563 views

Uploaded by Marco Ripà

A new method, involving tetrahedral numbers, to solve a particular kind of double summations.

save

You are on page 1of 4

**On the relation between double summations and
**

tetrahedral numbers

Marco Ripà

http://spiqrsociety.webs.com/

marco@marcoripa.net

**Abstract In this paper we provide an inverse proof of the relation between a particular class of double
**

sums and tetrahedral numbers. Thus, we present a compact formula to reduce the number of calculations

necessary to solve such a kind of problems. The initial identity is confirmed “a posteriori” using the formula

mentioned above.

§1. Introduction

**There exist different methods to solve summations [1-2] depending on the particular problem we are working
**

on. In this brief paper, we explain that it is possible to use a compact formula to minimize the calculations

when we are involved in a particular class of double sums.

First of all we show a preliminary result, which we will use later, to prove that the double summations we

have to calculate can be written as the difference of two tetrahedral numbers.

If we use elementary algebra [1] to calculate the value of

we have

So, we have seen, without omitting any step, that (for every n<m, where both n and m are positive integers -

-)

(1)

2

This result let us easily find the value of

(2)

showing that, in general,

with t≤n-m

**is equal to the difference between the (n-m)th tetrahedral number [3] and the (n-m-t-1)th. In fact, the (2) is, by
**

definition, equal to the (n-m)th tetrahedral number (we consider only positive terms of the sequence A000292

of OEIS [4]).

§2. Proof and main result

The (2) is given by the sum of n-m+1 terms, of which the last one is null (n-n=0). We use the (1) to make the

relation explicit, rewriting the (2) as (n-m)2+(n-(m+2))2+(n-(m+4))2+(n-(m+6))2+…+62+42+22+0 if n-m is

even and (n-m)2+(n-(m+2))2+(n-(m+4))2+(n-(m+6))2+…+52+32+12 if n-m is an odd number.

Thus, the value of the (2) is given by the sum of the squares of the even numbers ≤ n-m, when n-m is even,

and by the sum of the squares of the odd numbers ≤ n-m, for n-m odd. Unifying the two previous exhaustive

th

occurrences, we get the (n-m) positive term of the sequence A000292. In particular, let

Ti:=0,1,4,10,20,35,56,84,… for i=0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,… , T i is even iff i(mod 4)≡1. So, we have proved that the

(2) – plus the trivial case t=n-m – is equal to the (n-m)th tetrahedral number (let we assume T1=1 as the first

tetrahedral number).

If the upper limit of the index j is t<n-m, we simply have to subtract the value of the (n-m-t-1)th positive

tetrahedral number to the previous result: Tn-m-t+1:= .

Thus:

**Doing some calculations, we are able to rewrite it as:
**

3

(3)

Referring to the initial problem, we can now verify the property (1) substituting t=1 inside the (3):

Thus, we have proved that the (1) is a particular instance of the (3).

§3. Some observations

The most common way to solve

(t≤n-m)

is defining p:=(n-m),n,m,t,(p-t-1) . The result is as follows:

For a fixed j, we have that the inner summation is

= A*j2 +B*j + C. Where: A = 0.5, B = -p-0.5, C = 0.5*(p2+p).

**So, the double summation is
**

4

= At(t+1)(2t+1)/6 + Bt(t+1)/2 + C(t+1)= t(t+1)(2t+1)/12 - (2p+1)*t(t+1)/4 + p(p+1)(t+1)/2=

= (1/12)*{(t+1)*[t(2t+1) - 3(2p+1)t + 6p(p+1)]}= (1/6)*(t+1)[ 3p2 + t2 - 3pt - t + 3p]=

= [(t+1)/2]*[ (n-m)2 + (t-1)*(m - n + t/3)].

which is equivalent to the (3).

Another method, which involves triangular and tetrahedral numbers, is to note that

Thus,

References

[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Summation

[2] http://mathworld.wolfram.com/DoubleSeries.html

[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetrahedral_number

[4] N. J. A. Sloane, The Online Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, http://oeis.org/A000292, 2011.

- Differentiating Features of Gifted Children and Dealing With High IQ SocietiesUploaded byMarco Ripà
- ENSDT Free PreviewUploaded byMarco Ripà
- Data AnalysisUploaded byMona Farag
- Calc2 SageUploaded bydinuniroxx
- ENNDT: the first dynamic IQ test in the world (tests & solutions)Uploaded byMarco Ripà
- 7_Bezier curve.pdfUploaded byhmsohag
- Final Copy of Case Study on Geophysics_21-03-14Uploaded byDaniel Walvin
- ENSDT Prototype Untimed First NormUploaded byMarco Ripà
- Identifying Gifted Children and Dyslexia Early Diagnosis [Conference proceedings (12th Asia-Pacific Conference on Giftedness - July 17, 2012)]Uploaded byMarco Ripà
- On prime factors in old and new sequences of integersUploaded byMarco Ripà
- X-Test (the IQ test for the high range) Finally RevealedUploaded byMarco Ripà
- Sumation SummaryUploaded byCélj Filmund Gamay
- eam paperUploaded byFrancis Ho Ho
- Unit9 PDEsUploaded bysmile
- (3) Square & Square RootsUploaded byacekugs
- MATLABUploaded byThiyagarajan Munivel
- ProblemsUploaded byAriel Lenis
- Inequalities GraphsUploaded bySteve Bishop
- Floyd AlgorithmUploaded byShivam Pandey
- 01.the Basic Signal- Girish NavadaUploaded byAkshay Shenoy
- maths q paperUploaded byTrade
- HCF and LCMUploaded bySureJobsPlacements
- 10th National ISMO Class 6 Question Paper.pdfUploaded byAnonymous rgfSynfmB

