Garry Kimovich Kasparov

Garry Kimovich Kasparov (born April 13, 1963) is a chess grandmaster and the strongest (highest rated on the FIDE April 2004 list at 2817) chess player in the world. He was born as Garri Weinstein in Baku, Azerbaijan. He first began the serious study of chess after he came across a chess problem set up by his parents and proposed a solution to it. When he was 12, his father died, and he adopted his mother's surname. His mother Klara is an Armenian woman whose surname is Kasparian, and "Kasparov" is the slavicized version of this name. Kasparov trained at Mikhail Botvinnik's chess school. His talent and potential were clear when he won the Soviet Junior Championship at Tbilisi in 1976, scoring 7 points out of 9. He was 13 at the time. He repeated the feat the following year, demolishing the field with a score of 8.5/9. In 1978 Kasparov participated in the Sokolsky Memorial tournament at Minsk. He had been invited as an exception, but took place, and also became master. Kasparov has repeatedly said that this event was a turning point in his life, and that it convinced him to choose chess as his career. "I will rememeber the Sololsky Memorial as long as I live", he wrote. He has also said that after the victory, he thought he had a very good shot at the World Championship. Garry's rise up the FIDE ranking order was nothing short of phenomenal. Starting with an oversight by the Russian chess federation, Garry Kasparov participated in a Grandmaster tournament in Banja Luka while still unrated (the federation thought it was a junior tournament). He emerged from this top-class encounter with a provisional rating of 2595, enough to catapult him into the top group of chess players. The next year, 1980, he won the World Junior Chess Championship in Dortmund, West Germany. It was clear from early on that Garry had the playing strength to match the then current world champion Anatoly Karpov - a firm favourite of the Russian Chess Federation. But first Garry had to pass the test of the Candidates Tournament to qualify. His first Candidates match was against Alexander Beliavsky, from which Kasparov emerged surprisingly victorious (Beliavsky was an exceptionally tough opponent). Politics threatened Kasparov's next match against Viktor Korchnoi which was scheduled to be played in Pasadena, California. Korchnoi defected from Russia in the late 1970s, and was at that time the strongest non-Soviet player. Various political man oeuvres prevented Kasparov from playing Korchnoi, and he forfeited the match. This was resolved by Korchnoi's generous gesture of allowing the match to be replayed in London. Kasparov won. Kasparov's Candidates final match was against the resurgent Vassily Smyslov (who won his match against Huebner by the spin of a roulette wheel!). Smyslov was the seventh world champion in 1957, but later years saw his willingness to fight for wins greatly diminished. This posed no problems for the youngster from Baku who registered a comfortable win. The 1984 World Championship match between Anatoly Karpov and Garry Kasparov had its fair share of ups and downs, as well as the most controversial finish to a competitive match ever. Karpov started off in very good form, and within a dozen games Kasparov found himself 4-0 down in a "first to six wins" match. Fellow players predicted a 6-0 whitewash of Kasparov within 18 games. For Karpov, the result so far would go some way in exorcising the ghost of Fischer's Candidates results in 1970, and would further cement Karpov as a true World Champion. Kasparov dug in, with inspiration from a Russian poet before each game, and battled with Karpov into seventeen successive draws, Karpov duly won the next decisive game before Kasparov fought back with another series of draws until game 32, Kasparov's first win against the World Champion. At this point Karpov, twelve years older than Kasparov, was close to exhaustion, and not looking like the player that started this match. A few games later Kasparov won another two games to bring the scores to 5-3

