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SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă
Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006
ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11
TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36
THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57
3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65
3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68
FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114
SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138
6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146
SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160
7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171
7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176
7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185
EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218
NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231
9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239
9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253
TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284
KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite
materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat. titularizare şi grad. 6 .de rezolvări. pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii. Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă.
7 .ONE INTRODUCTION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes.
Constituent Phrase 1.6. Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1. Complementary distribution .3.1. Insertion 188.8.131.52. Auxiliary verbs 1.Contents: 8 1. The Distribution of an Element 1.
that is sequences fragmented at random. Constituent Phrase Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence. Pragmatic Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words.2.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan. if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much. since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1). Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit. Semantic. Syntactic.Unit one Introduction This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course.1. We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as: 1. For instance. very much. (Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama. 1. Consequently. or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents. sequences of the kind her mother very. her mother. loves. since they do not have a structural and semantic unity. sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse 9 . They are just strings.
semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically.Nadina VIŞAN In the following example.3. be).4. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties. we are dealing with a directive (i. should. an order given to an interlocutor). 1. etc. (2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and). The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may.e. (Mi-a spus secretul.) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have. must. Insertion Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it.) 10 . An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret. 1.
(Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică. live. an ‘empty’ there subject.5.) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject. Complementary distribution Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution. Consider. These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English.6. for instance. which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian. This element cannot appear in any kind of context. and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects. 1. It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear. etc. the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul.) 1. that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context. The Distribution of an Element The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur.Unit one Introduction As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the 11 .
semantic. auxiliary Activity 1 verb. syntactic. Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs.Nadina VIŞAN demonstrative pronoun this/that. Pratice Define and illustrate. pragmatic. as the star indicates. How much. using your own examples: insertion. If the given context is the one under (6). let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see. distribution. complementary distribution. both (8) and (9) are correct structures. whereas (7) is not. Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution. Munt. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. he had not yet been able to estimate. apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents. 12 . this would really hurt.
To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English. to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation).TWO SENTENCE NEGATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’. 13 .
8.6.3. Full – local negation 2. Key terms . affirmative sentences. Key terms 2.5. Tests for negativity 2.4. Instances of negation 2.1. Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 2. Assertive – non-assertive Contents: 14 2. Conclusion.2. Polarity Items 2.2. Negative vs.7.
Unit two Sentence negation 2. This example can be compared to: (2)a. a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates.) b. Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’. Assertive – non-assertive We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences. The relationship can be represented as follows: 15 . Consequently. (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. He didn’t offer her any chocolates. in the sense that it states something. a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question. Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive. in that they do not state anything.2. it asserts something. (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată.Declarative vs. We do not therefore have two independent systems: . For instance. Negative .Positive vs.) is said to be an assertion.
listen to this.negative (e. comparison. / She finally admitted. 16 .non-assertion . didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz.positive sentence ./ Don’t do that.interrogative (e.g. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen.g. / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. They told her the ( e./ If you like her. don’t bother her.other (if –clauses. Didn’t they tell her the secret?) . / Come with me.Nadina VIŞAN .negative (They didn’t tell her the secret. subjunctive) Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot.positive and declarative secret./ We didn’t come here just to talk. / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens. Did they tell her the secret? ) .g. The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection.assertion .) ./ She can’t wait to read that book.) .
) b. There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples.) 17 .Unit two Sentence negation 2. (John e nefericit. whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a. Susan doesn’t like her friends. A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei.) b. (Nu demult. since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4). we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure. am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan.3. John is unhappy. For example. Full – local negation The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs. since the negative word not is not present there. the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation. Susan dislikes her friends. (John nu e fericit) (4) a. word negation. John is not happy. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. In the case of the sentences under (4).) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not. I met a girl named Susan.
(Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea. but their meaning tells us a different story.) b. just like in the case of word negation. namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago. In other words. we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence. We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation.) c. (Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent. since the negative word not is present inside them. where the word 18 . I was not a little worried. these sentences look negative.Nadina VIŞAN In this case. the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation. He was not without intelligence. This is also called an instance of phrasal negation. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă. more precisely the phrase it is part of.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman. She was not an unattractive woman. (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something.) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a. since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only. In other words.
/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs. / Când a aflat vestea./ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work.e. the whole meaning of the sentence is negative)./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night. / Nu cu multă vreme în urmă. Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning. paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe. / Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special. / Îl 19 between full and local (that is word or . Translate the following sentences into English./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night./ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. semantic negation.Unit two Sentence negation negation (unattractive./ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. nu s-a simţit deloc încântat. Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive. / I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night. By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i. toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura. without intelligence./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night.
Tests for negativity In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one: 20 . dar nu în mod special. / Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune. / A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte.4. This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences. / Era neobişnuit de şmecher. domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală. dar nu neobişnuit. / Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră. / Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi.Nadina VIŞAN preferă pe John. / Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală. / Deloc interesat de conferinţă. Negative vs. Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated. 2. cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat. affirmative sentences. / Era el destul de isteţ. ci doar indecişi. / Nu erau nelămuriţi. / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept.
such as do insertion.) and sometimes by other syntactic changes.) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes. etc.1. we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart.) (9) I didn’t go there. Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there. in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government. syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not. (M-am dus acolo. (Nu m-am dus acolo. For instance.Unit two Sentence negation As we were saying. Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically. Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t 21 . (Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry). (see subsection 1. whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse.).
incorrect. / Susan was not bitten by a dog. doesn’t she? Sentence (11) qualifies as negative. since it is followed by an affirmative question tag. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1. The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative. does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei. / She does not hate animals. 22 . whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical. The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative. / Susan did not get married to Jim./ They didn’t leave.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. *does she? Susan dislikes her friends. / I don’t like her very much. nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends. Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends. / We don’t come here often.
3. not even the smart ones. Example (14) is syntactically negative. Compare this example to those under (15) and (16). . Susan dislikes/ likes her friends. Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. which is ungrammatical. Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible. *not even the smart ones.) Susan likes / dislikes her friends. which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. which does not happen in the case of (18). and they don’t like her either. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. 4. *and neither do they like her. even the smart ones. * and they don’t like her either. as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag.Unit two Sentence negation 2.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. nici măcar de cei deştepţi. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. since the not even tag cannot be applied to them. and neither do they like her. Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20) 23 Susan doesn’t like her friends.
/ This boy is no good. whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view. they go skiing in the mountains. one can tell if the sentence is negative or not. In conclusion.Nadina VIŞAN Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag. / At no time was he able to solve the problem. / You have never met her. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. 2. The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary): 24 . / No problems were caused after all. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. Instances of Negation We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English. / Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently. / A few of them stayed behind. whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible. / Not always a witty interlocutor. / In no time he was able to solve the problem. / Few of them stayed behind. By applying these tests to the sentence in question. / They caused us no problems. they need to refer to these tests of negativity. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him.5.
a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student. Susan could not go to the theatre. (N-am văzut pe nimeni). In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun. (N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object. This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English. (Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru) The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22).Unit two Sentence negation (21) (22) John has not come. (N-a venit John). Susan couldn’t go to the theatre. (26) I saw nobody. b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner. I went nowhere. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri) 25 . A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come. (27) a .
All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a.Nadina VIŞAN b.) (29) a. ( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place. / I didn’t ever go to his place.) c. (Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. 26 . no incorporation takes place. / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. I never went to his place. I didn’t see any student. I didn’t see anybody. I didn’t go anywhere. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a. (Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur.) b. Not a day passed without me thinking of him.) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position.) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase in the first position of the sentence. Not all that glitters is gold.) b. b. All that glitters is not gold. No day passed without me thinking of him. (N-am văzut pe nimeni. (N-am văzut nici un student. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri.
/ Not many women are famous opera composers. / I didn’t see anybody./ They didn’t come to meet her. seldom./ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them.V. / Not a word fell from her lips. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly. scarcely. / I showed him nothing. / She said not a word when I spoke to her. . negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad. etc. / Not one of them came to meet her. barely. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret.Unit two Sentence negation The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative.: (31) (32) (33) 27 I hardly met this man. and we don’t go to the theatre either. rarely. / He should not be released. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction.) They barely read any novels. / No one ever listens to her.) We seldom watch T. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta. nici măcar din alea scurte. / None of them liked house music.4. (Nu citesc romane. / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1. / I saw nobody. not even short ones./ They never went there.
(Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta. / You’ve eaten hardly anything.) c. / This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat. (Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc. and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. / I seldom look at her like that.) d. Rarely have I done such a stupid thing. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence.) b.) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion. / Hardly anybody liked him. (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva. Hardly have they heard a thing like that.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends. . which triggers inversion): (35) a.Nadina VIŞAN (Ne uităm rar la televizor. Not for the world would I do such a thing. şi nu mergem nici la teatru. negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye.) 28 them. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor. / I scarcely ever see her. / I could hardly wait to hear the news. Never have I met a more horrible person. / Few people came to see her.
/ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. / You must on no account touch this machinery.) They don’t think that he likes them. the phenomenon is the same in Romanian. in the sense that the 29 . / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. never trust a man again. / She could rely on nobody but him. As you can see from the translation of these examples. / I didn’t leave the office at any time. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. (Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain.Unit two Sentence negation Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one./ We seldom receive such generous praise. (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei. / One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether.
be probable. (Nu-i place deloc de presedinte. want. intend. be supposed to. ought to. cannot appear in an affirmative context.: think. / I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. She didn’t lift a finger to help me. etc.) 30 . the negative meaning is less strong. intention. advise. For example. / He reckoned he would not win her over.6. / I suppose she doesn’t care. look like. expect.) but also by the existence of certain elements that. barely. should be desirable. sound/feel like. probability. although not negative in meaning. 2. we can very well say something like: (38) a. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him.Nadina VIŞAN original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force. suppose. does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her. She doesn’t like our chairman at all. / They believe she does not like them.) b. Polarity Items Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly. choose. be likely. / I expect he won’t come here again. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute. etc. suggest. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion. etc. imagine. seem. believe. guess. appear. In sentence (37). / They suggested that she should not meet Jim.
2. are clearly not grammatical. *She likes our chairman at all. Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items. They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence). That is 31 . The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context. * Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă. These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1. for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items.Unit two Sentence negation In the above examples. The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el. b. that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts. They are not usable in an affirmative environment. N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă. It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el. I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context. This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity. and sentences such as: (39) a.*She lifted a finger to help me.
/ You needn’t send her anything. you can still do something about it. / She hardly ever comes here. / I like it . / I somehow like him. / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. too. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar. / Well. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday.) Any more vs. / I have already seen him. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all. / Bob is still living at that address. / Well.). a lot (I don’t like you much. too.) Much vs. / I have some money.) Hardly ever vs. / Don’t worry. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). etc. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. / Come on. we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs.) Yet vs.) Until vs. either. / I still love you) Either vs. still (I don’t love you any more.) At all vs. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. / I like you a lot.Nadina VIŞAN exactly why. too (I don’t like it. / I can understand both of these 32 . I’m afraid her husband was never any good. / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. / He arrived before 5. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. already (I haven’t seen him yet. / They say he once had someone very close. Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences. some (I haven’t any money. / I somewhat like his proposal. before (He didn’t arrive until 5. / I eat caviar most of the times.
last a minute. give a damn/darn. say / breathe/ understand a word. mulţumesc. de când cu 33 . hear a peep. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta. Translate into English. crack a smile. / N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea. move a muscle. / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze. lift/raise/ stir a finger. hurt a fly. see/ feel/ remember a thing. / You must pay that fine. lay a finger on someone. de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept. turn a hair./ I can understand all of these ten English words. / You must be telling lies. / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri. know a single person. bat an eye(lid). have/be worth a red cent. find a trace.Unit two Sentence negation sentences. n-am văzut-o de ani de zile. / I nearly always have to clean it myself. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare. / Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată. / Peter knows some English and so does John. / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. / A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu. touch her/him with a ten-foot pole. / Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge. Ion nu e prea deştept. have a care/ friend in the world. touch a drop./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. leave a stone unturned. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana. tell/ ask/speak to a soul. / Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic. nici unuia dintre noi. / Ajută-mă. sleep a wink. flinch. n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană).
/ I couldn’t make head or tail of it. he left the room. / No entry. / No sooner said than done. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger. / No admittance. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui. / No trouble at all. n-a sunat încă. N-are nici o grijă pe lume. / These guys never know whether they’re coming or going. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it. / Not that I care. / Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you. but you really should do something about it. / Nu ştiu de ce plânge. etc) or Affirmative ones (would 34 . dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă. dar nici para chioară în buzunar. / Never is a long word. încercând să prindă criminalul. / No hands wanted. n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat. / Poliţia a scotocit peste tot.Nadina VIŞAN ulcerul ăsta. paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool. / Nothing succeeds like success. / He won’t make old bones. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare. încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. / I had no end of trouble. nu e vina mea. / No man is wise all the time. / Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. As you have noticed from the exercises above. / He is no end of a fellow. he’s a pig. / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu. B: Aşi. Translate into Romanian. / Hotărât lucru. budge. / Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă. i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor. nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu. n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă.
and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences./ I saw no one. Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API). Normally. c) He is anxious to say something.) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present. d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it. Negative concord / Non-negative concord This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English). e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen. Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord. / I hate making any commitments. N-am văzut pe nimeni. b) I love asking some funny remarks. / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone. Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone. / He is reluctant to ever say anything. as well: 35 . say it. which is not the case of the sentence under (45).Unit two Sentence negation rather). 2.7. In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord. but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say.
) 2. Conclusion. however. from a syntactic point of view. Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences. We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences. B: Nu. B: Not this poem. 36 .) The example above is a sample of Standard English. Key terms. mistaken for the so-called ample negatives. The second negation is somehow independent. The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No. it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis. (A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta. (The Rolling Stones) The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be.Nadina VIŞAN (46) I can’t get no satisfaction. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem. nu poezia asta. I don’t. nu-mi place. (Nu. I don’t like this poem.8. nu îmi place poezia asta. One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence. in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence.
Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea
dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative
Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)
Nadina VIŞAN 44 .
To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English.THREE QUESTIONS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i. interrogation). 45 .e.
Key Terms.1 Yes/No Questions 3.2 Echo Questions 3.3.3 Alternative Questions 3.Questions 184.108.40.206. Direct vs.2 Wh.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions 3.3. Optional Exercises .1 Tag Questions 3.2.2. Minor Types of Questions 3.3. Indirect Questions Contents: 46 3.2.
for a subsequent section.1. Direct / Indirect Questions Like Romanian. it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?) 47 . English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel. focusing on direct questions mainly. Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet. This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions.) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside.Unit three Questions 3. If we try to analyze the examples above. Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk.
Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English. due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English. (3) and (4). pe mama. 48 . Pratice Translate the following questions in English. However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions. paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti. Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult. by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well.Nadina VIŞAN As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1). Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e. sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary. and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters. (2). the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences.g.
because. Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required. Since the question is not direct any more. in this case. (A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is. the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question. the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5). 49 . since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions). the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate). Likewise. In the case of indirect questions. Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going. and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically. indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion.Unit three Questions Unlike direct questions. the sequence of the tenses is violated. it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going. It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going. and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong.
Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă. ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba. Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte. / He asked me who she was. paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi. / I don’t know whom she fancies.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions. am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) 50 . cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită. / Who is she? / I don’t know who is she. identify the incorrect sentences. / Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy. îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are. / I don’t know who she is. unde locuia înainte să fie arestată. Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta. ce culoare are pielea. sau mai bine zis. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English. spune la un moment dat femeia. Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on. c) Ştii ce. / He asked me who she is. b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă. d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. / I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to.
those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short.Unit three Questions 3.V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is. Short questions tend to lose some of their content. being typical of spoken language. Let us provide 51 . one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer. as Quirk shows.2. Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T. In this case. the type of answer the respective question requires.
yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer. (you / hear from her these days) ? 6. (how long / wait for me?) 10.1. (you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2.Nadina VIŞAN examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions.2. (what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts. ( you / lend me some money) ? 3. (who / talk to last night)? 5. Yes / No Questions As their name suggests. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1. (when / the accident happen) ? 9. (what time / shops close today) ? 7. 3. (you / keep a secret) ? 8. (which / you like best) ? 4. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items: 52 .
(Da). The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement. it has. except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?) 53 . are said to be positively – oriented.Unit three Questions (17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items. (20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes. that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes. they did. instead of Negative Polarity ones. A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions. which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion. (Da).
(speak yet) B: …….Nadina VIŞAN (24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues. Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No. A: You look down. A: She had her tenants evicted. A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ……….. 6. 7. as in the example: 1.. A: You’ve been learning German for years. because you always copy everything I do! 5. . A: You’re still in your pyjamas. It was the kind of film that really depresses me... …………………. …….. A: Your mother is shouting for you. 4. I’ve still got plenty of time. ……………? (hear her) B: …. make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No. (tell me who does it for you) B: …. …………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ………………. …………………………….? (a mean thing to do) 54 . 3. but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. but I want to play basketball a little longer. but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 2. A: What a lovely hairdo! ………………….
I didn’t get home until late last night. ………………………………. why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a.questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose. how. 9.. …………………………? (be in bed by now) B: ……………………. 3.Unit three Questions B: …………………. ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: ……………………. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. A: There was a terrible car crash. On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b. 8. where.? (see it on the news) B: …………………… . . What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?) 55 . .2. I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. A: It’s past your bedtime.. You could have mentioned it earlier. A: That was a rather tactless thing to say.2 Wh – questions Wh. . which When. 10.. what .
other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this? 56 . / There are six students in my class.000dollars./ I have French lessons twice a week./ Sara owns two cars. / David’s car was stolen. / I went to Hawaii on holiday. / It’s nearly seven o’clock. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city. / She lives in the suburbs. Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie. (Poppy Z. but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans. / Shirley got married to Ben. / My new car cost 10.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair. what ever. of course. to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death. why ever. places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me. / That’s my pen. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often. / Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”. etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are./ She dropped her glasses. / Kay’s gone out shopping. / I wasn’t at work today because I was ill. I cannot do that./ We’ve lived here for ten years. trying to find places where I resided in life. Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever. Nearly two hundred years.
Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette. • • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3.3.) 57 .Unit three Questions (Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu. de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere. (A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară.2.
Nadina VIŞAN Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not. didn’t use he? 11. Let’s stay for another few days. Would you like have a piece of cake? 13. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12. or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. can you be? 58 . Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5. What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16. He used to work in a bank. shall we stay? 14. How far is it the cinema? 3. You can’t be serious. He used to work in a bank. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2. Who did left the gate open? 18. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6. Let’s stay for another few days. There was a fax for you this morning. wasn’t it there? 17. didn’t use he? 4. shall we stay? 7. How long is she be spending in America? 15. How long is she be spending in America? 8. How far is it the cinema? 10.
will you not? 27. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following. That’s your car.Unit three Questions 19. despre o lume dură. Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29. paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. How long have you be lived in London? 26. n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine. necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie. neliniştea infantilă. doesn’t he go? 23. deci. isn’t it this? 25. dacă prin absurd 59 . will you not? 21. That was Jeremy’s brother. Don’t forget to ring the dentist. Toate vechi. nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul. How long time does it take to get there? 28. la fel ca şi cei ce se duc. Don’t forget to take some spare socks. să-mi înfrâng frica. acum însă parcă m-am pierdut. Pot reveni. am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile. Who did told you about the problem? 31. wasn’t it he? 22. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic. Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. ca şi cei ce au fost. John goes jogging every morning. Ani întregi. deci. particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea. Whose it is this book? 32. uneori disperat. plin de germeni virulenţi. oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20.
Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea. Şi. în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă. “Spune! striga el. Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine. naiv. mă întreb. Riscul? Ratarea. ghiceam doar unde se află. de atunci.Nadina VIŞAN există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie. Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci. umed. vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz. mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă. lung. indiferent de risc. B. “Ai fost în parc noaptea. contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o 60 . a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt. picură apa roşietică. pe sub bolţile din care. neîntrerupt. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi. îi ştiu gustul. simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei. visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea. laşii. Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba. ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C. Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. dar şi drumul. iar proştii. inactivii. şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. negru. străină priceperii lor. puturos. că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea. murdar. pe care oricum am simţit-o. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj.
nu-i aşa?) 61 (36) Open the door. domnule profesor.Unit three Questions viaţă. Tag Questions Tag questions. didn’t she? . la urma urmei. viaţa? Oare e drept. Minor Types of Questions There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa. care i-a determinat alegerea. will you? (38) She went to Prague. când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii) 3. orbitor. shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo. da? (37) Let’s go there. nu se poate. exclus. chiar când prin absurd aş putea.3. absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui. or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English. ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi. e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba. golul alb. 3.3. când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi. da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga. când nu-i pot face nici un bine.1. când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol.
(Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet. the tag is affirmative too.e. or “comment tags”. constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony. the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states. it’s all spent. hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa. reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation.Nadina VIŞAN We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. au fost cheltuiţi.) A: Oh. (Din păcate. Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not. sarcasm. since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet. is it? (Deci. aren’t they? 62 . hasn’t she? (Aha. au fost cheltuiţi. deci nu şi-a dat licenţa. the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving. if the host sentence is negative. tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i. the tag is negative too). this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”. or falling. hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent. In this way. Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising. if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative. The suggestion is that in this case.
…/ Ann can’t speak French. / I don’t think you like my music. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room. / Activity 12 He will be on time. / They said he liked music. / There is enough food for everyone. / There are a lot of cars on that street. / You will pick me up at 7.Unit three Questions (Se mută. / That’s your car over there. / The boy never watched his sister. / He has to marry Susan. / I may see you tomorrow. / That was your father. / The boy often watched his sister. / You will pick me up. / He hates his wife. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident. / Let’s eat dinner now. / I think you like my music.…/ Let me know. / I must go now. / Few people like her. after all. nu?) • with a falling intonation. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick. / Everyone felt happy about it. / Tell me. / She has a brother. / Surely you have enough money. / I am older than you. / There are sure to be two books in that drawer. / She used to talk a lot. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago. / You have been invited. / I think you don’t like my music. / I am dressed smartly enough. / I may not see you tomorrow. / You ought not to smoke. 63 . / She left an hour ago. / Each of us is staying. / Don’t leave without me. / He simply hates empty words. / A few people like her. didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul. nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money.
Nadina VIŞAN Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1.. Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party. He used to play squash. there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax…. using a question tag at the end. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one. / They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged. isn’t it? / Is this a great party. 5. didn’t he?/ He used to play squash. Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam. / He never used to study so hard…. b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions: 64 . / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4. / You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on. So you enjoyed my talk. Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education./ I’m right about this…. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon…. did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2. did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences. or what? 3.
) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one. / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us. / Students… Student loans might replace grants. recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2. as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn.1. (Soţul meu ştie chineză.220.127.116.11. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher. / No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results. Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2. / Grants… 3. (Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia.) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese. / Teachers… Students’ parents often support them. as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat. Recapitulatory echo questions .2. / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom.questions which repeat part or all of the message.2.Unit three Questions Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time.) B: Chinese? 65 .
word can be placed in sentence initial position or not. of something just said. accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday. (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte.) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut. (Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill. consternation.) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam. rather than the repetition.3.phrase is fronted.) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2.) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off.Nadina VIŞAN (Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh. (Închide lumina aia. Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification. (E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam.2. Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place. misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs. The difference between recapitulatory 66 .2. disbelief. If the wh.
/ I think I’ve found a hair in my soup. / I think I’ve found a solution. I’ve lost the letter. intonation is rising.Unit three Questions and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen.) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean. with recapitulatory echo questions./ He is interested in blue movies. which letter do you 67 .) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh.e./ We are looking for a purse. (i. / He is interested in music. rather than did you say. (Vai. you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green. / We are looking for a pixie. (Uită-te la asta. am pierdut scrisoarea. whereas with explicatory echo questions. dear. intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this.
recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i (They are moving. Take a look at WHAT? ) 68 . Instead of Conclusions ANEXA indirect (I asked her when she would come. Y j d WHAT? ) explicatory (Take a look at this book. aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert.) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?) direct minor alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?) constant polarity tags (So.Nadina VIŞAN 3. she knows about it.4. does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert.
care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea. aşa. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit 69 . cu ta-su? Fereşte-l.Nu ştiam unde mă duce. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2. care e fata lui Andrei Mortu. cu o casă de copii. Are gust de oameni blânzi. stricata. după pofte. că tot trebuie să plece pe front. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră. ca să zic aşa. cu cale ferată şi cu geamie. şi apoi Vica ce zice. oameni aşezaţi. astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio. da. aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit.– Crezi tu. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă. Fenio. unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare. acuma sporovăiala. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei. că iepuşoara asta de Vica. în satul nostru. şerpoaica. în general.Unit three Questions Pratice Translate the following: 1. lui Luca Horobeţ. cumnată Fenia. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu. nu purta verighetă. şi care s-a aciuat. să se încolăcească mai bine. dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza. din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte. crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei. lui Chizlinski. lui Stavre Păici. acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat. (…) Şi de la Bogdaproste. şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu. pe Condrat de Vica.
deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee. de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii. pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha.Nadina VIŞAN Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată. curat ca pereţii de Paşti. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor. Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera. până la călcâie. când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo. Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef. Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri. roşu şi galben. pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere. Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. (Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4. Hogea. sus. tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani. atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate. În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde. De asta erai. deci. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. dar cum se face că a 70 . abia târându-şi picioarele. Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri. Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă. şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3. Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea. L-a scos din geamie. sau cum o chema.
furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile. se vede prea bine.Unit three Questions ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile. dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul. niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 71 .
FOUR COORDINATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English. to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English 73 .
Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.6.Coordination and Subordination 18.104.22.168.Contents: 74 4.4.Key Concepts .3.Coordinating Conjunctions 4.Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.
cu repros.e. This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination. where there is no indication other than a comma.e. reproachfully.Unit four Coordination 4. The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts. present) in the sentence. Example (2). which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros. that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination. 75 . on the other hand. We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above. where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete.) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and. Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully. is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly. i.) which is an instance of syndetic coordination. some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination. that elements are coordinated.
76 . From the previously mentioned examples. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die. vei muri. (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea. namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri.Nadina VIŞAN 4. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and. In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure. we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view. Conversely. We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection. subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting. that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view. you will die. coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank.2 Coordination & Subordination By definition. coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions.) Such examples. led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated.) (4) If you hit my wife. where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part.
The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions. a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted. a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate 77 . from a logical & semantic point of view. but presupposed.) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion.Unit four Coordination b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated. Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind. (John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors. respectively subordinated constituents. c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone. the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened. However. we need to specify that. Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back. (John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua. the second.
on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets. He wrung the bottom of his trousers. Though the castle had vanished. Then he sat down. In the first. He moved and made a slopping noise. but the 78 . took off his shoes and emptied them. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town. of cut gray stone. stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. with enormous solidity. a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again. this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. built. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph.Nadina VIŞAN clauses from both passages. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky. took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet. John Steinbeck. with formal walks under rows of trees. He wrung the bottoms of his trousers. the houses were beautiful and ancient. In the second. the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description. His clothes hung to him. combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. took off his coat and emptied them. He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank. adorned with cornices. his shoes squished.
the higher he went the wetter it grew. waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside. The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim.Unit four Coordination streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins. Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours. curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town. until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots. He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged. over some of the roughest ground in the country. The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone. and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal. left the house. and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the 79 . After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again. and as the way is with Irish mountains. His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking. Cecil Woocham – Smith. and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and.
yesterday and the day before yesterday. however distinguished. where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. As one can easily notice. this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from 80 .K. were to take down the name of every man.Nadina VIŞAN prickly ground. were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives. Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path 4. (9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class. (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri. where we are dealing with a compound constituent. we should be seriously annoyed. the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE. who was caught at a University Extension lecture. Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination.) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday. Phrase Coordination Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday.) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination.3 Sentence vs. as shown in (9). (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri. A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE. (G.
Her pet kitten is black and white. and but phrasal phrasal coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated . (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza. 3. plays football. 8. 7.Unit four Coordination example (7). / Bob and George are admired by their students. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. John and Mary are the newly married couple. our respective examinations. Pratice Distinguish coordination. 10.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. 6 John sang and Mary danced. John and Mary are ready. but not John. and I passed. / Joan plays many games. 2.) 81 between argue sentence that both coordination are basic. when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis. Activity 2 sentences: 1. Our flag is red. 4. yellow and blue. Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed. 9. 5. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. John writes poetry and Bill writes prose. John is ready and Mary is ready. / Peter and John played football. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis. / Peter. and even tennis. / John both composed the music and wrote the words.
6. 3. The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend. as can be seen in (10b). Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct. Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1. A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels. (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste. Jane 82 . Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. or deleted. b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a.) b. (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile. John writes poetry and Bill prose. 5. Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune. * John loves cigars and Bill hates. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan.) c. John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars.) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out. *John poetry and Bill writes prose. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c. (John scrie poezii si Bill proza.Nadina VIŞAN b. John loves and Bill hates cigars. whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case. Activity 4 2.
Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married. 10. We can demand payment and we will demand payment. the predication buy a pair of shoes.) The common element. So. these syntactical processes.e. Besides ellipsis. 9. (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi.) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure.Unit four Coordination forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself. i. (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut. are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences. 8. can be reduced by substitution. 7. than a longer repetitive one. as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying. 83 . that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language. the so-called Principle of Economy. having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend. Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes.
Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. 4. some reason or another. 4. A citit. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare. S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit. interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau. George and Jane are separated. In certain cases. 2. using reduced structures: 1. the old men and women 2.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another. one or (the) other method. 3. since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not. ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity. Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile 84 . George and Jane went back to their parents. Translate the following sentences. simple books and magazines for children 3.
.. I need another 100$ ………. 10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ………. I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9.… 14. Marks and Spencers. 7. It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time. of your proposals later on? 3. A pendulum swings ………. Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4. They get on quite well together. 8. 6. Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche.You gain some things and you lose others. . 13. 2. sweet and sour. bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros 85 . 5. You can’t claim on insurance for ………. even though they have their little …………. After all their adventures. it’s a case of ………… 7.. 5. Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante. Can we discuss the ………….I searched ………. Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres. 6. 15. 16. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori. the amount I’ve already saved up.. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1. only for damage. like: salt and pepper. She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party. they reached home………. fish and chips.. Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ……….. 8. The police are responsible for maintaining …………. for my wallet.Unit four Coordination vagaboande de langa bloc. Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases. 11. 12.
the expressive function of coordination is. as in: (17) a. We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators. one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content. 4. Nor sun.4. to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast. of course. semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated. nor wind will strike to kiss thee. b. For instance. *Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car. and 86 . *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax. etc. In fact. more often than not.) There are.) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut. which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but.) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari. (Slujba lui este si juridica si politica. such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless.Nadina VIŞAN and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear. Coordinating Conjunctions We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also.
) c. (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii. both … and . Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her. etc). where the subordinator is repeated. He went to the safe and (he) took out the money. I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day.) 87 . or .) In certain cases. the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e. (I-am dat banii. (Ei o placeau pe Susan. some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and. sometimes but.) b.) c) disjunctive coordinators: or. either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes. too): (20) a. dar nu am fost multumit de asta. (Poate primi ori banii ori hainele. I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it. (I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc.Unit four Coordination (18) I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it. o respectau si o indrageau. and cherished her. ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me.) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or.g. If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses. (S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo. 20 (b)).
I admire and like her. like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife. I like and admire her. Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts. Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have: 88 .Nadina VIŞAN An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes. one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a.) b. I washed and ironed my pants. these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions. (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii. and you’ll die. (Imi place si o admir. In this case. we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die. the order of these conjuncts is fixed. (O admir si imi place.* I ironed and washed my pants. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori. and hit my wife.) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a.) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines. From this point of view. if we were to rewrite the example .) b.
(First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit. (A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie. (If you do that. Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs. Brown experiments with humans.) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay. Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr.) while/whereas – interpretation Dr.) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard. you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat.Unit four Coordination 1. (Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni. he failed). He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment. he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament. Dr. Brown does it with humans) 89 (26) (27) (29) (30) (31) .) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely.) (While Dr. (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat. assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes.) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police.
2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.
4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.
OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.
4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94
ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
stropitoarea în casă?
materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare. formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly.Unit four Coordination (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below. 97 .
Nadina VIŞAN 98 .
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses 99 .
3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.4 Key Concepts .2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.Contents: 100 5.
Unlike in the case of compound sentences .the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination.) (2) It seems that he is not your friend. (Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu. subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses As previously shown. (Se pare că nu îţi este prieten. If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody. the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one. Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses. turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you. as the name suggests it.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which.) 101 . e.g. 5.which are based on coordination . From the functional point of view. takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause. This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order.
we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence. We do not presuppose however something like. They have the feature [+ obligatory] and. (I-a dat cartea de bună voie.) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină. (Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo. we associate it with these objects. for example). For instance. such as proud of. an adverbial item. for instance. indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here. (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o.) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it. An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases. even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted.) 102 . sentences) required by the verb (or.Nadina VIŞAN b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects. in certain cases. In a way. the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO).) At this point we need to provide some further explanation. (7) He willingly gave the book to her.) Whenever we think of this particular verb. (I-a dat cartea. they are still presupposed by the speaker. by an adjective + preposition. such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly.
which is the adverbial willingly. The second example. to her) and one extra-item.e. and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a. I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact. The term comes from the verb to adjoin. it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information. The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition. an additional one. but its effect remains even after its wipeout. since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come. In other words. has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină.) b. That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid. 103 . a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. A second observation. to add something. These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts. I am afraid that he won’t come. Thus. under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’. related to example (4). i. We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted.) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book. The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition.
So. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. a închis toate ferestrele. am să mor. such as want. make.) 104 . If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb. please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence. we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs. So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses. then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’.) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform. I’ll die. (Înainte să plece din cameră. before you decide on what label to stick on an object. The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective.) (11) If you don’t marry me.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform. like. They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows.Nadina VIŞAN Last but not least. (Dacă nu te însori cu mine. etc. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron.
g.She came to him of her own will. Whoever did that was a genius. [. She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her.obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring. OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart. Susan disappeared without saying a word. she looked at me sadly.g. 4. c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back.g. 6. 2. e. 5. After I told her the story. The book that because they home. believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go 105 . She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. I cannot tell you what I heard about you. They came to e. this to whomever wants it. the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e. 3.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses To sum up so far. Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1.
but he declined. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home. WHETHER. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT. 3.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one. 6. remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless. 2. stating their function: Activity 2 1. 4.Nadina VIŞAN Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. The Romanian term is translated by object in English. though it was largely politeness. When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms. as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still. You suggestion that we should. Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina. which. was a novelty to Mitzi. etc. not object. FOR.He took an intelligent interest in her. 5. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 5. (the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian. As you can see.) 106 . At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God. in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject. at our age.
) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what.) b. Who did it was John. (Locul în care s-a dus este Londra. how. (Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare. why. (Am vrut să plec imediat.) (16) a. (E de dorit să plece. Where he went is London. where.) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune. (14) I was afraid of what he might say. (15) It is John who did it. (18) I didn’t know who had killed him.) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta. 107 . when. who.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses (14) I knew that he liked me. etc.) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John. which.) (16) It is advisable for him to leave.) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail. (Ştiam că mă simpatizează.) (17) I wanted to leave immediately.
if. (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb. As you will see.) (18) She told me this before she left. etc. The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning. before. consider the following table. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause. for instance. In conclusion. Compare. Unlike complement clauses. done from a structural point of view. however. which sums up this classification.) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause.Nadina VIŞAN (c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although. these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge. In (18). and the ones we are characterizing in the table below: 108 . the categories are reduced to only three in this case. (Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece. But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4. and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object. the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool.1.
back. surely you cannot sincerely believe.g. To say that I think of my dear son every day says little. whether he will come when I feel like it. and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right. (…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings. I will go there because I feel like it. 109 . Introduced know e. Dear Ludwig. Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter.: e. I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before.g. that you will wh Introduced by adverbial Introduced by that. for. after. I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e. you understand. Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son.g. etc. as. at your young age. I will come back such as because. I cannot express to you how much we miss you.
for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An 110 . She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut. she stopped to speak to Monroe. 2. he said. who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree. a tightening in her breathing. As she left the house.Nadina VIŞAN never want to set foot in the US in your life again. that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there. but he asked her to wake him when she returned. The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them.The day Monroe had died was in May.It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure. Too. We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences. He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep. Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek. he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair. But she thought that no one would call again. she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door. Accidental Man) b)1. that she realized she was now similarly hidden away. Late that afternoon. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare.
However.g.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses 5. As you have probably noticed already. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e. I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius. I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to.obligatory] ADJUNCTS. the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4. a correspondence can be traced. I told her everything after she arrived. interesting.g. Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses.g. Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [. că e. Wh Complements can be subjects: e.g. Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e. since they are translated differently in English: care vs. Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture. I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e.2.g. That he loved e. Whoever did Wh can be objects: e. 111 .g.g.
In the fourth place. (Cred că mă place.1.2. This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify. none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5.) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty.Nadina VIŞAN you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect). adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts. Secondly. (Fata care mă place e frumuşică. you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here.complement. i.) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings.e. So. wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5. This table makes a few things obvious: firstly. whereas wh complements are the 112 . that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me. Thirdly.. This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter. We will come back to that in the next chapter. complements. whenever you identify a wh. the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements.
and I do not know how things might stand between us. Pratice Consider the following text. because. outbuildings. but no idea what to do with them. before. she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship. It gave her pleasure to play on the piano. etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce. but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function. She mistrusted her handwriting.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses hardest to figure out. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye. for no matter how she tried. I first thought to tell in 113 . None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes. c) I am coming home one way or another.g. Adverbials can only be adjuncts. their introductory elements (e. after. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials. Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour. a barn. a house.
it would make you fear to do such again. adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers. and I have not the will or the energy. which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate. But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale.e. According to a structural criterion.4. Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one. subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects. objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective). Key Concepts We classify dependent (i. wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial). since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function. offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany). (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 5.Nadina VIŞAN this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return. because they modify. Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done. • English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory 114 . these clauses can be complements.
