Bill Gates

Bill Gates

Bill Gates at the World Economic Forum in Davos, 2007

Haihuwa Mazaunin Makaranta Aiki

Oktoba 28, 1955 (shekaru 53) Seattle, Washington, United States Harvard University (an koreshe a shekarar 1975) Shugabane a Kamfanin Microsoft Babban Shugaba a Kamfanin Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation ya

Abin da Mallaka Matarshi Children

▼US$40 billion (2009)
Melinda Gates (dag shekarar1994 zar zuwa yanzu) Jennifer Katharine Gates Rory John Gates Phoebe Adele Gates (h.2002) (h.1996) (h.1999)

Sa Hannu

Website Bill Gates

William Henry "Bill" Gates III an haifeshi a watan Oktobe 28, 1955, mutumin Amurka ne, dan kasuwa, mai taimakon gajiyayyu, mawallafi kuma shugaba a Kamfanin Microsoft, kamfanin software wanda ya kafa tare da Paul Allen, Matakinshi na arziki kuwa yakai matakin wanda cikin masu arziki a duniya, domin har zuwa cikin shekara 2009 an kiyasta cewa yafi kowa kudi a duniya. A lokacin da yake a Microsoft, Bill Gates ya kai matakin mai fada a ji an kololuwa (CEO), sannan kuma shugaba a fannin Software Artchitect, sannan kuma ya kasance wanda yafi kowa yawan hannun jari a Kamfanin da kashi takwas, sannan kuma ya wallafa takardu da dama. Ta bangaren taimakawa gajiyayyu kuwa ya taimaka da kudade masu yawa ga kungiyoyin agaji da kuma kungiyoyin bincike na fasaha na bangaren programm a karkashin kamfanin Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation wanda ya kirkira a shekarar 2000. Duk da cewa yana daga cikin wadanda za'a ce suka canza yanayin na'ura mai kwakwalwa zuwa na'ura taka (Personal Computer – wanda a yanzu ake samunta a cikin gidaje da ofisoshi). A watan Junairu na shekarar 2000, Bill Gates ya sauka babban mukamin maifada aji na Microsoft sai dai ya kirkiri mikamin shugaba bangaren software artchitect. Har ila yau, a shekarar 2006, ya bayar da sanarwar cewar ya koma aiki karamin lokaci a kamfanin ba kamar yadda yake ba ada a ma'aikacin cikakken lokaci, domin ya sami cikakken lokaci a Kamfanin shi na Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, a karshe ya mayar da dukka aikin shi na software archtect ga wani mutum mai suna Ray Ozzie da kuma Craig Mundie, lokaci na karshe da Bill Gates yayi aiki na cikakken lokaci shine, watan Junainu 27, 2008 duk da yanan a kamfanin Microsoft amma ba a matsayin babban shugaba mai cikakken iko ba.

Farkon Rayuwarshi
Bill Gates an haifeshi a garin Sitil (Seattle) na garin Washington da ke Kasar Amurka, mahaifinshi mai suna Willian H. Gates, Sr, ita kuma mahaifiyar shi mai suna wacce 'yar kasar Scottish (Sokotish) mai suna Mary Maxwell, ko da yake iyayenshi masu hannu da shuni ne, domin hai sanannen lawyer ne, ita kuma mahaifiyar shi tana daga cikin masu hannu a fada a wani Kamfani mai suna First Interstate Bank System da kuma wani mai suna United Way, sanan ita maihaifin ta mai suna J.W. Maxwell shine shugaban Bankin National Bank. Ta bangaren 'yan uwan shi kuwa, Bill Gates yana da babbar ya mai suna Kristi da kuma kanwa mai suna Libby Yana da shekara 13 ya fara karatu a makarantar Lakeside School, ita kuwa makarantace ta musamman , a lokacin da ya kai mataki na takwai (grade 8) kunguwar Iyaye Mata (Mothers Club) taga ya duba taga cikin irin nasarori da makarantar ta samu, sai ta siyar musu da