but the doctors were not letting him. and although the score was quite even down to the final wire. Karpov's statement was difficult to believe: he had lost 22 pounds over the course of the match and had been hospitalized several times. and in the later games seemed to have been playing the better chess. but this time from within FIDE. which Shirov won against all expectations. and so far only. a few spectacular games involving the Sicilian defence secured the World Championship for Kasparov at the tender age of 22. and talks with Anand collapsed.5 points would claim the title (in the event of a 12-12 draw. headed by Raymond Keene (who was also involved in bringing Kasparov to London for his replayed Candidates match against Korchnoi. This climaxed into a match between Vladimir Kramnik and Alexei Shirov. who had won the last two games before the suspension. first player to 12. felt the same way as some commentators that he was now the favourite to win the match despite his 5-3 deficit. Campomanes cited the health of the two players. when Rentero admitted the funds required and promised never materialised. He appeared to be physically stronger than his opponent. with Kasparov winning heavily. The termination of the match was a matter of some controversy. the title would go to Karpov as the reigning champion). At the press conference at which he announced his decision. So Kasparov held the PCA World Chess Championship. Then the match was ended without result by Campomanes . asking him why he was abandoning the match if both players wanted to continue. The first minor fracture happened in 1975 when Fischer did not defend his title and Karpov became the official world champion by default. As Dan Heisman humorously commented on this confusing situation: "Kasparov was losing the match to Karpov 5-3 but found it stopped by FIDE. This stand-off lasted until 1993. Kasparov cemented his authority at the top of the rating ladder with a series of fine tournament performances as well as defending his title three times against his arch-opponent Karpov. pulled out). Kasparov showed he had learnt some valuable lessons in the previous match.com. The second Karpov-Kasparov match in 1985 was organised as the best of 24 games. by which time a new challenger had qualified through the Candidates cycle for Kasparov's next World Championship defence. world championship match to be abandoned without result. Jan Timman. This broke the existing record of youngest winner held for over twenty years by Mikhail Tal (he was 23 when he beat Botvinnik in 1960). Kasparov said he was winning because Karpov was only ahead 5-3. before the PCA collapsed (Intel. Kasparov had made a new enemy in Campomanes. and they played their well sponsored match in London. and previous World Champion Karpov. took place in London during the latter half of 2000. Karpov. Kasparov defended his title in 1995 against the Indian superstar Viswanathan Anand. Kasparov tried to organise another World Championship match.the head of FIDE. and the feud between the two would eventually come to a head in 1993 with Kasparov's complete break-away from FIDE. Kasparov was in excellent health and extremely resentful of Campomanes' decision.as Bobby Fischer had done twenty years earlier. protested that he felt fine and wanted to continue." Whatever the reasons for the abandonment. however. No match against Shirov was arranged. from his hospital bed. He created an organisation to represent chess players. The world champion and his challenger (Nigel Short) decided to play their match outside of FIDE's jurisdiction. so a match was instead arranged against Kramnik. FIDE set up their "World Championship" with the loser of the Candidates final. half of the first Kasparov-Karpov match. under another organisation created by Garry Kasparov called the Professional Chess Association (PCA). Kasparov switched to battling against FIDE . It would appear that Kasparov. the GrandMaster's Association (GMA) to give players more of a say in FIDE's activities.in Karpov's favour. With the World Champion title in his grasp.BrainGames. and Karpov held the FIDE World Chess Championship. and yet another organisation stepped in . This is where the great fracture on the lineage of World Champions happened. one of the major backers. Kasparov and Short were ejected from FIDE. yet both Karpov and Kasparov stated that they would prefer the match to continue. Kasparov-Kramnik. This left Kasparov stranded. the World Chess Association (WCA) with Linares organiser Rentero. A well prepared Kramnik surprised a lacklustre Kasparov and won a crucial game 2 against Kasparov's supposedly invincible . which had been put under strain by the length of the match. and the Kasparov-Short PCA match). The WCA collapsed. and a new match was announced to start a few months later. This match. the match became the first. under yet another organisation.

