VAG MANAGEMENT SERVICES Centre Code No.

: 2005

A PROJECT REPORT ON THE PSYCHOMETRIC TOOL KIT OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

By: Harish Chander Khanduri Roll No. :510734148 A project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Administration of Sikkim Manipal University, India Sikkim-Manipal university of Health, Medical and technological sciences. Distance education wing Syndicate house Manipal-576104

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introductory page Acknowledgement

Chapter 1 1.1 Executive summary 1.2 Objectives of study 1.3 Literature review 1.4 Research Methodology

Chapter 2 2.1 Psychometric testing: Myths and Realities 2.2 The big five personality dimensions 2.3 Firo-B: Fundamental Interpersonal Relationship Orientation-Behavior 2.4 MBTI: Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 2.5 The DiSC personality model 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 16PF® Johari window The Belbin team roles inventory Aptitude and Ability Tests

2.10 Speed and Power Tests 2.11 Verbal Ability Tests 2.12 Verbal Reasoning Questions 2.13 Numerical Ability Tests 2.14 Numerical Critical Reasoning

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Chapter 3 3.1 Data Analysis & Interpretation 3.2 Findings 3.3 Conclusion 3.4 Limitations Chapter 4 4.1 4.2 References Annexure (A) Questionnaire used (B) Some filled questionnaires (C) MBTI questionnaire

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or any other similar title or prizes Place : Date : New Delhi Harish Chander Khanduri Roll No.-510734148 4 . is my original work and not submitted for the award of any other degree. fellowship. diploma.I here by declare that the project report entitled A PROJECT REPORT ON THE PSYCHOMETRIC TOOL KIT OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of business Administration to Sikkim-Manipal University. India.

The project report of Harish Chander Khanduri A PROJECT REPORT ON THE PSYCHOMETRIC TOOL KIT OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Is approved and is acceptable in quality and form Internal Examiner External Examiner 5 .

Medical & Tecnological Sciences Harish Chander Khanduri has worked under my supervision and guidance and that no pat of this report has been submitted for the award of any other degrre.Human Resource 6 .510734148 Certified Neeti Raj Sharma (MBA) Assistant Manager.. No. fellowship or other similar titles or prizes and that the work has not been publihed in any journal or Magazine.This is to certify that the project report entitled A PROJECT REPORT ON THE PSYCHOMETRIC TOOL KIT OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters Of Businees Administration of Sikkim-Manipal University of Health. diploma. Reg.

A psychological test in reality is essentially an objective and standardized measure of a sample of behavior. some other treat it as recent fade and still others tend to think of it as something fearsome. Especially from the HR point of view. internet websites etc. The term “Psychometric Testing” evokes different reactions in different people. STAGE-II: Collecting data relating to psychometric testing 7 . Some people think of it as an enigmatic thing. An important point to notice here is that psychometric tests include both personality tests as well as the aptitude tests like verbal ability. numerical reasoning etc. a negative perception has been woven around psychometric tests.’ Various magazines like HRM Review. were read for the asid purpose. insofar as observations are made on a small but carefully chosen sample of an individual's behavior. books. Keeping in mind the growing use of these psychometric tests by HR professionals all over the world. books on psychological testing etc. this topic for the project was chosen The scope of the project and the activities carried out were divided into the following four stages: STAGE-I: Readings for having a basic understanding of the project The first stage involved extensive reading of various magazines.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Psychometric testing today is employed in a wide variety of setting. Psychological tests are like the tests in any other science. for a diverse range of purposes. from educational to industrial organizations. its uses have increased manifold over the last few years. to have an idea about the chosen topic of interest that is ‘the psychometric tools used by the organizations. By and large.

In the final stage of the project the data so gathered was interpreted and analyzed. Upon analysis of data conclusions were drawn and the findings were finally added to the project report. OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH 8 .com so that relevant data could be collected. STAGE-IV: Data analysis and conclusions. internet etc. This questionnaire was then circulated through internet and was uploaded at citehr. STAGE-III: Questionnaire designing and primary data collection In this stage a questionnaire was under the guidance of our faculty. Secondary data for this purpose was collected from various sources such as Human resource books. books on psychometric testing. magazines. to collect data relating to the topic from human resource personnel working in different organizations. journals.This stage involved a collecting data with respect to the chosen topic of interest.

The project aims at studying these psychometric tools and their importance in the current scenario.  To have an idea of how many companies in India are actually using these tests/tools.The objectives of this project report have been manifolds.  To understand the ethical issues involved in the use of these psychometric tools by the human resources department.  To understand Principles of psychometric testing  To study some of the most commonly used psychometric tools in the tool kit of human resource managers and departments. The following have been the main objectives behind this study:  To understand what is psychometric testing and study the various types of tests.  To find out in what all areas of HR are the human resource professionals using these psychometric tests 9 . A number of psychometric tools are being used by companies across industries.  To study the application and use of these psychometric tools in various processes of human resources. In a larger perspective the project aimed at finding out and studying the various psychometric tools that are being used today by the human resource managers and department all the world. In general the purpose of the project is to have in-depth analysis and knowledge about the chosen topic of interest.

everyday-life situations. Psychological tests are like the tests in any other science. insofar as observations are made on a small but carefully chosen sample of an individual's behavior. or between the applicant's score on the arithmetic problems and her computational performance on the job then the tests are serving their purpose. If. of great interest. At one extreme.LITERATURE REVIEW What is a psychological test? A psychological test is essentially an objective and standardized measure of a sample of behavior. in itself. to emotionally toned stimuli. And each must prove its worth by an empirically demonstrated correspondence between the examinee’s performance on the test and in other situations. Rorschach inkblot test. The child's knowledge of the word list of 50 words is not. Despite their superficial differences. In this respect. Nor is the job applicant's performance on a specific set of 20 arithmetic problems of much importance. The degree of similarity between the test sample and the predicted behavior may vary widely. Psychometric tests aim to measure aspects of your mental ability or your personality. however. and to other complex. Measurement of the behavior sample directly covered by the test is rarely. the test may coincide completely with a part of the behavior to be predicted. 10 . The diagnostic or predictive value of a psychological test depends on the degree to which it serves as an indicator of a relatively broad and significant area of behavior. if ever. in which an attempt is made to predict from the respondent's associate’s to inkblots how he or she will react to other people. the goal of psychological testing. the psychologist proceeds in much the same way as the biochemist that tests a patient's blood or a community’s water supply by analyzing one or more samples of it. it can be demonstrated that there is a close correspondence between and his total mastery of vocabulary. all these tests consist of samples of the individual's behavior.

outside of education. you are most likely to encounter psychometric testing as part of the recruitment or selection process. aptitude and personality. These days. Most of the established psychometric tests used in recruitment and selection make no attempt to analyze your emotional or psychological stability. and whether you will be able to cope with the intellectual demands of the job. Tests of this sort are devised by occupational psychologists and their aim is to provide employers with a reliable method of selecting the most suitable job applicants or candidates for promotion. 11 .They have been used since the early part of the 20th century and were originally developed for use in educational psychology. Psychometric tests aim to measure attributes like intelligence. providing a potential employer with an insight into how well you work with other people. how well you handle stress.

police forces. fire services and the armed forces all make extensive use of use psychometric testing.90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 % age of companies using Psychometric testing US Fortune 500 UK Times Top 100 Psychometric testing is now used by over 80% of the Fortune 500 companies in the USA and by over 75% of the Times Top 100 companies in the UK. the civil service. local authorities. financial institutions. Information technology' companies. management consultancies. Psychometric tests Selection & Recruitment Career Progression 12 .

preferences and abilities. As a recruitment and selection tool. A psychometric test should be: • Objective: The score must not affected by the testers' beliefs or values • Standardized: It must be administered under controlled conditions • Reliable: It must minimize and quantify any intrinsic errors • Predictive: It must make an accurate prediction of performance • Non Discriminatory: It must not disadvantage any group on the basis of gender. psychometric tests can help prospective employers to find the best match of individual to occupation and working environment. 13 . testing conditions must obviously be the same for all. to provide guidance on career progression to existing employees. using a more sophisticated approach. ethnicity. Because the results of psychometric tests are used to influence such important personnel decisions it is vital that the tests themselves are known to produce accurate results based on standardized methods and statistical principles. etc. If the scores obtained by different persons are to be comparable.As an indicator of your personality. culture. PRINCIPLES OF PSYCOMETRIC TEST Standardization Standardization implies uniformity of procedure in administering and scoring the test. these tests can be applied in a straightforward way at the early stages of selection to screen-out candidates who are likely to be unsuitable for the job or.

preliminary demonstrations. There are other major ways in which psychological tests can be properly described as objective. As used in psychometrics. hunches. The formulation of directions is a major part of the standardization of a new test. Objective measurement Some aspects of the objectivity of psychological tests have already been touched on in the discussion of standardization. Reliability may be checked by comparing the scores obtained by 14 . The objective evaluation of psychological tests involves primarily the determination of the reliability and the validity of the test in specified situations. scoring. ways of handling queries from test takers. of course. Such standardization extends to the exact materials employed. empirical procedures. the administration. oral instructions. time limits. Test reliability is the consistency of scores obtained by the same persons when retested with the identical test or with an equivalent form of the test. to stubborn rejection. This is not entirely so. and every other detail of the testing situation. and personal biases may lead. on the one hand.In order to secure uniformity of testing conditions. because perfect standardization and objectivity have not been attained in practice. and interpretation of scores are objective insofar as they are independent of the subjective judgment of the particular examiner. on the other hand. Reliability How good is this test? Does it really work? These questions could-and occasionally do-result in long hours of futile discussion. Subjective opinions. The only way questions such as these can be conclusively answered are by empirical trial. the term "reliability" basically means consistency. to extravagant claims regarding what a particular test can accomplish and. the test constructor provides detailed directions for administering each newly developed test. Thus. Anyone test taker should theoretically obtain the identical score on a test regardless of who happens to be the examiner. The determination of the difficulty level of an item or of a whole test is based on objective. But at least such objectivity is the goal of test construction and has been achieved to a reasonably high degree in most tests.

The correlation between the scores obtained on the two forms represents the reliability coefficient of the test. or under any other relevant testing condition. For example. external criteria of whatever the test is designed to measure. Validity provides a direct check on how well the test fulfills its function. The reliability Alternate-form reliability: One way of avoiding the difficulties encountered in test-retest reliability is through the use of alternate forms of the test. equivalent form on the second. In such a way. The determination of validity usually requires independent. Types of reliability Test retest reliability: The most obvious method for finding the reliability of test scores is by repeating the identical test on a second occasion. It is apparent that split-half reliability provides a measure of consistency with regard to content sampling. since only a single administration of a single form is required. with different sets of items. This type of reliability coefficient is sometimes called a coefficient of internal consistency. two scores are obtained for each person by dividing the test into equivalent halves. because only one test session is involved. Temporal stability of the scores does not enter into such reliability.the same test takers at different times. if a 15 . The same persons can thus be tested with one form on the first occasion and with another. with different examiners or scorers. Split half reliability: From a single administration of one form of a test it is possible to arrive at a measure of reliability by various split-half procedures. Validity The degree to which the test actually measures what it purports to measure.

Tests designed for broader and more varied uses are validated against a number of independently obtained behavioral indices. psychologists have long been concerned with questions of professional ethics. for example. Ethical and Social Considerations in Testing In both their research and the practical applications of their procedures. In a similar manner. can be validated against on-the-job success of a trial group of new employees. The scores of these persons are not themselves employed for operational purposes but serve only in the process of testing the test. A concrete example of this concern is the systematic empirical program followed in the early 1950s to develop the first formal code of 16 . It would thus be more accurate to define validity as the extent to which we know what the test measures. whereas those scoring low on the test had done poorly in medical school. A high correlation. it can then be used on other samples in absence of criterion measures. we can objectively determine what the test is measuring. By studying the validation data. tests designed for other purposes can be validated against appropriate criteria. ultimate success in medical school would be a criterion. A pilot aptitude battery can be validated against achievement in flight training. Such a composite measure constitutes the criterion with which each student’s initial test-score is to be correlated. The validity coefficient enables us to determine how closely the criterion performance could have been predicted from the test scores. Validity tells us more than the degree to which the test is fulfilling its function. or validity coefficient. It actually tells us what the test is measuring. If the test proves valid by this method.medical aptitude test is to be used in selecting promising applicants for medical school. would signify that those individuals who scored high on the test had been relatively successful in medical schools. and their validity can be established only by the gradual accumulation of data from many different kinds of investigations. A vocational aptitude test.

to such clinical instruments as individual intelligence tests and most personality . 1 comprises preamble and six general principles designed to guide psychologists toward the highest ideals of the profession. Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (APA. User qualification and professional competence The Ethics Code principle on competence states that psychologists "provide those services and use only those techniques for which they are qualified by education. reliability. ranging from educational achievement and vocational proficiency tests. they are sensitive to the many conditions that may affect test performance. Usually. leading to the periodic publication of revised editions. training. In administering the test. They are also cognizant of the available research literature on the chosen test and able to evaluate its technical merits with regard to such characteristics as norms.ethics for the profession. The catalogs of major test publishers specify requirements that ill be met by purchasers. This is important because well-trained examiners choose tests that are appropriate for both the particular purpose for which they are testing and the persons to be examined. The current version. through group intelligence tests and interest inventories.Distinctions are also made between individual purchasers and authorized intuitional purchasers of appropriate tests. It also provides eight ethical standards with enforceable rules for psychologists functioning within diverse contexts. 17 . and validity. a relatively long period of intensive training and supervised experience is required for the proper of individual intelligence tests and most personality tests. These standards undergo continual review and refinement. Responsibilities of test publishers The purchase of tests is generally restricted to persons who meet certain minimal qualifications. Some publishers classify their tests into levels with reference to user qualifications." Thus. or experience. 1992). This extensive undertaking resulted in the preparation of a set of standards that was officially adopted by the American Psychological Association (APA) and first published in 1953. individuals with a master's degree in psychologist equivalent qualify. Efforts to restrict the distribution of tests have a dual objective: security of the test materials and prevention of misuse.

it may be necessary to keep the examinee in ignorance of the specific ways in which the responses to anyone test are to be interpreted. scoring. a person should not be subjected to any testing program under false pretenses. Nor should any claims be made regarding the merits of a test in the absence of sufficient objective evidence. and norms. Protection of privacy A question arising particularly in connection with personality tests is that of invasion of privacy. Among them are the security of test content. if necessary. motivational. Nevertheless. Counselors are 18 . When a test is distributed early for research purposes only. The fundamental question is: Who shall have access to test results? Several considerations influence the answer in particular situations. For purposes of testing effectiveness. Confidentiality Like the protection of privacy." Insofar as some tests of emotional. In a report entitled Privacy and Behavioral Research (1967). There has been a growing awareness of the right of individuals to have access to the findings in their own test reports. the problem of confidentiality of test data is multifaceted.Another professional responsibility pertains to the marketing of psychological tests by authors and publishers. to clarify or correct factual information. the examinee may reveal characteristics in the course of such a test without realizing that he or she is so doing. Tests should not be released prematurely for general use. and facts about one's personal life. feelings. the hazards of misunderstanding test scores. and the need for various persons to know the results. Of primary importance in this connection is the obligation to have a clear understanding with the examinee regarding the use that will be made of test results. to which it is related. The test taker should also have the opportunity to comment on the contents of the report and. this condition should be clearly specified and the distribution of the test restricted accordingly. this right is further characterized as "essential to insure freedom and self-determination. or attitudinal traits are necessarily disguised. The test manual should provide adequate data to permit an evaluation of the test itself as well as full information regarding administration. the right to privacy is defined as the right to decide for oneself how much one will share with others one's thoughts.

On the other hand. Similarly. For these purposes. when records are retained either for legitimate longitudinal use in the interest of the individual or for acceptable research purposes. other than the individual tested (or parent of a minor) and the examiner. The underlying principle is that such records should not be released without the knowledge and consent of the test taker. Discussions of the confidentiality of test records have usually dealt with accessibility to a third person. there is danger that they may be used for purposes that the test taker (or the test taker's parents) never anticipated and would not have approved. unless such a release is mandated by law or permitted by law for valid purposes. longitudinal records on individuals can be very valuable. psychologists have begun to give more thought to the communication of test results in a form that will be meaningful and useful to the recipient. free from technological jargon or labels. the availability of old records opens the way for such misuses as incorrect inferences from obsolete data and unauthorized access for other than the original testing purpose. Proper safeguards must be observed against misuse and misinterpretation of findings. when records are retained for many years. To prevent such misuses. Broad levels of performance and qualitative descriptions in simple terms are to be preferred over specific numerical scores. the information should not be transmitted routinely. Another problem pertains to the retention of records in institutions. In all test-related communication. except when communicating with adequately trained professionals. Communicating test results In recent years. access to them should be subject to unusually stringent controls. This applies not only to that person's general education and her or his knowledge about psychology and testing.now trying more and more to involve clients as active participants in their own assessment. Certainly. On the one hand. and oriented toward the immediate objective of the testing. test results should be presented in a form that is readily understandable. but also to her or his anticipated emotional response to the information. but should provide appropriate interpretive explanations. it is desirable to take into account the characteristics of the person who is to receive the information. The consideration of emotional reactions to test information is especially important when persons are learning about their own assets and 19 .

awareness/knowledge. not only should the data be interpreted by a properly qualified person. but facilities should also be available for counseling anyone who may become emotionally disturbed by such information. Market researchers are interested in primary data about demographic / socioeconomic characteristics. and behavior. The choice is influenced by the nature of the problem and by the availability of time and money. Three basic means of obtaining primary data are observation. motivation. data can be collected from two main sources: DATA COLLECTION SOURCES 1) Primary Sources of Data Primary data are those that are collected by the researcher himself. 20 . intentions. and experiments.shortcomings. When an individual is given her or his test results. To accomplish the objective of any research project. Primary data collection is necessary when a researcher cannot find the data needed in secondary sources. surveys. attitudes/opinions/interests. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY In order to understand and achieve the objectives of the project and to have an in-depth knowledge about the chosen topic of interest it was important to gather the relevant data from various sources.