na'ura ASR-33 Teletype Terninal da kuma gina musu dakin na Na'ura mai Kwakwalwa (Computer) domin dalibai makaranta a dalilin haka ne shi Bill Gates ya kamu da sha'awar programming the computer na wancan lokaci (General Electric), a sanadiyar haka ne ya bar ajin sa na koyan lissafi zuwa wannan bangare domin cika wa kansa buri, ya kuma fara rubuta programm na farko a cikin wannan na'ura, a wannan lokaci ya kago wani abin wasa na na'ura (game) wanda ake iya wasa da ita na'urar mai suna tic-tac-toe, saboda hazaka irin tasa yasa ya saba sosai da wannan na'ura suka yana iya rubuta programm yayi aiki ba da matsala, domin akwai lokacin da ya taba yin wani magana cewa "Akwai bukatar cikakken natsuwa a tare da wannan na'ura". Bayan da wannan Kungiya ta Mother's Club ta janye tallafi da take bayarwa wannan makaranta, shi da sauran abokan karatunsa su hudu Bill Gates, Paul Allen, Ric Weiland, da kuma Kent Evans suka sake dukufa domin fahimtar wannan na'ura da sashen shirye-shirye (programm) wanda ya hada da DEC PDP microcomputers. Daya daga cikin na'ura tana tare da tsarin PDP-10 wanda yake mallakar Computer Center Corporation (Matattarar Hadinkan Na'ura mai Kwakwalwa) wanda dalilin haka yasa aka dakatar dasu a zangon karatun su na wannann lokaci, bayan da aka kamasu suna sa abubuwan da zasu bata operating system domin samun karin karatun computer a wani lokaci daban ba na makaranta. Bayan da aka janye dakatarwar da aka yi musu, daliban nan su hudun aka basu damar binciko abubuwan da zasu iya bata CCC Software aka chanza musu da lokacin computer. Maimako Bill Gates ya ci gaba da amfani da na'urar da teletype, sai ma kawai ya koma ofishin CCC domin yayi bincike tsantsa akan asalin da tusen yaren na'ura na programms daban-daban, anan ne ya fahimce programm na FORTRAN, da LISP da kuma yare mashin (Machine Language). Wannan yarjejeniya ta cigaba har zuwa 1970, lokaci da kamfanin ya daidai wannan kasuwanci. A shekara ta gaba ne, wani kamfanin fadada bayanai na fasaha (Information Science Inc) suka dauki hayar wadannan labai na Lakeside su hudu domin su rubuta masu wani programm na biyan albashin ma'aikata da fannin fasaha na COBOL, suka sake samu lokacin computer da daukaka,bayan da shugaba na bangaren Na'ura ya fahimci kwarewar sa da zurfin fahimtarsa a wannan fanni. Bill Gates ya rubutawa makarantarsu computer programm domin tsara dalibai a cikin ajujuwa, ya dan canza tsarin programm saboda a bashi damar shiga ajin dake da yawan 'yan mata, amma daga karshe yace "yadai kamata ace na matsawa kaina domin in koma wajan na'urar akan abinda zai zama nasara a gare ni." A lokacin da yakai shekara 17, Bill Gates ya kafa kamfanin hadin gwiwa da abokin sa, Paul Allen wanda ake kira Tra-O-Data, domin su hada wani programm mai wanda yake nuna zurfi ko saurin tafiyar abin hawa mai suna Traffic Counters a yanayin tsari na Intel 8008 processor. A shekara t 1973 ya kammala karatunsa a Lakeside, ya sami nasarar lashe dukka jarabawan SAT, domin maki goma kacal a cikin 1600 ya fadi, daga baya yayi rigista a kwalegin Harvard a 1973, a wannan makarantar ne ya hadu da wannan abokin sana'arshi na yanzu wato Steve Ballmer wanda ya nadashi babban shugaba mai cikakken iko na

Kamfanin Microsoft. Har ila yau a wannan makarantar ne ya hadu da Christon Papadimitrious wanda shi wannan mutumin kwararren ta bangaren fasahar na'ura mai kwakwalwa (Computer Scientis), koda yaje wannan makaranta bai maida hankaliba wajen karatunsa saidai kawai ya cigaba da amfani da computocin wannan makaranta kamar yadda yayi a Lakeside, koda yake ya zabi yayi karatu a wani kwas mai walala sosai Maths 55 a inda anan Bill Gates yace ya hadu da wadanda suka fishi kwakwalwa da fahimtar karatu. Bill Gates ya ci gaba da tuntubar abokin sana'ar shi, Paul Allen dangane da sabon kamfanin su da suka kafa. A shekara ta gaba ne, Bill Gates yaga an kirkoro wata sabuwar na'ura mai suna MITS Altair 8800 da tsari na Intel 8080 CPU, ganin haka ke da wuya Bill Gate da Paul suka ga ai kuwa akwai wani babban dama da zasu iya samu domin suma su kirkoro tasu na'urar, kuma yana ta tuntubar iyayen sa dangane da wannan hange da yayi, kuwa ya samu goyon baya a garesu bayan da suka ga abinda yake samu daga lokacin da ya bude wannan kamfani nashi.