soundly winning the match. Volume two. However. there are plans for Kasparov to play a match against the next FIDE champion (to be determined in June-July 2004).Grünfeld Defence. This volume.). Kasparov proved in 2001 that he was still the strongest tournament player in the world with his fine performance in the Corus Chess Tournament at Wijk aan Zee. (Although since it drew the match X3D Fritz said it was going to store a virtual reality copy of the trophy for itself. Jose Raul Capablanca and Alexander Alekhine. has received lavish praise from some reviewers (including Nigel Short). Mikhail Botvinnik. Kasparov has written a number of books on chess. using a virtual board. IBM's computer chess program "Deep Blue" defeated Kasparov in one game using normal time controls. In May 1997. masterminded by Yasser Seirawan and intended to reunite the two World Championships. The first was a draw. 3D glasses and a speech recognition system. Kasparov won the third. 1996. in Deep Blue . X3D won the second after Kasparov blundered when short of time. Despite this. Kasparov was to play a match against the FIDE World Champion Ruslan Ponomariov in September 2003. Kramnik emerged victorious. with good results on the whole.com/ In November 2003.000 for the result and takes home the golden trophy. As part of the so-called "Prague Agreement". As of May 2004.chess.ibm. Kasparov continues to play in tournaments. IBM's updated "Deep Blue" defeated Kasparov. Kasparov receives $175." . although whether these plans will come to fruition remains to be seen. In 2003 the first volume of his projected five volume work Garry Kasparov on My Great Predecessors was published. "I only made one mistake but unfortunately that one mistake lost the game. and some of their strong contemporaries. covering Max Euwe. IBM keeps a web site of the event at http://www. However. He felt that he had outplayed the machine overall and played well. The X3D Man-Machine World Chess Championship match ended in draw. Kasparov retorted with 3 wins and 2 draws.Kasparov. the first volume won the British Chess Federation's Book of the Year award in 2003. In February 1996. and the last game was a draw. Emanuel Lasker. In the meantime. This was the first time a computer had ever defeated a world champion. he engaged in a four game match against chess playing computer program X3D Fritz (which was said to have an estimated rating of 2807). this match was called off after Ponomariov refused to sign his contract for it without reservation. while attracting criticism from others for historical inaccuracies and analysis of games directly copied from unattributed sources. Game 1. which deals with the world chess champions Wilhelm Steinitz. Kasparov continued to criticize the blunder in the second game that cost him a crucial point. Vassily Smyslov and Mikhail Tal appeared later in 2003. and for the first time in sixteen years Kasparov had no world championship title.

Venezuela and became the world's youngest Grandmaster. and desperately trying to prove he was worthy of the crown. Though everyone was eagerly anticipating the world championship match between another young Soviet prodigy and the incomparable American Fischer. His Elo rating shot up from 2540 in 1971 to 2660 in 1973.118 wins. Karpov was born in Zlatoust in the former Soviet Union and learned to play chess at the age of 4. 287 losses. The situation was vastly different from the previous match. In 1978. and that he (Karpov) would win the following Candidates cycle in 1977. He became the youngest Soviet National Master in history at 15. Karpov's first title defence was against Viktor Korchnoi. to Korchnoi's mirror glasses to ward off the hypnotic stare. Tenacious and aggressive play from Karpov secured him a memorable win (an exquisite Sicilian Scheveningen was probably the game of the match).Anatoly Karpov Anatoli Yevgenyevic Karpov (born May 23. Shamed he had become the twelfth world champion in this manner. Karpov was on record saying that he believed Spassky would easily beat him and win the Candidates cycle to face Fischer. which determined who was allowed challenge the reigning World Champion. His peak Elo rating is 2780. and if the score is tied 9-9 he (Fischer) would keep the crown. Korchnoi's . Bobby Fischer. This thrust the young Karpov into the role of World Champion without beating the reigning one.163 games. especially in tournament play: he is the most successful tournament player in history with over 140 first-places to his credit. the opponent he beat in the previous Candidates tournament. At age 12 he was accepted into Mikhail Botvinnik's super-prestigious chess school. Karpov participated in nearly every tournament for the next ten years. including one "opening laboratory" win against the Sicilian Dragon. The 1970's showed a major improvement in his game. and won in his first international chess tournament several months later. Fischer resigned his crown. Fischer drew up a list of ten demands. and when FIDE