Abdel Ghaffar M. Ahmed (2008): Transforming Pastoralism: a case study of the Rufa’a al Hoi Ethnic Group in the Blue Nile State, Sudan. Mohamed Salih, Dietz, T. Abdel Ghaffar Mohamed Ahmed (2001): African Pastoralism. Conflict, Institutions and Government. Abdel Ghaffar M. Ahmed, (2005): ‘The Blue Nile State/region; context and
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situation’. GOAL (2007):‘Findings of Multi-indicator nutrition, health, Watsan and mortality survey’, Kurmuk County. Leif Manger (2001): ‘Pastoralist State relationship among the Hadendowa Beja of Eastern Sudan’. John Young: ‘The politics of South Blue Nile’. Mercy Corps (2007): “Tensions between sedentary farmers and nomadic pastoralists in Blue Nile State.” GOAL (2009): “Findings of a multi-indicator nutritional, health, watsan and mortality cluster survey.” WFP (2008): “Food security assessment among returnee population”.

List of Government Officials/ Civil society Organization interviewed Government Office Name State General Secretariat Ali Bakri Mohamed Elata Elhameem Hamad Mohamed Sabir Abdalaziz Ministry of Finance and Economy Huzaifa Abdalaziz Elsharif Mohamed Abdulshafi' Post/ Title Secretary General, State Government Director, Office of SG Director, Information Center Deputy director of information center Director, General Directorate for Planning and Development Director, Development and deputy director of planning and development Director, Department of Foreign Aid Coordination and Managment Coordinator, Child Friendly Communities Initiative(CFCI) Director, Education Planning and Statistics Director, Education Information Management Systems (EIMS) Deputy director, Education Planning ُ Director General, Ministry of Health Director, Health Planning Deputy director, health planning Director, Planning and information
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Zuhal Hassan Eljak

Ministry of Education

Mohamed Ali Serajeldin Azhari Medani Edrees Yousif Abdalla

Abdalla Ministry of Health Dr. Ali Elseid Dr. Bakri Elsheikh Elhusain Khalid Yousif Elawad Ministry of Local Governance Elhadi Husein Elsadig

Ministry of Agriculture

Gareeballa Ahmed Ibrahim Mohamed Mohamed Gorashi Abdalla Essa Zaied Ahmed Elawad Abu Sass Yousif Suliman Abdalla Mrs. Rehab Ahmed Musa Adil Elzain Adam Mustafa Dawood Sideeg Suliman Nagwah Bakri Abdulbasit Shokri Ahmed Ali Mohamed Abdulbari Elhaj Rahama Amar Hassan Abdalmajeed Ahmed Osman Adam Jihad Ali Elsheikh

Director, Labor Office Director General, Ministry of Agriculture Director, Agric Planning and Information Director, Agric Investment and Projects Director, Range Management Director General, Blue Nile Forests Authority Director, Woman and Rural Development Dept. Deputy, Agric Planning Director, Surveying Director, Urban planning Director, Land Affairs Director General, Min of CIYS Director, Planning and Director, Youth Department Director General, Ministry of Social affairs and Guidance Director, Social Walfare Head, Unit of Woman and child protection Director, Woman and Child Directorate Secretary General Director, Criminal Investigations Dept. Head of State Judicial Authority Parliament Speaker (chairman) Parliament deputy speaker Manager Civic Education Program Manager Member Chairman Sec. General Chair man Sec. General Chairman

Ministry of Urban Planning Ministry of Culture, Information, Youth and Sport Ministry of Social Affairs

State General Secretariat Dr. Elhadi Mohamed of Strategic Planning Adam State Police Brigadier/ Ali Abdalaziz Sudan Judiciary Mawlana / State legislative Council Prof. Mohamed Hassan Abdulrahman Hassan Abass Abu rass Suliman Mohamed Suliman Khalid Amar Dr. Badawi M. Mongash Elrasheed Abdulmajeed Ahmed Mohamed Husain Mubark Edrees Rajab Eltayeb Abu Jamila Abdelrahman Hassan

Strategic Center for Economic and Social Studies

Para Legal Association

Popular Cor. for Kedallo Pastoralists Union

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