Yadda aka kafa Microsoft
BASIC (Mai Sauki)

MITS Altair 8800 Computer with 8-inch (200 mm) floppy disk system

Bayan ya karanta wata mujalla ta Popular Electronics a watan Junairun 1975 wanda ya nyna ita wannna sabuwar na'ura da yadda take aiki, sai kawai Bill Gates ya sami kamfanin MITS wadanda sune suka kirkiro wannan 'yar karamar na'ura akan cewa shi da wasu sunan suna rubuta wani tsari a saukake (BASIC) da zai fasara abinda ita wannan na'ura ke gabatarwa kuma wanda zai yi aiki bai daya. A hakikanin gaskiya a wannan lokacin Bill Gates da Allen basu da wannan na'ura ta Altair sannan basu ma rubuta komai ba dangane da ita wannan na'ura; sun yi haka ne domin su gwada suga ko wannan kamfani zai yi sha'awar wannan tunani nasu? Ai kuwa lokacin da wannan kamfani MITS ya ji irin wannan kokari ka sai shugaban wannan kamfani ED Roberts ya yarda su Bill Gates dasu zo su nuna musu mililin yadda programm din zai yi aiki da na'urar, samun wannan gayyata keda yuwa cikin 'yan satuttuka suka kammala wani programm mai suna Altair Emulator wanda zai iya aiki a cikin wannan sabuwar na'ura da kuma wanda zai iya fassara abinda wannan programm yake yi a saukake (BASIC). Sun je sun gabatar da wannan

gwagin a ofishin MITS a Albuquerque, a cikin nasara, a karshe suka yi yargegeniyar akan zasu yi musu wannan programm amma da su sami shi suna Altair Basic. Alokacin kamfanin MITS sukayi hayan Paul Allen, shi kuma Bill Gates ya dauki hutu a makarantar sa Harvard domin ya taya abokinshi Allen aiki a MITS a garin Albuquerque a watan Satumba na shakarar 1975. A wannan lokaci suka yiwa wannan kawancen kamfunan su da suna "Micro-Soft" kuma suka bude ofishinsu na farko a wannan garin, kafin shekara ta kare suka cire wannan jan layin da ke tsakanin Micro da Soft suka yiwa sunan rigista na siye da siyarwa (Trade Mark) da "MICROSOFT" a ofishin sakataren Jiha na New Mexico a 26 ga watan Nuwambar 1976. Wannan sabon programm mai suna BASIC yayi matukar tashe a wajen masu amfani da computer (Hobbyist), amma daga baya Bill Gates ya fahimce cewar an sami baraka ta bangeren buga wannan programm ta barauniyar hanya, saboda haka ya aika da wasika zuwa ga Hobbyists na MITS yana cewa kamfanin MITS ba shida damar da zai cigaba da bugawa, watsawa da kuma rike asalin kwafin wannan programm ba tare da tana biya ba. Ko da yake ita wannan wasika bata samu armashi ba ga Hobbyists, amma duk da haka Bill Gates ya dage akan cewa babu yadda za'ayi a ce baza a rinka baiwa wanda ya kirkiri programm kudi ba. Haka dai wannan hadin gwiwa ya cigaba tsakanin MITS da su Bill Gate har zuwa cikin 1976, a lokacin ne kamfanin Microsoft ya sami damar yayi wadansu kamfanoni da dama programm wanda zasu rinka amfani da shi a jikin na'urar su. A karshe ya tashi daga wannan gari na Albuquerque zuwa sabon ofishin shi dake Bellevue a Washington a 1 ga watan Junairun 1979. A lokacin farko shekarun kamfanin, dukkan ma'aikata suna da suke da alhakin duba yanayin yadda kasuwanci kamfanin ke tafiya. Shi kuma Bill Gates ya sa ido ga bayanan kawuwanci, amma ya ci gaba da rubuta code shi ma. A farkon shekaru biyar na wannan kamfani Bill Gates da kanshi ya ke duba layi-layi na code da aka aika sannan da sake gyara wanda yaga akwai bukatar haka.

Yarjejeniyar sa da Kamfanin IBM
A shekarar 1980, Kamfanin IBM wanda shima babban kamfanine mai kera-keran kaya da kuma ita kanta na'ura mai kwakwalwa suka tuntubi Kamfanin Bill Gates wato Microsoft domin ya rubuta musu wani BASIC Programm wanda zai iya fassara abinda wata sabuwar na'ura da zasu fito da ita a wannan shekara mai suna IBM PC. To lokacin da wakilin kamfanin IBM ya gayawa kamfanin Microsoft cewar suna bukatar tsarin da zai bada dama a iya amfani da na'ura (Operating System), sai Bill Gates ya gaya musu cewar ai kuwa ya kamata su tuntubi kamfanin Digital Research wadanda sune aka sansu suna kirkiro irin wadanda tsare-tsare wanda irin wadannan na'urori ke amfani da su. Saboda a wancan lokaci, duk wani kamfani da yake kera wata na'ura to zaka samu yadda na'urar take gabatar da aikin ta yasha bam-bam da wata na'urar. Domin a wancan lokaci zamu iya kiyastawa kamar za'a samu sama da kimanin Operating System 3500, kuma wannan kamfani na