refused to give in. not over a chessboard as a true Candidate. when he came in 2nd in the USSR Chess Championship and placed first in the Leningrad Interzonal Tournament. from Karpov's Dr. However. Karpov beat Lev Polugaevsky in the first Candidates match to face former World Champion Boris Spassky in the next round. The International Chess Federation (FIDE) flatly refused at first. The match was played in Baguio in the Philippines. There was always the thought that Karpov was just a paper world champion . Fischer never did play Karpov (or Kasparov. However. Karpov later attempted to set up another match with Fischer. the Spassky-Karpov match was spectacular. chief among them the provisions that draws don't count. His overall record is 1. He is considered one of the greatest players in chess history. Fischer demanded all or nothing. to the huge disappointment of the entire chess world which had been waiting for the much-hyped Fischer-Karpov match. Intense games were fought. instead of a bland one-sided rout everyone expected. 1951) is a Russian chess grandmaster and former World Champion. He held the record for most consecutive tournament victories (9) until it was shattered by Garry Kasparov. a notable fighting player.480 draws in 3. and a vast array of psychological tricks were used during the match. This tournament success even eclipsed the pre-war tournament record of Alexander Alekhine.he earned it in a ceremony. and 1. but eventually conceded the first two. but all the negotiations fell through. the match never came about. the first to ten victories wins. The Candidates final was against fellow Russian Viktor Korchnoi. But his career really took off in 1969 when he became the first Soviet player since Boris Spassky (1955) to win the World Junior Chess Championship with a score of 10 out of 11. for that matter) and scorned them as inferior players. The latter qualified him for the 1974 Candidates cycle. Soon afterwards he tied for 4th place at an international tournamnent in Caracas. In 1967 he took 5th in the Soviet Junior Chess Championship and won the European Junior Chess Championship several months later. He created the most phenomenal streak of tournament wins against the strongest players in the world the chess world had ever seen. Zukhov who attempted to hypnotize Korchnoi during the game. In the intervening years Korchnoi had defected from the Soviet Union. and Karpov had won the right to challenge Fischer for the World Championship.

and should have led to Karpov's winning the title. Karpov crushed Jan Timman . Karpov lost his title 11 to 13 in the 1985 match. and an staggering forty draws. and once again he did so controversially! He defended his title against Gata Kamsky and Viswanathan Anand in 1996 and 1998. but Korchnoi staged an amazing comeback very late in the match. and came very close to winning. Karpov quickly built a 4-0 lead. Robert Huebner to challenge Karpov in Merano. he (Karpov) could have been a much better player as a result. 33 losses. 2. in their 235 formal games played. and 12. He lost the next game. in 1998. he even beat Kasparov in their most recent match. 1982. and it took Karpov until Game 27 to finally win a game. but this time Karpov easily won (11-7) what is remembered to be the "Massacre of Merano". Still. Their rivalry has undoubtedly spurred them on to greater heights than they would otherwise have achieved on their own. but again blundered terribly and had to settle for a draw. in the final game. Karpov is on the right. After Kasparov suddenly won Game 47 and 48. Meanwhile. The 1984 World Championship between Garry Kasparov and Anatoly Karpov. In all three matches Karpov had winning chances up to the very last games. Karpov has 23 wins. It came as a shocking surprise. 12 to 12. In their first match in 1984. which had lasted an unprecedented four months with five wins for Karpov. Karpov remained a formidable opponent for most of the eighties. the 1987 Seville match featured an astonishing blunder by Kasparov in the 23rd game. Again the politics off the board overshadowed the games. Kasparov on the left.Karpov had cemented his position as the world's best player and world champion when Garry Kasparov arrived on the scene. ending his ten year reign as champion. FIDE largely scrapped the old system of Candidate Matches.5-1. Karpov has 19 wins. Once again he had become World Champion. Karpov reacquired the FIDE World Champion title when Kasparov and Short split from FIDE. Karpov had a winning position but failed to take advantage and settled for a draw. and the USSR championship in 1976 and 1983 (and again in 1988). Ljubomir Ljubojevic. Karpov took an early lead. and 1983. 