îşi spuseseră că Anton. fără să-şi ridice spinarea. • The Romanian term complement indirect (i. Alţii.e. Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba.) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart. be very careful to use this term correctly. Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace. 115 . Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ. care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul. answering the question to whom? So. ce o fi având. indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects. think of. dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi. Pratice Translate the following. Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz. Nevasta secera în tăcere. etc. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian. (…) “Mă.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses preposition (e. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când. look at. însă. O zbughi înapoi. după ce că are grâu puţin. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei. interested in. making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter.g. şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită.
nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana. ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep. cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii. fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin. şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime. de fapt. izolate de sat. dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte. se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila. deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă. iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată. Toată lumea înţelesese că. şi erau atâtea alte motive… 116 . Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum. avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos. Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii. În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie. (Marin Preda – Friguri) 3. întâi. Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului. devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră. cât de bolnavă era. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă. Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul. (Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2.Nadina VIŞAN simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el. decât cu ameninţare adevărată. timp de un ceas. Nici acum.
deşi cam târziu. De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau. Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum. iar când nu izbuteau de la început. căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat. Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit. rămâne totul baltă şi pace. aşa de oţetit. pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare. Pace nu era. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei 117 . la nişte prieteni comuni. (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4. iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic. Îl supăra şi tonul mamei. stricau totul. În realitate. la Odobeşti. din cauza lui G… Anişoara. Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana. Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă. amânase scrisul. care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”. sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. acum sunt desluşiţi. Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi. Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce. Iată. de pildă. a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila. cu automobilele unora dintre ei. deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti. Era bine de ştiut.
întâia noapte de război) 118 . ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite.Nadina VIŞAN îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar. frate. Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e.
of which.SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses. 119 . subject relative clauses. etc. the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence. whose..g. etc). accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e.
The Co-reference Condition 6. Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6.5.2. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 6.4.3. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives Contents: 120 6.1. Relative Clause Introducers 6. Key Concepts .6.6.7. The Classification of Relative Clauses 6.
(3) I need some tools with which to fix the car.) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section.) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina.1. It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses.) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane.2. relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function. 6. 121 . (1) This is a gift that you fully deserve. This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes. We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause.a discussion of attributive relatives As we shall see. The Co-reference Condition . (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband. The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute). b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin.Unit six Relative clauses 6.
Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object.Nadina VIŞAN These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent. John loves that woman.) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed. reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause. By combining these two clauses. We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one. like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____. Consider the following: (4) I met a woman. we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____. 122 . we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves. (Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John. The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty.
The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate. The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent. we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause. I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology. The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a. The common element woman is present. John offered flowers to that woman. But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill. This way. so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed.Unit six Relative clauses But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti . Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman. 123 . I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b. we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed.
6. WHERE 3. whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue. WHO 124 . He’s the author who received the prize. I went to London. None of the students agreed with them. 9. John told his friend a story about the king. Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1. Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one. The students like their teacher. therefore in spoken English. He told Jim everything about his plans. 7.Nadina VIŞAN The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position. 3. 10. Susan wants to meet Jane. too. I lost the book’s cover. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one. frequently used in written language. 8. I introduced him to Jim. I love my husband very much. by leaving behind a trace. They met those students. Any of the students would answer to questions. These are people about whom we cannot tell much. This is my husband. I bought Jim a book. 5. 2. WHICH 4. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. WHO 5. 4. She doesn’t know anything about Jane. The king was just passing by. I had a book. Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2. The students like their teacher. He liked that book. She came to London. All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. It was silly of him to tell her the secret.
) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow. 2. (Cine strică plateşte. WHICH 8. whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love. relative clauses are divided into 1. WHOM 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses According to the criterion of form. WHOSE 7. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party. TO 11. independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent. This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo. .e.) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man. To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9. most of them were from England.Unit six Relative clauses 6. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize. that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13) 125 Who breaks pays. dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent. (Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc. WHOM 10. i.
e.) 126 (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) . (Cel care strică plăteşte. (Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat. (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei.Nadina VIŞAN (Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi. (Asta era ceea ce voise ea. unlike in the case of (14). we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones. these relatives cannot function as attributes.) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best.) • Predicative This was what she intended. as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled. Unlike their sisters. it is covert. they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects.) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile. where we are looking at a more obsolete (i.) So. in a manner of speaking.) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted. far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need. only their antecedent is no longer expressed. (Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit. (Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui. is no longer overtly expressed.
) (22) Mercury. Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography.) (20) The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only. care este zeul negoţului. este zeul meu favorit. is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes. defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent. They only provide supplementary information about it. They can be thus divided into: 1. they define it). who incidentally is the god of commerce.) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2. and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence. (21) The man who came to woo me was a god. non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent.) (Mercury. 127 . is my favourite god. (Du-te unde pofteşti. who is the god of commerce.Unit six Relative clauses • Adjunct Go wherever you want. they offer crucial information about this antecedent. (Mercur. (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu.
Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3. Independent I don’t know what you want. 2. 5. 7. I have met him where I least expected. was the one we all welcomed and admired. i.e. who came to see me. Shakespeare. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius. 6. 9. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4. She. They are what 128 . this type of relative clauses. is a genius. who is a genius.Nadina VIŞAN In conclusion. on whom nobody could depend. Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause. He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met. As we were saying. The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car. can only function as attributes (or modifiers). A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function. a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius. is a great playwright. Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1. Non-restrictive/non-defining That man. 8. 10. then it is an attribute. restrictive relative clauses. On the day on which this occurred I was away.This is the village where I spent my youth.
a. etc. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions): 129 Bohemian Rhapsody. When the antecedent has no determiner.): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star.) When combined with a restrictive relative clause. composed The (Freddie Mercury. it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury. however sad this may be. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian.) 2. the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent. First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses. a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody. We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun. care a murit acum câţiva ani. (Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock. . 6. Consider the following points of discussion: 1. who died a few years ago.Unit six Relative clauses their parents made them. etc.) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons.
) Pratice Translate the following. care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic). Mie. numai eu nu. paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1. 4.Nadina VIŞAN (26) (27) I.) Anybody else would have done something except myself. bătrînă morocănoasă. 2.) (28) They come to me. but a peevish. (Eu. 7. 5. căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate. dried-up old maid. who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva. (Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine. Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari. can see your shortcomings only too well. Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc. care-ţi sunt fiu. care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală. 130 . who am your son. care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte. prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa. Dintre toate personajele prezente. poftiţi în faţă. who neither work nor am anxious. 3. Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte. care nu sunt o femeie. nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie. 6. iritabilă şi uscată. Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă. ill-tempered. îţi văd prea bine defectele. (Ei apeleaza la mine. Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu. ci o fată a woman.
were now in his possession. (32) service finished late.) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă. şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu. each of which has evolved its own system of harmony. erau acum în posesia lui. heard.5 Relative Clause Introducers Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause.) (33) He was a railway fanatic. (Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare.) 131 (30) (31) run such dangers and undergone such toils. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta. şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie.Unit six Relative clauses 6. ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise.) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals. . some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan. In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse.) (35) The compositions of Cardan. părăsi camera. in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute.) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods. than whom few more can be more crashing. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul.
) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [± 132 . Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a.Nadina VIŞAN Aside from these marginal examples. too. The book whose cover I lost was very expensive. The genitive form with which is still in use.1. as can be seen in (36d).) b. The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous. but it is typical of the formal.5. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă.) d. (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat. The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen. We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones. The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself. 6.) b. (Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina. literary style: (37) a.) c. The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive. (Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără. (Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi. The woman whose painting I sold was very young. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position.
Unit six Relative clauses form of which.) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste. but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he was the almost unconscious agent. (Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu. An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el.) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father. (Iris Murdoch. There are situations when inversion is not obligatory. which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…) (39) (40) (42) 133 .
Nadina VIŞAN • When a personal denotation refers not to an individual. (… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele. (Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni. … Italy. of which. revoluţionarul care este în esenţă. … Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…) 134 Sejanus seems to have been the father. ships (that can be personified) a.) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a.) • states. This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea. al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus. (Nu mai este omul care era odată.) b. He is not the man which he used to be. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică.) b. animals. (Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys. by the way. Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca (43) revolutionary which at bottom he is. but to a type or a function: a. (45) (46) . Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy.
…the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. Poland is the place in which Christine was born. where. It is poor what gets the punches.Unit six Relative clauses b. One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave. how. şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted.) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses.) 135 (47) . and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a. (Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri. etc. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi. etc.) b) dialectal (49) a. reason. while. did however take certain precautions (… Franţa. whom it concerned most closely.) 6. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches. pe care o privea direct.) b. cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when. (Nu ştiam ce vor. their antecedents are nouns expressing places. Poland is the place where Christine was born. time. France. why. When they introduce restrictive relative clauses.
) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a.They left when they decided it was proper to. (Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit.3. He went where he had been before.) 6. A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk.) c.Nadina VIŞAN (51) a. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut. (S-a dus unde mai fusese. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera.) 136 .) When they introduce free relative clauses. (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d. (Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult. Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch. The place whither he goes is unknown.5.) b. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.) b. A system where by a new discovery will arise. This is the place wherefrom they came. no antecedents are required: (52) a. Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch. (Acesta este locul din care au venit. They returned to the land whence they had come. Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile.) b.) e.
) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left. the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about.] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi. never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does.) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was. (Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome).] (Nu este omul care era odinioară. Moreover.Unit six Relative clauses It is invariable.] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam.) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing: 137 .
5. .) (61) • With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all. Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b. but they are used very infrequently: as.) • With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen. (Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată. but • in standard language a. any. every. 138 (64) his shoes. I’ll get you such things as you may want.Nadina VIŞAN (60) The children were the parcels that filled the car. little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had. not any. era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze.* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina. (Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată.) b.) (62) • When the rule of euphony must be observed (63) a. Honest man as he was.4. Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers. much. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era.
It’s the dry weather does it.) c. (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b. Uncle George. him as was in China … (Uncle George. ăl de fusese in China…) b.) • in dialect a. This is the same one that/as you had before. să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară. There is no man but feels pity for starving children. şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute. . And always on the buttered side.) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English. the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67) 139 (65) (66) man who doesn’t feel pity …) a. There is no one of us but wishes to help you. There’s not many as’ll say that.) c. (Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat. I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor.Unit six Relative clauses (O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti. când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică. (There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a. who had been in China …) (Unchiul George. (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut.
(Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston. For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston. (It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67).Nadina VIŞAN (It’s the dry weather that is to blame. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston.) 140 . (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot.) b. This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer. It was me made her think that was the best thing to do.
When the preposition appears at the end of the clause. 6. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. What I’m saying is. Where he was from. 7. The man that John spoke to is a genius. 3. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot. It seemed a thing 141 . That which shows God out of me.5. makes me a wart and a wen. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die.Unit six Relative clauses since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity. 5.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1. fortifies me. The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love.) b. we all have to come to some terms.3): (72) a.” 4. This is where we talk money. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me.*The man John spoke to is an idiot.) c. the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a. b. What Inman remembered was this passage. The man who John spoke to is a genius. The man John spoke to is a genius. 2.
Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields. f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here. Ruby said. h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag. 142 . d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good. which is a lot. though. 8. when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here. she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works. he had left Ruby high and dry. that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month. 11. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. 12. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late. (…) Partly. of living. e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here. 10. 13. Oh. 9. Whatever his fate was. g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag. Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. The rudeness of eating. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came. Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way.Nadina VIŞAN of such wonder to Ada. who had not witnessed many dawns.
purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var. pirpiriu. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria. vasnic. fiu natural al unui morar. plutonier. care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era. This is the horse that kicked the policeman. el insusi frate de lapte cu 143 . try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. nu prea sarac. al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara. divortata. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”. al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa. mort de tanar. al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu. Cumnatul meu avea. care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate. una din nepoatele unui inginer. un var primar. al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru. al carei strabunic. al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa. care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator. s-a casatorit si a avut o fata. pe linie paterna. (Iris Murdoch. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer. poate.Unit six Relative clauses Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage. dar care avea un var de-al doilea. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest. care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa. that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started.al lui. cumnatul unui portughez.
by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping. This is the book. Everybody listened to that woman.) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a. insurat de trei ori la rand. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti. b. a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu. where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened.6.Nadina VIŞAN fiul unui laptar. She was a woman. Teatru) 6. The opposite phenomenon. la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara. I lost the cover of the book. The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence. By extension. c.2. you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi. another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a. 144 . She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ . regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding If you go back to our discussion in 5.
For the intense anxious sense of herself 145 .Unit six Relative clauses b. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. 9. This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. 3. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. acting again as a genuine pied piper. This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti. no easy answers to which could be offered. The difference between (76) and (77). 6. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover. Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. 4. 5. apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory. The problem of safe transportation. 2. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. 8.) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position. he requested that the public be excluded. 7. has been troubling them forever. In the interest of public decency. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o.
Irene. he rarely saw now. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. was now complete. 4. This story. including that of Indirect Object which only they can have). 146 .His father’s friends. Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1. Activity 9 were now all gone. 10.Nadina VIŞAN with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. 3. 6. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value). His friends. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing. The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause.7 Key Concepts Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause. but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions. has been deleted. no matter which. as the case is). 2. 5. They do not function as attributes. that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back. Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not. whose interest he most sincerely shared.
unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…). din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă. Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut. himeric. 4. as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping. Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată.Unit six Relative clauses The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. 2. închipuirea. pentru dumneata bunăoară. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri. de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească. capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit. Pentru alţii. De douazeci de ani. Toate sfârşeau. închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă. al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. sunt vrednic de invidiat. A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director. 5. 6. Căci pentru toţi patru copiii. Nelu. cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire. spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi. capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil. Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău 147 . Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. 7. 3.
ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte. Eşti proaspăt sosit aici. Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum. cu surle şi cu tobe. (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea. 12. care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului. când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii. 8. Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă. speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. 10. Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11.Nadina VIŞAN am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg. 9. (Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13. – De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele 148 . nici în searbăda mea versiune. Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr. Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire. nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie. Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică. a făcut el.
ochii tăi au fost cenuşii. despre care. izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate. 16. 15. din direcţia căreia apoi. cu sclipiri abia vizibile. 20. roiuri de fetiţe. o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă. Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă. Avea acum un fel de vertij. Era una dintre acele femei elegante. fie la teatru. până mai adineauri. printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le. 18. de unde venea şi Marta. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19. nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla. 149 . încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă. apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos. zise ea cu ochii mari. Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară. apărură. 17. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă. trăia larg de tot. din care cauză pe Dora. toată lumea întreba cine e. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui. pe strada Icoanei. Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac. În spatele lor. Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti. 14. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă.Unit six Relative clauses adevărate şi care nu. deşi atât de aproape. dinspre Maria Rosetti. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi. care era foarte “mondenă”. Dacă mă lovea. fie pe stradă.
Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea. 22. decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene. alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii. pe care ea îi admira acum. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el. în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei. 23. de sus de unde eram.Nadina VIŞAN 21. până în şosea. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. după ce maşina a fost reparată. Pentru mine însă. Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi. decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins. pe care eu nu-l aveam. care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii. Pare-se că snobii. 24. aveau un stil al lor. vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina. de mine. când au urcat râpa iar. aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei. N-am putut să nu bag de seamă. întâia noapte de război) 150 .
151 . by stating their syntactic function. Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses.SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes.
That Complements as Subjects 7.3. Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements 22.214.171.124. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 7.2.2.Clause Shift 7. When Can We Delete ‘That’? 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.1.3. That Complements as Direct Objects 7. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? 7.2.Topicalization 7. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 184.108.40.206.3. The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 7.Extraposition 7.2.2. Key Concepts .220.127.116.11. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 7. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes 7. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials 7.1. That Deletion 7.1.1. The Distribution of That Complements Contents: 152 7.3.
complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică. Apart from those introduced by that.) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva. the clause is extraposed.Unit seven That complements That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4). placed in a marginal position. 7. (3) Tell me if you need anything. The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position.) (4) They wanted to leave immediately.1.) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat.) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi. 153 . followed by the complement clause in peripheral position. but also of infinitival ones. being found not only in the case of that-clauses. (1) It is good for them to know Mathematics. (2) I don’t know whether he will recover.1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English. In other words.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements 7.
but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.Nadina VIŞAN This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function.) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing.) • Direct Object Clause unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas.) • Prepositional Object unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) 154 . (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.
11. It will be soon announced when you can leave. 11. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. 5. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. 9. It is no use trying to convince her.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. It appears that no one voted for him.Unit seven That complements Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1. 2. 8. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. 14. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. It was suggested that they should meet the President. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. They considered it very silly of her to 155 . He will answer for it that his son is innocent. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. 7. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. 10. 15. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. It is nice to meet you. 4. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. 8. 7. It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. 3. Is it true that the children are sick? 5. 10. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1. 6. 9. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. 4. 13. 3. 6. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17. 2.
“ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. sub poduri. mă ascundeam în grabă. 6.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English. “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. I guess it that he will come back. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. 2. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. I don’t expect it that he will come back. 5. paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1. unde se nimerea. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. după porţi. 18. They never expected it that he would come back.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. atât 156 . 5. zice Lionel.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me.Nadina VIŞAN have married Bill. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe. 4. 3. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. 3. Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian. Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1. 4. 2. 3. Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1. în gropi. 2. în canal.
Spunând cele ce-am spus. precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele. Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci. când locuia în conacul din La Roque). dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă. E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede. 157 . răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade. Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei. cu ceea ce ţi se dă. cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală. atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele. fără îndoială. Mi s-a părut chiar că. precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză. lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi. 6. 7. vor căuta să o zdruncine. excelentă. Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări. Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale. n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist. (Nu întotdeauna. Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos. Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii.” 4. 5. fără să cârteşti. Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi. hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi. Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti.Unit seven That complements cât se va putea.
Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts. subject clauses are the frequent situation.1.Nadina VIŞAN 7. Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized. It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world. 1. Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident.2. No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of 158 . we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language.) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny. this asymmetry is undone.) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case. noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below.) While in the case of extraposition. since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis. (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. in the case of topicalization. (Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega. Consequently. Pratice Read the following.
That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had 159 . 6. whether it would finally carry her off. he felt no spring of interest in her. let it kill her if it would by a random stroke. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten. 4. he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina. He was utterly gone. When this is so one is in extremity indeed. even today. She had always been the slave of chance. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm. mere chance would decide. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once. To walk by was an expression of his own despair. Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. 3. 5. That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose. 7. 8. was inconceivable. The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. He did not blame Gracie. but not now.Unit seven That complements her only as an instrument. This was another era. 2.
(A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş.) 160 . This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket.Nadina VIŞAN passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it. Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence. Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift. Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded. This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English. A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read.3. The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons. (A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase.1. according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood.
e.Unit seven That complements clause shift operates only on object clauses. It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended. Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase.) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation. by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment. (17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive. clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly. the verb to drive). From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers. we obtain. 161 . because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i. The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable. (Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina.) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position.
/? He appointed Mr Hugh. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace.*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful.? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people.Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. 6. who had just returned from Africa.They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. 3. 5. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public.He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. 7.He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. 8. prime-minister. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. 2. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. 162 ./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public.He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. 4.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. / He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister. who had just returned from Africa. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. who had just returned from Africa.
We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects.) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements.) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down.Unit seven That complements 7. (Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte. (A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii.) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it. (Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit. The Distribuition of That Complements As it will be shown below. (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) .) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals. that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul. (Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta.) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids. 163 (21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary.) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her. since this is the most frequent function they fulfill.2.
) b. afirm.2. explain. They believe the man is guilty. consider.) 164 . That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert. They believe that the man is guilty.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat. (Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici. etc.) b. He announced their engagement. communicate. (with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi. desire. deem.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say. deny. prefer. He announced that they were engaged.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here. These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house.: (25) a. (Cred că omul este vinovat. judge. They promised him that he would received a new house. predict.1. etc.) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă. (I-au promis o casă nouă.) a. (Şi-a anunţat logodna. promise. suggest. estimate. state.Nadina VIŞAN 7.
Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)
a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.