Digital Research sune ke cin karensu babu babbaka. To a lokaci da kamfanin IBM ya sami wakilan wannan kamfani domin su rubuta musu wannan tsari da zai yi aiki da na'urarsu IBM PC, ai kuwa sai suka kasa samun daidiatuwa domin kamfanin Digital Research sun zabga musu makudan kudede. Ganin haka ke da wuya sai wakilin kamfanin IBM Jack Sams ya dawo ya sami Bill Gates ya gayamishi cewar mai zai hana kamfanin shi ya duba tsarin ya kirkiro wani Operating System da yi aiki. Bayan da aka kamar sati biyu zuwa uke sai Bill Gates ya fito da sabon tsari Operating System wanda ke amfani da 86-DOS mai suna (QDOS) irin PC/M wanda wani mutum mai suna Tim Paterson dake kamfanin Seattle Computer Products (SCP) ya rubuta, da Bill Gates ya gwada wannan tsari kuma yayi aiki, sai yaje kai tsaye kamfanin SCP yace ina da wani aiki tsakanina da kamfanin IBM kuma suna son inyi musu Operating System, saboda haka ina son kamfanin ku tunda yana da lasisi (shaidar da kasa ke ma kamfanoni domin a yarda da kwarewarsu a fagen sana'arsu) zai yi amfani da shi a matsayin ni wakilin kune, suka kuwa amince. Daga nan ya dukufa akan wannan aiki da IBM suke buka. Koda yake daga bi sani yayi kokari ya yi lasisin na shi tsarin. Lokacin da Bill Gate ya kammala rubuta wannan programm wanda zai iya aiki a sabuwar na'urar su IBM PC sai suna PC-DOS, suka amince akan zasu bashi $50,000 ko da yake ya karbi wannan dan kudine domin yaki yarda ya siyarwa da IBM lasisin wannan sabon tsari kasancewar ya san lallai wadansu kamfanoni masu yin na'urori zasu kwaikwayi wannan Operating System, in kuma ya ba IBM lasisi to sune ke da hakkin mallaka nashi. Ai kuwa haka akayi, domin bayan dan lokaci kadan kamfanoni masu kera na'ura labari ya kai musu cewar kamfanin Microsoft yayi wa IBM sabon tsari da zai yi aiki bai daya, ko a kowace na'ura, saboda haka kamfanin Microsoft ya sani daukaka da suna a wannan lokaci.

Windows
Bill Gats yayi nazari yadda kamfani Microsoft yake a 25 ga watan Junainun 1981, wanda ya bashi damar gabatar sake takardun shaidar kamfani a Washington dalilin haka Bill Gates ya zama shugaba mai cikakken iko a kamfani da kuma majalisan dattijan kamfanin. A 20 ga watan Nuwamba 1985 kamfanin microsoft ya fito da wani sabon Operating System mai suna Microsoft Windows, sannan a watan Agusta kamfanin ya sake daidaitawa tsakanin shi da kamfanin IBM domin hadin gwiwar kirkiran wani operating system mai suna OS/2. Kamfanonin sun sami nasara mai yawa a lokacin da suka fito da shi a farko, daga bisani, a ranar 16 ga watan Mayu 1991Bill Gates ya aika da wasikar cikin gida yana bada sanarwar cewar yanzu yarjejeniyar dake tsakanin kamfunan biyu akan operating system OS/2 babu shi, kamfanisu zai kara kaimi ya fito da da Windows NT.

Tsarin Shugancin Microsoft
Tun daga shekarar 1975 zuwa 2006, Bill Gates shine ke da alhakin lura da dukkanin abubawan da Kamfanin Microsoft.

From Microsoft's founding in 1975 until 2006, Gates had primary responsibility for the company's product strategy. He aggressively broadened the company's range of products, and wherever Microsoft achieved a dominant position he vigorously defended it. As an executive, Gates met regularly with Microsoft's senior managers and program managers. Firsthand accounts of these meetings describe him as verbally combative, berating managers for perceived holes in their business strategies or proposals that placed the company's longterm interests at risk.[34][35] He often interrupted presentations with such comments as, "That's the stupidest thing I've ever heard!"[36] and, "Why don't you just give up your options and join the Peace Corps?"[37] The target of his outburst then had to defend the proposal in detail until, hopefully, Gates was fully convinced.[36] When subordinates appeared to be procrastinating, he was known to remark sarcastically, "I'll do it over the weekend."[3][38][39] Gates's role at Microsoft for most of its history was primarily a management and executive role. However, he was an active software developer in the early years, particularly on the company's programming language products. He has not officially been on a development team since working on the TRS-80 Model 100 line, but wrote code as late as 1989 that shipped in the company's products. [38] On June 15, 2006, Gates announced that he would transition out of his day-to-day role over the next two years to dedicate more time to philanthropy. He divided his responsibilities between two successors, placing Ray Ozzie in charge of day-to-day management and Craig Mundie in charge of long-term product strategy.[40]