- Tesina Esame di Stato - Marco RipàUploaded byMarco Ripà
- ENSDT Prototype Untimed First NormUploaded byMarco Ripà
- Massimo punteggio possibile a 2048 (popolare gioco creato da Gabriele Cirulli)Uploaded byMarco Ripà
- IQF RatingUploaded byMarco Ripà
- On the Congruence Speed of TetrationUploaded byMarco Ripà
- Soluzioni per le congetture A1, A3 ed F1 del libro di quesiti aperti: "Congetture su interrogativi inediti: tra speculazioni, voli pindarici e riflessioni spicciole".Uploaded byMarco Ripà
- 2048: Maximum score achievable! (Marco Ripà)Uploaded byMarco Ripà
- ENSDT IQ Test UntimedUploaded byMarco Ripà
- ENSDT 20 - OFFICIAL IQ TEST (by Marco Ripà)Uploaded byMarco Ripà
- Congetture risolteUploaded byMarco Ripà
- ENSDT Prototype (Timed) NormUploaded byMarco Ripà
- ENSDT Prototype Untimed Second NormUploaded byMarco Ripà
- ARROWS: A very flawed (IQ?) test for the high rangeUploaded byMarco Ripà
- Il Nine Dots Puzzle Esteso a n1 X n2 X ... X nk Punti (Lower Bound e Soluzione Completa)Uploaded byMarco Ripà
- High Range IQ Tests (Big) FlawsUploaded byMarco Ripà
- Il Nine Dots Puzzle Esteso a nXnXn(v)Uploaded byMarco Ripà
- Extended 9 Dots Puzzle to nxnx...xn Dots: General Solving MethodUploaded byMarco Ripà
- Best upper bound currently available for the 5x5x5 points problem.Uploaded byMarco Ripà
- Arrows: The Solutions!Uploaded byMarco Ripà
- Moutaoikil/Ripà's conjecture on prime numbersUploaded byMarco Ripà
- HRTs (Big) FlawsUploaded byMarco Ripà
- Nine Dots Puzzle Extended to nXnX…Xn PointsUploaded byMarco Ripà
- The Rectangular Spiral Solution for n1Xn2X(Strict Final)Uploaded byMarco Ripà
- X-Test (the IQ test for the high range) Finally RevealedUploaded byMarco Ripà

- Algebraic ExpressionUploaded byjupirin
- AUBER-ex2Uploaded by林偉誠
- Manejo Interno de Datos (PROGRAMACIÓN)Uploaded byJesusd9000
- F2Uploaded byKosma Kosmic
- Chapter 5 - Permutation Groups.pdfUploaded byFatin Azma
- LOGUSUploaded byJRAADESM
- backtrackingUploaded byTousif Madathil T
- Fib FormulaeUploaded byAnonymous L4GY7kq
- Computing some topological indices of NanotubesUploaded byIJSRP ORG
- PermutacionesUploaded byJose Antonio Garcia
- AFC y PACF TeóricasUploaded byJaime Ignacio Moreira Rojas
- Metodo de La Burbuja c#Uploaded byBolivar Orbe Robles
- LogarithmUploaded bymecitfuturedreams
- Codificación Del Canal Para El Control de Errores(Clase III)_act (1)Uploaded bydayana
- Teoría de grafos.pdfUploaded byasuid
- Skript LogarithmenUploaded byMath_Isler
- Unidad 6 Grafos Digrafos y ArbolesUploaded byDiego Ireta
- Lecture 17 - Covering, Packing, And Art-Gallery ProblemsUploaded bygdenunzio
- Computer Graphic Scene GraphUploaded bysushmsn
- Solving Exponential and Logarithmic EquationsUploaded byUday Prakash Sahu
- ec533_-_lec10Uploaded byDalia Abou El Maaty
- MAT 01Uploaded byDaniela Mansilla
- Latest r152Uploaded byccarpenterg
- A Note On Jump Symmetric n-SigraphUploaded byMia Amalia
- MathUploaded byVikash Kumar
- EDC_supp4Uploaded byYasir Kiyani
- Problemas Resueltos AdaUploaded byPerpetuo Mogudo
- Graceful Graphs-Final Edition-89!12!15 (1)Uploaded byrimalar
- Ejercicios de Division Numeros Enteros Para Octavo BasicoUploaded byKarenEstayMagñin
- Recorrido_ProfundidadUploaded byDiego Rudel Monterroza