(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)
7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)
The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i. for example. (this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept. She has everything save that she lacks intelligence. ibid. they lose their meaning. become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say. prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses. not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase. cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă.) 172 . but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you. In older stages of English.) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch. similar to the construction existent in Romanian): in contemporary English.Nadina VIŞAN In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that.e. the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason. (Nu-i lipseşte nimic.) language. (this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină. hope =>purpose. … now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b. on condition that. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a.) I like him in that he is smart.
His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. . That can be deleted. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el.) (66) 173 a. He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it. that we wouldn’t doubt it. such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him.) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him.) b. (Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră.) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him. He gave an answer such. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. să o vadă trecând.) When the structure contains the word such. He gave such an answer as had expected. He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him. the noun following it is deletable: (64) a. as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass. His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom.) b. (Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc. (Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el.Unit seven That complements c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so.
they were chained to each other forever. 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. ibid.Nadina VIŞAN (I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta. 6) John made it clear that he disagreed.) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1. 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. (Iris Murdoch.) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. 2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. He gave an answer such that I had expected. ibid. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta. for better or worse.) b. 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely.We discovered that our map has disappeared. 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. (Iris Murdoch.) 174 . 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife.
) The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal. tell). When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still. He showed he was able to do it. If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like. that he uses a relaxed tone.) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still. (A dovedit că poate să facă asta. 175 . (67) That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses. (A prins de veste că ei vin. for instance. omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave.) b.3. say.1.Unit seven That complements 7. (Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce. (A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea.) c. (69) a. He said he had borrowed her money. He got word they were coming.3 ‘That Deletion 7.
3. for better or worse. In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause.) (De asemenea. bune. because that has been deleted. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized. condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că.3. for better or worse. rele. they were chained to each other forever. *I like it he was here. ‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a.3. (Îmi place că e aici. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that.) b.2.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and. erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt. I like it that he was here.Nadina VIŞAN 7. they were chained to each other forever. 7. You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?) 176 (73) . (Iris Murdoch. ibid.
that they were not too late to leave. (“Este acolo”.) b)He told me that she was there.4. 7. which is ungrammatical in English. Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. simultaneity. 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause. 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. spuse el. you want me to believe. 3) That such things still happen is no wonder.Unit seven That complements But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming? This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause. 7) They maintain. posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause. 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”. he said. (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo.) 177 . 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction. thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority.
(Am să o părăsesc. (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo. vine el. I will leave her. the verb realize is said to be a factive verb. 178 ----- Past rule can be optional with the so-called FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their . exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true.) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1. (“Era acolo”.) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect a. până pleacă ea. (Pâna să plece.Future Perfect in the Past (78) a. (A spus că. He said he would have arrived by the time she left. “She was here”.) b. He said he would leave her.) Future Perfect -----. He will have arrived by the time she leaves.) b. spuse el. The Present complement). (A spus că o să o părăsească.) b. he said.Nadina VIŞAN Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a. In the example below. o să vină el. He told me that she had been there.
etc. hope. think. discover. show. be aware. say. etc. wish. report. notice. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac.) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius. regret. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same. This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb. there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know. forget. only I don’t The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause. whisper. (Îmi dau seama că este un geniu. realize it). With such factive verbs as realize. Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees.Unit seven That complements And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause. Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees. (Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret. insist. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac.) b. mention.) On the other hand.) 179 . dream. be amazed/concerned. (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the group was/*is an undercover agent. believe. the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a. Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius.
She still believed that the earth was flat.) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past. expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly married pair. simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin. in tender deference to each other. He knew that she thought all men were fools. feign habits which are not their own. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund.) b. She realized that all men are fools. The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită.) b. She believed that the earth is round. with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a.) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used.) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth.Nadina VIŞAN If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements. (Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti. we notice that general truths. (Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti. 180 . (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat. cu un respect tandru reciproc. Consider also: (85) a. (Iris Murdoch.
) b. the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here. since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police. She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived. (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia. such as a. 3. (Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo. Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional. (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5.) In (88).) b. 181 .) The rule Past ----- Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain complements which contain a non-durative. (Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia. Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there. There are however cases. (Bănuia că Bill este acolo. Peter said that John will leave at 5. Peter said that John would leave at 5.Unit seven That complements 2.) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed. (87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous. She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived. simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a.) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule.
c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. f) John said that Harry would leave. for instance. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant.) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant. d) John said that Harry was leaving. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. But 182 . c) John said that Harry is leaving. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. Imagine.Nadina VIŞAN (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. h) John thought that Harry had run. that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend. John said that Harry will leave. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. g) John thought that Harry ran. The time is 3 o’clock. f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood.
which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. Crows will relish what presents itself. love of practical jokes. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. jaybird. Cooper’s hawk. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. a. quail. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. kingfisher. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. redtailed hawk. lack of pridefulness. lark. nighthawk. as evidenced by its drear plumage. bluebird. h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. geese both grey and white. She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. c.Unit seven That complements John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. b. whistling swan. slyness in a fight. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. 183 . All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. She admired their keenness of wit. Translate the following.
and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. he claimed. war hero though he was. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. He had fought hard through the war. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. […] During the latter stages of the tale. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg. A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying. And they might just hang him. D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. Now here he stood jailed. But as the battle raged around them. He died erect. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 184 . which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her.Nadina VIŞAN C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. in the very act of expiring. the young officer. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips.
A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements).Unit seven That complements 7. adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb). topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains. adjective or by a de-verbal noun. The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it). from the very frequent subject. On certain occasions that can be deleted. object ones up to the attributive function.5 Key Concepts That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb. or else. That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions. on other occasions it has to stay there. That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function. 185 . which they share with wh-complements.
cel mai mare. neconvenabil şi primejdios. Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul. Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat. Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii. care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă. Când au văzut că mama a plecat. Unul din ei. ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui. 2. avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar. Regretam că m-a lăsat singur. spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei. Mama. Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. Fiind 186 . s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei. peste puţin. de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă. Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit. 4. cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani. a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine. 3. Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare. – Totuşi trebuie să ştii. Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă. Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1.
niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. cel puţin pentru un timp. îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că. că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el. trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor. de ce constata în sine. nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris. va fi mai interesant pentru ea. Nu ţi-a trecut. fericit. un vis de acesta 187 .Unit seven That complements de o idioţie celebră. Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume. aşa. va pleca din oraş la vie. luminos şi apropiat şi când. dacă va mai veni. 8. Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. 9. venind de la avocat. 7. 5. Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios. ea. 6. ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta. Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că. Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui. Se mira. care îl pândise. Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie. să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul. căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent. învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute. pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu.
Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt. 12. liniştit. Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare. Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine. Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor. Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine. tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu. nici batjocura lui Urmatecu. lucrul era înfăptuit. e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13. iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise. Astfel de va fi. şi mândria că a biruit. cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc.(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10. urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii. Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică.Nadina VIŞAN nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere. dar şi teama că. fireşte. încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea. încă o dată. aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe. Acesta. 11. Apoi Bubi era şi 188 . – La ceea ce mă gândesc.
Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului. Pe toate. Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit. lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând. ci numai aşa. unde alerga să mărturisească totul. să le lămurească pe toate. 14. Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron. Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit.Unit seven That complements obosit de încordare şi de emoţii. după cum. spre Jurubiţa. fără o vorbă scrisă. Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie. pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie. să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui. simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea. care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 189 . mai puternic decât oricând.
Nadina VIŞAN 190 .
EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures. 191 .
The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 8.3.Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 8.2.4.The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.5.Verbs of Obligatory Control 8.A Classification of Infinitives 8.Key Concepts .18.104.22.168.What Are Infinitive Complements 8.The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 8.8.The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions Contents: 192 8.7.
(I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions. complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details).) b. (3) a. b. To love her is something really wonderful. (A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat). 193 . From this perspective. infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti. That you love her is something wonderful. (2) a.1. It is important for you to know what you need. I told her to be more careful in the future. It is important that you should know what you need. Consider the following: • like that complements.Unit eight Infinitive complements 8. infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a. There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features). and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have. I told her that she should be more careful in the future.) • like that complements. What Are Infinitive Complements Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor). (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie.) b. infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie.
the Conditional.) b. moduri nepersonale) By convention.e. English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses. is the fact that they do not have temporal features. when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea. For instance.Nadina VIŞAN • like that complements. She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe. 2. the Participle) (i. infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift: (4) a. etc. that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so. * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view. as opposed to the finite ones. gerundial clauses. d. 194 . they will distinguish between infinitival clauses.) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c. the Gerund. the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive. * She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative. participial clauses. She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her.
If the verb form has no temporal and personal features.) b. The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things.Unit eight Infinitive complements the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time. He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year. namely no ending.) c. it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case. (Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte. (Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice.) 195 . the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it. (Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features. To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed. The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a.
5. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. It is vital for our factory to be reopened.) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • • 196 (6) They told her to leave. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. (7) They saw her leave. 3. 7. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned.) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. the criterion of form. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. 9. 8. It is vital this factory to be reopened. 4. Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile . A Classification of Infinitives There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1. 8.2. 10.She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. 2. 6.
/ Au văzut-o că pleaca. / A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră. (A fost forţată să se ducă acolo. / A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor. 2. according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive. we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often. / L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată. / A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front. / L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice.) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală. the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there. / I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu. (Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească. hear. / Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă. (10) 197 . watch: they watched him cry An important thing to remember here is that by passivization.Unit eight Infinitive complements • • • • Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see.) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow.
trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult. / Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată. this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant.) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting.Nadina VIŞAN (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. Pratice Translate the following. trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial.) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction. although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech. uncharacteristic for literary English.) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul. (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. / A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii. 198 (11) the universe. 3. / A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie. However./ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte. . / Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente. the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject.
By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO. 199 . we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form. Further on.Unit eight Infinitive complements because. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive. we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive. as I have already mentioned. that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave. (13) We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed. we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions. In other words. we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO. so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave.) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave. or the control constructions. since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection. to use the appropriate technical term.
) b. we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction. I hoped for him to be there in time. PRO to forgive divine. (A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat.) b. That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives: (16) It is important for him to come back home. as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a. şi creştineşte să ierţi. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence. So far. What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function. (E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă.) In this situation. the logical subject. (E omeneşte să greşeşti. PRO to err is human.) 200 .) Object: (18) a. namely the agent of the event.Nadina VIŞAN • Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR. It is important for him not to err. gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause. (E important ca el să nu greşească. (Am sperat ca el să vina la timp.
We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist. the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist.Unit eight Infinitive complements Adjunct: (19) a. but the patient of the verb persuade. not to the infinitive. The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure.) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction . but a PRO-TO one: 201 . (L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun. In other words. him is not the agent of the infinitive.) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive. (Cred că este un lingvist competent.) b. where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist. He stepped aside for her to enter.) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21). (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă. him is related to the main clause verb. He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife. Semantically. (S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre.
Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day. \ I would love them to come. \ She promised him to leave. nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals.) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance. \ I allowed them to come. This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction. Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures.Nadina VIŞAN (22) I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist. from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals. \ They convinced her to come back. Likewise. but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade. \ He persuaded her to come. from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him. whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him. I hate animals to be tortured. \ She wanted him to leave. (Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite. \ They tempted him to leave. This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures. since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs. but with the infinitive in the subordinate. \ 202 .
and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something. hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems. This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one. Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job.) He seems to be a good linguist. 203 . So.Unit eight Infinitive complements They would have hated her to come back. this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job. the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. • Last but not least. so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive. \ They really asked her to come back.) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb. \ They did not wish her to come back. Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First. (Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună. But it is clear that he is a good linguist.) In examples (25) and (26). there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction. it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun.
+ They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her. etc. / Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her. seem. / Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe. /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli. / N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei. appear. Pratice Translate the following sentences. The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want. / Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6. To sum up the discussion. that is not required by certain verbs./ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani. hate. with special semantic and syntactic properties. to meet her. In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her.Nadina VIŞAN b) Second. / Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă. / Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine. / E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi. 204 . / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi. which are said to be free.). bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate. both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs.
(28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death. hate. hope. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită. scheme. deign. aspire to. expect. care to. etc. seek (= try).3 The Distribution of PRO . 8. deserve. try. desire. Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei. need.TO Constructions In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt. contrive. scorn. condescend. endeavour.) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well. manage. aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea. presume. omit. . etc. like. Compare: (31) a. etc.: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer. agree to. bear. want. fail. arrange.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose. / E greu să îl suporţi. afford. mean.) b) verbs such as abide. wish.) 205 friend. decline.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty. refuse. venture. intend. prefer. propose. dislike. (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime./ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere. (A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury.Unit eight Infinitive complements să pleci din casa mea.
(Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor.etc. endeavour. suggest.) b. (Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil. Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember. claim. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present. be important. I would like for him to become president of the country. unlikely. verbs of liking and disliking.) b.) b. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed. I hate that you should say a thing like this. (Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi. For all of them to have been killed is. threaten.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a. desirable. I remembered that I had to go to the post office. however. stand. bear. conclude.Nadina VIŞAN b. (Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă.) 8. forget. The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a. etc. (Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă. (Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării.) 206 . possible. ask. (Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva.
Unit eight Infinitive complements The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine. Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases. (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz. (A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici. (E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta. The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed. ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult. where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here.) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing.) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive.) 8. Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case. The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there. Predicative Clauses (39) a.) 207 .) 2. (Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate.) b.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions 1. (Era important ca ei să fie acolo.
(Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec. (Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp.) b. I decided for John to represent us.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure. Like in the case of that complements.Nadina VIŞAN 3.) 5. (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert. Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements.) b. (Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta. but the meaning remains. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii. this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a. (Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John. the preposition is deleted. .) 4.) 208 knowledge. Direct Objects (39) a. Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert. I meant for him to be alone with her tonight. Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time.
(Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii. curious about. She is pretty to look at.) c.: (42) a. (Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul. He is a bastard to work for.Unit eight Infinitive complements The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section. bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of. (I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez. delicious. (Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo. You’re an idiot to go there. 6. not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty. etc.) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down. This paint is like concrete to work with. (Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară.) b. (Tocana e foarte bună la gust.) e.) d. Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial. The stew is delicious to eat.) c) adverbial of result 209 .
/ E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă. final or introductory infinitive In this case. / E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament. să nu piardă trenul.) I’ve never met him. să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp. să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences. (introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept./ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie. / Ca să nu mai lungim 210 .Nadina VIŞAN (44) (45) The plate was too hot to touch. drept să spun. to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei.) Oh. you’re a bad driver. the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank. (Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă. / Ehei. când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea. (final) (Nu-l cunosc.) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate? (Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt. / Pe şleau. conduci prost. trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh. nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale. to tell you the truth.
Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring. / Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el.etc. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit. influence. 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO. inform.) b. / Am o vorbă să îţi spun. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife. etc.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show. promise. (49) a. / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica. encourage. inspire. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize.: (51) a. urge. According to this. swear. (I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel. direct. need. b.) 211 (A incercat sa isi ucida sotia. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him.Unit eight Infinitive complements vorba. induce. (L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui. nu mai vreau să te vad. press. oblige. / E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor. that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself.) . enable. / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare.
(L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului. / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. command. / I do not intend to tell him that myself. / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. (53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her. choose. order.) Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions. etc. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu. (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte. nominate. elect.) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell. name. I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it.Nadina VIŞAN In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta. etc. vote. allow./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral.) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on. depend on. look to. prevail on.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital. count on. which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest.etc./ And now he 212 . permit.
) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get. (Trebuie să sosească zilele astea. be going to. etc. (În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze. (Iris Murdoch. An Accidental Man) 8. (Se pare că îi place de el.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction As previously mentioned. (56) She grew to like him in the end. (57) He is to come any day now. this construction is lexically governed.) c) constructions including the verb be: be to. seem.) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint. come. (O să întârzii/ leşin. (Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5). etc.: (55) She appears to like him.verbs: appear. grow.) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5.Unit eight Infinitive complements refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. i.e. happen. 213 (58) (59) . be about to.etc. it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A.
(L-au auzit insultând-o. be considered. that of intention. (Trebuie să-i spună adevărul. that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause. etc. hence there is no control situation whatsoever. (Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia. etc. d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth.) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice.Nadina VIŞAN The meaning of (58).8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see. be alleged. overhear. observe.) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said. . be claimed. be rumoured.: (62) They heard him insult her. In (57). perceive.) 8.: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife.: (63) 214 I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood. is well supported by the syntactical analysis. feel. watch. be thought. hear. the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint).etc. be reported.
imagine. (Cred că este un geniu.) c) verbs of mental perception : assume. (N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii. presume. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night. remember. Infinitive) (66) (Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste. prove.Unit eight Infinitive complements (Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier. deem. recollect.) 215 (67) . find. there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities. However.) • with a full infinitive: get. occasion. (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence. understand. know. consider.: (68) I believe him to be a genius. figure. discover. since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make. have. (Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one. judge. cause. necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money. let I’ll have you learn this in no time. believe. picture. etc.
thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s. wish. if he himself was out of spirits. order. (Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5. (I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii.etc. want. permit. command.: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down.Nadina VIŞAN d) verbs of permission and command: allow. these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there. Harold. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts. he hated anyone to comment 216 .) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees. love. choose. state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home. prefer. desire. etc.) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like. suffer. (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte. (Aş vrea să mă duc acolo. mean.: (71) I would like him to be there at 5. who wasn’t used to men with moods. they had depressed and fuddled him. expect.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs.
to make sure we attended strictly to business.P. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. though he tended to look down on those below it. (John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor) 217 .Unit eight Infinitive complements on it. Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same. the herd instinct was very strong in him. It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays. Both seemed to him a little unreal. (L. It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own. He suspected hostility at once. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad. Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. he didn’t envy those above it. A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence. he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes.Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal. so that we might get to the future and have done. would never have dreamt of asking him the reason. She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us. A little crossly.
The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not. This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only. about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject. having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive. we can speak about bare and full infinitives. Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects.9 Key Concepts The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view. 218 . We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions.Nadina VIŞAN 8. is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them. we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions. The last criterion. From this perspective.
e) Când doi oameni. c) Călătoriile cu liftul. fireşte. un bărbat şi o femeie. dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta. ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă. making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie. bunăoară. E posibil. d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat. cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire. să-l capete. lovit şi umilit. sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit.Unit eight Infinitive complements Pratice Translate the following texts. să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure. mai bine219 . e important ce întrebări pui. stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte. într-o zi. dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece. de bună seamă. dar să nu-ţi spună. b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu. de asemenea. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul. ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit. pare că uităm propria noastră durere. Şi tu să fii. sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări.
Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte. h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi. 220 . năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi. Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure. că eşti tânăr. gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală. Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna. încă. mai bine de două decenii. care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere.să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet. avusese dreptate. Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică. Să spui de pildă. ca să nu şi-o amintească. nici măcar în acele puncte unde. De era vară.Delavrancea. pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea. în ploaie. un picior. în parte.Şt. d-a lungul gâtului.Nadina VIŞAN zis. în jos. . în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi. dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri. (B. aşa cum îi apăruse el. Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană. mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa. Însă Paul Achim trăise. cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B. ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte. să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu. mai pline de înţeles. în parte. să traiesc numai cu tusea. Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale. Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr. să nu vrea să se şteargă. pe care deja o uitase. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns.Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt. cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci.Şt. Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea. sau.
fie ea şi grăbită. Mă laud singură. vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere.. de fapt. nici ca să 221 . dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea. ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!. prin faţă e coborârea. şi prin faţă. orice bucureştean ştie. gata să mă supun oricărei porunci. fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor). în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri. m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang. deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă. o mizerie. Într-un cuvânt. caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă. orice-ar fi. ei.. de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji. şi nu un amant. sunt aici cu tot ce am. ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară.Unit eight Infinitive complements Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu. biata Muti. un miros îngrozitor. Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui. i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut.. (Al. care să mă servească şi să mă înjure. să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte. ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace. căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele. deşi..Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta. (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului. pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia. au bătut la tot felul de uşi.
parcă la întâmplare. (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 222 . ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care. niciodată ea nu i le pune.Nadina VIŞAN vorbească atât de repede. în realitate.