1980. featuring a incredible blunder by Karpov in the final game. In a hard fight. This time the psychological trick was the arrest of Korchnoi's son for evading conscription. ending the match in a draw and allowing Kasparov to keep the title.5. A rematch was set for the following year. However. but drew the next 14. Karpov's tournament career also reached a peak at the exceptional Montreal "Super-Grandmaster" tournament in 1979. The two of them are easily the most famous archrivals in chess history. In particular. Karpov suffered a mental and physical breakdown. the five world championship matches between them are considered the finest in history. But in 1993. instead having a large knock-out event in . The overall game score between them stayed virtually even until the late 1990's. Currently. In Game 31. needing only a draw to win the title. three for Kasparov. The off board antics are better remembered than the actual chess match. 1987 (held in Seville). the next 16 games were drawn. this was played at rapid time limits. with 21 draws. 21 losses.the loser of the Candidates final against Short.5 to 11. and 1990 (held in New York City). Although twelve years older than Kasparov. to Korchnoi inviting two local cult members (on trial for attempted murder) into the hall as members of his team. Karpov held a solidly winning position in Game 41. and an incredible 179 draws. In their five world championship matches. Italy. having lost 22 pounds over the course of the match. Karpov blundered on his 33rd and 64th moves and lost.5). Karpov is on record saying that had he had the opportunity to fight Fischer for the crown like Kasparov had the opportunity to fight him. that Karpov lost a Candidates Match against Nigel Short in 1992.5 to 11. Instead. Everyone expected a sixth Kasparov-Karpov match. He fought Kasparov in three more World Championship matches in 1986 (held in London and Leningrad). All three matches were extremely close (the scores were 12. to Karpov's yogurt supposedly being used to send him secret messages. Karpov still has the stamina and endurance to be more than a match for Kasparov. although unlike their other matches. The FIDE President controversially terminated the match. and needed only two more wins to keep his title. he had also won the prestigious Linares tournament in 1981 (and again in 1994). and 104 draws in 144 games.5.offering to play under the Jolly Roger flag when he was denied the right to play under Switzerland's. Karpov narrowly won the last game to take the match 6-5. then. In particular. respectively. Boris Spassky. 1979. Three years later Korchnoi re-emerged as the Candidates winner against German finalist Dr. In 2002. Instead. In particular. the Tilburg tournament in 1977. where he ended joint first with Mikhail Tal ahead of a field of superb grandmasters like Jan Timman. and Lubomir Kavalek. when the score shifted decisively towards Kasparov.

The FIDE matches received little public attention. than from a game conducted according to all the rules of strategy with its ruthless logic.. Karpov is the only player to ever have ranked number one in the world ahead of Kasparov. but in such cases I get less satisfaction. were truly paper champions. Topalov. Anand. He was undefeated and earned 11 points out of 13 possible (the best tournament winning percentage in 64 years). his opponents become frustrated and try to create something out of nothing. He can anticipate and frustrate his opponent's plans before they do any damage. he is number 22 in the world with an Elo rating of 2682. among others) in the super-strong tournament Linares 1994 (average Elo rating 2685. Bad Lautenberg 1976 shows Karpov provoking his opponent to overextend then counterattacking through the centre with a pretty pawn sacrifice). Shirov. If the opponent offers keen play I don't object. Karpov decisively proved wrong the naysayers in one incredible performance against the world's best players (including Kasparov. Karpov's playing style is solidly positional. also referred to as the boa constrictor style. and Vladimir Kramnik have been in the top three slots. Gelfand. Karpov is the last person to have been in the top three in the world before Kasparov. Though he quickly recovered. Everyone knew very well that no player could rightfully call himself World Champion without first defeating the Kasparov in a World Championship match. However. In the April 2004 FIDE rating list. Even recently. his middlegame is solid and his mastery of the ending in particular unparallelled. Impressed by the strength of the tournament. Perhaps spurred on by this comment. Usually. but he was capable of brilliant attack (for example. This astonishing performance against the best players in the world put his Elo rating tournament performance at an unbelievable 2985. champion Karpov was seeded straight into the final (as in previous championships). They would become overly aggressive and overextend their forces. and Ivanchuk. dominating second-place Kasparov and Shirov by a huge 2." People believed Karpov's style was always bland. The fact that the FIDE champions were regularly crushed by Kasparov in tournaments testified to his dominance. the first time since 1971. But Karpov's greatest strength is his mastery of prophylaxis. In the first of these