To collect the data. research papers and the internet search engines.com a community of HR practioners and professionals. For the purpose of this project some primary data was collected by using questionnaires. sent to various companies by e-mails and were uploaded on citehr. magazines etc. Apart from that it was important to collect data from various secondary sources as well. these questionnaires were then circulated on internet. The most common sources of secondary data today are books. To accomplish the objectives of this research work. a number of journals.2) Secondary Sources of Data Secondary data are the data that are collected by others and is to be "re-used" by the researcher. internet etc. PSYCHOMETRIC TESTING 21 . use and satisfaction derived by the organizations from using these psychometric tools. The purpose was to find the practical application. both primary as well as secondary sources of data collection were used. The various sources from which secondary data was gathered included various books by eminent authors of human resource and psychology. research journals. This eleven questions long questionnaire was designed with the help of expertise of our human resource and marketing faculty.

Especially from the HR point of view. aptitude. from educational to industrial organizations. scientific manner without the interference of extraneous factors. and personality tests that measure different dimensions of an individual’s personality. interpret and analyze the same. score. The term “Psychometric Testing” evokes different reactions in different people. In reality. intelligence. By and large. 22 . Psychometric testing is simply standardized. MBTI. it’s none of the thing mentioned above. objective measure of a sample of behavior. A psychometric test typically is designed to produce a quantitative assessment of one or more psychological attributes. the environment in which the test is taken. etc. Some people think of it as an enigmatic thing. OPQ32. It includes ability tests that measure achievement. and the method of calculating the individual score are uniformly applied. FIRO-B. its uses have increased manifold over the last few years. It is standardized because the procedure of administrating the test. It is called objective because a good test measures the individual differences in an unbiased. Gordon’s Personal Profile Inventory.Myths and Realities Psychometric testing today is employed in a wide variety of setting. Rorschach Ink-Blot Test. a negative perception has been woven around psychometric tests. Some of the popular psychometric tests being used today by corporates the world over are 16 PF. Picture Frustration Test and TAT One particular problem with many of the psychometric tests has been that they are too lengthy and it requires a lot of time to administer. Thomas Personal Profiling system. for a diverse range of purposes. some other treat it as recent fade and still others tend to think of it as something fearsome. This particular problem has been reduced to a great extent with advances in computer science and information technology.

potential appraisal. From the industry perspective. Besides. they cannot provide a definitive answer. Therefore. There cannot be a substitute for experience. placement. career planning and counseling. All said and done.Now. several impendent testing agencies also offer online testing services where assessment can be done online and report sent through e-mail. it is to be borne in mind that psychometric tests can only aid and inform a decision. Advantages of psychometric testing 23 . it’s possible to obtain the software versions of most of the popular and standardized tests. now there are no two opinions about the fact that psychometric testing can really be a very powerful tool for a variety of HR functions such as selection. the psychometric tests should ideally be used in conjunction with a thorough interview by experienced and trained individuals.

when used by competent and appropriately qualified individuals. At the risk of putting it simplistically. Although there exists in the UK a training qualification system developed by the British Psychological Society. Disadvantages of psychometric testing  There are numerous tests and questionnaires on the market which purport to be 'psychometric instruments' but which are not. these costs pale into insignificance when one considers just how long it would take to obtain the same information about a person. Unfortunately. under-performance or misemployment of staff.  Lack of correct training is also a significant danger in the use of psychometric testing. it could be argued that the information obtained from a good personality questionnaire might take several months of knowing and working with a person to obtain by other means. Whether it is for selection of new staff or development of existing staff. have the following advantages:  They lead to judgments that are likely to be more valid than judgments made by other means. Properly developed psychometric tests and questionnaires. it is not uncommon for tests to be used by people who are not 24 . although it may seem relatively expensive for a company to pay for its staff to become qualified in psychometric assessment and then on top of this to pay for the cost of the testing itself. these tests and questionnaires have been put together by people with no background in psychometrics and they have very little actual utility and value for the purposes for which they are marketed. the expenses involved in psychometric assessment are minimal when compared with the costs of high-turn over.  They are relatively cheap and easy to administer when compared to other approaches. For example. This is the most important advantage of psychometric assessment. In many cases.  They are likely to lead to considerable cost-benefits in the long term. it is very difficult for untrained people to distinguish these from good psychometric instruments.

Rather it means that the person has the basic personality characteristics that are commonly found amongst effective leaders and. this does not mean that he or she will actually possess a high level of leadership skill. particularly personality questionnaires.adequately trained to use them. scores on scales such as this are often taken to imply that the person already has all the necessary skills and is already capable of performing at a high level in the area in question. with sufficient experience and given the development of certain necessary skills. even attendance at a recognized training course is no guarantee that a person will at all times use tests and questionnaires correctly since some instruments. has the potential to become an effective leader. eg. if a person scores highly on a personality dimension called 'Leadership'.  It is the use of personality questionnaires to try to assess a person's ability or skill in a particular area. THE BIG FIVE PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS 25 . Indeed. Unfortunately however. require considerable experience and the possibility of misinterpretation or inappropriate interpretation of results is ever-present.

Agreeableness is obviously advantageous for achieving and maintaining popularity. On the other hand. a Conscientiousness rating in the 80th percentile indicates a relatively strong sense of responsibility and orderliness. Using more sophist acted techniques. scholars have been trying to develop lists of personality traits. critics. When scored for individual feedback. For example. recent investigations identified the same five dimensions known as BIG FIVE PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS. they are frequently presented as percentile scores. These factors are also referred to as the OCEAN or CANOE models of personality because of the acronym composed of their initial letters. None of the five traits is in themselves positive or negative. 26 . Agreeable people are better liked than disagreeable people. or soldiers. For example. or behaviors. the frequency or intensity of a person's feelings. For example. Disagreeable people can make excellent scientists. Each of these 5 personality traits describes. agreeableness is not useful in situations that require tough or totally objective decisions. two individuals could be described as 'agreeable' (agreeable people value getting along with others). But there could be significant variation in the degree to which they are both agreeable.Introduction Since the days of Plato. with the median at 50%. About 100 years ago. Some scholarly works refer to the Big Five as the Five-Factor Model. They aggregated these words into 171 clusters. Conscientiousness. Everyone possesses all 5 of these traits to a greater or lesser degree. It is important to ignore the positive or negative associations that these words have in everyday language. Neuroticism and Openness to experience. The personality traits used in the 5 factor model are Extraversion. all 5 personality traits exist on a continuum (see diagram) rather than as attributes that a person does or does not have. thoughts. and then further shrunk them down to five abstract personality dimensions. Agreeableness. In other words. whereas an Extraversion rating in the 5th percentile indicates an exceptional need for solitude and quiet. they are simply characteristics that individuals exhibit to a greater or lesser extent. a few personality experts tried to catalogue and condense the many personality traits that had been described over the years. relative to other people. They found thousands of words in Roget’s Thesaurus and Webster’s Dictionary that represented personality traits.

Agreeable people are better liked than disagreeable people. low-key.-ve Extraversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Neuroticism Openness to experience +ve Extraversion Extraversion is marked by pronounced engagement with the external world. deliberate. Their lack of social involvement should not be interpreted as shyness or depression. Introverts lack the exuberance. Agreeable people also have an optimistic view of human nature. are full of energy. and draw attention to themselves. In groups they like to talk. and willing to compromise their interests with others'. The independence and reserve of the introvert is sometimes mistaken as unfriendliness or arrogance. They tend to be quiet. Agreeable individual’s value getting along with others. Agreeableness is obviously advantageous for attaining and maintaining popularity. They are generally unconcerned with others' well-being. the introvert simply needs less stimulation than an extravert and prefers to be alone. Extraverts enjoy being with people. generous. action-oriented. and trustworthy. They believe people are basically honest. 27 . unfriendly. Sometimes their skepticism about others' motives causes them to be suspicious. and uncooperative. friendly. In reality. individuals who are likely to say "Yes!" or "Let's go!" to opportunities for excitement. and often experience positive emotions. an introvert who scores high on the agreeableness dimension will not seek others out but will be quite pleasant when approached. decent. and therefore are unlikely to extend themselves for other people. They tend to be enthusiastic. and disengaged from the social world. energy. helpful. and activity levels of extraverts. They are therefore considerate. Agreeableness Agreeableness reflects individual differences in concern with cooperation and social harmony. assert themselves. Disagreeable individuals place self interest above getting along with others.

even when not seriously destructive. Impulsivity also sidetracks people during projects that require organized sequences of steps or stages. an alternative label for the Conscientiousness domain. long-term consequences. or soldiers. fun-to-be-with. scattered. Nonetheless. and zany. occasionally time constraints require a snap decision. Prudent means both wise and cautious. Persons who score high on the Conscientiousness scale are in fact. Intelligent activity involves contemplation of long-range goals. Acting impulsively disallows contemplating alternative courses of action. A hallmark of intelligence. They are also positively regarded 28 . Disagreeable people can make excellent scientists. what potentially separates human beings from earlier life forms. and persisting toward one's goals in the face of short-lived impulses to the contrary. Impulsive behavior. acting on impulse can lead to trouble in a number of ways. Impulses are not inherently bad. diminishes a person's effectiveness in significant ways. Another problem with impulsive acts is that they often produce immediate rewards but undesirable. and direct our impulses. is the ability to think about future consequences before acting on an impulse. Some impulses are antisocial. Impulsive individuals can be seen by others as colorful. perceived by others as intelligent the benefits of high conscientiousness are obvious. regulate. hurling an insult that causes the break up of an important relationship. Conscientious individuals avoid trouble and achieve high levels of success through purposeful planning and persistence. Also.On the other hand. some of which would have been wiser than the impulsive choice. acting spontaneously and. Uncontrolled antisocial acts not only harm other members of society. and inconsistent. agreeableness is not useful in situations that require tough or absolute objective decisions. or using pleasure inducing drugs that eventually destroy one's health. The idea that intelligence involves impulse control is nicely captured by the term prudence. Accomplishments of an impulsive person are therefore small. organizing and planning routes to these goals. in times of play rather than work. impulsively can be fun. Examples include excessive socializing that leads to being fired from one's job. but also can result in retribution toward the perpetrator of such impulsive acts. and acting on our first impulse can be an effective response. critics. Conscientiousness Conscientiousness concerns the way in which we control.

They tend to think and act in individualistic and nonconforming ways. Unconscientiously people may be criticized for their unreliability. and cope effectively with stress. or depression. which means they are often in a bad mood. appreciative of art. conventional people. On the negative side. anger. He suggested that everyone shows some signs of neurosis. Openness to experience Openness to Experience describes a dimension of cognitive style that distinguishes imaginative. but that we differ in our degree of suffering and our specific symptoms of distress. They respond emotionally to events that would not affect most people. lack of ambition. They are more likely to interpret ordinary situations as threatening. emotional suffering. They tend to be. Open people are intellectually curious. These problems in emotional regulation can diminish a neurotic's ability to think clearly. individuals who score low in neuroticism are less easily upset and are less emotionally reactive. Freedom from negative feelings does not mean that low scorers experience a lot of positive feelings. consequently. more aware of their feelings. and free from persistent negative feelings. and an inability to cope effectively with the normal demands of life. Today neuroticism refers to the tendency to experience negative feelings.by others as intelligent and reliable. Furthermore. but are likely to experience several of these emotions. Those who score high on Neuroticism may experience primarily one specific negative feeling such as anxiety. extremely conscientious individuals might be regarded as stuffy and boring. and sensitive to beauty. and failure to stay within the lines. Intellectuals typically score high on Openness to Experience. Their negative emotional reactions tend to persist for unusually long periods of time. frequency of positive emotions is a component of the Extraversion domain. They tend to be calm. make decisions. but they will experience many short-lived pleasures and they will never be called stuffy. emotionally stable. and their reactions tend to be more intense than normal. they can be compulsive perfectionists and workaholics. this factor has also 29 . compared to closed people. creative people from down-to-earth. Neuroticism Freud originally used the term neurosis to describe a condition marked by mental distress. At the other end of the scale. and minor frustrations as hopelessly difficult. People high in neuroticism are emotionally reactive.

or performance. Subordinate Personality Traits or Facets Each of the big 5 personality traits is made up of 6 facets or sub traits. Closed people prefer familiarity over novelty. People with low scores on openness to experience tend to have narrow. They may regard the arts and sciences with suspicion. artistic and metaphorical use of language. They prefer the plain. music composition. However. they are conservative and resistant to change. open and closed styles of thinking are useful in different environments. but research has shown that closed thinking is related to superior job performance in police work. Openness is often presented as healthier or more mature by psychologists. sales. Intellect is probably best regarded as one aspect of openness to experience. The intellectual style of the open person may serve a professor well. These can be assessed independently of the trait that they belong to. this symbolic cognition may take the form of mathematical. Another characteristic of the open cognitive style is a facility for thinking in symbols and abstractions far removed from concrete experience. Scores on Openness to Experience are only modestly related to years of education and scores on standard intelligent tests. regarding these endeavors as abstruse or of no practical use. or one of the many visual or performing arts. Nonetheless. and obvious over the complex. who are often themselves open to experience. Extraversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Neuroticism Openness to experience Friendliness Gregariousness Trust Morality Self efficacy Orderliness Anxiety Anger Imagination Artistic interest 30 .been called Culture or Intellect. straightforward. and subtle. common interests. logical. or geometric thinking. Depending on the individual's specific intellectual abilities. ambiguous. and a number of service occupations.

and what you expect from others in their behavior toward you. Developed in the 1950s it is now one of the most widely used tools for helping people to understand themselves and their relationships with others better. The Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior (FIRO-B) is a highly valid and reliable tool that assesses how an individual's personal needs affect that person's behavior 31 . It is important to understand that personality questionnaires which measure more than five traits or factors are not measuring the big 5 traits plus others. you could score highly in Imagination.Assertiveness Activity level Altruism Cooperation Dutifulness Achievement striving Depression Self consciousness immoderation Emotionality Adventures ness Intellect Excitement seeking cheerfulness modesty Self discipline sympathy cautiousness vulnerability liberalism It is possible. For example. world-leading indicator of interpersonal style. This research was then extended to look at how people in general interact with one another and what the drivers is that generate or inhibit certain behaviors. They are simply choosing to classify one or more of the 30 facets shown above as a trait or factor. It is a personality inventory that measures interpersonal style how you behave toward others. in the 1950's when he studied the relationships within small teams of submariners. FIRO-B: FUNDAMENTAL INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP ORIENTATIONBEHAVIOUR About the instrument FIRO-B is a unique. The FIRO-B questionnaire was devised by American psychologist. to score high in one or more facets of a personality trait and low in other facets of the same trait. Artistic Interests. but score low in Intellect and Liberalism. Emotionality and Adventurousness. although unusual. Will Schutz.

the FIRO-B questionnaire is best used within a half-day or full-day team-building event. Need for Control: need for control relates to whether one wants to be "up" or "down". super ordinate. 2. can be changed (at will). how and why conflict can develop and how to understand and manage their own needs when interacting with others. leading others and responsibility. basically will try to be with people as much as possible (expressed behavior). It measures how a person typically behaves towards others and how that person would like others to behave towards them. The FIRO-B questionnaire is based on Will Schutzs wish to provide an understanding of the fundamental differences between people and how these impact on relationships. subordinate while working with others or in a group. It relates to a person's desire for influencing others. Such a person shall try to exert control and influence over things. FIRO describes interpersonal behavior in terms of three primary dimensions: 1. as well as providing insight into that person's own individual characteristics. immutable personality traits. He/she would enjoy organizing 32 .towards other individuals. and participation. Need for Inclusion: This relates to whether one wants to be "in" or "out" of a particular group. Thus FIRO is not a theory of inherent. This highly valid and reliable self-report instrument offers insight into an individual's compatibility with other people. Underlying FIRO is the assumption that preferences. He/she will try to belong to or join social groups. belongingness. Individuals should be allowed around 2 hours in total to complete the 54 questions long questionnaire and discuss the results. as well as behavior. A person's need for recognition. Someone with high need for inclusion will make an effort to include others in his/her activities. it provides material for development efforts. Rather. For teams. Such a person would also expect or want others to invite him join them and would like people to notice him/her (wanted behavior). It can dramatically increase an individual's understanding of areas such as how they come across to others.

things and directing others (expressed behavior). Such a person will feel most comfortable working in well defined situations and would like to get clear expectations and instructions from others (wanted behavior).

3. Need for Affection: need for affection relates to whether a person wants to be "close" or "distant" to/from others. Closeness, warmth, and sensitiveness characterize such people. This person shall make an effort to get close to people and would be comfortable expressing his/her personal feelings and will try to be supportive of others (expressed behavior). This person would also want others to act warmly towards him/her and will enjoy when people share their feelings with them and would love it when people encourage him and appreciate his efforts (wanted behavior).

These dimensions are fundamental to all human social organisms, whether an infant in the early stages of child development, small groups, or organizations. FIRO-B measures these three dimensions from two perspectives: 1. Expressed behavior: It is the behavior one feels most comfortable showing, what a person prefers to do, and how much that person wants to initiate action.

2. Wanted behavior: It is the behavior one wants to be shown by others, how much a person wants others to initiate action, and how much that person wants to be the recipient.

APPLICATION OF FIRO-B FIRO-B is a highly reliable self-report instrument that offers insight into an individual's compatibility with other people, as well as providing insight into that person's own individual

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characteristics. The underlying assumption of FIRO-B is that preferences, as well as behavior, can be changed at will. The instrument can be used in one-to-one, team or group situations. The qualified user has a range of applications at their disposal, providing the versatility demanded in contemporary workplace environments. This highly reliable and practical instrument has vast applications such as:

Team building and team development FIRO-B can help in Identifying likely sources of compatibility or tension between people working in a group or team. By improved communication, openness and trust it can help to resolve conflicts and create better understanding amongst team players. The instrument can hence be effectively used in team building and team development.