NINE ING COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds. verbal nouns. to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions 223 . participles.
2.1.The Gerund 9.The Participle Contents: 224 9.Participial Constructions 9.3.5 Key Concepts .1.Differences between Participles and Gerunds 22.214.171.124.1. ING Forms and Infinitives 9.2.1.A Classification of Gerundial Forms 9.Characteristics of Gerunds 9.2.The Verbal Noun 126.96.36.199.9.Characteristics of Participial Constructions 9.
Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject. Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9. Let us start with the Participle: 9. The Participle The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion.1. The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features. One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing.1. This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them. Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping. Due to this situation. (Susan doarme. The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section.1. we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction.) 225 .Unit nine Ing complements The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures.
This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a.) More infrequently.Nadina VIŞAN In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle.e. were closing. 226 . too: (6) Her eye-lids.) As you can see in this second case. (Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu.) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function. i. especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight. it functions attributively. Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss. In (2) the forms come. the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track). (Omul care aleargă este şeful meu. Susan has been killed. (Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii. This situation is also characteristic for past participles. Susan has come. been and killed are past participle forms. blood-shot and painted. (A venit Susan) b. the past participle can appear after a noun.
o să ajung la timp. ea o luă la fugă. God willing.) b.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a. Oh.) b. condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite.) c. Weather permitting.) d. When singing. (adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă. (Sosind aici. o să ajung la timp. a lion can attack. I will arrive there on time. If provoked. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time) (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. they started singing. leul poate să atace. începură să cânte.) 227 . people should pay attention to high notes. Arriving here. he will eventually marry her. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat. oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte. Knowing who the guy was. (Ştiind cine era el. mother permitting.Unit nine Ing complements (I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard.) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a. (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie. I will arrive there on time. she ran away.) c.
) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. behold. He was found killed by a bullet. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative.) 228 . watch. The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i. smell. (Am simţit-o tremurând. which stands for an adverbial clause.) b. (10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a. He was found stealing. perceive (11) I felt her trembling. (L-au descoperit că fură. Nominative + Present / Past Participle (9) a. respectively. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. notice. hear.) b. (L-am descoperit furând. I found him stealing.) ii.Nadina VIŞAN The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather. They found him killed by a bullet. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte.
send. (Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi.: When she heard his words. recollect. etc. (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se. confess. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe. set.) b. (A fost văzut plângând. (O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare. I must get my hair cut.) b.) • Causative verbs: get . (L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare. know. (Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta. feel.: Imagine him saying a thing like that. etc. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of. (Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o. make a. I heard it said that men are a bore.) • Causative verbs: get. have.) • mental perception verbs: remember. she knew herself dismissed.) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see.) b. I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon. find.) c.Unit nine Ing complements (12) He was noticed crying. etc. leave. hear. etc. He was sent rolling by the heavy blow. have. He’ll soon get things going. start. (15) (13) (14) (16) (17) 229 . (O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună.: a. a. recollect. (Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund. keep.) • verbs of mental perception: imagine.
/ L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ.) • Verbs of liking and disliking a. / Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă. (Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios! (18) (19) 230 . lovit şi plin de sânge. command I ordered my bill made out. / A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări./ L-a trimis la cumpărături./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie. Men like shopping made easy.) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English. aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă. (I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota. using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult. / Nu după multă vreme. îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă.) • verbs of permission.) b.Nadina VIŞAN (Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul. He wanted his car fixed immediately./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă. (Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat.” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid. / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea. / Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte.
I should be glad to recall the petitioner. Unlike the gerund.2. / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face.e. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. 231 . and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. / We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. with its lips drawn back. sitting taut between her father and her sister. The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i.1. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9. Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures. / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds. / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. / Dinny. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial. the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever. Nominative or Accusative + Participle). / My Lord.Unit nine Ing complements Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. / In any case.
6. am plecat. I turned on the light. 5.) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing. am plecat. she enjoyed her trip to Spain. using either a present participle. 4. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation.) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher. I was (20) (21) (22) (23) 232 . the rain will stop.) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences. I left.) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language. or a past participle: Activity 3 1. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. The tree had fallen across the road. They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. I was astonished at what I saw. I left. She had heard it all before. 2. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul. It had been uprooted by the gale. (Desi nu ştia limba. se va opri şi ploaia. I knew that the murderer was still at large.She didn’t want to hear the story again. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. People were sleeping in the next room. 3. 7.Nadina VIŞAN The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this. I have looked through the fashion magazine. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania. (Văzând acestea.
one of the eggs broke. cornered. roast. bald. skinned. 4. his horse fell at the last jump. shaven. Riding in the first race.Unit nine Ing complements extremely reluctant to open the door. wooden. 11. fishy. three. 9. They began quarreling about how to divide it. my hands often get very cold. 9. drunken. Climbing down the tree. dark. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. narrow. handed. 12. Read the sentences and try to correct them. stricken. I let the dog out of the room. eyed (3 times). broad. straight. covered. empty. Getting out of bed. a pot of paint fell on my head. lion. lighted. the sea was tossing the post up and down. Passing under a ladder. stony. Tied to the post. 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten. 6. They found the treasure. 2. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. a scorpion bit him. He sat down to his own dinner. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. He fed the dog. Reading in bed. a rug caught her foot and she fell. eagle. Mother punished me for my mistake. cloth.Running into the room.shoulder. 8. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. 10. hearted (twice). an idea suddenly occurred to me. red (twice). open. 10. b) Headed (5 times). haired (twice). mown. Barking furiously. The following sentences contain misrelated participles. I slammed the door of my room. coloured. 7. 3. open. many. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair. Leaving the cinema. sharp. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1. 5. Dropped by parachute. 233 . minded (3 times). 8. quick.
duty. / Swiss watches. rotten. meat. stream. plank. 7. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. was today taken back to prison.I fell on the ice. deer. In the following pairs of sentences. / Many old people . / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets. head. Translate into English: 1. (admire) 5. _______ for their valuable oil and meat. b) grass. Whales. The escaped prisoner.Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks._______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. _______ for their elegance and precision. umerii abia ascunşi sub o 234 . man. once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle. (grow) 4. ________ hiding in a barn. lamb. meaning. eyes. / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite. were taken to hospital. (hunt). Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. candle. (injure). are sold throughout the world. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. is expected to be a great hit. image. (produce) 3. _______ my arm. I stared at the canvas for ages. are in grave danger of extinction. (take) 2. graven. bounden. hidden. lead. _______ for a bargain. ________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. ill-gotten. shorn. shrunken. (find) 6. The film.Nadina VIŞAN sunken. the same verb is missing twice.Spielberg. wealth. / Three people. _______ by S./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. _____ when their car crashed on the M1. Insert the correct form in each gap: 1.
Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile. silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul. legume date prin mai multe ape. 4. o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi. 3. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie. le fierbea. Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli. cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele. destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile. biruit veşnic de o îndoială. Şi. şi moi. începu să privească neliniştit primprejur. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 235 . care le rânduia. S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor. Şi sufletul său. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă. sânii chinuiţi în strânsori. întinse. plina şi ea de ape şi valuri. toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului. le cocea. stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi. când deschisă. ca şi cum. După câtva timp. precum şi foile de plăcintă. când strânsă. deodată sufocat. împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime.Unit nine Ing complements Activity 8* dantelă. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. O umbreluţă. nesigur şi moale. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit. şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia. şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc. păsări tăiate. trezit. aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite. lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. 2.
function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure.) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here. Likewise.2. If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them. (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici.Nadina VIŞAN 9.2. crezi. According to this criterion. A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds.) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears.1. the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund. 236 . The Gerund 9. (Dacă vezi. The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal. (Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală. one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing.) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake.
That he won and you lost was surprising. In that.) b.) b. (M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. His winning and your losing were both surprising. Notice that part of the table is left incomplete. Consider the following table. [+ verb] Participles [+ verb.2.) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb.Unit nine Ing complements How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural. gerunds differ from participles. His victory and your defeat were both surprising. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ? 237 . whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features.) 9. Him winning and you losing was surprising.2. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a. just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a. Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features.
as being verbal 238 .) b. A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below.) Unlike participles. Consider (32). which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a. *It was illegal growing a beard. It was illegal to grow a beard. An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally extrapose (if you remember. gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience. A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles. In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds. Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised. (Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă. extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses.Nadina VIŞAN Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1. This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases.) 2. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said. (Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul. (L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins. (31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction.
) 3. Participles vs. (proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce. It’s no use crying over spilt milk. and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are.Unit nine Ing complements in nature. gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a. It’s no good talking to her.) 9. She was surprised at his knowing the business so well. Just like in the case of noun phrases. (N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea. He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor. Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds. (S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată. it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds. as offered in the table below: 239 . The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a. (Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii.) b.2.) b.3.
(direct object She was interested in him marrying her. babies suck their thumb. perfect. he built himself a She angered him by stealing his (Accusative + clause) 240 . Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home. Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying. may be preceded by prepositions: Coming here. (adverbial of time) 4. as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project. Participles may function adverbials: house.Nadina VIŞAN PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb. passive ones She was crying. forms: continuous . (prepositional object clause) 5. + noun] 1. Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms. 3. Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping. Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying. 2.
a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului. / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi. / Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala. / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc. / Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea. / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi. / Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat. / După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare. / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial. / În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o 241 . / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el. / Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou. / Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. / Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii. a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic. / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie.Unit nine Ing complements Pratice Translate into English.
The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. 6. 12. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. 3. 7. 4. paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong. 9. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. 10. Gambling is his favourite pastime. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. 12. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. 242 . shooting gallery / shooting star. pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions.Nadina VIŞAN mare agitată. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water. 15. crying game / crying woman. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. 11. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1. 13. înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record. 5. 2. swimming duck / swimming trunks. 14. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. He was spotted talking to her. eating habits/ eating people. 8.
e. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode. The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system.) The absence of a determiner like the.3. a The absence of an of phrase.e. of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243 The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode. as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle.Unit nine Ing complements 9. they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun.e. the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i. The Verbal Noun The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund. the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb: .) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar. but the presence of a direct object (i. which can be identified by: The presence of the (i.
the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article. we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it. we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information: 244 .) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing. whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly. if we were to go back to our incomplete table. Thus. (Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare. How can we tell? In the first case.Nadina VIŞAN Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs. This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund. In the second situation. GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone. The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker. George’s shooting the attacker. These are features that normally characterize any noun.
+ noun] Gerunds [+noun] Verbal nouns sudden the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the sheriff./ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company./ His sudden coming puzzled her. / John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. / His coming there puzzled her. Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery? They saw him shooting whole town. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. very large. 245 . the sheriff. This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff? Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping. the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town.Unit nine Ing complements [+ verb] Participles (After) shooting [+ verb./ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. Jim left quietly. / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. / Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake.
) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street) 246 . It has been noticed that. we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place. However. for example. (A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada. (A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada. With the infinitive. The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case. ING Forms and Infinitives. All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by. the meaning is different. For instance. at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street. we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs.4. whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street. we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle).Nadina VIŞAN 9. whenever we meet an –ing form. Look.
(S-a oprit din mâncat. The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past. containing an infinitive.) The first example.) . (S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich. Compare 247 She stopped to eat a sandwich.g.Unit nine Ing complements - the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing) Another example. future-oriented value of the infinitive). having left) is infrequently used in English. anterior to the verb in the main clause. On the other hand.) After looking at this example. posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented. is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich. the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen. suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential. prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb. we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened. the infinitive is future-oriented. This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e. and the most well-known one.
(Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii. having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form.Nadina VIŞAN (42) (43) She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning.e. both sentences are translated the same in Romanian. i. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen.) . Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive. We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41). verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember. which means that they are similar in meaning. She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning. (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină.) As you can see. (Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină. b) Regret 248 She remembers filling the tank with petrol. The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i. recollect.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language).e. forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol.
(Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină.Unit nine Ing complements (46) versus (47) I regret filling the tank with petrol. (Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî. (Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. (Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele.) I regret to fill the tank with petrol.) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job.) .) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times. c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing. însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. the action is not completed. but that’s it. In the second example. dar asta este. apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor. (Am de gând să-i spun adevărul. the petrol tank is not filled yet.) 249 I mean to tell her the truth. d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets. (Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină.
e) need. (Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin.) b.) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui.) 250 . The house needs to be repaired. want With [+ human] objects. s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale.human] objects.) wedding. it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions. (Casa trebuie reparată. (Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză. they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a.) With [. In the second example. The house needs repairing. He goes on reading from that cheap novel. mean has the sense signify.Nadina VIŞAN In the first example. (Casa trebuie reparată. these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English. the event has not happened yet.
And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched. but they went by too quickly. whereas in the second case. I did ask Mr. my Lord. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. we had done nothing (be) ashamed of.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. Croom (try) (follow) one. And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car. (hold) up his pen and (speak). as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form. Lady Corven. So do look out for me about six o’clock 251 .’ ‘Tell me. (take) down her answer. gerund or infinitive. my Lord. it’s overrated.’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare. and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him.’ ‘In any case.Unit nine Ing complements In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun. however appearances were against us. what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that.
Nadina VIŞAN tomorrow.’ 252 . suddenly. ‘I do hate (ask) for things. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter). e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment. ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that.’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals.’ said Clare. and went out (post) it himself. Then. c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent. he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. licked the envelope with passion. I must go back now. I just used the word and they fell. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort.’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish. but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon. and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day. I spend all my time (hunt) a job.’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment.’ said Clare. he addressed the note. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too. d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street.
Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms. Pratice In the following texts. whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects. Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles. We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns. The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features. the 253 . identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground. Last but not least. The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun). although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal. The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive. since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which. don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits. Participles mainly function as adverbials.5.Unit nine Ing complements 9. There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns.
down into God knows where. slowly rising in a swirling motion. (James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being. He looked up towards the daylight. it 254 . It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. (James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him. someone looking for survivors. At first. hoping he would see somebody up there. their edges crashing inwards. It was like a mist. The sight of the two children. covering the girl’s head. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. The two sides were moving apart. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. the man and his bike disappearing in the hole. moving up towards his chest.Nadina VIŞAN very earth opening up. the enormous split in the earth. She started coughing. then the noise and the cracking stone. according to the books he read. but then he saw it billowing up from below. First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete. slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. Then he saw movement at his feet. down.
Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. 255 . looking idly out over the Temple lawn. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks. my dear. and sunlight. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. She finished what jobs there were. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop. brightening to winter brilliance. slanted on to her cheek. Having a French governess. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard. for Dornford was busy on an important case. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips.Unit nine Ing complements had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath.
Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început. apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei. Aşa că vrând-nevrând. Vaucher şi cu mine. dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge. într-o joi. Ridicându-se. (…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. totul se animă deodată. În urma slugii. Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821. veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812. eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea. ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi. 2.Nadina VIŞAN (John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. ucenicul său necredincios. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit. Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. închizând ochii. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English. and then went riding with her in the rain. împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând. cei doi Mamona. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor. Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât. frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi 256 . înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor. making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci. mama mea.
după cum îi spusese mama. Neclintiţi. Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui. 3. auzit şi zadarnic. privit. aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui. nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri. Ne-a privit o clipa şi. despre neprecupeţirea efortului. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi. pe mama mea părând absentă.Unit nine Ing complements gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr. vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi. afară ploua în continuare. din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia. părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus. despre salvgardarea realizărilor. iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult. dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat. aplecându-se puţin. o sărută pe frunte. se duse lânga mama şi. parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba. aşezată cu spatele la noi. continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm. la mine. dar ştiutoare. Şi deodată. despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân. neostenindu-se să facă nici asta. în timp ce frazele continuau să 257 . am ştiut şi cine. Vaucher a ştiut şi el. totul mi se părea cunoscut. pe Vaucher. cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4.
Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale. şi cu stiva de lemne. După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse. 5. au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă. şi. Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau. clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape.Nadina VIŞAN curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată. a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii. ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva. Tot ce se vedea era un 258 . şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase. oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări. şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. să se apropie de aşezările din jur. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt. camionul a plecat. una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase. camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe. şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări. dar. şi cu masa lungă de scândură. cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze. şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. şi cu soba. De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă. Au coborât din camion încet. cu tot cu baraca. fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile. ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama. ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă. Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă.
Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate. Al doilea să se apropie de fântână. 259 .Unit nine Ing complements pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute.
Nadina VIŞAN 260 .
TEN REVISION EXERCISES 261 .
because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. 13. but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter. and meet it right here at home. he had been advised. whereas if she went away she would get none. 9. apart from his distress for parents. 7. because of pity. 3. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. was unclear to Mitzi. to retire early from my employment. and this particularly of late. Having regard to the date of drafting. in some way. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. How much. he had not yet been able to estimate. 4. 2. this would really hurt. and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to. Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. 6. without profound questioning. I am sorry not to have seen you. since I have decided. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. 5. How this time was to come. 10. 11. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers. though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement. You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. 12. and that 263 . You have been much in my thoughts.
Nadina VIŞAN was difficult enough. / You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends. / I would very much like walking out in the rain. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her. I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes. he did not come to see her. for attending his sister’s wedding. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes. 264 . 14. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much. one of the eggs broke. please consider his proposition. No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand. / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up. / In the end. she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins. / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost. like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured. / Whenever I visited my aunt. even for months. so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness. / Before you go on changing the subject. I was made say Grace before every dinner. this always makes us feel embarrassed. looking forward had not yet taken place. 17. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree. 19.
She felt as when. and it was bound. an open-air person. Essentially. without discovery. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping. She felt herself much older by nature and experience. of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes. And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring. of all people. Tony was a child. motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time. 265 . centered in London and themselves. her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes. a little girl. They hated trying on. she had done something unpleasing to her governess. At country houses she had met them of course. of the quick and wiry. her old friend Hugh. And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. Though much in request before her marriage. it was said. said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient. she said. being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. Clare had never come into close contact with those who. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread. to end in some awful tragedy. They rushed into shops. a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1. cotton mills at Manchester. talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) . Instead of which she had married. rather than the hefty type. her recklessness. she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport. Vulgar men did. quite unexpectedly. (and there he was. Clarissa used to think.
viguros si vesel in felul lui. she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground. to keep abreast of the current. Reading many novels. she was uneasy. Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul.Over the River) 2. cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei.” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit. numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea. It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night.au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului. si in plus. aveam tot mai 266 . short of the contacts of love. De uitat. The closer she allowed him to come to her. dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum. Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita. sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp. Bolnava nu se simtea. with all its impatience of restraint.Rindurile dvs. Cind l-a chemat. (John Galsworthy . il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra. (Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3. she professed. indeed. ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si. de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile.Nadina VIŞAN Transplanted to Ceylon. Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des. the more she would be torturing him. nu a facut-o pentru asta. ii faceau bine. era un bun sfatuitor. astfel. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea. reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister. dar vizitele acestui om din topor. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie. but lying in her bath. nu puteam sa le uit. cre s-au nascut lent. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate.