Antitrust litigation

Bill Gates giving his deposition at Microsoft on August 27, 1998

Further information: United States Microsoft case and European Union Microsoft competition case

antitrust

Many decisions that led to antitrust litigation over Microsoft's business practices have had Gates's approval. In the 1998 United States v. Microsoft case, Gates gave deposition testimony that several journalists characterized as evasive. He argued with examiner David Boiesover the contextual meaning of words like "compete," "concerned," and "we."[41] BusinessWeek reported:

Early rounds of his deposition show him offering obfuscatory answers and saying 'I don't recall,' so many times that even the presiding judge had to chuckle. Worse, many of the technology chief's denials and pleas of ignorance were directly refuted by prosecutors with snippets of e-mail Gates both sent and received.[42]

Gates later said that he had simply resisted attempts by Boies to mischaracterize his words and actions. As to his demeanor during the deposition, he said, "Did I fence with Boies? ... I plead guilty. Whatever that penalty is should be levied against me: rudeness to Boies in the first degree."[43] Despite Gates's denials, the judge ruled that Microsoft had committed monopolization and tying, blocking competition, in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act.[43]

Appearance in ads

Bill Gates' mugshot from a traffic violation in 1977

Bill Gates decided in 2008 to appear in at least one commercial in a series of ads to promote Microsoft. This commercial, co-starring Jerry Seinfeld, is a 90-second talk between strangers as Seinfeld walks up on a discount shoe store (Shoe Circus) in a mall and notices Bill Gates buying shoes inside. The salesman is trying to sell Mr. Gates shoes that are a size too big. Mr. Seinfeld begins to inform him about a pair of shoes called Conquistadors that run "a little tight" and sells him on them in a size 10 (whereas the store clerk was attempting an 11). As Mr. Gates is buying the shoes he holds up his discount card, this card uses a slightly altered version of his own mugshot of his arrest in New Mexico in 1977 for a traffic violation. [44] As they are walking out of the mall, Jerry Seinfeld asks Bill Gates if he has melded his mind to other developers, after getting a yes, he then asks if they are working on a way to make computers edible, again getting a yes. Some say that this is an homage to Mr. Seinfeld's own show about "nothing" (Seinfeld).[45]

Personal life
Gates married Melinda French from Dallas, Texas on January 1, 1994. They have three children: Jennifer Katharine (1996), Rory John (1999) and Phoebe Adele (2002). The Gateses' home is an earth-sheltered house in the side of a hill overlooking Lake Washington in Medina, Washington. According to King County public records, as of 2006 the total assessed value of the property (land and house) is $125 million, and the annual property tax is $991,000.

His 66,000 sq feet compound has a 60-foot swimming pool with an underwater music system, 2500 sq feet gym and a 1000 sq feet dining room.[2] Also among Gates's private acquisitions is the Codex Leicester, a collection of writings by Leonardo da Vinci, which Gates bought for $30.8 million at an auction in 1994.[46] Gates is also known as an avid reader, and the ceiling of his large home library is engraved with a quotation from The Great Gatsby.[47] He also enjoys [48][49] playing bridge, tennis, and golf. Gates was number one on the "Forbes 400" list from 1993 through to 2007 and number one on Forbes list of "The World's Richest People" from 1995 to 2007 and 2009. In 1999, Gates's wealth briefly surpassed $101 billion, causing the media to call him a "centibillionaire".[50] Since 2000, the nominal value of his Microsoft holdings has declined due to a fall in Microsoft's stock price after the dot-com bubble burst and the multi-billion dollar donations he has made to his charitable foundations. In a May 2006 interview, Gates commented that he wished that he were not the richest man in the world because he disliked the attention it brought.[51] Gates has several investments outside Microsoft, which in 2006 paid him a salary of $616,667, and $350,000 bonus totalling $966,667.[52] He founded Corbis, a digital imaging company, in 1989. In 2004 he became a director of Berkshire Hathaway, the investment company headed by long-time friend Warren Buffett.[53]

Philanthropy

Gates (second from right) with Bono, Queen Rania of Jordan, British Prime Minister Gordon Brown, President Yar Adua of Nigeria and other participants in a 'Call to Action on the Millenium Development Goals' during the Annual Meeting 2008 of the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland.