Individual development and executive coaching FIRO-B is a powerful tool and can be used in executive coaching or self development. It helps individuals to increase their self-awareness and interpersonal effectiveness, by identifying and understanding their interpersonal style. Since the instrument increase self-awareness and interpersonal effectiveness it can surely assist in individual development. It can also be used for identifying leadership style. It can be used as part of a coaching process, or for career development or personal growth of people.

Conflict resolution Identifying the real cause of conflict is pre-requisite to effective management of conflict. By effectively assisting in Identifying the likely causes of conflict between people this instrument can help in effectively dealing with various types of conflicts that may be present in a group.

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Selection and placement FIRO-B can also be used in combination with other assessment techniques. This can help to structure interviews and assess likely team roles or interpersonal behavior.

Management and leadership development The instrument is ideal to use with new and experienced managers; it will enable them to understand their natural style and what impact this has on the way they communicate, to involve others in decision-making and to delegate responsibility. Relationship counseling These days FIRO-B instrument is also being used in relationship counseling by identifying possible sources of incompatibility and dissatisfaction between partners. Others The FIRO-B is an ideal tool to use for interpersonal behavior measurement and assessment, including: • • • • • • • • Management and supervisor development Leadership development (used with MBTI as part of the Leadership report ) Identifying leadership preferred operating styles Employee development Team building and explaining team roles Improving team effectiveness Sensitivity training Advancing career development

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• The tool can be introduced easily to existing HR practices for greater effectiveness. such as the MBTI ® instrument. when used in coaching. educational level. the FIRO-B questionnaire gives practical suggestions for improving relationships or increasing effectiveness • This tool can be easily combined with others. to present a comprehensive view of personal style for use in self. • It is a practical tool that offers insights into interpersonal needs and behaviors. age.and group development. For example. • • It is based on a comprehensive and powerful theory of interpersonal behavior The instrument has been revised. choices and flexibility in working with others. rewritten and redesigned so that all materials are now clearer. occupational level and industry sector and enable precise comparison with individual scores. When used as part of a team program. The current edition is based on British norms. giving them an objective. the FIRO-B instrument will help an individual to understand their motivation. increasing its relevance to European English users • It has more detailed norms. undertaking the FIRO-B assessment enables the team to open up. MBTI: Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 36 . practical framework that can be used to overcome barriers to effective team operation and communication. These are subdivided by gender. more comprehensive and easier to use.BENEFITS OF USING FIRO-B • FIRO-B is a unique instrument especially because most personality instruments examine individual characteristics but not relationship styles.

The MBTI provides information about people's preferences for communicating and dealing with information. Katherine Cook Briggs and her daughter.drawing a similarity to "hand preferences" to illustrate that although we all use both of our hands. In her studies of people and extensive reading of Jung's theories. The MBTI personality instrument consists of four bipolar dimensions. Jung (a contemporary of Sigmund Freud and a leading exponent of Gestalt personality theory) and applied these theories to acquiring a better understanding of people and their preferences for communicating with others. was developed among non-clinical populations to assess normal individual differences. The authors of the MBTI. and gave rise to her desire to give a wide range of individual's access to the benefits found in understanding human differences as they relate to various psychological types. most of us have a preference for one over the other and "it" takes the lead in many of the activities in which we use our hands. were astute observers of human personality differences.   Sensing –Intuition (SN) Thinking – Feeling (TF) Extraversion-Introversion (E-I) Judging-Perceiving (J-P)   37 . which evolved from Jung's personality types. The waste of human potential in World War II sparked the development of the MBTI by Myers. She labeled these differences "preferences" . They studied and elaborated on the theories of Swiss psychiatrist Carl G. Myers concluded there were four primary ways people differed from one another. Isabel Briggs Myers. unlike inventories of psychological adjustment (or maladjustment). The MBTI personality instrument.About the Instrument The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a self-report questionnaire and is the world's leading personality assessment instrument.

An average of 2 million people in the United States takes the MBTI each year and it has been translated into more than 30 languages. Inc (formerly Consulting Psychologist Press) who also distributes the Inventory.Myers Briggs Type Indicator is based on a personality framework that helps individuals explore: • • • • Where they prefer to focus their attention (Extraversion or Introversion) The way they prefer to take in information (Sensing or Intuition) The way they prefer to make decisions (Thinking or Feeling) How they orientate themselves to the external world (Judging or Perceiving. In addition. It provides information about individuals preferred style of working and interacting with others. The Association for Psychological Type (APT) is an international 38 . The MBTI questionnaire is the most widely used personality questionnaire worldwide. Over 600 dissertations have been written on the MBTI and there are well over 1.000 articles and dozens of books. increased human understanding. Another non-profit organization.000 qualified users in Europe. The MBTI is available from CPP and its licensees in approximately 20 foreign languages. There is no right or wrong answers and a key feature of the MBTI is its focus on likely strengths and positive qualities of different personality styles and thus the feedback people receive is always constructive. The MBTI is a registered trademark of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Trust and is published by CPP. The Center for Applications of Psychological Type (CAPT) is a non-profit educational organization founded by Myers and psychologist Mary McCaulley to promote continued research into psychological type and application of psychological type to foster enhanced personal development. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) describes an individual's personality preferences. More than 3. and improved management of human conflict. It is based on over 50 years research and development and is available in 19 languages.5m questionnaires are completed worldwide every year and there are over 13. alternate versions of the inventory have been scientifically customized and validated for other languages and cultures for which a straight translation of English language terms would yield inaccurate results.

INTUITUION The first set of mental preferences relates to how people "Perceive" or take in information. The Basic Model of MBTI proposes two kinds of Mental Processes and two kinds of Mental Orientations. Sensing –Intuition (SN) Thinking – Feeling (TF) TWO KINDS OF MENTAL ORIENTATIONS ARE 1. connections and possible meanings. TWO KINDS OF MENTAL PROCESSES ARE 1. Membership is also open to lay persons who want to enrich their understanding and application of type. Hence those who prefer Sensing Perception favor clear. details. and precedents (Sensing) versus indirectly as relationships. It distinguishes a predisposition for gathering data directly through the senses as facts. Judging-Perceiving (J-P) THE TWO KINDS OF MENTAL PROCESSES ARE SENSING . tangible data and information that fits in well with their direct here-and-now experience. and possibilities (Intuition). Extraversion-Introversion (E-I) 2. conceptual. and represents imaginative possibilities for the future. THINKING – FEELING 39 . patterns. those who prefer Intuition Perception are drawn to information that is more abstract.member education and certifying organization for professionals who use type in their occupations and professional practices. 2. A sensing personality prefers to focus on information gained from the five senses and on practical applications whereas intuition prefers to focus on patterns. bigpicture. In contrast.

it is more likely that you'll find a mixed bag of people. making good teammates and partners. Differences in these mental preferences lead to quite different value structures and communication styles.The second set of mental preferences identifies how people form "Judgments" or make decisions. Those who prefer Thinking Judgment have a natural preference for making decisions in an objective. logical. and prefers to have things decided but perceiving likes a flexible. person-centered values (Feeling). considering what is important to people. While this diversity can be a useful strength. A MBTI workshop can be seen as an introduction to learning the language. visceral. a variety of types. impersonal logic (Thinking) versus subjective. However. in the "real" world. contributing to greater depth and breadth of team competence. with mutual respect and practice learning to "talk" and "think" in a second or third language. One of the practical applications of the MBTI and understanding these preferences is in supporting better Teamwork. For example. which can hamper mutual understanding and cooperation. and the communication gap bridged. organized approach to life. they easily understand one another. Likewise. Those whose preference is for Feeling Judgment make their decisions in a somewhat global. harmony and value-oriented way. TWO KINDS OF MENTAL ORIENTATIONS ARE 40 . in the same work group. spontaneous approach and prefers to keep options open. people who share Sensing and Thinking preferences find they are naturally on the same wavelength. It distinguishes a preference for deciding via objective. Such differences can be overcome. A thinking personality prefers to base decisions on logic and objective analysis of cause and effect on the other hand feeling prefers to base decisions on a valuing process. there will be natural communication barriers within the team due to their natural mental language differences. habits and culture of other types. people who share Intuition and Feeling have a similar kinship among them. paying particular attention to the impact of decisions and actions on other people. Judging likes a planned. and analytical manner with an emphasis on tasks and results to be accomplished.

an extrovert on the other hand prefers to draw energy from the inner world of reflections. Extraversion-Introversion (E-I) 2. those preferring Introversion find the need to retreat to a more private setting as if to recharge their drained batteries. Energy Orientation pertains to the two forms of Energy Consciousness each of us experiences on a daily basis. The first one is the dimension of personality discovered by Carl Jung that became widely adopted by general psychology: Extraversion-Introversion. an element she inferred from Jung's work but was not clearly addressed as an essential component of his theory of types. This cultural bias frequently leads natural introverted types to mis-identify their primary preference as Extraversion. the other is outward. the outer world of people and things versus the inner world of ideas and impressions. We occupy two mental worlds: one is inwardly turned. places and activities going on in the outside world for their life force. the other secondary. Those who prefer Introversion draw their primary energy from the inner world of information. Rarely. Hence an introvert prefers to draw energy from the outer world of activity. people and things. feelings and ideas.1. people. unfortunately it has been widely distorted into a well-unwell scale with characteristics of Introversion being cast in a negative light and conversely characteristics of Extraversion cast in a positive light. if ever. While the E-I dimension was Jung's gift to general psychology. and drawing energy from. Judging-Perceiving (J-P) There are two other mental preferences that are part of the Myers-Briggs model: Energy Orientation and Outer World Orientation. When circumstances require an excessive amount of attention spent in the "outside" world. do extraverted preference people feel their energy batteries are "drained" by excessive amounts of interaction with the outside world. One of these worlds is our elemental source of energy. This is the style or orientation one uses in dealing with the external world: Judging or Perceiving. those who prefer Extraversion are drawn to the outside world as their elemental source of energy. EXTROVERSION-INTROVERSION It distinguishes a preference for focusing attention on. The second is the dimension of personality that is Myers' unique contribution to Jung's theory. In contrast. and other reflections. thoughts. They must engage the things. 41 . ideas.

planning. Thus the four IxxJ types . organization.Extraverted Orientation relates to which mental preference one relies upon in dealing with/relating with the Outside World. The drive is to order the outside world. Those who prefer Judging rely upon either their T or F preference to manage their outer life. others "ordering touches" . Extraverted types who work best by thinking out loud and considering matters in dialogue can be frustrated by introverted types whose best work on thinking and considering is done internally 42 . The drive is to experience the outside world rather than order it. the Extraverted Orientation (J or P) points to their dominant function. Differences in Energy Orientation and/or Extraverted Orientation can produce conflicts for people and life management problems.with respect to people . adaptable.are actually Perceiving types on the inside! Thus their extraverted "personality" can mask their primary nature.whose extraverted style is judging . ergo "what you see is what you get. or in some fashion managing the things and or people found in the external environment.whose extraverted style is Perceiving and thus tend to have an open style are actually on the inside Judging oriented. flexible style of relating to the things and people found in the outside world.may be light. For person's whose Energy Orientation preference is E. their Extraverted Orientation (J or P) is opposite their dominant function. It is the mental function that takes the lead in the extraverted portion of a person's personality. then this orientation is called Perceiving JUDGING – PERCEIVING It distinguishes an outward preference for having things planned and organized (Judging) versus a flexible style based more on staying open to options than deciding (Perceiving). When this leading function is one of the two Perceiving mental preferences. then this orientation is called Judging. Likewise the four IxxP types . When this leading function is one of the two Judging mental preferences." But for those whose Energy Orientation favors I. This typically results in an open. While some people employ an assertive manner. Those who prefer Perceiving rely upon either their S or N preference to run their outer life. in general lack of closure is easily tolerated. This typically leads to a style oriented towards closure.

and even then they sometimes miss things that are right in front of their noses! Extraverted Judging types are naturally drawn to management positions. I'd be able to think about what he said. "Why doesn't she want to tell me what she is thinking. E or I S or N T or F J or P Which is your most favored Energy Source? Which your most favored Perceiving Mental Process? Which is your most favored Judging Mental Process? Which kind of mental process leads your Outside World Orientation? The sixteen personality types of MBTI result from the cross-products of these four dimensions and are shown in the following figure. The Type Code for the 16 Types The permutations of these four preference dichotomies result in the 16 personality types that form the basis of Myers' model and the MBTI inventory. Perceiving types can be seen as "flakes" who constantly put things off til the absolute last minute.and detached from active interaction. I can’t give you a good answer unless I have some time to reflect on it!" Introverted types used to reflecting before they speak are frustrated by extraverted types who frequently seem to change their mind and change course (because they reflect out loud. Types with an extraverted Judging orientation are frequently put off by extraverted Perceiving types disorderly attention to things and people around them . Each of these is associated with a unique set of behavioral 43 . Types with an extraverted Perceiving orientation often see their opposite number as control freaks and imperceptive draft horses with blinders on . Why do we have to decide right now. "If he'd just shut up. may think or talk about it later. Extraverted Perceiving types discover a need and an appreciation for a greater degree of order in their external affairs and Extraverted Judging types discover a need and an appreciation for a greater degree of openness and discovery in their external life. Extraverted Perceiving types naturally resist being managed! The mellowing process of aging sometimes produces similar mellowing of the J and P orientations. what is he hiding?" Likewise introverted types can be harassed by the natural style of extraverted types. and finish affairs. manage. organize. why won't she shares her concerns.something different). and then finally conclude .their failures to properly plan.

Their realism. and they often manifest a deep concern for people and relationships as well. The Sixteen Types at a Glance ( By Charles Martin. what people often first encounter with INFJs is their drive for closure and for the application of their ideas to people's concerns. ISTJs are intensely committed to people and to the organizations of which they are a part. selfexploration and group discussion. caring. Ph. Knowing by way of insight is paramount for INFJs. Logical pragmatists at heart. Their realism. These provide a useful starting point for individual feedback. ideas. organizing abilities. and dependability to all that they do. and command of the facts lead to their completing tasks thoroughly and with great attention to detail. ISTJs make decisions based on their experience and with an eye to efficiency in all things. INFJ For INFJs the dominant quality in their lives is their attention to the inner world of possibilities. While the energy and attention of INFJs are naturally drawn to the inner world of ideas and insights.D. INFJs often have deep interests in creative expression as well as issues of spirituality and human development. ISFJ For ISFJs the dominant quality in their lives is an abiding respect and sense of personal responsibility for doing what needs to be done in the here-and-now. they take their work seriously and believe others should do so as well. Actions that are of practical help to others are of particular importance to ISFJs. INTJ 44 .) ISTJ For ISTJs the dominant quality in their lives is an abiding sense of responsibility for doing what needs to be done in the here-and-now. ISFJs bring an aura of quiet warmth. and command of the facts lead to their thorough attention in completing tasks. and symbols.characteristics and values. organizing abilities. they take their work seriously and believe others should do so as well.

ISFPs typically show their caring in very practical ways. to know. images. ISTP For ISTPs the driving force in their lives is to understand how things and phenomena in the real world work so they can make the best and most effective use of them. and what people often first encounter with ISFPs is their quiet adaptability. projects. When not actively solving a problem. they think systemically. even playful side. but they may also experience it around ideas. ISFP For ISFPs the dominant quality in their lives is a deep-felt caring for living things. and they are naturally drawn to ideas that embody a concern for human potential. but what people often first encounter with the INFP in the outer world is their adaptability and concern for possibilities. They experience this intense caring most often in their relationships with others. Their warmth and concern are generally not expressed openly. and with their task-orientation will work intensely to make their visions into realities. ISTPs are logical and realistic people. INTJs inherently trust their insights. abstractions.For INTJs the dominant force in their lives is their attention to the inner world of possibilities. INFPs live in the inner world of values and ideals. Insight in conjunction with logical analysis is the essence of their approach to the world. and "free spirit" spontaneity. INFP For INFPs the dominant quality in their lives is a deep-felt caring and idealism about people. combined with a quietly playful and sometimes adventurous approach to life and all its experiences. or any involvement they see as important. what people often first encounter with them is their detached pragmatism. realism. Ideas are the substance of life for INTJs and they have a driving need to understand. ISTPs do often pursue variety and even excitement in their hands-on experiences. and thoughts. INFPs are often skilled communicators. since they often prefer action to words. 45 . ISTPs are quiet and analytical observers of their environment. and to demonstrate competence in their areas of interest. Although they do have a spontaneous. and they are natural troubleshooters. symbols. and they naturally look for the underlying sense to any facts they have gathered.

they also experience a deep concern for people as well. they naturally question and critique ideas and events as they strive for understanding. They want to make sense of the world -. whether it be new ideas.INTP For INTPs the driving force in their lives is to understand whatever phenomenon is the focus of their attention. ENFP For ENFPs the dominant quality in their lives is their attention to the outer world of possibilities. who prefer to experience and accept life rather than to judge or organize it. events. Though ENFPs thrive on what is possible and what is new. ESFPs are typically energetic and adaptable realists. they are especially interested in possibilities 46 . INTPs usually have little need to control the outer world.and they often enjoy opportunities to be creative. ESTP For ESTPs the dominant quality in their lives is their enthusiastic attention to the outer world of hands-on and real-life experiences. analytical. and detached in their approach to the world. or to bring order to it. INTPs are logical. ESFPs also have a deep concern for people. or new activities. ESTPs are excited by continuous involvement in new activities and in the pursuit of new challenges. ESTPs tend to be logical and analytical in their approach to life.as a concept -. ESTPs are typically energetic and adaptable realists. Thus. and they often appear very flexible and adaptable in their lifestyle. ESFP For ESFPs the dominant quality in their lives is their enthusiastic attention to the outer world of hands-on and real-life experiences. new people. and they show their caring in warm and pragmatic gestures of helping. they are excited by continuous involvement in anything new. who prefer to experience and accept life rather than to judge or organize it. and people in the world work. and they have an acute sense of how objects. ESFPs are excited by continuous involvement in new activities and new relationships.

and thus gives their feeling a hands-on pragmatic quality. and to know the nature of things. and to get things done. and they naturally move into action to help others. new people. enthusiastic people who lead spontaneous and adaptable lives. Sensing orients their feeling to current facts and realities. to organize the world around them. ESFJs bring an aura of warmth to all that they do. ENTP For ENTPs the driving quality in their lives is their attention to the outer world of possibilities. and thus gives their thinking a pragmatic quality. ENFPs are typically energetic. and things. and they often have a deep need to analyze. to understand. ESTJs like to organize anything that comes into their domain. and they will work energetically to complete tasks so they can quickly move from one to the next.for people. enthusiastic people who lead spontaneous and adaptable lives. Sensing orients their thinking to current facts and realities. people. They look for patterns and meaning in the world. whether it be new ideas. or new activities. ESFJs take their work seriously and believe others should as well. ESTJs take their responsibilities seriously and believe others should do so as well. they are excited by continuous involvement in anything new. ENTPs are typically energetic. ESFJ For ESFJs the dominant quality in their lives is an active and intense caring about people and a strong desire to bring harmony into their relationships. ENFJ 47 . ESTJ For ESTJs the driving force in their lives is their need to analyze and bring into logical order the outer world of events.