) 7. A fost gasit plingind in urlete. latimea si ascutisul labei. (St.Unit ten Revision exercises mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii. printr-o asistenta activa din afara. Ce a iesit. are nevoie. mi-am zis. Banulescu – ibid. se stie. fa-o. cit mai au de trait. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe. o data sau de doua ori. care insa trebuie sa nu sustina. in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin. ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani. vaazut cindva. lungimea picioarelor. Daca tu. Banulescu – ibid. Cind a murit Gora Serafis.Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste. desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui. chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni.) 267 . (St. tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea. 4. (St. ca si tine. ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia. nu pricep nimic. s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei. Personal. Banulescu – ibid. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si. poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici. (St.) 6. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului. sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul. poate fi compensata. Milionarule.) 5. Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici. Banulescu – ibid. pe scaunul lui tare.
A story-book romance. Who was may father. Who told me. when I was even younger than you. Who when asked about his memories of the War. paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 4* Consider the following texts. Cambridge. Ernest Richard Atkinson. my grandfather. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in 268 . Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man. a wounded soldier. for being a renegade. Translate them.P.. And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper. Arthur Atkinson M. Who came home from the war. as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative. Could he be blamed. Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes.. Who. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him. and married the nurse who nursed him back to health. And had a brother killed in the same battle. that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres. would invariably replay that he remembered nothing. to Emmanuel College. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father. Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness.) Who fell in love with one of the nurses. 2. delivered from the holocaust. (.
But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows. How 269 . he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed). Fabianism. He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. daughter of an ill-paid journalist. deep-set. and because – but this is mere speculation. That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest. a moody man. to whom. for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London. he had already engaged himself? 3. 4. for flirting with ideas (European socialism. glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy. the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles.Unit ten Revision exercises undergraduate whims. where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman. mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness. Rachel Williams. that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him.
satul. How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. Ion. la şcoală. Cum a ajuns el. Cum a trăit el. omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap. nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi.Nadina VIŞAN fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. 270 . ştiindu-i tot satul fapta. Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. Ion. How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. ca să ajungă Ion om vestit. fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea. just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history. ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul. Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe. Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său. Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe. ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor. Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat. as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours. uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti. om mare. Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată. Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. fără să poată pleca nicăieri. Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo. ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie. Cum au tăcut ei. trebuie să te vrea şi ele. cu taina aceasta. ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el. Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani.
Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama. de mama lor. paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1. Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost.pune totul in discuţie. te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună. Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el. din franţuzeşte. cu sau fără voie.Unit ten Revision exercises Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară. E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare. începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English. singurul lui stăpân. cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui. Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe. când voi fi singur. L-au derivat cei din teatru. cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească. Când actriţa. dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis. Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel. cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu . (Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6. împotriva tuturor. mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”. 271 . cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi. greşeli dintr-astea. ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi. cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva. când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă.
care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea. să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat. Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele. Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă. dam buzna peste automobile. ci un sistem de acomodare. Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem. fostă prietenă din copilărie. dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt. Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. 5. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări. A devenit palid. i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile. nevasta-mea. nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. 272 . Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze. asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare.Nadina VIŞAN tânără şi frumoasă. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat. Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată. îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire. uneori şi astăzi chiar. şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. pe jumătate prezent. tânăr şi frumos şi el. Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. e îndrăgostită de un actor. traversând. Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam. privindu-mă în ochi. de pildă. 4. Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior. continuând. sau ridicole. Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe. provocându-le. 3. Tot aşa. ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2. parcă începusem s-o uit. 6. Am început. decât când noi eram obiectul lui. Era să am din cauza asta un duel. Într-o vreme. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit.
Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic. Dacă nemţii înaintau. 8. ca un acrobat. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la 273 . căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea. şi să nu ameţesc. pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui. căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt. De altminteri. Aş vrea să mă las jos. mă puteau prinde fără luptă. încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. simţeam că mi se dilată inima. de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi. sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12. iar. căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung. căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni. în noroiul care alunecă sub ele. Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10. orice s-ar întâmpla.Unit ten Revision exercises 7. fireşte. să merg întins. şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul. ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face. şi dacă merg întins. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu. 9. E o problemă. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine. aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. 11. De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. Am început. nici nu mai aveam cui comanda. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem. De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară. că nu m-am gândit la asta. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm. fără să mă opresc o clipă. I-am răspuns că nu ştiu. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie. De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă.
Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo. Auzindu-l. In curind. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git. Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel. spuse el cu un glas ciudat. trebuia sa le spuna. Greu era din partea asta. de la proces. cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire. 274 . Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie. 17. Adica tot trecutul. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului.Nadina VIŞAN Constanta. dar nu se mai putea. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme. Uite. Ilie nu-l asculta. de uimire. Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului. nu trebuie sa va suparati. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu. Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie. Ii venea greu. nu mai semana. dar nu-i spuse si de ce. eu am venit sa va intreb. Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. Acum isi ferea privirea. la amintiri. la fata locului. parca ar fi vorbit in vis. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu. Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani. Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint.. cu mirare.Ma. Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent. la carti. 15. 14. de la obiecte de pret. 13. nu mai pricepu nimic. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani. de la lucruri personale. dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu. acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : . a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea.. parca i-ar fi fost frica. La un moment dat. 16. stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca. dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta. ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie. se uita in jos. care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie. Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie.
fara sa-si dea seama de ce. bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface. cum zicea Anghel. Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic. trebuia sa se poarte cu grija. i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie. Zimbea siret. i se paru ca aici e ceva. Aici era ceva. apoi se uitau la Ilie. 19. ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea. Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. 20. « Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ». In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read . which was part of his rich outfit. dar. raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou. dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain. parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui. E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui. se indeparta nepasator. There was even 275 . but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler. comment on the underlined phrases: 1. .Ce sa fac. Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit.having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience. Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti. Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis. nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea. Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede. zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap. care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ». Ilie nu intelesese nimic. Nu era nevoie.Unit ten Revision exercises 18. apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala. le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera. asa cum facuse pina acum. vorbe asa si-asa. Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically.
Nadina VIŞAN relief. the young lady. to move fast. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2. He felt then.Miller at her hotel. who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room. gave an exclamation.’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. 4. She was one 276 . to admit that she was a proud. on this occasion. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence. for the instant. conversationally. It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt. But Daisy. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety. paying no attention. He walked a long time. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions. resuming her walk. and to declare that they needn’t mind her. 5. at least. He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one. and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her. rude woman. to take his way home on foot. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded. quite ready to sacrifice his aunt. He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done. going astray. she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy. It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady. 3. a simplification. asked for Mrs. He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night.
6. in their own phrase. But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative. He left me musing. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks. as it were. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her. Her daughter. on the other hand. 8. and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve. and wondering what the deuce he meant. often. while residing abroad. indeed. so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival. She rustled forward. making Paul stop and look at her. she had a high appreciation of antiquity. uncomfortably. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno.Walker. as text book. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs. was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to. but strangely cold and shy and sombre. and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal. but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms.Unit ten Revision exercises of those American ladies who. make a point. She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence. She appeared. of studying European society. in radiant loveliness. 7. as to projected changes. to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother. smiling and chattering. she was sometimes more conservative even than I. Advising with me. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking. I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. That he should admire a marble goddess 277 . but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession.
It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora. if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. could see he was remarkable. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H. and acute too. whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust. and perceived that it must be something important. was only half satisfied with this. and. which was deliberate. though E.’ 278 . while Paul. wondered what they were talking about. for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved. Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent. though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character. inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right. by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps. with his humorous density. or at any rate not heeding. H. I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face. that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister. The agent became a very familiar type to H. not seeing. 10. as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair. H. was immensely struck with him. it’s no use trying to buy yourself off. yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us. 11.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him. for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. 9.Nadina VIŞAN was no reason for his despising mankind. H. Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M.
14. the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used. At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off. She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking. why his question had broken out at that particular moment. his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and. with his head bent to hide his hot eyes. not glancing at him for a moment. But she gave him no chance. 15. that the haunting wonder which now. H. though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away. and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge. appeared to fill his whole childhood. Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure. could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been 279 . which was very copious. had the power to chain his sympathy. 13. the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be.Unit ten Revision exercises 12. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air. as he looked back. the affair having been quite a cause celebre. The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine. and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it. His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who.
solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks. 16. There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked. H. implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. ironically reserved. even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light. At the theatre. he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. 18. proudly. 17. that she must be on the contrary. that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. and to H. and there were others. The whole establishment. as a general thing. from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who. so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being. had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit. to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar.Nadina VIŞAN an achievement of comparatively recent years. It was very possible she was capricious. dragging herself on her knees. who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour. It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H. There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers. was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed. disheveled and distracted. yet 280 . where the Pearl of Paraguay.
Unit ten Revision exercises the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect. No one ever listens to her. going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction./ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her. 2. He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court. on which the damp breath of the streets. but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience. 20. Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem. had blown a certain chill. didn’t mind. young men were invited. that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess. It came over H. with the poor. and lurking within this nebulous design. who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage. 3. their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all. One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses. 19. H. would always be more or less irritating. making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far. Their mistakes and illusions. (Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined words/phrases/sentences: 1. was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose. 281 . *Old.
12. 9. b) I got up and got well away from her this time. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. 8. 5. 7. the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out. I blundered by. I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister. 282 . walking quickly. *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget. I walked fast. He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf. Either John or he * have got to give in. “Oh. She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure. c) When I saw her sitting there. I was definitely going to be sick. 6. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen. her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs. striding like a Spartan maid. I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. 10.Nadina VIŞAN 4. I saw her as a vision./ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have. her arms held out. how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping. her shining blue feet twinkling. Rachel. That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale. 11. slipped on some steps.
Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6. The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8. The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5. The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9. Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7. The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3. The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer. In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2. One or more solutions can be valid: 1. Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb 283 . Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4.
if they were poor. could cook my meals. that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. 3. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life. who is a wonderfully handy fellow. but that we saw and pitied. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish. I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him. The old women spoke no English. And then I ventured to add that. 2. I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1. it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter) 284 . and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide. where my servant. which was really alarming. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt. I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world. 5. I was confident they must have had a second kitchen. 4.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts. Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment.
this would really hurt. at noon. apart form his distress for parents. apart from his distress for parents. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired.g. he had not yet been able to estimate. etc. How much. Munt. to pay their annual visit. to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e. on Saturday. Constituents: how much. on a house. before they left town. 285 . he.Key To Chapter One Practice KEY TO PRACTICE KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION Activity 2 1. was anxious = was + anxious. to settle. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs.g. had not been able to estimate. would really hurt. yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e. was anxious. Constituents: Margaret. this. his. etc. Constituents: He. etc. distress. was informed. that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired.apart from his distress = apart from.
– non-assertive. second clause is non-assertive. it is assertive. negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE . – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation. positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive. which context is non-assertive. The sentence is however 286 .syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. negative/ Come with me. – first clause is an ifclause. – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive. Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. / If you like her.SENTENCE NEGATION Activity 1 They like her a lot. and is non-assertive. – first clause is non-assertive. – assertive/ Don’t do that.. – comparison. which is not assertive. – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. interrogative. interrogative./ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive. negative/ She can’t wait to read that book.semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday. listen to this. – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to).syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question. interrogative. Second clause is an imperative. negative/ If you like jazz.semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night.. – it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive. – non-assertive.. negative. don’t bother her.semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work./ She finally admitted. nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much.
/ Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was. but nothing out of the ordinary./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John./ When he learned the news. / She does like John./ They weren’t really confused. but it isn’t Susan. only irresolute. –double negation cancellation. – I like somebody else./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night. / They didn’t leave. he was hardly pleased. / Not really convinced by what the had heard./ Hardly interested in the conference. / He wasn’t unusually bright. Activity 5 I don’t know much about him./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection. / She does not hate animals. / Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday./ Susan did not get married to Jim ./ He was smart enough. everybody used to travel by coach./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other. but not more than she does others. / I can hardly understand what they are saying.Key To Chapter Two Practice syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb./ Not long ago. Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. / You have never met 287 . Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty. Mr Jones stood up and left the hall. but it wasn’t them. not even when it’s quiet around. / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place. not even this thing. the two brothers dared to protest./ He was exceptionally cunning. – someone did that./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem. – they told the truth to somebody else. – someone hates animals. / I don’t like her very much.but to someone else.
/ I haven’t ever seen such a thing.negative incorporation / None of them liked house music. – negative insertion.negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody.negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers. I could hardly wait to hear the news. * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem. did they? / No problems were caused after all.negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them.negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her. *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. is he? / Few of them stayed behind.negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her. – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. *did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad. not even part of it? / Not infrequently. *did he?/ They caused us no problems..Nadina VIŞAN her.. / Should they not have told her the truth. Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye.. they go skiing in the mountains. were they? / This boy is no good.. did they? / A few of them stayed behind.negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips. not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor. – I cannot look him in the eye... – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released. – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing. not even when you were very young. – I couldn’t wait to hear the news.negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. / This is hardly the 288 ..negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there.negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody..negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her.negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her.. not even in my dreams.
– Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way./ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances./ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police.Never before did anything like that happen in our street. – Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past. / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether. – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her.. / Hardly anybody liked him. – Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain. – I don’t often look at her like that. – Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat.. – Seldom do we receive such generous praise. / I didn’t leave the 289 ./ We seldom receive such generous praise./ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger.Key To Chapter Two Practice time to buy yourself a new fur coat. but she also lent him a car. / I hardly ever look at those paintings.Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. – Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path. – You haven’t eaten a thing. Activity 8 I shall never. – Not many people came to see her./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. never trust a man again.Never shall I trust a man again. when we started our holiday. / I seldom look at her like that. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. –Little did we suspect that it would be like this. – You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes. – Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life. – I never see her. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. – I almost never look at those paintings. – Almost nobody liked him. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow. / Few people came to see her.. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well.
you can still do something about it. / They believe she does not like them. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. / She could rely on nobody but him. / Come on. – They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim. / Don’t worry. – It isn’t likely that he will help her. – They say he never had anyone very close. does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her./ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care. – Nowhere could the keys be found. – 290 .Nadina VIŞAN office at any time. – He didn’t reckon he would win her over. – We haven’t had any snow this winter yet. – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser. – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all. –At no time did we leave the office. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now.I don’t like his proposal at all. – On no account must you touch this machinery. – We won’t see them again anywhere anytime. / You must on no account touch this machinery. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. / We will see them again somewhere sometime./ They suggested that she should not meet Jim.. – They don’t believe she likes them. – I don’t think I can help him to any extent./ I expect he won’t come here again. – I didn’t think I had to do it myself. – I don’t expect he will come here again. does she? – I don’t suppose she cares. – Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain./ Well. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent)./ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. you can’t do anything about it any more. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. – Only on this man could she rely. / They say he once had someone very close. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. – Come on. / He reckoned he would not win her over./ I somewhat like his proposal.
/ Bob is still living at that address. – Well her husband has always been a good person. – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. – I feel much better for having had a holiday. / She hardly ever comes here. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more./ I nearly always have to clean it myself.Key To Chapter Two Practice It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. –Alice still lives here./ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. – He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. – She almost always comes here. – You should send her something. too./ Peter knows some English and so does John. – I can’t understand any of these ten English words. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live. either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives.. – I can’t understand either of these sentences. – Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has. / You must pay that fine.Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t. either. / You must be telling lies. – This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet./ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. – Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences. – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam. / Well. – You can’t be telling lies. / You needn’t send her anything. – Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam./ I can understand all of these ten English words. 291 . – You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine.
/ I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again. / He can’t have done a thing like that. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket. / Please./ Am avut un car de necazuri. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin. to any of us./ 292 . / Jim is so brave./ He was a tough man. I haven’t seen her in years. he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death. give me a hand./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart./ You took his leaving you very hard. has never studied anywhere./ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt. I didn’t sleep a wink all night./ Nobody told us a thing. ever since I got this ulcer. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge. He didn’t move a muscle./ E un baiat de zahar. His opinion isn’t worth a cent. It’s no wonder./ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is. / Don’t go on believing him. He isn’t that smart./ Zis si facut. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner./ It was clear that something awful had taken place./ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis./ They say this Ph./ Nu spune nu niciodata. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru. He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound./ Nimic de facut./ He’s a happy man./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc. I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing. I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them. Oh./ I don’t know why she’s crying./ N-are nici cap nici coada./ You look so tired today./ Have they rung the bell? No.D./ Norocul la noroc trage. not yet. e un magar./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer. I haven’t done anything. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them. / Nu chema necazul asuprati./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul./ I don’t know a thing about her.
parasi camera. thrown out.’/ Deloc descurajat. no story. I had never had the opportunity to prove./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor. did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind. no memory. I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable . 293 . Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate . feebly. We had nothing in common. I hadn’t really expected miracles.’ ‘Nici o problema. for I thought this threatening. / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home. but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly. • Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted. • Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance./ Nu-i nici un deranj. one way or another. Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light.Key To Chapter Two Practice ‘Scuze.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant ./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa. slowly. with the same needs they had. / You have to take care that nothing bad will happen. that I was a decent man. dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta. without too much determination. nothing.
bad. on the front seat. I’d be so happy if it were so. Unfortunately. watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently. Not for a moment had I thought that. • I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night. or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical. I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that… • After all that morning excitement. Radu had calmed down. I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase. You really made me mad. but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case. We have to judge it as it is. It’s not made up of theories and the like. but facts. things you do any moment. a leftover fom other times…” “Well. and then I suddenly thought about those friends. I admit. not as we would like it to be or some other way. your story. to say the least. that’s what the world is about. so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch. he immediately answered me patronizingly. Your judgement is false. • It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people. good.. I was sleepy and tired. it’s not words. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other. let alone irritable. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute. he was sitting beside me. clear or confusing. “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be. I find it hard to understand where you are at”. In fact I didn’t really want to go that party. by coming here to the monastery. the only 294 .Nadina VIŞAN • • With none of these persons was NS on very good terms. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move. or if you understood what I meant. • It was my turn to say something.
as Baciu would have us be. who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him. to fight. and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. it solves troubles. fear might be hiding. although it was a difficult thing to do. Anyway. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject. or you are lying hidden. or call the respect of others. • So. Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control. because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure. I won’t interfere. soon we’ll be in town. you do as you think fit. you can go to Ursu’s. behind these big. clears your way. either. This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours. just to please myself. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die. me. me. keep your conscience clean: you have one. we are leaving. but I didn’t want to lie to myself. it’s yours. too? A gun is power. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts. and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them. precious words. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet. although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise. 295 .Key To Chapter Two Practice ones I had. no matter how huge they are. Look. did you ever step up front. your opponent would fear you and with good reason. and an inability to act. and if you like. But what about you and Melania. a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing. But I was just wondering. makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born. keep it squeaky clean. it’s your problem.
correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems .Negative incorporation 296 . – incorrect. . has yet arrived -correct 2.. as soon as he delivered it. The villagers were not very religious. firmly determined not to answer immediately. incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her.Negative raising (transportation) f)1. She admires neither Susan nor Jane.correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket . . have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. or some other woman. But it was not because I had no answer to give. correlatives are mixed 2. he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days .incorrect. • I turned my eyes from the old man’s face. The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife. has not arrived yet – double negation. Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner. because before is a positive polarity item 2. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. but they gradually got used to it. even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest.correct 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow.Nadina VIŞAN • Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and. -correct 3. they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things.Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1.Negative attraction b) 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions.. the sentence is incorrect 3. will he?.
incapacitatea ei de a se mişca. astfel că nici nu se mişcă. prea răscolit. not happy at all (NPI). she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and. ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei. (ibid. too troubled. slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită. her lack of motion would have to do (API). Avea sufletul prea obosit. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince. yet. She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir. which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now.) Însă era cam târziu. Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el. Ştia că are dreptate. she couldn’t marry him. either (NPI). Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI). Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her. Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei. Nu putea să se mişte. N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei.Key To Chapter Two Practice Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted. Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă. He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI). Her stillness. nu era 297 . She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself. much less ((NPI) for her. (ibid.) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea. His spirit was too tired. b) But it was rather (API) late.
Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi. which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva. slightly adapted) În cele din urmă. f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions.) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse. (ibid. inima îi batea năvalnic.Nadina VIŞAN deloc fericit. there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still. she looked younger than ever (NPI). şi destul de hotărât. se îndreptă spre paravan. 298 . (ibid. cu atât mai puţin pentru ea. (Salman Rushdie. e) At length. and not a little unsteadily. I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was. ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că. his heart was beating fast.) Nu voiam deloc să cedez. The Satanic Verses.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate. if anything (NPI). and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates. Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni. (ibid. he made his way to the screen. arăta mai tânără ca oricând. Ba dimpotrivă. g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her.
h) C. care if the school were willing to treat him. Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare. Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer. the gift was useless. The point was. însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva. 299 . but his father would have none of it (NPI). told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good. Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă. îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru. i) What did C.Key To Chapter Two Practice fiind vrăjitoare. sau orice vizite ar fi făcut. there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid. Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el. ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI). and probably an administrative headache as well. Home receded from the prodigal son. reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn. Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta.) C. Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor. the school wasn’t budging (NPI). as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity. on any (NPI) visits he cared to make. Ce-i pasă lui C.
QUESTIONS Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question. correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE .indirect question. 300 . incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question. correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question. as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question. . correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question. correct. correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on. correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question. – indirect question. correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question. correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question. correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion. correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination.
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
Key To Chapter Three Practice
another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
Key To Chapter Three Practice
happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?
secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying. do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia. and then what do you 308 . Fenia. yes. the bitch. for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra. She has an eye for gentle men. “Now. Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her. they were. Vica. of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1. Luca Horobet. now she was chatty. Chizlinski. but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy. During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca. to make them lust after her. I didn’t know where she was leading me to. Stavre Paici. 2. she likes to entrance them. you are in enough trouble as it is. ‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well. she didn’t wear a ring. do you really think that this vixen. daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village. all godfearing husbands and fathers. keep Condrat away from her. but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time. Fenia.
You said: “Doesn’t this guy. when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet. G. It even takes him a while to go to the window. the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah. too?” And you suddenly saw them transported. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t 309 . as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter. whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea. For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk. with a railway station and a mosque. and would have broken Mr G’s jaw. How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk. the minister of Tartars and Turks. ankle-long flowered calico. dragging his feet listlessly. a seventy-eight year old lad. The mullah. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow. what’s her name. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake. her hair pinned with blue combs. He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening. 3. after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely. 4. have a girlfriend.”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city.Key To Chapter Three Practice think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now. He got him out of his mosque. Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot.
But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden? 310 . for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys. and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths. tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes. But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious.Nadina VIŞAN Sophie up in the attic.
COORDINATION Activity 2 1. – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed.) 9. Our flag is red.. – phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white. yellow and blue.Key To Chapter Four Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE . – similar situation 10. – sentence coordination (further reducible) 3. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. – phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. – sentence coordination 7. John and Mary are ready. the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8.sentence coordination (further reducible) 5. John and Mary are the newly married couple.phrasal coordination (in this case. John is ready and Mary is ready. due to the reciprocal verbal expression..Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. our respective examinations. – elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination) 311 . and I passed. Her pet kitten is black and white. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. – sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4. – sentence coordination 2.
your work and mine.Nadina VIŞAN Peter and John played football. but John does not play football. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane. 2. 8. 6.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend. Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself. and even tennis. 7. Activity 4 1. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were. – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words). 10. A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels. – ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words. that method and those.) Joan plays many games. her son and others. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. 5. – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students. We can and will demand payment. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan. but not John. Activity 5 This book and the other. plays football. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football. much satisfaction or little 312 . her idea and John’s. 9. many guest or few. 3. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his. your proposal and his.
Spick and span 9. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters. It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand.) 6. but not simple. 5. Activity 8 1. interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary. 7. Touch and go 10. The facts and figures 3.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children. Wear and tear 12. Life and soul 5. He read. Thick and thin 11. Safe and sound 313 . I have always fought and will fight for progress. magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children. (I have always fought for progress and always will. 4. 3. Ups and downs 6. Few and far between 14. Bread and butter 16. Over and above 13. Swings and roundabouts 7. 8. each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1. I like the sentences below or those on the next page. He snapped at him and slapped him. Law and order 8. etc. High and low 2. Pros and cons 4. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party. He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building. To and fro 15. magazines are only for children. (He snapped at and slapped him) 2.
Symmetric 21. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people. 5. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire. There are some chairs and a table in the room. – symmetric. Not John but his two sons are to blame.symmetric 11. 10. 2. cause-effect Activity 10 1. Asymmetric 20. 1. exclusive 17. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed. Either the child or the parents are to blame. 8. 6. Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire. – asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8. 2. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6. 8. – symmetric. – similar situation 9. 5. Asymmetric 19. inclusive 16. My son and heir is safe. A carriage and a pair was standing at the door. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already. 10. Cathy and David have arrived. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. 4. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. – asymmetric: stronger contrast 12. His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. 7. Neither he nor his wife was/were here. – asymmetric 18. – asymmetric: temporal sequence. 4. – symmetric 2. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. – asymmetric – stronger contrast 14. – symmetric. 3. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year. exclusive 15. My son and daughter are twins. 9. 6. – asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7.. – symmetric 10. The bread and butter was scattered on the floor. b. 314 . Asymmetric – temporal sequence. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3. 9. Symmetric 13. 7. 3.There is a table and some chairs in the room.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 1.
(2) 1. pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. it was too small. 6. 14. ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can. He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight. I hope my letter finds you alive and well. He went to bed.He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking. 15. Should he pour water in the basin. 5. 8. 11. 3. He’s neither fish. and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. Jim thought it over for a while. By hook or by crook. ‘Madam. or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13. but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. There are doctors and doctors. Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements. 3. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged. 2. I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. thanks for asking. clothes and all. 10. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy. 9. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head. nor fowl. 2. Not only should you rest 315 . so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions. I’ll still ask for money for the medicine. They came to me. We’ll stick together. 7. No drinking and driving. Brother or no brother. 12. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. Now you’ve come with all these new ideas. 4. Her husband is long dead and buried. for better or worse. for he couldn’t see how he could use the can.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 11 (1) 1. I’ll still finish this paper.
their common ground. he was rather old and he might have already been ailing. and then. an important man. The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again.Nadina VIŞAN assured. From time to time she will launch a helping question. she knows for sure. both dead and buried. he’d leap high.’ (3) 1. triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground. You know. Mrs. but she blinks in approval. whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement. it would work out fine. stop dead in his tracks. so he’d gone down and died in no time. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth. so he could leap in pursuit. what’s its name. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere. he starts lecturing her about life and things. as she always does. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs. They hadn’t kept him there too long. And. is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life. and she listens to him. This. she started doing a great job. just like when he was thirty. but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally. just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life. What do you know? The moment Mrs. at equal intervals. Whatever she tried her hand at. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison. tense like a bow. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem. and she had this idea to ask Mrs. without mentioning financial matters. Her first husband had been a professor. but he’d come out a cripple. 316 . then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet. 2. tense with concentration. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses. So she’ll listen to him.
functioning as an adjunct 2.THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Activity 1: She came to him of her own will. functioning as an object (direct). came. she looked at me sadly. about her problems at home After I told her the story. functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater .Key To Chapter Five Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE . to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you. when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green .subordinate. functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still . told. looked. – obligatory elements: she. – Susan. disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her. – she. – she.subordinate. functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate. at me Activity 2: 1. cannot tell. which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate. what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word. whomever wanted to listen.subordinate. functioning as a modifier 3. is aware.subordinate. that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days . – she. coordinated with first subordinate 317 .subordinate. of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. – obligatory elements: I. functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness . you.
that we should.Nadina VIŞAN 4.subordinate.subordinate.subordinate.complement b) 1. remove our home yet again .subordinate. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6. functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland . Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he 318 . functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right. that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional. since the main verb is think of something) 5. at our age. functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home . that you are choosing exile .
modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement. adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement. direct object/ and seen – wh complement. modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement. outbuildings.Key To Chapter Five Practice was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2. that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement. subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement. a barn.complement. direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial. adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. adjunct (time)/ 319 . adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial. adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement. modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano . adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement. prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement. a house. but no idea – relative that complement. modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement. coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement. direct object b) to dry it – complement. direct object.
When Anton put the sickle down. staring at each other. without straightening her back. so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long.Nadina VIŞAN it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement. direct object/ to write that tale – complement. direct object/ and done – wh complement. (…) He dashed back. direct object/ to sit there – complement. direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement. this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought. direct object. who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that. adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement. Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her. Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man. and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind. subject/ to do such again – complement. But other people. that kept her constantly tense and grim. that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes 320 . so he stopped and looked to see what he had done. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me . direct object/ if you knew – adverbial. some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime.A few days before the war. sickle in hand. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame. had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly. (…) ‘Well. His wife was reaping the wheat silently. modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement. but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him. adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement. direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement. Activity 5 1. He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning.wh complement.
First. but he doesn’t spurn either. he will turn back and no longer be daring. Why! He was not of two minds. that was for sure. Only he had Ana to think of. Not even at this point. 321 . As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village. rather than a real threat. or if he does. for even swallowing your food is a big deal.Key To Chapter Five Practice already. had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. while on other occasions he would show caution. although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home. 3. as if they were at his beck and call. it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. but also his sharp nose. For no bold man really falters. And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. 2. while they spoke from miles away. or other more hidden means. and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila. Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. you need courage even for this small thing. he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him. which he doesn’t rely on completely. Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger. Ana could not stand a trip now. A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy. saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point.
although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. although he could have said so earlier. he had postponed writing back. for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car. He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter. to see some mutual friends. let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply. And here’s how this first day looked. who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday. in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her. Costel didn’t want to give up this job. and when things didn’t go as planned. In fact. they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok. without really knowing why. The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out. 4. it was the women. and twice we were requested to get out. But it was not ok. 322 . under the silliest of pretexts. they would ruin the arrangement. and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh. are we getting off again? What is wrong.Nadina VIŞAN That was clear. in Odobesti. come on. We were going to drive to a vineyard. when my problems started because of G… Anisoara. not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. by the cars of some of us. who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied. Twice did we get in the car. and on Monday followed another feast). So.
They met those students none of whom agreed with them. 2.restrictive 4. where I least expected 323 . 6. You couldn’t join the party. 3. The students. 7. He told her the secret. I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost. 5. He is the author who they gave a prize to. Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything. all of whom would answer to his questions.free 8. Activity 3 1. 4. John told his friend a story about the king. who is a genius – non-restrictive 5. These are people who we cannot tell much about. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2. The students like their teacher. Activity 2 1. when we first met . what you want – free/ where you can park your car . which was a pity. These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize. who was just passing by. This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried. 10. 7. 10. I bought Jim a book that he liked.restrictive 7. 9. most of whom were from England. 3.She came to London where I went too.restrictive 6. That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists. This is my husband whom I love very much. 8.restrictive 2. 5. when the plane will take off restrictive 3. 11. why they all left . 8. 6. on which this occurred .RELATIVE CLAUSES Activity 1 1. like their teacher. This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo. where I spent my youth . I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans.Key To Chapter Six Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE . any of whom would answer to questions. Who are you writing this letter to? 9. which was silly of him. 4.
I. Activity 5 1. Where . where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative. 6. who was the most beautiful girl in the hall.adjunct 11.free Activity 4 1. What I’m saying – subject. Who .adjunct 3. when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct.adjunct 6. the prince chose Cinderella.free 9.restrictive 10. 3. who cannot say a word. Of all the persons there.When Ada remarked – adjunct.subject 9. however sad . when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct. Why . when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct. Of all the persons there you had to choose me.adjunct 5. This isn’t the Bucharest I know. what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional 324 . when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute. about why man was born to die – prepositional object. come up front. What Inman remembered – subject.Nadina VIŞAN . Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute. When . What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute. where – predicative 7. When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object. Where . who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute. 5. when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative. What – direct object 2. who think so highly of yourselves. 2.adjunct 10. He who doesn’t work will never succeed. 7. when . You.subject 8. which . on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired . 4. What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition. where we talk money – predicative. when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct. All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers. Which – subject 4. who didn’t like to leave things unfinished. what their parents made them. Where he was from – adjunct. was very displeased with the situation.
human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good . whatever – predicative 13. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human]. Whatever his fate was – adjunct. that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition.attribute 12.Key To Chapter Six Practice object. which is ungrammatical due to the[. how . the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition. which requires an accusative form. – which is ungrammatical due to the [. that is ungrammatical because it 325 .human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun. which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent.human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form. what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object. what little she knew – direct object.whom is ungrammatical due to the [.adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. what .
the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. who. who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician. whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl. having changed quite a number of jobs. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot. had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady. a rather tiny looking man. who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer. who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother. got married and had a daughter. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”. used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin. a sergeant. whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law. whose great-grandfather. My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages. but whose second cousin. due to its invariable character.Nadina VIŞAN cannot be selected by a preposition. in his turn. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman. was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife… 326 . who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine. and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist.
She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. . no easy answers to which could be offered. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other.yes 3. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. – no pied piping 327 .obligatory 4. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. . The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. – no 9. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. whose interest he most sincerely shared. – yes 6. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. – no pied piping 5. In the interest of public decency.The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome.no 5. although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8. – yes 2.obligatory 3. no matter which – [pied piped phrase.His father’s friends. – yes.yes 10. For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. were now all gone. has been troubling them forever.yes Activity 9 1. Irene. . and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. he rarely saw now. was now complete. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. . . . with deletion of the noun friends].yes 7. – no 4. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. His friends. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. – obligatory pied piping 2. This story.Key To Chapter Six Practice Activity 8 1. The problem of safe transportation. . he requested that the public be excluded.
felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream. 6. He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager. 2. 7. which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day. for instance. thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars. 4. where two teams battled every day… 5. since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town. irrespective of age and nature. he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly. Only an ugly endless dream remained. Everything was ending. In other people’s opinion. Nelu. 3. For all the four children. yours. I did so. 8. The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 10 1. I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow . He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth. For twenty years. 328 . the third born son. It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town.and he couldn’t thank me enough. the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive. But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway. or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. or as of a vast arena. I am to be envied.
leaving streets and houses behind. amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells. You are newly arrived here.Key To Chapter Six Practice 9. All that you have read is rubbish. she said. although she was standing quite close to him. 16. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. since I don’t really know which my true life is. What you’re saying sounds very nice. from MR street. He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H. Let me tell you my last conclusion. 329 . 11. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. 14. and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him. barely glittering in the distance. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t. 15. staring aimlessly. which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version. 13. 12. 10. If any of your qualities were to persuade them. Behind them. to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity. 17. furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain. He was suffering from dizziness. the tram was rattling along. where from Marta was coming too.R. and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law. on Icoanei street. I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one. which was why he saw Dora very far away.
then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not. others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots.Nadina VIŞAN 18. I don’t know what might have happened. can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. 21. While we were poor. She was one of those impeccably dressed women. So. 24. Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. or in the theatre hall to ask who she was. who only lived once in this world. had a personal style in clothes. I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me. day by day. I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway. While some trees are still green. From the vantage point I was in. But. had a huge house in Bucharest. Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. in her pursuits. But for me. 23. She was a woman of means. who prompted everyone on the street. 20. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me. or the many Egyptian dynasties. or the clash of stars above. likes and dislikes. after the car was fixed. I could see my woman falling away from me. If he had hit me. which I did not posses. we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. 22. so optimistic and composed? 19. 330 .
– possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit. – extraposed. It was suggested that they should meet the President. direct object 3. – extraposed. – extraposed. – questionable.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. It appears that no one voted for him. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. – extraposed. Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible.THAT COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. subject 8.Key To Chapter Seven Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE . object 5. subject 7. – extraposed. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. subject 9. – extraposed. subject 4. – extraposed. – extraposed. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. direct object 10. It will be soon announced when you can leave. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian.It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. 3. – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear. 2. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. object 6. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. – the same as 3. prepositional object Activity 2: 1. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4. 331 . – extraposed. – unextraposed. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. – impossible 7. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. prepositional object 11. subject 2. 6. – extraposed. for pragmatic reasons 5. 8.
14. same as 12. – grammatical. – impossible. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. I don’t expect it that he will come back. – the same as 12. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. – grammatical. 17. although a bit intricate 2.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. – possible: Trying to convince her is no use.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. – incorrect. It is nice to meet you. . 10.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. – correct 2. – impossible. – grammatical. I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible.grammatical. Activity 3: 1. – possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best. tense influences the validity of extraposition 3. same as 12. It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. It is no use trying to convince her. . Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. – impossible 11. – impossible. You know it only too well that he will not marry you.grammatical. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. I guess it that he will come back.Nadina VIŞAN It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. – same as 12. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. . – impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you. a bit too intricate 5. – impossible.correct 4. tense influences the 332 .. 15. 9. but pragmatically impossible 3. idiomatic formula 16. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13. but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1. same as 12. 18. but pragmatically impossible 4. They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill. They never expected it that he would come back.incorrect. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts.
Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her.’ 4. ‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can. since I am protected by my officer’s uniform.Key To Chapter Seven Practice validity of extraposition 5.’ Lionel says. under bridges. I hurriedly hid wherever I could. in the ditch. – correct 6. 333 . It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic. behind gates. When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane. I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour. Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check.incorrect. It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast. It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school. 2. ‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where. but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart. (Not always. 5. in the pits on the road.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! . thus. though. tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1. 3. I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion).
prime-minister. – the second sentence has undergone clause shift. owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it. By saying this.Nadina VIŞAN 6. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time. who had just returned from Africa. – the first sentence is the better of the two. / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister. – the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere. 3. without trying to protest too much. 2. It is less ambiguous than the first.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. 7. – the second sentence is questionable. 4. Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. who had just returned from Africa. As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel. since the 334 . which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations. I was not in fact speaking like a moralist. because it is less ambiguous. Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot. for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. who had just returned from Africa. Activity 7 1. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return. 8.
/ I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities. – both sentences are grammatical. 5.Key To Chapter Seven Practice material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy. so there is no need for extraposition. – both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. 6. The second and third sentences are grammatical. – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. – the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject. 8. 7. although the third one has not undergone clause shift. They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. extraposition is obligatory here./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. As we have already shown in a previous exercise. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved. 335 . *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful.
ibid. The idea that he had had earned him good money.adverbial of sequence/result.We discovered that our map has disappeared. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. (Iris Murdoch.) complement that clauses. .) adverbial of sequence/result. – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her.relative Activity 9 1. ibid. extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. for better or worse. required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. – relative 5.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 8 1.prepositional object. – relative 3. – complement 2. correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. – subject. coordinated.complement 4. required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. – adverbial of sequence/result. – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject. they were chained to each other forever. – direct object. – complement that clause. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. . required by deverbal noun 336 . . (Iris Murdoch. – prepositional object. – complement 5. . His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. – predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now.