Further information: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Gates began to realize the expectations others had of him when public opinion mounted that he could give more of his wealth to charity. Gates studied the work of Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller and in 1994 sold some of his Microsoft stock to create the William H. Gates Foundation. In 2000, Gates and his wife combined three family foundations into one to create the charitable Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, which is the largest transparently operated charitable foundation in the world.[54] The foundation is set up to allow benefactors access to how its money is being spent, unlike other major charitable organizations such as the Wellcome Trust.[55][56] The generosity and

extensive philanthropy of David Rockefeller has been credited as a major influence. Gates and his father have met with Rockefeller several times and have modeled their giving in part on the Rockefeller family's philanthropic focus, namely those global problems that are ignored by governments and other organizations.[57] As of 2007 Bill and Melinda Gates were the second most generous philanthropists in America, having given over $28 billion to charity.[58] The foundation has also received criticism because it invests the assets that it has not yet distributed, with the exclusive goal of maximizing the return on investment. As a result, its investments include companies that have been criticized for worsening poverty in the same developing countries where the Foundation is attempting to relieve poverty. These include companies that pollute heavily and pharmaceutical companies that do not sell into the developing world. [59] In response to press criticism, the foundation announced in 2007 a review of its investments to assess social responsibility.[60] It subsequently cancelled the review and stood by its policy of investing for maximum return, while using voting rights to influence company practices.[61]

Recognition
Time magazine named Gates one of the 100 people who most influenced the 20th century, as well as one of the 100 most influential people of 2004, 2005, and 2006. Time also collectively named Gates, his wife Melinda and alternative rock band U2's lead singer Bono as the 2005 Persons of the Year for their humanitarian efforts.[62] In 2006, he was voted eighth in the list of "Heroes of our time".[63] Gates was listed in the Sunday Times power list in 1999, named CEO of the year by Chief Executive Officers magazine in 1994, ranked number one in the "Top 50 Cyber Elite" by Time in 1998, ranked number two in the Upside Elite 100 in 1999 and was included in The Guardian as one of the "Top 100 influential people in media" in 2001.[64] Gates has received honorary doctorates from Nyenrode Business Universiteit, Breukelen, The Netherlands in 2000,[65] the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden in 2002,Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan in 2005, Harvard University in June 2007,[66] and from Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, in January 2008.[67] Gates was also made an honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE) by Queen Elizabeth II in 2005,[68] in addition to having entomologists name the Bill Gates flower fly, Eristalis gatesi, in his honor.[69] In November 2006, he and his wife were awarded the Order of the Aztec Eagle for their philanthropic work around the world in the areas of health and education, particularly in Mexico, and specifically in the program "Un país de lectores".[70]

Investments

Cascade Investments LLC, a private investment and holding company, incorporated in United States, is controlled by Bill Gates, and is headquartered in the city of Kirkland, WA.  bgC3, a new think-tank company founded by Bill Gates.  Corbis, a digital image licensing and rights services company.

Bibliography
Gates has authored two books:
 

The Road Ahead (1995) Business @ the Speed of Thought (1999)

Paul Allen
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other persons named Paul Allen, see Paul Allen (disambiguation).

Paul Allen

Born

January 21, Seattle, Washington

1953 (age 56)

Residence Occupation

Mercer Island, Washington Chairman, Vulcan Inc. Chairman, Charter Communications

Net worth

▼ $10.5 billion USD (2009)[1]

Paul Gardner Allen (born January 21, 1953) is an American entrepreneur who co-founded Microsoft with Bill Gates and is one of the wealthiest people in the world. He is the founder and chairman of Vulcan Inc., which is his private asset management company, and is chairman of Charter Communications. Allen also has a multi-billion dollar investment portfolio which includes stakes in Digeo, real estate holdings, and more than 40 other technology, media, and content companies. Allen also owns three professional sports teams: the Seattle Seahawks of the National Football League[2], the Portland Trail Blazers of the National Basketball Association[3], and the Seattle Sounders FC franchise inMajor League Soccer that began playing in the 2009 season.[4] Contents

[hide]
• • o o o • • o o • •

1 Wealth 2 Biography 2.1 Early years 2.2 Microsoft 2.3 Recognition 3 Philanthropy 4 Assets 4.1 Real estate 4.2 Sports 5 Notes 6 External links