APPLICTAION Many people believe trait instrumentation. Perhaps business settings are self-selecting in this regard. ENFJs naturally and conscientiously move into action to care for others. it may be that Feeling types. Intuition orients their feeling to the new and to the possible. Some research has indicated that the distribution of MBTI types is highly skewed in the working population. 48 . and things. ENTJs will actively pursue and direct others in the pursuit of goals they have set. MBTI's four dimensions were found to be correlated with four of the Big Five robust personality dimensions. Because the basic assumption under-girding the MBTI is that the types it identifies are immutable in nature. provides leverage in predicting behavior in social groups. in general. such as the MBTI. Sundstrom and associates found that nearly three-quarters of their sample of managers in business were Thinking-Judging types. are less inclined to seek managerial positions. Intuition orients their thinking to the future. ENTJ For ENTJs the driving force in their lives is their need to analyze and bring into logical order the outer world of events. to organize the world around them. the consultant's mission has more to do with enhanced articulation of individual differences and organizational responsibilities than with behavior change. people. and they prefer a world that is structured and organized. thus ENFJs often enjoy working to manifest a humanitarian vision. hiring Thinking-Judging types over other types (Thinking-Perceiving personalities and all Feeling types). and to get things done. and gives their thinking an abstract quality. Or. ENFJs are openly expressive and empathic people who bring an aura of warmth to all that they do. Organizational consultants may use the MBTI to encourage a better fit between personalities and roles. or helping others develop their potential.For ENFJs the dominant quality in their lives is an active and intense caring about people and a strong desire to bring harmony into their relationships. ENTJs are natural leaders who build conceptual models that serve as plans for strategic action.

encourage appreciation of diversity and resolve conflict Organizational change Understand why people react differently to change and how to support them though the process Improving communication Help people to understand how to communicate effectively with different people and develop influencing and persuading skills It is also used for: Education and career counseling Identify learning styles and motivations. Management and leadership development Help managers and leaders to appreciate the impact of their personal style on others. Through this. Identify their strengths and any areas which they may need to develop to become more effective. Relationship counseling Improve the quality of relationships and interactions by understanding and valuing differences. enhance problem solving. improve teaching and training methods and provide career guidance. improve team communication. Benefits of Using the MBTI Benefits to the Individual • Increased self-awareness and better self-management 49 .Individual development Understand preferred working style and how to develop this to be more effective. Can be used as part of an executive coaching programme Team building and development Increase awareness of the team's working style.

The DISC Personality Model 50 . manager. Promotes a constructive approach to individual differences. and team member Help discover how your individual personality can help you be successful or how your personality can get in your way Benefits to the Team • • • • • • • Improved communication Can provide an effective avenue for conflict resolution Increased problem resolution Better understanding of the decision making process Facilitates team building Assists in diagnosing cultural and organizational issues. ease of use and relevance to European English users. increasing its accuracy. Identify leadership style Other benefits • • • • • Easy to use. allowing you to deepen your knowledge and apply it in many situations. teacher.• • • • • Develop and appreciation and value for differences Improved communication § Increased interpersonal skills Can lead to motivated behavior Provides a guideline of how to be a more effective leader. learner. score and explain plus Short and quick to complete. People enjoy working with the questionnaire and find the results helpful Revised and updated in 1998. Provides a powerful conceptual framework.

DISC looks at behavioral styles and behavioral preferences. Steadiness. "I" for Influence (Marston chose the term inducement. DISC makes no attempt to measure such factors as intelligence).About the Instrument DISC is an acronym for Direct. Interestingly enough Marston never developed his D. It does this by evaluating four key factors in an individual style. Steady and Compliant behaviors. 51 . "S" for Steadiness or Stability (Marston used submission) and "C" for Compliant.D. with various companies offering models with quadrants. was a graduate of Harvard University. which introduced DISC theory to the public. Influencing. A DISC Profile is a personality testing technique that uses a simple questionnaire as a basis for revealing insights into a person's behavior. Marston.1947) to examine the behavior of individuals in their environment or within a specific situation. (Marston used compliance). now know as "D" for Dominance-Drive-Direct. rather than the sixteen or more that are often seen in full personality tests (for example. It was Marston’s 1928 “Emotions of Normal People”. and diamonds to graphically represent the positioning of these behavioral and personality styles and types. circles. theory into the present four quadrant model. (1893 ." The dimensions of Dominance. yet now a days DISC has become one of the most popular and user friendly four quadrant models for understanding behavioral styles and personality types. DiSC is a model of human behavior that helps to understand "why people do what they do.S. and Conscientiousness make up the model and interact with other factors to describe human behavior.C. types or temperament. While it isn't a full 'personality test' in the strict technical sense. influencing. the father of the DISC. or Cautious. Conscientious. it provides an insight into an individual style that is more than adequate to predict the likely trends of their behavior in the future. DISC is the four quadrant behavioral model based on the work of William Moulton Marston Ph.I. He defined four categories of human behavioral styles. Recruiters around the world have been using this personality test technique for decades DISC lies somewhere between two poles. wheels.

Applied in corporate. patience and structure.S. At its most basic level. communication. personality model was developed by William Moulton Marston and influenced by Carl Jung. strengths and weaknesses. they will behave quite differently to an equally Dominant individual without that Influence. including their motivations and dislikes. each with a very distinct and predictable pattern of observable behavior. It can also go far in helping to predict how a person will react to a specific set of circumstances. Using this information. The real power of DISC. DISC measures four factors of an individual's behavior: Dominance. The factors combine like this to provide (theoretically) around one million different 'profiles' (that is. and take hours to complete. The D. understanding and tolerance. Steadiness and Compliance. business and personal situations the DISC inventory can lead to professional and personal insights. and some of the basic assumptions they make about other people. Understanding the DISC patterns has empowered millions internationally to better understand themselves and others. while the interpretation of results from a full test remains in the province of experts. 52 . profiles four primary behavioral styles. but they can be characterized as assertiveness. and aren't easily expressed in single words.I. These are fairly complex constructs. a DISC profile can be used to describe a person's general approach. a DISC personality profile questionnaire contains only twenty-four. though.This confers the advantage of greater accessibility: while a full test battery will often contain literally hundreds of questions. groups. combinations of the four factors). comes from its ability to interpret the relations between these factors. For example where a highly Dominant person has an equally high level of Influence. DISC is used for personal growth and development. teams. and organizations. This also provides advantages in the area of interpretation. coaching and managing of individuals.C. and can be usually be performed in fifteen minutes or less. Influence. DISC results are sufficiently welldefined that their interpretation can be almost completely automated. The results of the online disc profile report are designed to provide targeted insights and strategies for interpersonal success through more effective communication. training.

circles. Steadiness or Stability (originally submission) and Compliant. relationships. DiSC Profile Products and the DiSC Personality Tests are based on the 1928 publication of psychologist William Moulton Marston. He classified four categories of human behavioral type. with various companies using quadrants.S.I. Conscientious. and leadership.I.The DISC Profile is a nonjudgmental tool for understanding behavioral types and personality styles. DiSC is a nonjudgmental assessment developed through research and repeated validation with the purpose of helping people with the skills to their and others' understanding behavioral styles and personality types. It gives valuable insight into one's own behavior as well as the behavior of others.C. and diamonds to graphically represent the positioning of behavioral and personality styles and types. performance. Influence (Marston chose the term inducement). model into a four quadrant model though now a days DISC has become one of the modest popular four quadrant models. productivity. It is one of the most successful and widely used personal and professional development instruments providing the leading edge approach to improve self-awareness. It should be noted that Marston never developed his D. style or temperament-.Dominance. The Emotions of Normal People. The D.C. model looks at behavioral styles and behavioral preferences DiSC uses a four quadrant model that looks at your primary dimensions:  Dominance  Influence  Steadiness  Conscientiousness 53 . communication. or Cautious. wheels. teamwork. DiSC describes how people behave as they respond to their environment. The DISC Personality behavioral model looks at one's behavior based on their personality and the situations one finds them in. (originally compliance).S.

while low D scores are people who want to do more research before committing to a decision. and pioneering. determined. driving. 54 . forceful. calculating. Low D scores describe those who are conservative. They are strong-willed people who enjoy challenges.Dominance: Direct and Decisive These people tend to be independent and results driven. ambitious. The bottom line is their focus tends to be on the bottom line and results. cautious. cooperative. Dominance: People who score high in the intensity of the 'D' styles factor are very active in dealing with problems and challenges. and immediate results. mild. undemanding. modest and peaceful. low keyed. High "D" people are described as demanding. strong willed. agreeable. taking action. egocentric. aggressive.

systematic. They like to do quality work and do it right the first time. possessive. and critical. and careless with details. predictable. stable. Those with Low C scores challenge the rules and want independence and are described as self-willed. These people tend to be your team players and are supportive. sharing thoughts. diplomatic. and optimistic. Understanding behavioral styles 55 . Low S intensity scores are those who like change and variety. People with Low S scores are described as restless. and structure. persuasive. accurate. magnetic. cooperative and helpful to others. or even impulsive. working in consistent and predictable ways. consistent. demonstrative. DISC applications The DISC Profile: a learning tool The DISC Profile. relaxed. stubborn. They prefer being behind the scene. pessimistic. neat. managing. They are often good listeners and avoid change and conflict. and tactful. arbitrary. logical. security. and what to know "how" and "why". patient. as a learning tool can be used to create rapid rapport and connection with people is fundamental in selling. deliberate. People with High I scores influence others through talking and activity and tend to be emotional. Conscientiousness: Cautious. These individuals tend to be very social and out going. factual. and entertaining and energizing others.Influence: Outgoing and Optimistic. High S persons are calm. High C people are careful. matter of fact. impatient. demonstrative. skeptical. exacting. and tend to be unemotional and poker faced. opinionated. People with High S styles scores want a steady pace. Persons with High C styles adhere to rules. They are described as reflective. warm. unsystematic. constantly check for accuracy. and leadership. They plan ahead. cautious. These people are often focused on details and quality. trusting. calculating. Those with Low I scores influence more by data and facts. and not with feelings. suspicious. enthusiastic. They prefer participating on teams. Steadiness: Stability and Status Quo. political. regulations. They are described as convincing. and don't like sudden change. eager.

Applied in corporate. coaching and mentoring The DISC personality assessment is available to individuals. We should also point out that DISC personality profile results tend to be less reliable for young people under the age of twenty or so. Career Development In its simplest terms. 56 . because before this age the personal style tends to be in something of a state of flux. DISC personality testing alone cannot provide a definitive conclusion. better communication and heightened positive attitude.benefits personal and professional relationships by improving communication skills and reducing conflict. However it must be noted that there are a multitude of factors that must affect the decisions a person takes about their career. Once a career decision has been made. DISC personality testing can also help in preparing application letters and curricula vitæ or resumés. of course. Imagine being able to better understand what motivates people and being able to recognize how to effectively deal with others. organizations and corporations. it may even be plausible to include a full printed DISC personality profile with a job application. The precise age at which the behavioral type reaches a stable form will vary from individual to individual. DISC personality behavioral profiles are research based and designed to help you understanding behavioral styles and personality types. using personality testing for career development is a very similar process to that seen in recruitment or assessment scenarios. business. business and personal situations "DISC" can lead to understanding. Because so many organizations use DISC personality tests. A person's DISC profile series is compared against an ideal Job Profile for a particular career. Training and employee development. and these can be included in applications. DISC personality profiles help to highlight the particular areas of strength within a person's behavior. but it is able to provide guidance in deciding whether a particular career path is suited to an individual or not. and the closeness of the match between the two styles will give an indication of how well that individual's style is suited to the career area in question.

business. business and personal situations "DISC" can lead to understanding. Understanding your DISC profile gives you insight for rapid rapport and connection with people a fundamental skill in selling. developed by William Moulton Marston and influence by Carl Jung.S. Individuals and organizations worldwide have used DiSC Profile test for organizational development and performance that deliver results by: • • • improving internal communication job interview/hiring process enhancement helping sales and customer service professionals: o o create and maintain relationship based sales and customer service identify customers' DiSC styles and how to adapt their sales or support styles accordingly o o • stay focused on customer needs manage difficult customer situations enhancing individual and team performance 57 . and organizations.I. managing. This online disc profile report is designed to provide targeted strategies and insights for interpersonal success through effective communication. teams. coaching and managing of individuals. These insights have been utilized for personal growth and development. Insights into the DISC patterns have empowered millions internationally to better understand themselves and others.The DISC is most often used for training and employee development. organizations and corporations. The D. Applied in corporate. profiles four primary behavioral styles. better communication and heightened positive attitude. and leadership.C. each with a distinct and predictable pattern of observable behavior. model. training. coaching and mentoring or employees and sometimes as a part of a hiring process (though it is not designed as a hiring tool). attitude. Understanding behavioral styles benefits personal and professional relationships by improving communication skills. The DISC personality assessment is available to individuals. understanding and tolerance. Imagine being able to better understand what motivates people and being able to recognize how to effectively deal with. DISC personality behavioral profiles are research based and designed to help you understanding behavioral styles and personality types through our online disc questionnaire format. thus reducing conflict and stress. groups.

model but he never copyrighted his disc profile test. In 1946 Raymond Cattell used the emerging technology of computers to analyse the AllportOdbert list. today. Cattell in the 1940's. and violence promoting a greater understanding of one's own behavior and the behavior of others promoting understanding and appreciation of differences improving management effectiveness Irony Marston developed the D." underlying variables that determine the surface traits.• • • • reducing workplace tension. Yet. 75 years after the publication of his book. Cattell identified clusters of "surface traits. 16PF® About the Instrument 16 PF is the standard abbreviation for the 16 Personality Factors multivariate-derived by psychologist Raymond Cattell. The Cattell 16PF (16 Personality Factor) model is probably the most-widely used system for categorizing and defining personality. it is published in 40 languages. Marston's original work continues to be enhanced by ongoing behavioral research and profiles can be found in than 50 languages by various publishers of the disc assessment. Using factor analysis Cattell generated twelve factors. and then included four factors which he thought ought to appear. The 16 PF is based on the 16 "source traits" put forth by Raymond B.S. The result was the hypothesis that 58 . With this evolution of various versions of the DISC of varying quantity and validity. over 5 million people have taken various forms of the DISC profile throughout the world. The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire based on Cattell's theories was first published in 1949 and is now in its fifth edition. and "temperament and ability source traits." consistent behavioral responses. He organized the list into 181 clusters and asked subjects to rate people whom they knew by the adjectives on the list. conflict.I. Cattell was what we call a trait theorist. Using a fancy statistical technique called Multiple Abstract Variance Analysis (MAVA).C.

but which we don't normally see. independent factors. underlying personality. Norman replicated Cattell’s work and suggested that five factors would be sufficient. the 16PF defines our basic. With these sixteen factors as a basis. and it has been shown that he retained too many factors. without regard to how we apply it or the environment in which we apply it. Although subsequent research has failed to replicate his results. Personality profiles such as 16PF measure the basic features of the PC such as the size of the hard disk. But the way in which the PC performs is mainly influenced by its environment . this understanding will be of long-term value to you. which it uses to process ideas and information.as represented by the user who gives it information and asks it to perform tasks. However. if you can understand what your personality is. processing speed and so on. and by our upbringing and education. you can then make better use of the strengths it gives you. A simple analogy would be to think of the human being as a personal computer. Cattell went on to construct the 16PF Personality Questionnaire. 59 . They're relatively unchanging features of the PC that strongly influence its performance. RAM. W. In 1963. and make allowances for the resultant weaknesses. personnel selection and the like.T. The 16 primary factors are each weighted and combined with other relevant factors into global factors. Unlike other common personal profiling tools such as Myers Briggs or Belbin. but the way we see it is affected by our intelligence. Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is a indication of the breadth and complexity of the software loaded on the PC. the current 16PF takes these findings into account and is considered to be a very good test.individuals describe themselves and each other according to sixteen different. which may have taught us either to emphasize or suppress aspects of our personality. Because personality is relatively unchanging through adult life. which remains in use by universities and businesses for research. So our underlying personality is there all the time.

and the word pairs below indicate the extremes of each scale. Factor A (Warmth) It measures a person's emotional orientation toward others . determined by completing a questionnaire. 60 . This is sometimes known as a person's "affinitive tendency".THE 16 PERSONALITY FACTORS Each factor can be measured on a scale. The letter codes were ascribed to each scale as a shorthand notation.the degree to which contact with others is sought and found rewarding as an end in it. Factor A Warmth B Reasoning C Emotional Stability E Dominance F Liveliness Rule G Consciousness H Social Boldness I Sensitivity L Vigilance M Abstractedness N Privateness O Apprehension Openness to Q1 Change Q2 Self-Reliance Q3 Perfectionism Q4 Tension Descriptors Reserved Outgoing Less Intelligent More Intelligent Affected by feelings Emotionally stable Humble Assertive Sober Happy-go-lucky Expedient Conscientious Shy Venturesome Tough-minded Tender-minded Trusting Suspicious Practical Imaginative Straightforward Shrewd Self-Assured Apprehensive Conservative Experimenting Group-dependent Self-sufficient Self-conflict Self-control Relaxed Tense The sixteen factors of the instrument are as follows.

