1 H19 Gene Expression in Cancer

Introduction Gene transcription and expression plays an important role in cancer. The H19 is a gene that is for long noncoding RNA. The H19 is transcribed from the material allele but is not expressed on the paternal allele. Gene expression results in the creation of a functional gene product, such as long noncoding RNA. Gene regulation is controlled by a number of factors, which control the timing, location and amount of gene expression. In this case, gene expression in H19 can lead to the development of certain types of cancers. The purpose of this study is to explore H19 expression and its connection to ovarian cancer. Understanding the role of H19 is an important factor in the ability to develop ways to control and prevent cancers linked to this gene. Currently, over 33 different types of cancer are linked to the over expression of H19 (BioCancell, 2010). Discovering how this gene works will play an important role in understanding the origin of cancer and how it metastases. This problem is important as it could lead to the development of new cancer treatments that are more effective, or potentially ways to prevent the development of cancer in certain individuals. This research will help physicians and patients in their race to prevent or cure cancer. This study will utilize a literature review as the primary research tool to develop an understanding of what has already been done in the area and what still needs to be done.

Literature Review This research will explore the current state of research using current academic literature. It will assess the current level of research, explore what still needs to be done in the area and

& Boutros et al (2006) found that the c-Myc oncogene directly induced the H19 noncoding RNA by allele-specific binding. Understanding mechanisms such as these is an important factor in the ability to progress research to the point where researchers can develop ways to interfere with the mechanisms that lead to the development of . Some studies in mice have been conducted. but the mechanisms that make it into a cancer expressing gene (Verhaegh. research into H19 and its role in cancer development is still in the laboratory stage. giving them an advantage when they are released from growth arrest in vitro (Berteaux. but studies that use humans as subjects have not yet been undertaken. This research is an important step in understanding how inherited genotypes act in conjunction with the presence of the H19 and noncoding RNA in the development of certain cancers. 2007). & Monte et al.2 make suggestions as to where research into expression of H19 needs to go in the future. & Vermuelen et al. Lau. 2008). H19 noncoading RNA was found to be an essential element for the development of human tumor growth (Matouk. Barsyte-Lovejoy. It was found that the TC genotype was associated with a reduced risk of the development of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. & Mezan et al. At the current time. It is established that H19 plays a key role in the mechanism that initiates cancer development and growth. The following examines recent literature on H19 and its role in the development of cancer. Thus far. DeGroot. The H19 gene is passed on through inheritance. Research into this area focuses on the mechanism that triggers the initiation of cancer growth. This mechanism was found to show a strong association in primary breast and lung cancers. 2005). This study compared genotypes of the TC and CC type. Verkleij. Lottin. research has found that H19 serves as a promoter on breast cancer cells. Research is still in the initial stages and there is still much to be done before research can be conducted on humans.

Currently this method is under review by the US patent office for the development of a clinical protocol that uses H19 as the basis for cancer staging using threshold levels of H19 as its basis. the literature that could be found indicates that we are not yet at that stage in the research process. As more is known about the H19 gene and the mechanisms that lead to its over expression. The most recent application of these techniques involves the collection of tissues from organs other than primary tumor site. These examples of research are representative of the types and direction of cancer research that are currently being undertaken using the expression of the H19 gene as a means to detect the development of cancer. The purpose of the research was to determine the state of research in this area and to examine where the research needs to go in the future. However.3 cancers. Using H19 as a marker could also help to determine if cancer treatment has been effective in removing sufficient cancer cells to assure that the cancer will not return. Methodology This research used a review of available literature on the H19 gene and its connection to cancer as its primary research technique. at the current time. Work is currently being undertaken to be able to assess early stage metastasis by using H19 noncoding RNA levels present in those organs (Hochberg & Ayesh. This method holds promise for the ability to detect cancer in the future long before any symptoms appear. 2006). Levels of H19 in cancer patients can help to stage the cancer. This is the most recent direction in research and will be the key to developing methods that can stop H19 triggered cancers. it is expected that research will turn its attention to developing treatment methods that will help to suppress its expression. The . This method uses levels of H19 in body fluids as the means for detecting the presence of cancer.