[edit]Wealth According to Forbes Allen is the 32nd richest person in the world, worth about $10.5 billion.[5] This is down from $16 billion, the total reported by that same magazine at the beginning of the global financial crisis of 2008–2009, when he was 12th on its list of the richest Americans.[6] In 2007, Allen's net worth was estimated at $18 billion, which at that time made him the 19th richest.[7] [edit]Biography [edit]Early

years

Paul Gardner Allen was born in Seattle, Washington, to parents Kenneth S. Allen, an associate director of the University of Washington libraries, and Faye G. Allen, in January 21, 1953.[8]Allen attended Lakeside School, a private school in Seattle, and befriended Bill Gates, who was two years his junior but shared a common enthusiasm for computers.[9] They used Lakeside's teletype terminal to develop their programming skills on several time-sharing computer systems.[10] After graduation Allen attended Washington State University and was an active member in Phi Kappa Theta Fraternity.[10] He dropped out after two years in order to work as a programmer for Honeywell in Boston, which placed him near his old friend again.[10]Allen later convinced Gates to drop out of Harvard University in order to create Microsoft. [edit]Microsoft Main article: History of Microsoft Allen co-founded Microsoft (initially "Micro-Soft") with Bill Gates in Albuquerque, New Mexico, in 1975, and began marketing a BASIC programming language interpreter.[9] In 1980, after promising to deliver IBM a Disc Operating System (DOS) they had not yet developed for the Intel 8088-based IBM PC, Allen spearheaded a deal

for Microsoft to purchase a Quick and Dirty Operating System (QDOS) written by Tim Paterson who, at the time, was employed at Seattle Computer Products. As a result of this transaction, Microsoft was able to secure a contract to supply the DOS that would eventually run on IBM's PC line. This contract with Big Blue was the watershed in Microsoft history that led to Allen and Gates's fabulous wealth.[10] Allen was diagnosed with Hodgkin's disease in 1983. His cancer was successfully treated by several months of radiation therapy and a bone marrow transplant. However, he did not return to Microsoft and began distancing himself from the company.[10] Allen officially resigned from his position on the Microsoft board in November 2000 but was asked to consult as a senior strategy advisor to the company's executives.[11] He sold 68 million shares of Microsoft stock that year,[12] but still owns a reported 138 million shares.[13] [edit]Recognition In 2007 and 2008, Allen was listed among Time Magazine's 100 Most Influential People in The World.[14] On October 30th, 2008, the Seattle-King County Association of Realtors honored Paul Allen for his “unwavering commitment to nonprofit organizations in the Pacific Northwest and lifetime giving approaching $1 billion.” Paul Allen had received awards and honorary degrees from several universities. In May 1999, Washington State University bestowed its highest honor, the Regents' Distinguished Alumnus Award, upon Allen. He received a "Docteur honoris causa" from the Ecole Polytechnique DWashington, and Seattle Seahawks CEO Tod Leiweke spoke at the event honoring Allen. [edit]Philanthropy Paul Allen has made contributions to organizations related to health and human services, and toward the advancement of science and technology. The Paul G. Allen Family Foundationwas established in 1986 to administer most of his contributions.[15] Through the Foundation, Allen awards approximately $30 million in grants annually. [16] Roughly 60% of the Foundation's money goes to non-profit organizations in Seattle and the state of Washington, and 12%to Portland, Oregon. The remaining 28% is distributed to other cities within the Pacific Northwest.[16] Allen has donated US$900 million of his money, as of 2007.[17] Allen also contributes through other charitable projects known as "venture philanthropy". The most famous of these projects are Experience Music Project, the Science Fiction Museum and Hall of Fame, the Flying Heritage Collection (airworthy vintage military aircraft) and the Allen Telescope Array (ATA).[17] The ATA is a partnership between the University of California, Berkeley and the SETI Institute.[18] Allen has a flower fly named after him for his contributions to Dipterology, called Paul Allen's flower fly.[19] Allen has also funded the purchase of many Jimi Hendrix artifacts, including the

guitar Hendrix played at Woodstock, and ensured their public display in theExperience Music Project exhibits.[20] Although he attended Washington State University and has given money to its music school, Allen has donated more money to the University of Washington. In the late 1980s, Allen donated US$18 million to build a new library named after his father, Kenneth S. Allen. [21] US$5 million was donated in 2003 to establish the Faye G. Allen Center for Visual Arts, named after his mother.[22] Allen was also the top private contributor, with US$14 million in donations, and namesake, of the "Paul G. Allen Center for Computer Science & Engineering", which was completed in 2003.[23] Throughout the years, Allen has contributed millions of US dollars to the University of Washington Medical School. [24] The Foundation awarded US$3.2 million for prostatitis research in 1997, followed by an additional US$1.0 million grant in 2002.[25] More recently, the Foundation contributed US$5.0 million for an early cancerdetection project by the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center.[26] Allen founded the Allen Institute for Brain Science in 2003 with Jo Allen Patton as a nonprofit corporation (501(c) (3)) and medical research organization. Utilizing the mouse model system (given its great similarity to human DNA), 20,000 genes in the adult mouse brain were mapped to a cellular level for the Allen Brain Atlas. The data generated from this effort is contained in the free and publicly available Allen Brain Atlas application located at www.brain-map.org. In 2008, the Institute also launched the Allen Spinal Cord Atlas project. All of these scientific findings will prove invaluable to international researchers working on cures for neurological and nervous system illnesses and injuries. On July 16, 2008, Allen launched a $ 41 million online "Allen Spinal Cord Atlas" mouse gene map. Allan Jones, chief scientific officer, said: "The Allen Spinal Cord Atlas offers profound potential for researchers to unlock the mysteries of the spinal cord and how it is altered during disease or injury." The spinal cord atlas is set up like the Allen Institute's earlier atlas of the mouse brain.[1] The Map could reveal new treatments for human neurological disorders. The map points researchers toward places where genes are active[2][27][28] On November 19, 2008, Allen appeared at the Experience Music Project/Science Fiction Hall of Fame to present the second annual Founder's Award for musical achievement. The award was presented to Robbie Robertson, a founding member of the seminal 1960s band The Band and a noted composer of film scores. Allen founded the museum in 2000. The award was presented as part of a gala benefit for EMP. The finale was a four-song set with all the evening's musicians on stage, including Allen and Robertson on guitar. [edit]Assets