They may be very effective hands-on learners but often need more time to assimilate and adjust to new information. experiential learning contexts. well-known tasks in which they can draw heavily on past experience and can utilize a concrete style of learning by doing. low A types tend to enjoy private or solitary activities. They often enjoy mental complexity or difficulty. All of us have needs for both sociability and solitude. the merrier" approach to life. 61 . the reverse is true of a low A person.High scorers like and need to be with others. while low A types tend not to respond to such rewards. They may find mental complexity aversive or unpleasant. They may like and value other people. but a high A person has a large "sociability bucket" and a small "solitude bucket". Factor B (Reasoning) It measures a person's way of thinking and reasoning. Low scorers are more interested in tasks or ideas than in people-interaction. but can feel "lonely in a crowd". High scorers are mentally quick and absorb new information rapidly and efficiently. As a result.as being "street smart" as opposed to "book smart". They may prefer practical. but simply don't tend to find social interaction rewarding. and may indicate that spending large amounts of time alone is very difficult or demotivating for them. but low scorers should not be thought of as lacking in intelligence. They are more prone to spend longer periods of time in solitary activities and to enjoy that. but don't enjoy "small talk" or superficial social interactions. High A types quickly become bored or lonely when alone. It's better to think of them as having a different kind or style of intelligence . It is correlated with what we conventionally think of as intelligence or problem-solving ability. They rarely like to be alone. Low scorers are most comfortable with familiar. They may enjoy formal or academic learning contexts. They may or may not be shy. High A types are often strongly motivated by social rewards. they are often easily bored by mundane or routine tasks and often have a high need for intellectual challenge. They need and want high levels of interpersonal contact and have a "the more.

yet may also experience a richer and fuller emotional life (the bitter as well as the sweet). proactive way . However. for the same reason. depending on the perceiver's own personality and needs.to remain solution-focused under stress or to "keep their cool" in a crisis. As a result. high scorers are usually better able to manage stress in a positive. factor C is not a measure of mental health or neuroticism. However. High scorers are less likely to experience wide variations in mood. In some cases. low scorers can be strong advocates for others because of their capacity to empathize with the "underdog" .they know from experience what it means to struggle. Both high and low scores are normal variants of personality. (A high proportion of effective counselors score on the low side of factor C for this reason.peaks and valleys on the Factor E (Dominance) 62 . some others may experience or perceive them as unduly stoic or "above it all" in a fashion that could be seen as either reassuring or annoying. Low scorers more characteristically experience a wider range of emotional fluctations .Factor C (Emotional Stability) It measures a person's proneness to mood swings or "ups and downs" in the emotional life. Low scorers typically struggle more with stress. "roller coaster" of life.) Factor C is sometimes called "ego strength" because it is associated with a person's ability to tolerate stresses and difficulties without becoming emotionally overwhelmed. and are more emotionally stable or "steady as she goes" in their emotional experience.

enjoy pleasing others. Low scorers make few demands on others and instead like to accommodate the needs and wishes of other people.It measures a person's place on the "pecking order" of interpersonal assertiveness. They may not enjoy or seek leadership roles. It is a measure of dominance versus submissiveness in an interpersonal context. adventurous types who enjoy being the center of attention. Factor F (Liveliness) It measures a person's natural exuberance or energy level. it provides a measure of deliberateness and caution (low scores) versus impulsivity and lack of inhibition (high scores). They may become bored easily and like to jump from one thing to another. may not be seen as "conventional" or "strong" leaders. They are often seen as "natural leaders" by others (but may. if scores are excessive. low scorers can profit from learning how to be more direct and assertive. As a result. Thinking of the same factor in a different way. playful. strike others as domineering or autocratic if their control orientation is not moderated by other factors). while low scorers can productively gain by learning how to be more competitive and positively confronting. but by other traits such as positional authority and responsibility. As a 63 . While high scorers need to be careful not to overwhelm others with excessive assertiveness (or aggressiveness). High scorers are usually uninhibited. sometimes making insufficient room for their own to be expressed. High scorers can benefit from learning how to be more cooperative and conciliatory. It is also a measure of the extent to which a person likes to be in control of situations involving other people. It is common for high scorers to use competitive terms like "mastering" a subject or "conquering" a problem. They dislike conflict. High scorers enjoy being in control and value power. a positive correlate is tenacity and force of will. and like cooperativeness and harmony-seeking. they are at their best in "generalist" work roles that allow them to wear many different hats and to move from one activity to another without investing too deeply in any one of them. and if placed in such roles. they lead. High scorers tend to like competition and to think of interpersonal situations in primarily competitive terms. not by the force of their will or personality.

master of none") and may need to strengthen their ability to maintain interest and attention in the face of difficulty or complexity. having longer attention spans than high F types. 64 . Factor G (Rule Consciousness) It measures a person's orientation to rules. low F cases can be seen as rather dull. a high scorer is likely to stick to the rules even if this means that a desired result cannot be obtained. Thus. High scorers are usually highly ethically driven and responsible.result. Low scorers are usually deliberate. issue. or role) by others who have a different pattern of traits. focused.a "Regulation Charlie" (or Charlene). others are likely to perceive them as sober. However. They usually like to "dig deep" into what interests them. and serious-minded types. In extreme cases. it is a measure of ethical and moral responsibility and dutifulness. but are. high F types can be seen as rather fickle. at a minimum. Their sense of humor is more of the wry. and so are at their best in "specialist" work roles that allow them to become technical experts in a chosen field of endeavor. they need to watch their tendency to overgeneralize ("jack of all trades. plodding. although the reverse is not always the case: low scorers are not necessarily irresponsible or unethical. careful. they need to watch their tendency to overspecialize ("learning more and more about less and less") and may need to strengthen their ability to deal well with more casual.or principle-governed. even perhaps rather dour people. and social expectations. High scorers' dutifulness and moral conventionality make them desirable in the eyes of most employers. and even if they have a dry wit. which is why factor G correlates with employer ratings of workers to a stronger degree than any other personality factor. prone to think of ethics in unconventional terms. serious. procedures. subtle form. "Variety is the spice of life" is a high F slogan. value. superficial interactions and roles. High scorers are more rule. very high scorers may become unnecessarily rigid or unbending about the rules . self-focused. or superficial by others who have a different pattern of traits. In extreme cases. To a considerable extent. while low scorers are more results-governed. However. "I'd rather be right than President" is a high G dictum. cautious. or one-sided (monomanically devoted to a single cause.

Low scorers are prone to think that rules are made to be broken (or at least bent) if this is what it takes to achieve a desired result. This does not necessarily translate into unethical behavior (though very low scorers are statistically likely to strike others as ethically challenged or, in the extreme case, even rather conscienceless), but it does suggest a different kind of focus - on in which outcomes, not rules, are the major emphasis.

Factor H (Social Boldness) It measures social initiative taking and, to a lesser extent, a general orientation toward risk taking of any sort. "Shyness" versus "social boldness" is one way to think of this factor. However, other kinds of risks besides social risks are also in view in this factor. High scorers are social initiative takers who are comfortable with such activities as networking, self-marketing, introducing themselves to others, small talk, and "schmoozing". As a result, nearly all sales and marketing professionals are high H types. High H types show more "courage", social and otherwise, and in the extreme show a high need for thrill seeking or "living on the edge". Most people who engage in "extreme sports", for instance, are high H types. Low scorers are more likely to be shy and to find social initiative taking aversive and difficult. They prefer a small number of close relationships to a large number of more superficial ones and probably do not enjoy meeting new people in large group contexts. They may show a more general pattern of risk aversion and timidity, and probably enjoy quieter, "safe" pursuits.

Factor I (Sensitivity) It is a complex factor that is difficult to summarize in a single phrase. It has to do with two related qualities: mindedness. High scorers are generally emotionally sensitive, empathic, aware of feelings, and prone to make decisions on a more personal or subjective basis (focused on personal values or the needs of others). As a result, they do well in roles that call for interpersonal sensitivities and an emphasis objectivity versus subjectivity, and tough-mindedness versus tender-

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on "feeling" issues. However, they may, especially in the extreme, lack objectivity, and may have a difficult time seeing the dark side of something about which they care deeply. Others may see them as "thin-skinned" or "wearing their heart on their sleeve." Low scorers are generally objective, analytical, logical, and prone to make decisions on a more impersonal basis (focused on cause and effect or rational consequences). As a result, they do well in roles that call for analytical logic or impersonal objective reasoning (which are more likely to involve working with things, ideas, or data rather than with human beings and their needs and problems). However, they may, especially in the extreme, lack sensitivity, and may seem to have an "emotional blind spot" - lacking an emotional vocabulary or the ability to sense their own needs and feelings as well as those of others. Others may see them as "armor-plated" or "having ice in their veins".

Factor L (Vigilance) It has to do with the balance between trust and skepticism. High scorers are more careful, vigilant, wary, or skeptical about trusting others and are less likely to assume that others' motivations are trustworthy or benign. They are more likely to "read between the lines" in evaluating others - which means that they are less likely to be taken in by those who have a hidden agenda, but also that they are more likely to imagine a hidden agenda when, in fact, none exists. Very high scores are associated with a tendency to blame or suspect others in unnecessary ways. However, moderately high scores simply mean a cautious stance that says, “I will trust those who earn my trust.” Low scorers are more prone to take others at face value and to trust others' motivations, sometimes in excessive or unrealistic ways. The positive side of low scores is a natural tendency to feel a sense of "connectedness" with others and to "give others the benefit of the doubt" in dealings with them. The negative side, especially with extreme scores, is a certain naivete or gullibility in dealing with others - a tendency to be taken in by those who are not worthy of trust.

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Some professions require higher L scores than others: those which require skepticism or an ability to read between the lines. Examples of professions that reward higher than average L scores are IRS auditors, police detectives, and insurance underwriters.

Factor M (Abstractedness) It has to do with practicality versus creativity, or a literal detail orientation versus an imaginative big picture orientation. Think of a camera with two different lenses: a close-up lens that reveals fine details, and a telephoto lens that shows how elements in a scene are associated with one another. Low scores are like the close-up view, high scores are like the wide-angle view. High scorers are generally creative, imaginative, and insightful. Often, they are abstract or theoretical in orientation (focused on ideas, not their practical implementation). Their focus is generally strategic (the "thousand-year view"). However, in their ideophoria, they can miss or underattend to details and can lack practicality. The absent-minded professor is that of a very high M person. Low scorers are very much in touch with practical realities, live by them, make decisions on a literal and factual basis. They tend to be focused on here-and-now results and outcomes, and ask "how", not "why". Their focus is generally tactical (this hour, this day, this week). However, they can be blind to wider meanings and implications, can be overly literal or even nitpicky about details, and generally can miss the forest for the trees. According to psychiatrist David Keirsey, this factor is the biggest "psychological divide" between persons, especially in the workplace: those who focus on what is (low M) tend not to understand those who focus on what could or might be (high M), and vice versa. As a result, the world of work is strongly segregated along these lines: people seek work that provides them either with a steady stream of facts and details (low M) or a steady stream of ideas and possibilities (high M). Neither would be happy in the other role. In the extreme, low M people can see high M types as having their head in the clouds, and high M types can see low M people as having their feet stuck in the mud.

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scorers are more discreet. but may be more politically naïve or may not keep secrets well. One is a general proneness to worry. or a human resource professional) or that require political "savvy". but may not trust them with confidential or private information. High scorers are also prone to experience such states as worry and guilt. as well as how well s/he keeps private matters confidential. selling oneself short. they are simply careful about sharing information.Factor N (Privateness) It has to do with self-disclosure. High scorers are careful and selective about self-disclosure (when. high Factor O (Apprehension) It has to do with apprehension in two senses. "Loose lips sink ships" is a high N motto. People usually know exactly where they stand. although high N types are not inherently manipulative. may strike others as hard to get to know. but I really don't know her/him" is something that others may often say about high N types. treating oneself stringently or harshly. and with whom they share. high O types are often also high on factor G and. a payroll clerk. They strike others as more open and forthright. and with whom they share information). it also suggests a general tendency toward self-blame that is not necessarily productive. to a lesser extent. Low scorers are "what you see is what you get" or "shoot from the lip" types who are quick to disclose information and are much less selective about when. Low scorers are more forthright. where. High O persons tend to be merciless self-critics. Note that low scorers strike others as more "artless" while high scorers can come across as "shrewd". They are slower to open up to others and. how easy a person is to get to know. and consequently. While this suggests high performance standards (and. Q3). The other is a propensity to self-doubt and self-blame (intrapunitiveness): being hard on oneself. These people tend to do well in roles that require caution about the disclosure of information (such as a diplomat. where. as a result. "I respect her/him. indeed. 68 .

69 . novelty. they can be "change junkies" who see change for change's sake. Low scorers like the known. these positive traits can turn into complacency. They are quick to jump on the change bandwagon and tend to become bored. seek change. don't fix it". like things as they are. or even denial of one's true faults (so-called "anxiety binding"). avoid needless change. arrogance. However. convention. while high scorers are more oriented to the side of opportunity (and hence tend to seek out change). or who are intolerant or dismissive of tradition. High scorers like change. "if it ain't broke. and the time-tested. In the extreme. they tend to be skeptical of change or to respond negatively to it.or to strike out on one's own. Nicholas Lore divides the vocational world into "tribals" (those who like to be "a bee in the hive") and "lone wolves" (those who like to do be a one-man or one-woman show). and stability.low scorers are more attuned to the danger side (and hence tend to resist change). and say. Factor Q1 (Openness to Change) It has to do with a person's orientation to change. blindness to areas of needful self-improvement. Factor Q2 (Self Reliance) It has to do with a propensity to seek group support .Low O persons are self-assured. and want to "boldly go where no one has gone before". At least initially. the tried and true. frustrated. low O persons might profitably learn to be a bit harder on them. The Chinese word for change literally means "dangerous opportunity" . They are certain of their capabilities and invest little energy in introspection of a self-evaluative sort. respond positively to change. who needlessly reinvent the wheel. and high O persons might learn to cut themselves some slack. They are guardians of stability and constancy and tend to be threatened. or demoralized by situations that provide insufficient change. they can drag their feet about change or can seem reactionary to others. with very low scores. self-confident. and innovation. or demoralized by situations that provide excessive change. This captures factor Q2 well. and rarely worry about themselves. frustrated. In general. In the extreme.

think in terms of collaborative. goal oriented. these 70 . stopping along the way whenever the mood struck them (the low Q3 style). they "ask for help when the request is pried out from between their cold. High scorers are more organized. and tend to have steady work habits oriented around starting tasks promptly. There is some evidence that high scorers gravitate to smaller companies (including the ultimate in smallness. low Q2 people.and prize self-reliance. working first and playing second.High scorers like to solve problems on their own . Cultures that emphasize individual activity and achievement attract high Q2 types. like high levels of structure. Part of the factor has to do with "task orientation" versus "process orientation". Thus. They may find it hard to delegate or may run the risk of overly isolating themselves. When taken to excess. while low scorers gravitate to larger companies. methodical. Another has to do with a "structure seeking" versus "structure avoidant" tendency. systematic. are emphasized. focused on conventional achievement (including outward status markers of success and image). Think of a person driving cross-country. taking the scenic route. Low scorers like group support and group consensus. solo practitiones roles as self-employed individuals). and taking deadlines seriously. and may have a hard time acting alone or independently. types. They like to act independently and may be attracted to entrepreneurial roles or to individual contributor roles for this reason. not individual outcomes. those that emphasize teamwork and collaboration. A third has to do with image management. team-based action.in the extreme. being seen as "not a team player" in a culture that may consist of more low Q2 Factor Q3 (Perfectionism) It is another complex factor that encompasses more than one core element. Another might have a goal of enjoying the trip. the idea of "the destination versus the journey" is one way to differentiate high versus low scorers. One person might have a goal of getting to the destination as quickly and efficiently as possible (the high Q3 style). They may be attracted to "corporate" roles in which there are high levels of social support for what they do and in which team outcomes. dead fingers" .

spontaneous. They are better starters than finishers and tend to work in "feast or famine" spurts. High scorers lose efficiency as the amount of environmental structure decreases. hence less done. High scorers are "always on the go". Low scorers are more flexible. Factor Q4 (Tension) It is about patience or impatience in response to environmental delays. A good informal test for a person's Q4 score is to watch their behavior in a crowded grocery store when the "express lane" is crawling along at molasses-in-February speed. However. Using all 16 Factors. they also get things done. which means less stress. emergent. "fidgety". and hypertension). and demands. producing impatience. adaptable. High scorers (especially if also high on Q3) tend to "somatize" stress (ulcers. these traits may degenerate into procrastinating. and may care less about what "the Joneses" think. migraine headaches. Low scorers lose efficiency as the amount of environmental structure decreases."don't worry. be happy". and driven to make things happen. They take life in stride. placid . Combinations of factors also give a more detailed picture. mixing work and play and treating deadlines flexibly. inflexibility. you can create a pretty accurate picture of someone's personality. but also less of a sense of internal urgency. and a more comprehensive set of descriptions than we've given here. and an inability to handle the unexpected or to stop and smell the roses. Low scorers are patient. and with the help of a competent adviser. and process oriented. 71 . When taken to excess. and an inability to hold oneself accountable. waffling. They are often less focused on achievement as an end in itself. constantly busy.traits may degenerate into rigidity. relaxed. Low scorers are less likely to express stress in physiological ways. Delays frustrate them. stresses. drifting. you can begin to recognize the "real you" that lies beneath the outward self created by your upbringing and environment. efficiency-minded. and irritability. tension.