4 literature review used Pub Med and Google as its primary search tools. with a few positive results concerning the production of certain products of gene expression in various types of cancer. The research found that studies could be divided into several different areas. These included research that examines the mechanism of H19 and its role in cancer. However. the research did use one pending patent. The ability to isolate the H19 gene and to understand how it aids in the development of cancer is an important step in the development of cancer treatments based on the ability to turn off the signals that lead to the over expression of this gene and its various products. Research articles were only included that were five years old or younger. Only academic research from recognized journals was included in the findings and to draw conclusions. The studies that were used in this research study were representative of the body of research that is underway concerning the connection between H19 gene expression and cancer. These early studies were the inspiration and formed the theoretical underpinnings of the research begin carried out today. The references lists of the studies cited in the literature review contained many of the 1990s studies and referenced them. Many of these studies are in-vitro studies. as it demonstrates the future direction that the research will take. Studies on the H19 gene have been underway since the early to mid-1990s. with a number of animal studies on mice. However. These studies were preliminary and were not used in the current research studies. many of the studies were representative of the culmination of these early studies. . Findings The findings of the research are based on representative studies that reflect the current state of the art in the research area. These research studies are in the beginning stages.

it is the goal of researchers to be able to use this mechanism to develop treatments that work by interrupting the H19 cancer . The literature review takes a historical perspective on the development of research on the H19 gene and its role in cancer. ovarian and breast cancer. Research began in the 1990s and had progressed from general to specific. If cancer can be caught earlier. Several clinical studies are currently under way that are the preliminary stages of testing gene therapy in humans using the H19 marker and its products. treatment is much more likely to be successful. Thus far.5 Conclusion The purpose of this research study is to determine the state of research into the role of the H19 gene in the development of many types of cancer. therefore these studies were not included in the literature review. No results were available as of yet. However. The study used a literature review to determine what has been done in the past. The connection between H19 and cancer has been accepted by the medical community since the 1990s. One of the most interesting findings of the research study is that a method is currently being considered for patent in the US that uses the H19 gene and its markers as a way to detect cancer through body fluids long before any symptoms appear. Now research focuses on discovering the mechanism that drives the process. However. they did merit mention. Early studies only sought to examine if a connection existed. This ability will help to improve the prognosis of cancer patients everywhere. as they represent the direction that research is beginning to take. and where research will go in the future. In the future. the mechanism and exact pathology of cancer in connection with this gene is only beginning to be understood. the greatest success in this area is in bladder. The goal of cancer research is to develop better detection and treatment options for many types of cancer. what is currently being done.

This research concludes that research will continue to focus on using H19 to develop better early detection and treatments for many types of cancer in the future. .6 mechanisms.

. The c-Myc oncogene directly induces the H19 noncoding RNA by allele-specific binding to potentiate tumorigenesis. BioCancell (2010). Retrieved September 28. Lau SK. & Ayesh. The H19 non-coding RNA is essential for human tumor growth. & Vermeulen SH. & Mezan S. (2007).1371/journal. H19 mRNA-like noncoding RNA promotes breast cancer cell proliferation through positive control by E2F1. 2010 from http://www. DeGroot N. et al. Hochberg. PLoS ONE 2 (9): e845. et al. 2010 from http://www. doi:10. Boutros PC. Verhaegh GW.freepatentsonline. & Khosravi F.pone. 19.com/y2006/0121477. A. (2005). 66 (10): 5330±7. Eur Urol.biocancell. J Biol Chem. H19 Gene. Cancer Res. 54(5):1118-26.com/h19 . (2008) Polymorphisms in the H19 gene and the risk of bladder cancer. Retrieved September 28. S. Lottin S. (2006). & Monté D. Method for detection of micro-metastasis United States Patent Application 20060121477 .0000845. Berteaux N. (2006). et al.html Matouk IJ. Verkleij L.7 References Barsyte-Lovejoy D. Et al. Epub 2005 Jun 28.280(33):29625-36.

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