Paul Allen (third from right) and Burt Rutan (fifth from right) were presented with the Ansari X PRIZE by members of the X PRIZE Foundation in 2004.

Allen has made several investments since becoming a billionaire. He confirmed that he was the sole investor behind Burt Rutan's Scaled Composites' SpaceShipOne suborbital commercial spacecraft on October 4, 2004. SpaceShipOne climbed to an altitude of 377,591 feet (115,090 m) and was the first privately funded effort to successfully put a civilian in suborbital space. It won the Ansari X Prize competition and received the $10 million prize.[29] [edit]Real

estate

Allen was a key developer and investor in the development of the South Lake Union neighborhood of Seattle as a biotechnology hub and mixed-use community.[30] He was also the largest private landowner in South Lake Union and owns nearly 2,600,000 square feet (240,000 m2) in the neighborhood.[30] His holdings company has a development capacity of more than 10,000,000 square feet (930,000 m2) of new residential, office, retail and biotech research space.[30] The South Lake Union redevelopment represents one of the largest urban revitalization projects in the country.[31] Allen has made investments estimated at US$200 million as of 2005, and promoted for city funding of the Seattle Streetcar line known as South Lake Union Streetcar, which runs from Seattle's Westlake Center to the south end of Lake Union.[32] The Streetcar is a public and private partnership made possible because of a Local Improvement District (LID) supported by businesses and residents along the line;[33] it officially started operation on December 12, 2007.[34] This development has been criticized as a city-supported real estate investment forVulcan Inc., [35] and concerns over the loss of low-income housing have been expressed.[36] [edit]Sports Allen purchased the Portland Trail Blazers NBA team in 1988 from California real estate developer Larry Weinberg for $70 million.[3] He was also instrumental in the development and funding of their Rose Garden in 1993.[10] The Blazers are valued at approximately $300 million according to a 2006 issue of Forbes.[37] Allen has been asking Portland and Oregon officials for assistance in the financing of the Blazers since 2006, which he estimated would lose $100 million over the next three years.[38] Portland Mayor Tom Potter rebuffed the requests.[39]Allen announced the completion of the acquisition of the Rose Garden on April 2, 2007, and stated that this was a major

milestone and a positive step for the franchise.[40] He said “My efforts are focused on continuing to support the Trail Blazers and the longterm financial health of the franchise."[41] Allen purchased the Seattle Seahawks NFL team in 1997 when former owner Ken Behring threatened to move the Seahawks to Southern California.[2] Allen was allowed to buy the team despite owning the NBA's TrailBlazers since Portland, Oregon doesn't have an NFL team. (NFL rules prohibit team owners from either outright ownership or a majority share of another sports team outside its home market if they play in the same city as another NFL team.) He played a large part in the development of the new Seahawks' stadium, Qwest Field, although it was funded largely by tax revenue.[42] Allen has been confirmed as part owner of the Seattle Sounders FC a Major League Soccer franchise that began play in 2009 at Qwest Field, a stadium also controlled by Allen.[4] Allen has been continuously linked with the purchase of English Championship team Southampton FC. The launch of Paul Allen's 416 feet (127 m) Octopus yacht secured its position as one of the world's largest yachts in 2003.[43] Its current position is eighth in the list of motor yachts by length. The yacht is equipped with two helicopters, two submarines, a swimming pool, a music studio and a basketball court.[44] Allen also owns Tatoosh, also one of the world's 100 largest yachts. Allen is known for throwing huge, celebrity-studded parties on his yacht, such as a 2005 New Year's Eve party in which he and his band played Johnny Cash songs with R&B star Usher. His band also played at another party he hosted during the Cannes film festival with Dave Stewart.[45][44][46]

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