If you want to know what's behind any one of the 5 Factors you can "zoom in" on the relevant 16 Factors to see what the drivers are. THE 16PF5 MODEL 16PF5 takes the 16 Factors of 16PF and groups them together into 5 overall themes (hence the name). socially inhibited participative 72 . but narrowing them down to 5 Factors give a much sharper picture of the underlying personality. by the way. socially Extroverted. and in recent years a variation of 16PF called 16PF5 has become more commonplace. absorbing the data from all 16 factors can get complicated. The Five Global Factors are  Extraversion  Anxiety  Will  Independence  Self control 5 Factors Descriptors EXTRAVERSION Introverted. Some of the 16 appear in more than one of the 5 themes.However. Clearly there is some overlap between the 16 Factors.

eliciting a more comprehensive picture of each candidate’s strengths and development needs.ANXIETY Low anxiety. When used as part of a structured selection process. unperturbed Easily worried and generally tense WILL Open minded. receptive to ideas Resolute and determined INDEPENDENCE Accommodating and selfless Independent and persuasive SELF CONTROL Free-thinking and impulsive Structured and inhibited Business applications Selection The 16PF factors can be mapped against the competencies required to be successful in a particular role. the questionnaire results can highlight areas to explore further during interview. This makes the selection process more 73 .

problem solving. conflict resolution.effective. Other uses of the 16PF include:  Facilitating self-understanding and an appreciation of diversity  Providing a platform for career planning and career self-management  Enhancing effective communication. Executive coaching The questionnaire can be used in combination with additional tools (such as the 360 degree feedback tool. For successful candidates. Other applications include career guidance and counseling. allowing key areas for team development to be identified. which can then be used to formulate an effective development plan. Benchmarks®) to provide senior-level management with an essential understanding of their own behavior and an objective assessment of how their style impacts on others. building on this platform to establish clear development objectives. Teambuilding Building a team profile using the 16PF instrument will highlight areas that may add to or detract from team effectiveness. promoting increased productivity and understanding. Development The questionnaire can assess the management/leadership potential and style of an individual. and decision making BENEFITS 74 . the 16PF questionnaire can be used to create individual development plans. Each individual will also be able to build an appreciation of other team members’ strengths. The individual can then be coached.

Peers of the subject are then given the same list. These represent information of which the participant is not aware. Adjectives selected only by the participant. This quadrant represents traits of the participant of which both they and their peers are aware. interpret and feed back  Proven reliability and validity  Norm data is available for the UK population  The fifth edition is based on over 50 years of research and testing JOHARI WONDOW About the Instrument A Johari window is a metaphorical tool created by Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham in 1955 in the United States. Quick and easy to complete  Can be completed on paper. used to help people better understand their interpersonal communication and relationships. as a model for mapping personality awareness. are placed into the Façade quadrant. the subject is given a list of 55 adjectives and picks five or six that they feel describe their own personality. It is used primarily in self-help groups and corporate settings as a heuristic exercise. and each pick five or six adjectives that describe the subject. It is then up to the participant whether or not to disclose this information. but not by any of their peers. Adjectives selected by both the participant and his or her peers are placed into the Arena quadrant. but 75 . When performing the exercise. representing information about the participant of which their peers are unaware. or electronically  Available in UK English and many European languages  Easy to score. Adjectives that are not selected by the participant but only by their peers are placed into the Blind Spot quadrant.

The 55adjectives are as follows: Able Calm Confident Friendly Independent Knowledgeable Nervous Proud Responsive Sentimental Tense Accepting Caring Adaptable Cheerful Dignified Happy Intelligent Loving Organised Reflective Self-assertive Silly Warm Bold Clever Energetic Helpful Introverted Mature Brave Complex Extroverted Idealistic Kind Modest Powerful Religious Sensible Sympathetic Witty Dependable Giving Ingenious Logical Observant Quiet Searching Shy Trustworthy Patient Relaxed Self-conscious Spontaneous Wise 76 . or because there is collective ignorance of the existence of that trait.others are. and they can decide whether and how to inform the individual about these "blind spots". Adjectives which were not selected by either the participant or their peers remain in the Unknown quadrant. representing the participant's behaviors or motives which were not recognized by anyone participating. This may be because they do not apply.

is one of the most useful models describing the process of human interaction. each person is represented by their own window 77 . Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham.A JOHARI WINDOW The Johari Window. named after the first names of its inventors. and unknown. The lines dividing the four panes are like window shades. blind. In this model. hidden. which can move as an interaction progresses." as illustrated above. A four paned "window. as represented by its four quadrants: open. divides personal awareness into four different types.

For example. Also. helpful. but my feelings. OR 'ARENA' Johari region 1 is also known as the 'area of free activity'. feelings. by seeking and actively listening to feedback from other group members. needs and desires. attitude. Top performing 78 . and that you know about me. Established team members logically tend to have larger open areas than new team members.. the size of the opening of this first quadrant is not very large. behaviors. positive.. New team members start with relatively small open areas because relatively little knowledge about the new team member is shared. For example in my case the "open" quadrant represents things that both I know about myself. motives. The size of the open area can also be expanded vertically downwards into the hidden or avoided space by the person's disclosure of information. or 'the arena'. mistrust. views. Also. other group members can help a team member expand their open area by offering feedback. This process is known as 'feedback solicitation'. experience. conflict and misunderstanding. emotion. because when we work in this area with others we are at our most effective and productive and the group is at its most productive too. free from distractions. sensitive communications. Managers and team leaders can play an important role in facilitating feedback and disclosure among group members.JOHARI QUADRANT 1 . This is the information about the person .behavior. any information describing who I am. feelings.known by the person ('the self') and known by the group ('others'). confusion. The size of the open area can be expanded horizontally into the blind space. and in directly giving feedback to individuals about their own blind areas. can be seen as the space where good communications and cooperation occur. etc . honest. etc about him/herself to the group and group members. skills. The open free area. knowledge. constructive. group members can help a person expand their open area into the hidden area by asking the person about him/herself. wants. Leaders also have a big responsibility to promote a culture and expectation for open. When I first meet a new person. The aim in any group should always be to develop the 'open area' for every person. The knowledge that the window represents. indeed. since there has been little time to exchange information. sensitively of course. I know my name. can include not only factual information.'OPEN SELF/AREA' OR 'FREE AREA' OR 'PUBLIC AREA'. and the sharing of knowledge throughout their organization.

We all know how difficult it is to work well when kept in the dark. so encouraging the positive development of the 'open area' or 'open self' for everyone is a simple yet fundamental aspect of effective leadership JOHARI QUADRANT 2 .'BLIND SELF' OR 'BLIND AREA' OR 'BLIND SPOT' Johari region 2 is what is known about a person by others in the group. This blind area is not an effective or productive space for individuals or groups. and the issues on which feedback is sought. since you may not want to embarrass me. Then the problem is how I can get this information out in the open. Managers should promote a climate of non-judgmental feedback. but is unknown by the person him/herself. People who are 'thick-skinned' tend to have a large 'blind area'. to increase self-awareness. Group members and managers can take some responsibility for helping an individual to reduce their blind area . or you may draw your own inferences that perhaps I am being insincere. This blind area could also be referred to as ignorance about oneself. Some people are more resilient than others . which reduces fear and therefore encourages both processes to happen. or issues in which one is deluded.care needs to be taken to avoid causing emotional upset. No-one works well when subject to 'mushroom management'. By seeking or soliciting feedback from others. perhaps in our ongoing conversation. the aim should be to reduce this area and thereby to increase the open area ie. 79 . but that I am unaware of. you may notice that eye contact seems to be lacking. For example in my case the "blind" quadrant represents things that you know about me. companies and organizations always tend to have a culture of open positive communication. A blind area could also include issues that others are deliberately withholding from a person. must always be at the individual's own discretion.groups. You may not say anything. The extent to which an individual seeks feedback. and group response to individual disclosure. For example.in turn increasing the open area . departments.by giving sensitive feedback and encouraging disclosure.

team-working effectiveness and productivity. a lot of hidden information is not very personal. which enables better understanding. which all distract from and undermine team effectiveness. and therefore unknown. thereby increasing the open area. enabling better individual performance and group effectiveness. manipulative intentions.or performance-related. and increase the open area. poor communication. It's natural for very personal and private information and feelings to remain hidden.care needs to be taken to avoid causing emotional upset. The extent to which an individual discloses personal feelings and information. Some people are more keen and able than others to disclose. and the issues which are disclosed. cooperation. and so can and should remain hidden. would enhance mutual understanding. for whatever reason. ie known by the group as well. The hidden area could also include sensitivities.JOHARI QUADRANT 3 . it is work. As with feedback. Most people fear judgment or vulnerability and therefore hold back hidden information and feelings. that if moved into the open area. This hidden or avoided self represents information. some people are more resilient than others . should be moved into the open area through the process of 'disclosure'.hence the Johari Window terminology 'self-disclosure' and 'exposure process'. and so is better positioned in the open area. The aim should be to disclose and expose relevant information and feelings . and thereby improve group awareness. and to whom. trust. feelings and experiences have no bearing on work. certain information. anything that a person knows about him/self. etc. fears. Reducing hidden areas also reduces the potential for confusion. Organizational culture and working atmosphere have a major influence on group members' preparedness to disclose their hidden selves. hidden agendas. etc. However. 80 . People should disclose at a pace and depth that they find personally comfortable.anything that a person knows but does not reveal. feelings. and secrets . indeed. must always be at the individual's own discretion. misunderstanding. to others. etc. typically. but which is not revealed or is kept hidden from others. By telling others how we feel and other information about ourselves we reduce the hidden area.'HIDDEN SELF' OR 'HIDDEN AREA' OR 'AVOIDED SELF/AREA' OR 'FACADE' Johari region 3 is what is known to us but kept hidden from. etc. Relevant hidden information and feelings.

'UNKNOWN SELF' OR 'AREA OF UNKNOWN ACTIVITY' OR 'UNKNOWN AREA' Johari region 4 contains information. Large unknown areas would typically be expected in younger people. encouragement. which can be quite close to the surface. behaviors. influencing his/her behavior to various degrees. of the sort of discovery experienced on outward bound courses or other deep or intensive group work. and people who lack experience or self-belief. Whether unknown 'discovered' knowledge moves into the hidden. These unknown issues take a variety of forms: they can be feelings. and the first example is particularly relevant and common. aptitudes. aptitudes. attitudes. blind or open area depends on who discovers it and what they do with the knowledge. Examples of unknown factors are as follows. and can be prompted through self-discovery or observation by others. but this would then be known to the person and by one other. 81 . especially in typical organizations and teams: • an ability that is under-estimated or un-tried through lack of opportunity. that are unknown to the person him/herself and unknown to others in the group. or disclosed. notably whether it is then given as feedback. or they can be deeper aspects of a person's personality. confidence or training a natural ability or aptitude that a person doesn't realize they possess a fear or aversion that a person does not know they have an unknown illness repressed or subconscious feelings conditioned behavior or attitudes from childhood • • • • • The processes by which this information and knowledge can be uncovered are various. capabilities.JOHARI QUADRANT 4 . Counseling can also uncover unknown issues. feelings. and which can be positive and useful. or in certain situations through collective or mutual discovery. rather than by a group. latent abilities. experiences etc.

constructive observation and feedback among team members. Some people are more keen and able than others to do this. by similarly disclosing information in their hidden quadrant. Incidentally. It is a widely accepted industrial fact that the majority of staff in any organization are at any time working well within their potential. In a work or organizational context the Johari Window should not be used to address issues of a clinical nature. the process of self discovery is a sensitive one. is often a useful way to discover unknown abilities. it is fattening.that is unknown aptitudes and skills. and to promote the processes of self discovery. Typically. much more has been written on the Johari window model of human interaction. kinds of information in your hidden quadrant. an interaction between two parties can be modeled dynamically as two active Johari windows. with no great pressure to succeed. as I share something about myself (moving information from my hidden quadrant into the open) and if the other party is interested in getting to know me. Thus. you may respond to my disclosure that I like "Cherry Garcia" by letting me know what your favorite ice cream is. The process of enlarging the open quadrant is called self-disclosure. they will reciprocate. climate and expectation for selfdiscovery helps people to fulfil more of their potential and thereby to achieve more.is another aspect of developing the unknown area. For example. Uncovering 'hidden talents' . or where a new ice cream shop is being built. which can stay unknown for a lifetime.Again as with disclosure and soliciting feedback. not to be confused with developing the Johari 'hidden area' . and is not so sensitive as unknown feelings. Providing people with the opportunity to try new things. Managers and leaders can help by creating an environment that encourages self-discovery. The extent and depth to which an individual is able to seek out discover their unknown feelings must always be at the individual's own discretion. Creating a culture. so be careful on how much you eat! 82 . A note of caution about Johari region 4: The unknown area could also include repressed or subconscious feelings rooted in formative events and traumatic past experiences. and to contribute more to organizational performance. Much. a give and take process between me and the people I interact with. and thereby reduce the unknown area.

Active listening skills are helpful in this endeavor. On the other hand. dependency. women who reveal that she was raped may be seen in the future as a victim or by men as damaged goods. impotence. can also reveal difficulties in this area. On the simplest level. protecting the parts of ourselves that we feel vulnerable. difficulties may arise due to a lack of clarity in the interaction. For example. chose that person very carefully. nature has provided us with a variety of defense mechanisms to cope with such events. consider this: that keeping secrets is healthy and tasteful. you correct it immediately or perhaps on a more long term approach take a 83 . However. Sometimes you get negative feedback." and can be traumatic. and indicates you are secure and have selfcontrol. you give them power over you. Chose someone whose response will give you some insight into your problem. because it is a way of managing your identity. Be forewarned that most secrets get passed along to at least two more parties. The Johari window. two people attempt to communicate via the open quadrants. "If you give people information about yourself. and yet can be seen by others. People also misjudge how others respond to secrets. the sender. Fortunately. rejection.We believe disclosure to be healthy. unorganized thoughts. Now. at least that's the impression one gets after reading Freud. the blind quadrant contains behavior. So if you cannot find anyone appropriate. is "psychological rape. incompetence. As ones level of confidence and self esteem develops. mental health problems or large-scale failures. ignoring. but which others can see. one may actively invite others to comment on one's blind spots. if you must tell your secret to someone. such a person is often hard to find. needs to control and manipulate. are all difficult to face. Unfortunately. Anita Kelly recently wrote that self-disclosure of personal secrets has its dangers. such as poor grammar or choice of words. guilt. A teacher may seek feedback from students on the quality of a particular lecture. This induces the receiver to criticize you. if the feedback works. essentially being a model for communication. feelings and motivations not accessible to the person. We are often better off not telling secrets regarding our sexual behavior. Monica Lewinsky's disclosure to Linda Tripp and the ensuing scandal that enveloped President Clinton is a case in point. In Johari terms. we all have defenses. Then. ambivalence for loved ones. But it takes energy. Feelings of inadequacy. unworthiness. by revealing something that was in your blind quadrant. faulty logic etc. such as denial. because you have to be on constant guard not to accidentally reveal something that is potentially damaging." she says. Remember. To forcibly reveal what another wishes not to see. with the desire of improving the presentation.

active listening and experience. blind to you. by disclosing information about his/her feelings. you voted with the majority. which will reduce the size of the hidden area. etc. Thus. in conflict with your verbal message. Seeking feedback about the blind area will reduce the blind area. and increase the open free area. blind. hiding all negative feelings. and to reduce their blind. However.course in reading and writing. you may be in a group meeting. you in an interaction with others may always put on a smiling. or better still if known by the person and others.that is. 84 . Discovery through sensitive communications. and will increase the open free area. happy face. and the team will fail to make full use of the team's potential and the person's potential too. By withholding negative feelings. experience.that is. hidden and unknown areas.should always be striving to increase their open free areas. whose members have large hidden. motivation. On a deeper level. you may be signaling to your friends to withhold also. will reduce the unknown area. Team members .is far more effective than a team which does not understand each other. Effort should generally be made by the person to increase his/her open free area. Application and Importance A team which understands itself . your communication style may seem bland or distant. depending on who knows what. On an even deeper level. transferring in part to the blind. and while you secretly sympathize with the minority viewpoint. each person having a strong mutual understanding with the team .and leaders . and keep their distance. views. to the open free area. you actually may be communicating this information via body language. A person represented by the Johari Window example below will not perform to their best potential. hidden areas. and/or unknown areas.

Meredith Belbin and his team of researchers based at Henley Management College. These were named "Team Roles". and Completer Finisher People-oriented roles Co-coordinator. During a period of over nine years. also called the Belbin Self-Perception Inventory or the Belbin Team Role Inventory. Managers taking part in the study were given a battery of psychometric tests and put into teams of varying composition. Meredith Belbin after studying teams at Henley Management College. intellectual styles and behaviors were assessed during the exercise. As time progressed different clusters of behavior were identified as underlying the success of the teams. is a test used to gain insight into an individual's personality type. Monitor Evaluator and Specialist 85 . England. while they were engaged in a complex management exercise. Implementer. Their different core personality traits. It was developed by Dr. studied the behavior of managers from all over the world. These are: Action-oriented roles Shaper. contribute and interrelate with others in a particular way. Team worker and Resource Investigator Cerebral roles Plant." Although the original research and most people's association with the Team Role model relates to teams there is strong evidence to support the view that these natural tendencies exist in workplace activities outside the formal team.BELBIN TEAM ROLE INVENTORY About the instrument The Belbin Team Inventory. Dr Meredith Belbin defines a Team Role as "Our tendency to behave.