– the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. – that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke. – g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible. – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. you want me to believe. that deletion is obligatory. – that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. d) John said that Harry was leaving. since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. h) John thought that Harry had run. b) John heard that Mary was pregnant. – that is obligatory. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. – that is obligatory. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. – that is obligatory 7) They maintain. for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. that they were not too late to leave. – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. – that is obligatory.(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case. – the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave. f) John said that Harry would leave. – a) and b) are indirect speech 337 . d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming.
*John told Mary that she had baked a pie. But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil.Nadina VIŞAN formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. – sequence of tenses is observed 9. a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. sequence of tenses is observed 4. – a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. c. b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong 338 . – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time. as is apparent from the larger co-text 8. I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. b. – grammatical sentences. a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. a. John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. – sequence of tenses is observed 6. – both sentences are grammatical. / b) John said that his car is out of gas.
Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte. the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation. cenuşii şi albe. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect. când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. – generalization on habits of birds. Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. She noted with disapproval that many a 339 . quail. geese both grey and white. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. ciocârlii şi şoimi. b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi. prepeliţe. present instead of simple past. lark. While the first is possible because of the generalization. hawk. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara. Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş. present perfect instead of past perfect.
A companion stooped and cradled his 340 . găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat. Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion.Nadina VIŞAN bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. Crows will relish what presents itself. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer. The generic present is used in this case. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă. Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. lack of pridefulness. a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause. lipsa de vanitate. She admired their keenness of wit. – the Present --Past rule is optional in this case. o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat. love of practical jokes. slyness in a fight. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. Ruby le admiră spiritul ager. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. as evidenced by its drear plumage. Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic.
Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe. un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. El căzuse pe spate. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. tânărul ofiţer. iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. încercând să-i uşureze chinul. Murise în picioare. He had fought hard through the war. […] During the latter stages of the tale. Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. tragică şi eroică. exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul. he claimed. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose.Key To Chapter Seven Practice head to soothe his dying. But as the battle raged around them. – the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe. the young officer. He died erect. ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at 341 . Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie. Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale. cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. se ridicase în picioare. in the very act of expiring. îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general. a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge. Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă. Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei. Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici.
How can I explain? I just felt shy. şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. susţinea el. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen. But when he reached me. they gathered around my desk. which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. I realized I could not tell him the big news. Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar. When the boys saw that mother had left. Activity 13 1. When he saw me. They all had their hands in their pockets. Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg. they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. One of them. I knew that no matter what words I would pick. to finish my drawing. His sparse hair was full of dandruff. – similar situation to the one under (c). he closed the album. 2. şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă. Luptase din răsputeri în război. 342 . and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now). And they might just hang him. around seventeen or eighteen years old.Nadina VIŞAN Williamsburg. had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt. nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement. Now here he stood jailed. deşi era erou de război. A short while later. jumped off the bench and ran towards me. the oldest. în închisoare. Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat. Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă. war hero though he was. mother went home and I was left alone. Acum stătea aici. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie.
And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things. So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand. he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently. which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing. such an inconvenient dangerous gesture. The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him. he could only think of the fact that she had written 343 . She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark. or if she would do so again.’ 5. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all. Albu whispered in Matei’s ear. or fear his rage. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature. And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him. for her vineyard. ‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long. He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself. ‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot. one might think that you sought refuge by her side. 4. 6.Key To Chapter Seven Practice 3. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts. for a longer stay that would do both a power of good. All his senses were now keen. brightly and closely. she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her. as if he had been drunk. in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while.’ Mr.
he would achieve his goal and be a victor. it meant that he would approve of him from then on. but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted. Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard. 11.Nadina VIŞAN to him. saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal. have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat. The last time when we met here you scared me. that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. 10. 8. with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility. And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped 344 . But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned. thinking of him. but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew. Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory. claiming you had no ambition for the future. Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great. that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent. Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great. And if things were so. If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy. 9. 7.
13. And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron. namely the impatience of this young man. Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession. 14. 12. Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem 345 . Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced. towards Jurubita. and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned. which secretly drove him. He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn. Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand. as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty. We either sell them or we don’t. Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital. exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion. without putting anything in a note. more urgently than ever. And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind. Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates. where he would run to confess everything.Key To Chapter Seven Practice now. Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while.
– perfect infinitive. grammatical 2. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. / He helped them lift the heavy parcel. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. grammatical 6. / He was forced to send Tom on the front. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. . It is vital this factory to be reopened. – simple infinitive. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. / I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home. / they saw her leave. – simple infinitive. grammatical 5. / He forced Mary to clean her bedroom. – infinitive continuous. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. grammatical 7. . It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase. or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4. grammatical. 346 . / He had Mary clean her room. / They hear him sing two patriotic songs. grammatical 10. – infinitive continuous.ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school. 9.ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8. – simple infinitive.. – ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar. grammatical 3. She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man.simple infinitive.INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE .
you need to try harder. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had. Test: *They would have hated her. \ I allowed [them to come. \ She wanted [him to leave. \ They tempted him PRO to leave. \ They would have hated [her to come back. \ They did not wish [her to come back. / I taught them to speak and spell correctly. – Test: He persuaded her.] – Accusative + Infinitive. Test: *She wanted him. / It is not too late for him to learn. / He is believed to have known her 347 .Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition. ] – Accusative + Infinitive. – Test: She promised him. \ They really asked her PRO to come back. – Test: They convinced her.] – Accusative + Infinitive.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide. Test: *They did not wish her. / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear. – Test: They tempted him. \ He persuaded her PRO to come. Test: *I allowed them. \ I would love [ them to come. \ They convinced her PRO to come back. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor. – Test: They asked her. / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession. Test: *I would love them. \ She promised him PRO to leave. / I want to never see you again.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies. Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day. / In order to fully understand what that book is about.] – Accusative + Infinitive. Test: * I would like people.
/ She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee. / He is easy to live with. / You are to blame that the factory exploded.Nadina VIŞAN for years. .obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations.obligatory subject control verb 348 . / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat. . I don’t need you or your services. to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance. / He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation. . Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. / To make a long story short. / I want to tell you what I think of you. not to miss the train. – obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. / I have never known how to behave in her presence. / I have a word to tell you. / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities. / He is easy to talk to. / I want you to leave my house.obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. / He is young enough to start again. / He is hard to stand.obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on. / Oh. / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more. Activity 6 Oh. . – obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself.
Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2].Accusative + Infinitive. Predicative 4 . Harold. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. He suspected hostility at once. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit.to. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. they had depressed and fuddled him. If he himself was out of spirits.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2]. he hated [anyone to comment on it 4]. thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3]. 1 – PRO. Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive. 349 . Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive. the herd instinct was very strong in him. extraposed 2 – PRO-to. 1 – PRO-to. She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3]. [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4]. Subject. Both seemed to him a little unreal. so that we might get to the future and have done. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. he didn’t envy those above it. 1] A little crossly. Direct object 3 – PRO –to. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1]. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2]. Subject. who wasn’t used to men with moods.
PRO controlled by ‘him’. And you might also be hit and humiliated. 350 . more believable than evidence itself. b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate. sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition. PRO controlled by ‘she’. excitedly. but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. f) The passing time is important. slowly. more meaningful. But when we need to comfort others. man and woman. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty. direct object 3 – PRO –to. PRO controlled by ‘she’. c) Unlike plane trips. 1 – PRO-to.Nadina VIŞAN [PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business. PRO controlled by ‘me’. One day. adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make. what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number. we seem to forget about our own pain. if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully. or better said. elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality. object 2 – PRO –to. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. e) When two persons. true. as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning. cautiously.
for instance. in the street. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right. And to actually start to believe you are so. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us. Stroescu. not even those parts where he had been half-right. I am looking for a husband to love and obey. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot. that you are young. That is it. in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love. But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it. which he had already forgotten. Would you like me to look at you transfixed. h) I want us to go. although the man would have really wanted to be left alone. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. These people invited us… and the man is your boss. since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself.Key To Chapter Eight Practice To say. S. I am indeed praising my own merits. 351 . my wish being only to please and serve. your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking. k) With this considerable dowry. He had not been able to leave Dr. You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. as he had appeared to him in the rain. or. Mrs. tickled by the trickles of sweat. while swearing to change my way of life. or their talk that night. to live only with your coughing. all down our neck. Moroi says heavily. g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying. Although that talk deserved to be remembered. for there is no shame in it when need drives you. If it was summer. even when this love is hurried. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. And I would care for this man so deeply. not to want to wipe it off.
poor Muti. they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before. for that’s the door people get off by. haphazardly. She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram. here I am with all of my own. or to speak so fast.Nadina VIŞAN In a word. rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. she was suddenly so shocked. I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by. o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes. met by squalor and terrible smells. m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage. no matter what. without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers). for no one can mediate better than the parties involved. 352 . If you will have what I can give you. as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him. every Bucharester knows it. Well. ready to submit to any demand.
Key To Chapter Nine Practice KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE . 353 . so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. / In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. / They found it thrown in a corner./ Don’t keep him waiting./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made. badly beaten and bloodied. Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her.’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second.. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother./ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye./ The blow left him sprawled under the table.ING COMPLEMENTS Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction). / Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into./ She sent him shopping./ He went to have a tooth pulled. with its lips drawn back. / You didn’t change the baby’s diaper. what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head. – Attributive past participle. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. – Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face./ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates.
you gave instructions to have your wife watched. – Accusative + past participle / My Lord. having been uprooted by the gale. Turning on the light. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. 5. Knowing that the murderer was still at large. 8.Nadina VIŞAN Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1. Having been punished by mother for my mistake. 10. a rug caught her foot and she fell. Sleeping in the next room. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not 354 . Finding the treasure. sitting taut between her father and her sister. 3. – Nominative + present participle / Dinny. I was extremely reluctant to open the door. 2.Running into the room. Having fed the dog. Activity 4 1. 4./ Running into the room. he sat down to his own dinner. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. a rug caught her foot and she fell.She didn’t want to hear the story again. Accusative + present participle / In any case. – As she was running into the room. – Attributive present participle. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. 7. 6. she caught her foot in a rug and fell. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. I was astonished at what I saw. I slammed the door of my room. The tree had fallen across the road. Having looked through the fashion magazine. they began quarreling about how to divide it. Attributive present participle. lying face downwards in a sea of mud. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. having heard it all before. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. 9.
11. lion-hearted. empty-headed. narrow-minded. – As he was riding in the first race. a pot of paint fell on my head. sharp-eyed/minded. one of the eggs broke. 355 . his horse fell at the last jump. he broke one of the eggs. a scorpion bit him. the sea was tossing the post up and down. Leaving the cinema. stony-hearted. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship. Riding in the first race. my hands often get very cold. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. – As I was passing under a ladder. Tied to the post. – As he left the cinema. Climbing down the tree. I let it out of the room. Reading in bed. my hands often get very cold. his horse fell at the last jump./ Reading in bed. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family. – When I read in bed. an idea suddenly occurred to me. 12. fishy-eyed. a scorpion bit him. broad-shouldered. 2. cloth-covered. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. 9. – As he was climbing down the tree. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. – As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair. Barking furiously. – As he knew me to be the fool of the family.Key To Chapter Nine Practice identify with that of the main clause. bald-headed. Dropped by parachute. wooden-headed. he was bit by a scorpion. 10. 7. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. 8. 6. 4. I often get very cold hands. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. a pot of paint fell on my head. three-coloured. red-handed. 3. – As the dog was barking furiously. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. – As he was getting out of bed. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. an idea suddenly occurred to me. the sea was tossing it up and down. many-coloured. Getting out of bed. Passing under a ladder. 5. open-minded. / Climbing down the tree. Activity 5 Fair-haired. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. I let the dog out of the room. / Getting out of bed. one of the eggs broke. – As he was tied to the post.
are having difficulties in making both ends meet. bounden duty. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. / Three people. finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. The escaped prisoner. / Many old people. admired for their elegance and precision. shaven head. Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. produced by S. Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears. Activity 8 1. mown grass./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. sunken eyes. roast meat. shrunken stream. (grow) 4. is expected to be a great hit. were taken to hospital. injured when their car crashed on the M1.Nadina VIŞAN quick-eyed. drunken man. (find) 6. eagle-eyed. (take) 2. 356 . injuring my arm. dark-skinned. admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail. / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned. / Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets. (injure). the shoulders barely hidden by lace. / Swiss watches. rotten plank. Activity 7 1. (hunt). found hiding in a barn. 7. ill-gotten wealth. shorn lamb. The film. I stared at the canvas for ages. straight-shouldered. lighted candle. hidden meaning. was today taken back to prison. (produce) 3. hunting for a bargain.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks. are sold throughout the world.I fell on the ice. hunted for their valuable oil and meat. graven image. (admire) 5. stricken deer. (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead. Whales. open-hearted. are in grave danger of extinction.Spielberg.
bake them. with its sickening smell of scalded feathers. suddenly suffocated. all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully. barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt. And his soul. 2. was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations. flat and soft. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp. After a while. boil them. thrown in the pots. streaked with yellow veins of fat. 4. then put up. and moreover. forcing him to ponder over their meaning. the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them. the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away. He felt close to his father. the carved chicken. 3. and the puffed pastry beds. seeking some promised land. yet left them room to sway free. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat. A parasol. a strange thrill shot through Bubi. the twice rinsed vegetables. acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired. sprinkled with sticky flour. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. So. now taken down. its scales scraped off by the knife. he were struggling for breath. he started peering anxiously around as if. hovering uncertain and soft. in charge of his house and lands. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts. It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. Although the moment was deeply disturbed. 357 . would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment. the fish.
/ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings. Gambling is his favourite pastime. . / John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. / I am sorry for being so late. / I had to put off my leaving on holiday. / He prides himself on always being well-dressed. / I told him not to bother putting things back. / The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods.gerund 5. – gerund (subject) 4. / After annoying the shop-assistant. he left the store without buying a thing.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night. / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea. /He’s not interested in bringing up his children./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time. / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool. / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip. Activity 10 1. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. / She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places. What I don’t understand is you suddenly 358 . / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine. / The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury. – Accusative + participle 3./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats. / You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day. / That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture. – participle (attribute) 2. / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned. / I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action.
participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 11. – Nominative + participle 13. – Accusative ING (predicative) 6. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12.possessive ING (direct object) 9. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 14. 8. – gerund (prepositional object) 15. . I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. – gerund (attribute. gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs. possessive ING (predicative) 7. gerund (has a direct object) 359 . gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs.participle vs. participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs. – possessive ING (prepositional object)12. – gerund (prepositional object) 10. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. He was spotted talking to her. participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. – gerund (half or full. attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs.Key To Chapter Nine Practice turning against me. preceded by preposition).
of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself. – gerund (full. Lady Corven.verbal noun (has determiner. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. Croom to try to follow one. my Lord. hold up his pen and speak.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping. – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. however appearances were against us. gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it. – verbal noun (has determiner. – verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. I did ask Mr.verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. – gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched.’ 360 . – gerund or verbal noun.’ ‘Tell me.’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare. of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on.. take down her answer. we had done nothing to be ashamed of. adjective. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her. also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her. What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. adjective.. but they went by too quickly. – verbal noun (has adjective).
’ 361 . my Lord. There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter. c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent. and went out to post it himself. ‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals. the sisters started about eleven o’clock.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. it’s overrated. I just used the word and they fell. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment. Then. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort. suddenly. but I’ll hope to see you again very soon. and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him.’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. I must go back now. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too. I spend all my time hunting a job. ‘I do hate asking for things. licked the envelope with passion. d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street.’ said Clare. and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day. And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car. he addressed the note.’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment. what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really.’ said Clare. ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that.Key To Chapter Nine Practice ‘In any case.
shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing. direct object for the main verb ‘remember’. functions as direct object) and then the ground. attribute). … which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund. gerund. The sight of the two children. attribute. then the noise and the cracking stone. adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there.’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. the enormous split in the earth. direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund. Then he saw movement at his feet. attribute. the very earth opening up (half gerund.Nadina VIŞAN ‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish. slowly rising (participle. The two sides were moving apart. At first. l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle. …while their edges were crashing inwards). down into God knows where. but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. Has a complex subject) in the hole. direct object) towards him. direct object). after verb of perception. (participle. direct object) from below. attribute. their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. attribute) in a swirling motion. the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund. He looked up towards the daylight. adverbial of time. attribute. attribute). someone looking for survivors (participle. down. following the verb ‘remember’. It was like a mist. First the crack snaking (half gerund. direct object) its jagged way along the concrete. The collapsing shops (participle. village which is burning). stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle. slightly 362 . hoping (participle. elliptical here.
Key To Chapter Nine Practice yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. i. direct object) that his two young people were listening too. it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. prepositional object. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there. She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund. my dear. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion.e. moving up (participle. has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle. direct object). preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund. one. covering (participle. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. adverbial of manner) the girl’s head.). (John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun. etc. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund. subject of ‘being’) being (participle. m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun. according to the books he read. early. adverbial of reason). adverbial of manner) towards his chest. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund. you. PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun. has ‘of’ phrase). It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. adverbial of time) doesn’t really count.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 363 .
Young Mamona left the room without a word. preceded by preposition. for Dornford was busy on an important case. She finished what jobs there were. and everything got suddenly animated. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund. Vaucher and I. making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. and sunlight. brightening (participle. and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips. adverbial of manner). Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town. preceded by preposition. yet leaving a few drops of blood behind. adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. waiting for all that was to happen to really happen. as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. reluctant or not. attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle. adverbial of manner). Having a French governess (participle. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English.Nadina VIŞAN r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle. attribute) a sudden whoop. looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle. slanted on to her cheek. mother. So. Standing up. a door was opened and as a servant entered. attribute) stopped dead. we were all gathered in that room. attribute) to winter brilliance. and not only in my imagination or theirs. the two Mamonas. And. and then went riding (participle. attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks. examining (participle. which beckoned to 364 . adverbial of reason).
Key To Chapter Nine Practice the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. to Vaucher. yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. So when Old Mamona came in. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. 3. and ended his life in the year 1821. he went to mother and. as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. Entering our house on a Thursday. a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. about sparing no effort. and to Young Mamona. And. Not so unimaginable though. about the safeguarding of all our achievements . to me. mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable. who was sitting with eyes half-closed. He cast us a swift glance. he looked like someone who did. he found us sitting each in his place. who knows. sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me. And then. his disloyal apprentice. for anyway. her back towards us. in the year 1812. it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept 365 . bending a little. pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them. and smelling so hard of rain. let alone greet us or say something. his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. each carrying a wooden box. But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. kissed her forehead. too. Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. closing my eyes. He was talking about gathering up all our strength. Vaucher might have known that too. without taking his sack off his shoulders. as mother had ordered him. about concentrating all our resources. 4. Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own. not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least. sitting in his puddle. 2. I knew who it would be. killed by Young Mamona. a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me.
Reach that place they did one sunny morning. I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river.Nadina VIŞAN rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake. stove. And all around them was the great field 366 . futile. ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces. After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. of taking notes and rewriting them. barrack. although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before. the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and. staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet. long board table. But. already seen and heard. the truck left and they tried to look around and understand. each pausing before jumping down. wood pile. When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them. 5. And suddenly. one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better. They got off the truck slowly. as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it. the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area. without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions. and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it. everything seemed familiar. as an afterthought. while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing.
They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred. The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen. The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away. The next thing was to go to the well. 367 .Key To Chapter Nine Practice of Baragan.
Nadina VIŞAN 368 .
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