These behavioral patterns are called "Team Roles" and these nine roles cover the types of individual behavior at work in a team. but strong enough to reject their advice. It also gives valuable insights for teambuilding and conflict management. accepting. Co-coordinator Shaper Plant Resource Investigator Company Worker/ Implementer Monitor/Evaluator Team Worker Completer finisher Specialist Co-coordinator Characteristics: The co-coordinator is a person-oriented leader. Developed from observations of over 200 teams. struggle and effort in others. not have a sharp intellect. Belbin’s Team Roles have become part of standard assessment and HR practice. Weakness: The co- This person trusts. Belbin’s framework can be used both to predict the performance of existing teams and to construct teams around desired outcomes. British psychologist Dr Meredith Belbin has worked to achieve a coherent and accurate system that explains individual behavior and its influence on team success. dominant and is committed to team coordinator may not stand out goals and objectives. 86 . The co-coordinator is a positive thinker who in a team and usually does approves of goal attainment.THE BELBIN TEAM ROLES The Belbin Model is a robust and highly effective concept on teamwork that is the product of many years of research. The co-coordinator is someone tolerant enough always to listen to others.

Resource Investigator Characteristics: The resource investigator is the executive who is never in his room. The shaper is committed to achieving ends and will ‘shape’ others into achieving the aims of the team. The resource investigator is someone who explores opportunities and develops contacts. Weakness: Weaknesses are a tendency to lose interest after initial fascination with an idea. who has a high motivation to achieve and for whom winning is the name of the game. and if he is.Shaper Characteristics: The shaper is a task-focused leader who abounds in Weakness: He or she will nervous energy. according to Belbin. argue or disagree and will display aggression in the pursuit of goal achievement. Two or three shapers in a group. Resource investigators are good negotiators who probe others for information and support and pick up other’s ideas and develop them. can lead to conflict. he is on the telephone. aggravation and in-fighting. and they are not usually the source of original ideas. challenge. 87 . They are characterized by sociability and enthusiasm and are good at liaison work and exploring resources outside the group.

inflexible and slow to respond to new possibilities. The plant tends to take radical approaches to team functioning and problems. realistic way. conscientious and have a good self-image.Plant Characteristics: The plant is a specialist idea maker characterized by high IQ and introversion while also being dominant and original. They are often highly introverted and anxious and tend to be self-starting. They tend to do the jobs that others do not want to do and do them well: for example. Plants are more concerned with major issues than with details. disciplining employees. Weakness: Their weaknesses are single-mindedness and a lack of interest in other peoples’ subjects Monitor evaluator 88 . dedicated and committed. Weakness: Implementers are conservative. Implementers figure prominently in positions of responsibility in larger organizations. They are characterized by low anxiety and tend to work for the team in a practical. They tend to be tough-minded and practical. trusting and tolerant. Specialist Characteristics:The specialist provides knowledge and technical skills which are in rare supply within the team. respecting established traditions. Weakness: Weaknesses are a tendency to disregard practical details and argumentativeness. Company worker/ implementer Characteristics: Implementers are aware of external obligations and are disciplined.

this is a judicious. tends to be slow in coming to a decision because of a need to think things over and takes pride in never being wrong. Completer finishers Characteristics: The completer finisher dots the it’s and crosses the t’s. according to Belbin. Weakness: Weaknesses are that they may appear dry and boring or even over-critical. They are not good at inspiring others. Monitor evaluators contribute particularly at times of crucial decision making because they are capable of evaluating competing proposals.Characteristics: According to the model. coping with awkward people and to be sociable. aims to complete and Weakness: Weaknesses. prudent. Their diplomatic skills together with their sense of humor are assets to a team. intelligent person with a low need to achieve. is serious minded. Those in high level appointments are often monitor evaluators. Sensitive and people oriented. The monitor evaluator is not deflected by emotional arguments. Team worker Characteristics: Team workers make helpful interventions to avert potential friction and enable difficult characters within the team to use their skills to positive ends. Weakness: They tend to be indecisive in moments of crisis and reluctant to do things that might hurt others. He or she gives attention to detail. They tend to keep team spirit up and allow other members to contribute effectively. They tend to have skills in listening. are that 89 .

to do so thoroughly. • • • • • To achieve the best balance.but a team can be". By using the Belbin profiles people can better understand teams and the contributions of the individuals around them. there should be: One Co-coordinator or Shaper (not both) for leader A Plant to stimulate ideas A Monitor/evaluator to maintain honesty and clarity One or more Implementer. They make steady effort and are consistent in their work. They are not so interested in the glamour of spectacular success. work to their strengths and actively manage weaknesses. An inventory of Team Role skills. Resource investigator or Completer/finisher to make things happen Why use team role profiles Individual Belbin profiles can offer tremendous insight into individual and team operating methods. Balanced teams Teams work best when there is a balance of primary roles and when team members know their roles. they tend to be over anxious and have difficulty letting go and delegating work. In Belbin's words "Nobody is perfect . Team worker. Each individual invariably brings different skills and behaviors to a team. Practical Implications 90 . The Belbin Model offers us a unique and highly effective way to blend these elements to build the perfect team. strengths and allowable weaknesses can be used to add value to everything from a stand-alone experiential simulation to the composition of management and project teams.

Based on Belbin's model of 9 team roles. but perhaps should be at least 3 or 4. They consist of multiple choice questions and are administered under exam conditions. They are strictly timed and a typical test might allow 30 minutes for 30 or so questions. Aptitude and Ability Tests Aptitude and ability tests are designed to assess ones logical reasoning or thinking performance. managers or organizations building working teams would be advised to ensure that each of the roles can be performed by a team member. Some roles are compatible and can be more easily fulfilled by the same person. This means that a team need not be as many as 9 people. Multiple choice question Aptitude and ability test Exam conditions Strictly timed There are at least 5000 aptitude and ability tests on the market the most common ones can be classified as follows: 91 . some are less compatible and are likely to be done well by people with different behavioral clusters.

They are deliberately designed so that the visual problemsolving strategy will work better than any other approach.Measures ones ability to identify the underlying logic of a pattern and then determine the solution.Designed to assess ones knowledge of physical and mechanical principles. Abstract Reasoning Tests . Spatial Ability Tests . Numeric Ability Tests . grammar.Verbal Ability Tests .Measure how quickly and accurately errors can be detected in data and is used to select candidates for clerical and data input jobs. number sequences and simple mathematics.Measures ones ability to manipulate shapes in two dimensions or to visualize three-dimensional objects presented as two-dimensional pictures.Includes basic arithmetic. blocks of information are provided that require interpretation. Work Sample Tests . Data Checking Tests . Mechanical Aptitude Tests . In more complex numerical critical reasoning questions.Involves a sample of the work that one will be expected do. and ability to understand analogies and follow detailed written instructions. These types of test can be very broad ranging. They may involve exercises using a word processor or 92 .Includes spelling.

question presentation is uniform.spreadsheet if the job is administrative or they may include giving a presentation or in-tray exercises if the job is management or supervisory level. • . This means that the organization can continue with the selection process with the results 'in hand' rather than keep one waiting or send one home and call one back in at a later date. Another advantage is that one can take the test at a recruitment agency or even in ones own home. an analysis of the results can be calculated straight away. Very few people manage to finish these tests and the object is simply to give as many correct answers as one can. The advantage of online testing is that once the test is completed. Increased cost-savings .scoring and interpretation are done immediately. Increased security . Some of the advantages of online testing are: • . the questions may become more difficult and one will usually find that there are more questions than one can comfortably complete in the time allowed. Online testing is particularly suitable for initial screening as it is very cost-effective. Question Types and Scoring One may be asked to answer the questions either on paper or using a PCor palm-top.no printed material is needed.test data can be easily encrypted. Whichever type of test one is given. the questions are almost always presented in multiplechoice format and have definite correct and incorrect answers. 93 . As one proceed through the test. Increased standardization . Increased speed . • . • . as online testing is becoming increasingly popular.

There are two different styles of maximum performance test. speed tests and power tests. ones score should then be compared with the results of a control group. Often however. Aptitude and ability test Power test Speed test In a speed test. which has taken the tests in the past. This does happen sometimes. 94 . Taken individually. Ones reasoning skills can then be assessed in relation to this control group and judgments made about ones ability. After all. Aptitude and ability tests are classified as maximum performance tests as they test what one can achieve when one are making maximum effort. Speed and Power Tests The types of question one can expect will depend on which aptitudes and abilities that are needed in the job one are applying for. the control group is not applying for the job. This control group could consist of other graduates. the scope of the questions is limited and the methods one need to use to answer them clear.Ideally. ones score is simply compared to the other candidates. current job holders or a sample of the population as a whole. the questions appear relatively straightforward.

Although. professional or managerial level. speed tests contain more items than power tests although they have the same approximate time limit. The methods one need to use to answer these questions are not obvious. What is the unit cost of server type ZXC53? A) 12 B) 13 C) 14 In summary. 139 + 235 = A) 372 B) 374 C) 376 D) 437 A power test on the other hand will present a smaller number of more complex questions. For example: Below are the sales figures for 3 different types of network server over 3 months. Power tests tend to be used at the graduate. Server January units ZXC43 ZXC53 ZXC63 32 45 12 value 480 585 240 February units 40 45 14 value 600 585 280 units 48 45 18 March value 720 585 340 For example: Q. 95 . arriving at the correct answer is usually relatively straightforward. Q.Speed test are concerned with how many questions one can answer correctly in the allotted time. Speed tests tend to be used in selection at the administrative and clerical level. and working out how to answer the question is the difficult part. In which month was the sales value highest? A) January B) February C) March Q. Once one have determined this.

this is not always the case. One will usually find questions on all of the following: Spelling • Grammar • Sentence Completion • Analogies • Word Groups • Instructions • Critical Reasoning • Verbal Deductions 96 . and following detailed written instructions. if one does well in speed tests then one will do well in power tests. sentence completion and comprehension. Because they depend on understanding the precise meaning of words. analogies. one will be significantly disadvantaged. Verbal Ability Tests These tests usually involve grammar. They can also include spelling. If one speaks English as a second language. even if this is at a high standard. In other words. idioms and the structure of the language they discriminate very heavily towards native speakers of the language in which the test has been developed. as speed tests do give an accurate indication of performance in power tests.

grammar and instructions) tend to be more applicable to administrative roles and the reasoning and deduction type of questions to management roles. There would be little point in using obscure words which only a small percentage of candidates could be expected to know. In practice. This requirement to use words which are in everyday use but which are commonly miss-spelt means that the test designer has a relatively restricted list of words to choose from. The test designer needs to choose words which are fairly common and in regular usage but which are often spelt incorrectly. This makes improving ones performance on these spelling questions relatively straightforward. Spelling Questions Questions where one has to identify incorrectly spelt words are common in all levels of verbal ability tests. the more straightforward types of question (spelling.These tests are widely used since most jobs require one either to understand and make decisions based on verbal or written information or to pass this type of information to others. Choose the pair of words that best completes the sentence The --------of the timetable caused some __n _ A) rivision B) revision C) revission D) revition A) inconvenience B) inconvenince C) inconveneince D)inconveniance 97 . Example Questions Which of the following words are incorrectly spelt? A) separate B) ordnance C) obviously D) sucess E) none of these 2. This means that one will almost certainly have heard of the word and know its meaning.

B 0 P) existance 3. 98 . Many people find it quite embarrassing when they realize how much their spelling has deteriorated – this is one area where remedial action is straightforward and is guaranteed to produce positive results. Most people now use word processors with inbuilt spellchecking software and it is very easy to forget how words are spelt as we don't physically write them down and often rely on the software to correct them for us.3. The following list of 20 words contains 10 that are incorrectly spelt. A E F H I K N P R 5 Q) independent R) insistant 5) excede T) privilege In most cases the longer that one have been out of the education system the more ones spelling will have deteriorated. 0 0) yield 2. Write the letter That corresponds to each incorrectly spelt word in the answer box A) occurence B) dissipate C) weird 0) accommodate E) embarrassment F) ecstacy C) repetition H) batallion I) dispair J) irritable K) accidently L) liaison M) memento Answers N) millenium 1.

Missing Word Questions These questions are designed to measure ones vocabulary. Which of these words completes the sentence in the way that makes most sense? The plan must be m to make the project mm A) feasible B) revised C) rivised D) feasible 99 . specifically ones understanding of precise word meanings. Which of these words completes the sentence in the way that makes most sense? A spirit-level should be used to ensure that the surface is n _ A) straight B) flat C) horizontal D) parallel E)aligned 5. Which of these words completes the sentence in the way that makes most sense? He avoided m because he was m _ A) redundency B) indispensable C) redundancy D) indispensible 6. One will usually be offered a choice of four or five words. Example Questions 4. any of which could complete the sentence.

m __ m . Example Questions 7. Note also that some of these questions are testing one spelling ability and some are testing one understanding of precise word meanings. E. One should then look at the answer options and decide which one is the most appropriate. 8.Answers 4. C B 6.Feet are used for both kicking 9and walking. walk A) throw B) toes C) shin D) feet E)hand 8. n n_m. m __ mm. Which of these is the missing word? water. walk A) lock B) stand C) board D) fob E)stone 9. These questions test one reasoning ability as well as one vocabulary. Which of these is the missing word? key. B A These questions are relatively straightforward but because more than one of the options will complete the sentence satisfactorily one must read it carefully and choose the best word. D . C 5.Fall forms 'waterfall' and 'fall over' 100 . Related Word Questions To answer these questions one need to understanding of precise meaning of the words in the question and establish what exactly the relationship is between them. over A) ice B) drive C) wet D) flow E)fall Answers 7. Which of these is the missing word? kick.Board forms the words 'keyboard' and 'boardwalk' . C .

Which of two of these words are opposite in meaning? A) lose B)winner C) victor D) loser E)vanquish 11.one need to know the precise meaning of the words given in order to select the appropriate synonym (same meaning) or antonym (opposite meaning). Which of these words is the odd one out? A) verify B) authenticate C) confirm D) ask E) substantiate Answers 10. Synonym and Antonym Questions These are words which have either the same or opposite meanings. Firstly.The others are synonyms Word Pair Questions These questions take the form A is to Bas X is to Y. one need to establish the relationship between the 'A is to B' words before one can arrive at the answer. 11. Which of these words is the odd one out? A) swindle B) harass C) provoke D) annoy E) pester 12. A . One may find it helpful to mentally express the relationship before one look at the answer options.The others are synonyms 12. so it is important to read the question carefully and pick the best option. This can short circuit 101 .are exact opposites. D . Once again. BD .There will usually be more than one possible answer. Example Questions 10. these questions test ones vocabulary .

the process of considering and rejecting each option because one know in advance exactly what one are looking for. Example Questions 13. Dog is to canine as wolf is to umuu A) vulpine B) ursine C) piscine D) bovine E) lupine 14. Sadness is to happiness as defeat is to mum_ A) joy B)victory C) tears D) victor E)none of these 15. Paper is to timber as mm is to hide A) tree B) seek C) ox D) animal E) leather Answers 13. E- lupine means 'relating to the characteristics of wolves' 14. B- The word pairs are opposites 15. E- Paper is made from timber, leather is made from hide Comprehension Questions These questions consist of a short passage and some related questions. They will often be about a topic which is unfamiliar to one, but this is an advantage rather than a disadvantage because one need to answer the questions based only on the information that one are given not using any knowledge that YOI,I already have. Most people find that the best way to tackle these questions is to scan the text fairly quickly to get the general idea and then to attempt each question in turn, referring back to the appropriate part of the text. Example Question 16. Read the following short passage and say whether or not the statements are true. There are seven species of deer living wild in Britain. The Red Deer and the Roe Deer are native species. Fallow Deer were introduced by the Romans and, since the seventeenth century, have been

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joined by three other non-native species: Sika, Muntjac and Chinese Water Deer which have escaped from parks. In addition, a herd of Reindeer was established in Scotland in 1952. Most of the Red Deer in Britain are found in Scotland, but there are significant wild populations in southwest and northwest England, East Anglia and the north Midlands. Red deer can interbreed with the introduced Japanese Sika deer and in some areas, hybrids are common.

16a. All of the Red Deer in Britain are found in Scotland. A) true B)false C) can't say 16b. Red Deer can interbreed with Fallow Deer. A) true B) false C) can't say 16c. The Fallow Deer is not native to Britain. A) true B)false C) can't say 16d. There are no Reindeer in England. A) true B)false C) can't say Answers 16a. B 16b.C* 16c. A 16d.C *Note that one must answer the questions using only the information supplied. Red Deer cannot interbreed with Fallow Deer but, because this is not stated in the text, one must answer 'can't say' even if one know that the statement is technically false.

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Verbal Reasoning Questions These questions are not concerned with measuring ones facility with English. They are designed to test ones ability to take a series of facts expressed in words and to understand and manipulate the information to solve a specific problem. These questions are usually restricted to graduate and management level tests. Example Question 17. Working together, Tom, Dick and Harry need 9 hours to paint a 400-metre long fence. Working alone, Tom could complete the task in 18 hours. Dick can not work as fast and needs 36 hours to paint the fence by himself. If Tom and Dick take the day off, how long will it take Harry to paint the fence by himself? A) 9 B) 12 C) 18 D) 36 Answer 17. 0 - In 9 hours Tom would have painted half of the fence and Dick would have painted one quarter of it. This leaves one quarter to be painted by Harry who must therefore work at the same speed as Dick. SUMMARY Verbal Ability

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it is generally recognized that one verbal reasoning test score will be influenced by one educational and cultural background.235 = A) -69 B) 96 C) 98 D) -96 105 . Verbal reasoning tests. for example. These questions may take the form of comprehension exercises. Some questions measure ones ability to perceive and understand concepts and ideas expressed verbally. etc). These tests usually consist of 30 to 40 questions which need to be completed in 15 to 20 minutes. on the other hand. They are speed tests in that they don't require very much reasoning ability. While these questions are designed to measure reasoning ability rather than educational achievement. 139 + 235 = A) 372 B) 374 C) 376 D) 437 2. The questions measure one understanding of vocabulary.Verbal ability tests can be divided into tests of simple verbal ability. spelling. subtraction multiplication and division). One either know the answer or one don't. class membership and the relationships between words. which need to be completed in 20 to 30 minutes and are designed to test one reasoning ability rather than one facility with the language. which are straightforward (as long as one remember to read the relevant part of the text carefully) or more complex statements where the best tactic is to make notes about what one can deduce from each part of the text. powers. Arithmetic Questions 1. are designed to measure ones problem solving abilities. These tests usually consist of 10 to 15 questions. This type of test can be categorized as a speed test and is used to determine one basic numeric. synonyms and antonyms etc. Numerical Ability Tests The first type of numerical ability test covers basic arithmetic (addition. number sequences and simple mathematics (percentages. Verbal Reasoning questions assess one ability to use words in a logical way. Obviously one will not be allowed to use a calculator.139 . fractions. grammar.

This missing number may be at the beginning or middle but is usually at the end.5 x 16 = A) 80 B) 86 C) 88 D) 78 4. B These questions are directly applicable to many administrative and clerical jobs but can also appear as a component of graduate and managerial tests.45/9= A) 4.5 B) 4 C) 5 D) 6 5. One can therefore expect 25-35questions in 20-30 minutes.0 3. B 2. Find the next number in the series 4 8 12 20 -9. Find the first number in the series-. Find the next number in the series 4 8 16 32 -8. Number Sequences These questions require one to find the missing number in a sequence of numbers.1923 29 31A) 48 B) 64 C) 40 D) 46 A) 32 B) 34 C) 36 D) 38 A) 47 B) 44 C) 45 D) 46 106 . as most people could achieve a high score given unlimited time in which to answer. C 5. 7. Find the missing number in the series 54 49 -.39 34 10. The speed at which one can answer these questions is the critical measure.3. 15% of 300 = A) 20 B) 45 C) 40 D) 35 D) 35 Answers l. A 4.

The numbers decrease by 5 each time 10. Find the next number in the series 3 6 11 18 n A) 30 B) 22 C) 27 D) 29 12.-.7.A) 32 B) 30 C) 33 D) 34 These simple number sequences usually consist of four visible numbers plus one missing number. The need to avoid any ambiguity means that if the number sequence relies on a more complex pattern then there will need to be more visible numbers. doubles and is subtracted each time 13. beginning with 2. Find the missing numbers in the series 5 6 7 8 10 11 14 -. A .Each number is the sum of the previous two numbers 9. beginning with 3.19 and 6.A) 19 B) 17 15. B .9 To solve these number sequence questions efficiently. one should first check the relationship between the numbers themselves looking for some simple arithmetic relationship. For example.10.A) 12 B) 15 C) 16 D) 17 These number sequences can be quite simple like the examples above. 7. one will often see more complex questions where it is the interval between the numbers that is the key to the sequence.Each number is the sum of the previous and the number 3 places to the left 14. and particularly 107 . Find the missing number in the series 4 3 5 9 12 17 -. B .There are 2 simple interleaved sequences 5. However. 10. C A .A) 6 B) 3 C) 11 Answers 7. 7. 11.8. increases by 2 each time 12. Find the next number in the series 4 8 46 42 38 -. AD . Find the missing numbers in the series 1 -.4 7 7 8 10 9 -.14. 13 and 6.The numbers double each time 8. Then look at the intervals between the numbers and see if there is a relationship there. C . If not. 11 15. 8. This is because the test designer needs to produce a sequence into which only one number will fit. 0 . 13.The interval. B .There are 2 simple interleaved sequences J.The numbers are primes (divisible only by 1 and themselves) 11. 0 .The interval. 4.A) 32 B) 30 C) 24 14.

Find the next letter in the series B EH K – A) L B)M C) N D) 0 17.Miss a letter each time and 'loop' back. A . or powers used in these sequences. Letters of the Alphabet as Numbers Another type of sequence question.if there are more than 4 numbers visible. One will occasionally find multiplication. C . Find the next letter in the series A Z BY – A) C B)X C) D D) Y 18. involves the substitution of letters of the alphabet for numbers. This means that interleaved sequences can be used with fewer visible letters than in questions that use numbers.There are 2 interleaved sequences A. so B is next because arithmetic operations cannot be performed on letters there is less room for ambiguity in these questions. B=2 etc. then there may be two number sequences interleaved. so C is next 18. Find the next letter in the series T V X Z – A) Y B) B C) A D)W Answers 16. B. Question 17 for example can use 2 interleaved sequences even though only four letters are visible. This would be very difficult to achieve with numbers. which appears in these tests. For example A=1. 108 . but test designers tend to avoid them as these operations soon lead to large numbers which are difficult to work out without a calculator. so N is next 17. Y. division. It· is implicit in these 'alphabetic sequence' questions that the sequence 'loops' back around and starts again. It may seem strange to consider these as numerical reasoning questions but they actually work in the same way once one have changed them back into numbers. B .There are two letters missing between each one. C and Z. 16.

for example the question may present financial data or use information technology jargon. an understanding of these areas is not required to answer the question. Which server had its unit price changed in Mar. What is the unit cost of server type ZXC53 A)12 B) 13 C) 14 19c.See question 18. how many ZXC43 units could be expected to sell in April? A)56 B) 58 C) 60 19d.4 5 6 7 8 910 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Numerical Critical Reasoning Information is provided that requires one to interpret it and then apply the appropriate logic to answer the questions. One can then treat these questions in a similar way to number sequence questions. ABC D £ F G HI) K L M N 0 P Q R 5 T V V VI:Z Y Z 1 2 3 . Below are the sales figures for 3 different types of network server over 3 months. in which month was the sales value highest? January B) February C) March 19b. However. The questions will often use very specific illustrations. If one sees more than one of these questions in a test then it is almost certainly worth taking the time to write out the letters of the alphabet with their ordinal numbers underneath. 19.ch 109 . This can save a lot of time overall and avoids simple mistakes. 19a. It is important to recognize this as it is not usually stated explicitly one are just expected to know it. Sometimes the questions are designed to approximate the type of reasoning required in the workplace.

the data so collected was analyzed and interpretations were drawn.-1) Are you aware of the use of psychometric tools / tests for various HR functions. Q.No.A)ZXCA43 B)ZXC53 C) ZXC63 DATA ANANLYSIS AND INTERPRETATION After the collection of primary data relating to the use of psychometric tools by human resource personnel in various organizations. by HR personnel all over the world? Percentage of organizations aware of the use of psychometric tools by HR professionals 0% 100% Aware Not aware Analysis: The graph clearly shows that the Human Resource professionals of all the organizations that were surveyed are aware of the use of various psychometric tools and tests that are being used 110 .

Psychometric testing in India hence is a relatively unexplored area of human resource.No. 111 .by HR professional in organizations all over the world. Q. at least there is awareness about the existence and use of such tests by human resource professional for various human resource functions. This means that whether these organizations are using these tests and tools or not.2) Is your Organization using any psychometric test for any HR function? Percentage of organizations using psychometric tests 25% 75% Using Not using Analysis: The survey clearly indicates that only one fifth of the organizations are actually using psychometric tools for some or the other human resource functions. Our previous graph indicates an absolute awareness about these tools still only 20% of the organizations are putting to use these psychometric tests. On the basis of secondary data if we compare with the organizations in US or UK as many as 70-80 % of the top companies are using psychometric testing for various HR functions. The human resource professionals in India have just started to use these psychometric tools. Hence it may be concluded that the use of psychometric testing in India is in its nascent stage ie.

do you plan to use any psychometric tool / test in future? Percenatge of organizations planning to use psychometric tools in near future 10% 30% 60% Maybe Cant say No Analysis: The HR professionals in the organizations which were not using any type of psychometric tools were asked if they were planning to do so in near future.3) If no. As much as 60% of the respondents had no idea whether their organizations might be interested in using these tests and tools.Q. However there were 10% of the organizations that said a clear no to a 112 . Only as much as one third of the respondent organizations said they might use these psychometric tools in near future.No.

the reason provided was “The number of people being hired runs in thousands on a monthly basis.possibility of their future use. Q. Since only one respondent out of the total sample has said a clear ‘No’.4) \If yes. In the previous graph we concluded that psychometric testing is in its nascent stage in India.” What is interesting here is that the organizations and the human resource personnel in only 10% of the organizations have said a clear No to the use of psychometric tools.No.No. It was a BPO Genpact.  MBTI and number of other tests  A large number of aptitude tests  Behavior tests  Personality tests  FIRO-B Q.5) For which HR function is your organization using these psychometric tests? 113 . in this graph hence we may conclude that maybe the HR professionals in India have some reservations over using these tools because they either do not have the knowledge of the benefits derived from the use of these psychometric tools or are unsure of how well these tests will fare in India. The reason may again be attributed to the fact that psychometric testing is a relatively new concept in India and there are hardly any companies or bodies in India which are promoting the use of these tests and tools and to whom the whole process of psychometric testing can be outsourced. it can be said that educating the HR professionals about the benefits derived from the use of these tools and tests may push the use of psychometric testing in India further. Cannot afford the time and cost behind a psychometric tool. which tool/s is/are being used by your organization? The organizations and human resource professionals were found to be using various psychometric tools like:  Belbin Team roles inventory.

6) Is your organization satisfied with the result generated by using these tools/tests? Percentage of organizations satsfied with the use of psychometric tools 0% 33% 67% Satisfied Cant say Not satisfied 114 .No.  Competency mapping  For building career paths of employees  Talent Development Q.  Feedbacks.  Appraisals. This included for human resource processes like:  Recruitment and selection.  Behavior analysis.In the data collection exercise it was found that these psychometric tools and tests are being used for a whole gamut of human resource functions.  Training and development  Counseling.

No. Hence there is a general level of satisfaction derived from the use of these psychometric tools. An important point to note here is that not even a single organization that is using these tools has shown any kind of dissatisfaction. And there were only 33% other organizations that were unsure of the results generated by the use of these psychometric tests.Analysis: Of the organizations that were surveyed and which were using psychometric tools it was asked if they were satisfied with the use of these psychometric tools and tests. Q.7) /Do you plan to use any other psychometric tool/test in near future? Percentage of organizations planning to use any other psychometric tool 33% 67% Yes Cant say 115 . Almost two third of the organizations surveyed said that they were satisfied with the results generated by these psychometric tools and tests.

hence it can be said that human resource professionals in these organizations are open to trying a few more tools. Again no one has said no.Analysis: The organizations that were already using these psychometric tests and tools were then asked if they were planning to use any other type of psychometric tool or test.No. Q. Here only thirty three percent of the human resource professionals have said that they are open to trying more psychometric tools and as much as 67% respondents have said that they are not sure about it. they may have some reservations though. supervisory etc.) For what organizational level are organizations using psychometric tooltools 33% 67% All Top and Middle Analysis: 116 .8) At what level do you usually use these psychometric tests (managerial.

testing conditions must be same for all. Q.9) /How do you ensure standardization and objectivity in your tests? Standardization implies uniformity of procedure in administering and scoring the test. that they use these tests and tools at all levels of management for various human resource functions. It may be said that concentration is more on learning by trial and error method rather than trying to find out actual ways in which issues like objectivity and standardization can be addressed. As many as 67% of the organizations using these tests and tools said. For scores to be comparable. Objectivity implies that the administration scoring and interpretation of scores are objective insofar as they are independent of the subjective judgment of the practical examiner. this shows that the human resource professionals are actually willing to explore new opportunities and their focus today is not just the white collared professionals but also employees working lower down the corporate ladder. At best organizations are trying to be objective and trying to ensure standardization by making the use of these psychometric tools a very common phenomenon.No.The graph clearly indicates that the organizations that are using psychometric tools and tests for not just top level management but also are exploiting their use at lower levels as well. In one of our previous analysis we established the fact that psychometric testing is new to India still here we can see that the organizations that are pioneering the use of these tests are actually trying to use these test at various levels. Eg. An interesting fact found here was that the human resource professional in the organizations using these tests did not point out any particular manner in which they ensure standardization and objectivity in their tests. 117 .

Q.No.10) Is your organization aware of the various ethical issues involved in the use of psychometric testing? Percentage of organizations aware of the ethical issues involved in the use of psychometric tools 25% 75% Aware Not aware Analysis: All the human resource professionals surveyed were asked whether they are aware of the various ethical and social issues involved in the use of psychometric testing. It is interesting to know that even though only 25% of the organizations surveyed are actually using these test still as many as 75% of the human resources professionals in all the organization surveyed are aware of the various ethical issues involved in the use of 118 .

Q.12) Do you have qualified professionals for administering and generating results from these tools or you have outsourced the process? Percentage of organizations which have outsourced the whole process 33% 67% Inhouse Outsource Analysis: The organizations that are using psychometric tests and tools were then asked whether they have in-house expertise to use and generate the results from these tools and test or have they outsourced the whole process.psychometric tools and tests. The graph clearly shows that only one third of the organizations have outsourced the whole process. This shows the level of interest these psychometric tools have generated in the minds of human resource professionals and also that human resource professionals in India are aware of the latest trends in human resource field of study.No. It is interesting to know that two third of the organizations using these tools actually 119 .

have in-house professionals to administer and use these tests for various human resource functions.  The survey clearly indicated that approximately only one fourth of the organizations in India are actually using psychometric tools for some or the other human resource functions as against 70-80 % organizations in US and UK.  Only one of the organizations that were surveyed and which were not using any psychometric tools clearly denied using these psychometric tools and tests in future. It can be said that educating the HR professionals about the benefits derived from the use of these tools and tests may push the use of psychometric testing in India further. it was hence safely concluded that psychometric testing in India is in its nascent stage ie. On the basis of these interpretations the following broad conclusions were drawn about the use of psychometric tools by the organizations:  It was found that there is an enormous amount of awareness in the human resource professionals about the presence and use of psychometric tests and tools by the organizations all over the world for various human resource processes. 120 . FINDINGS All the data that was gathered from various human resource professionals was then analyzed and interpretations were made. This shows the level of interest of these organizations in the usr of psychometric tools. The human resource professionals in India have just started to use these psychometric tools. It was hence concluded that the HR professional in India just have some reservations in using these tools and tests because they either do not have the knowledge of the benefits derived from the use of these psychometric tools or are unsure of how well these tests will fare in India.

It is also important to mention here that there are few organizations that are using these psychometric tools and tests and are extremely satisfied with the result generated and are not only ready and willing to explore more psychometric tools but are actually using these tests and tools at not just the top managerial level but also at lower levels down the corporate hierarchy. 121 . However what is interesting is that there is an absolute awareness among human resource professionals in India regarding the fact that these psychometric tools and tests can be and are being used by human resource professionals all over the world. And are also planning to explore and exploit more psychometric tools in the best interest of the organizations they are working for. Hence it maybe concluded that the human resource professionals in India do have the theoretical knowledge about these tools and test but are either not enough enterprising in exploring new field of study in HR or else they have reservations over using these tools and tests because they are unsure of the practical implications and benefits of these tests. In fact here is a lot of awareness about the ethical issues involved in the use of these psychometric tools and tests as well. It was also found that as many as half the organizations that were surveyed and were found to be using these tools and tests are satisfied with the use of these psychometric tests.  The Survey results clearly indicate that the organizations are using psychometric tools and tests for not just top level management but are using these tools and tests at lower levels as well. it is concluded that use of psychometric tools by human resource professionals in India is a relatively new phenomenon as compared to the countries in the west like US & UK. As many as 75% of the organizations using these tests and tools said. that they are using them at all levels of management for various human resource functions. CONCLUSION Keeping in mind the interpretations drawn from the survey and the findings there from.

experiences and knowledge.Use of psychometric tests in India hence remains an unexplored area of human resource however it must also be kept in mind that the human resource professionals are willing to use these test in future. These professionals must also understand that in today’s scenario. unlearn and relearn” keeping this in mind I would just like to recommend to the human resource fraternity to be more enterprising and look forward to out of the box thinking . This would be beneficial for everyone on the whole. More corporate level seminars and workshops must be organized where human resource professionals from various organizations can forward to share their views. In fact it is about time when human resource professionals in India form a national level forum that can conduct such seminars and workshops to take human resource in India to higher levels. Apart from this it would be extremely beneficial for the human resource fraternity in India on the whole. It is hence the responsibility of human resource academicians to explore this area of HR and gain some expertise on use of these tests in order to further promote the use of psychometric testing in India. 122 . As said by a great speaker “ In 21st century those who can read and write shall not be illiterate but it would be those who cannot learn. if the organizations and HR professionals that are actually using psychometric tests and tools must come forward to share their views and experiences with other organizations which may not be that strong financially to experiment with such things. Psychometric testing in India for example is a relatively new phenomenon. just having the theoretical knowledge is useless if you cannot put that knowledge to practical use. The human resource professionals must keep in constant touch with the latest trends and fads in the human resource field of study. Human resource personnel working in foreign multinational companies must specially participate in activities that can introduce new tools and techniques to their fellow human resource professionals. RECOMMENDATIONS On the basis of my research I would like to recommend to the human resource personnel in India that they must be more enterprising in exploring the untouched and upcoming areas of human resources.

 The sample size for the survey is only 12 this. which may be because of one or more of the following reasons: The validity and correctness of information relating the various tests and tools are subject to the data gathered from various websites on the internet. yet the readers may find certain limitation in the project.LIMITATIONS A sincere attempt has been made to keep the project away from any kind of redundancies. biases or errors.  The number of psychometric tools included in this project is only inclusive and not exhaustive because it is practically impossible to include all the psychometric tools from the toolkit of HR  123 . This is because only one HR person per organizations could be used to represent their respective organizations and human resource departments fill the questionnaire.  The validity of data is subject to the views expressed by the respondents working as human resource professionals in various organizations.

Glinow A M.  Mcshane S.Constantine-Simms. Pearson Education. 2003. Introduction to Organization Behavior. Everything you need to know to pass psychometric tests. E-Books  D. Sharma R. Urbina Susana Psychological Testing. Tata McGraw Hills.REFERENCES BOOKS  Anastasi Anne. Magazines HRM Review February 2007 Search Engines Google Websites 124 . 2006.

org www.uk/different_types_of_psychometric_tests.org/disciplines/hr/selection/psychometric.humanmetrics.html http://en.http://www.personalitypathways.htm http://www.co.wikipedia.com/type_inventory.com 125 .teamfocus.htm http://changingminds.