events. even if I win. Though he keeps his opening repertoire relatively narrow (he likes to stick to the Queen's Indian and Caro-Kann Defences). He had been a member of the Supreme Soviet Commission for Foreign Affairs and the President of the Soviet Peace Fund before the Soviet Union broke up. upon which Alexander Khalifman became World Champion. Karpov himself describes his style as follows: "Let us say the game may be continued in two ways: one of them is a beautiful tactical blow that gives rise to variations that don't yield to precise calculation.5 points. I would choose the latter without thinking twice. Karpov resigned his title in anger at the new rules in 1999. the highest in history). For more details about these series of champions. Since he dropped out of the top three players in the world on the FIDE rankings. while Kasparov's matches with the PCA and subsequently Braingames were widely reported in the media. the famous Jose Raul Capablanca. Karpov played the chess of his life and dramatically won the tournament. Kramnik. many said that Karpov had lost his edge. Torre-Karpov. Judit Polgar. he is often compared to his idol. and that his playing level had declined. In other words. Bareev. taking no risks but reacting mercilessly to any tiny errors made by his opponents. only Gary Kasparov. As a result. several days before the tournament Kasparov said that the winner could rightfully be called the world champion of tournaments. pioneered by Tigran Petrosian and Aron Nimzowitsch.which a large number of players contested short matches against each other over just a few weeks. since he prefers to be more involved in politics of his home country of Russia. In addition. In 1991 Karpov temporarily dropped to third in the FIDE ranking list.. the third World Champion. few players have surpassed Karpov's achievements. Kamsky. Karpov's outstanding tournament play has been seriously limited since 1995. However. All these FIDE champions.. though slightly passive. Viswanathan Anand. Anand. the highest performance rating of any chess player in any tournament in all of chess history. It is also said that he exploits even the smallest advantage in space better than anyone else in history. . the other is clear positional pressure that leads to an endgame with microscopic chances of victory. This leads to a safe. and Kramnik. but subsequently the champion had to qualify like other players. however. position. Lautier. see the World Chess Championship article. Karpov then pounces relentlessly and crushes his opponent. This is truly the "feather in his cap".

made any impression against Fischer's skill and strength. Fischer proceeded to win the Interzonal by a remarkable 3. for which he received a modest $2.5. Fischer's victory over the Soviet champion Boris Spassky to win the world championship in the "Match of the Century" was seen as a symbolic victory for the West that catalyzed interest in the game internationally. however. Fischer proceeded to win seven of the next 19 games. however. 1972. Fischer won the first game to complete a remarkable streak of twenty consecutive wins.S. I was languid with the heat and Fischer was better prepared for such exceptional circumstances. which they did. Iceland. the international chess federation. This unusual arrangement was the work of Ed Edmondson. As a national hero. The match between Spassky and Fischer took place in Reykjavk. the third-place finisher. he officially lost the title when FIDE. my level of playing was not good. It seemed that Fischer was going to forfeit the entire match until Spassky intervened surprisingly.5 . in the United States in particular. or perhaps because of it. Fischer lost the first two games." Critics. Larsen later explained in a ChessBase interview that his one-sided loss was due in part to his condition during the match: "The organizers chose the wrong time for this match. from July through September. In 1975. unconventional and irrational behavior. I saw chess pieces through a mist and. as the product of an impersonal. still bitter from his terrible loss. Championship that year was also the zonal. The first step in the championship process was the zonal tournaments around the world. Championship because of disagreements about the tournament's format and prize fund. Fischer is also well known for his eccentricity. His opponent was portrayed. who on September 1. Fischer is still among the best known of all chess players. had sat out the U. with the top three finishers qualifying for the next stage. finishing with seven consecutive wins (one by default). defeating his opponents with a lopsided series of results which still has not been equalled by the world's top players. however. Despite his prolonged absence from competitive play. became the first American chess player to win the FIDE World Chess Championship. for a final score of 12. After this controversial incident. He is a grandmaster and former world chess champion. and in popular culture he became a symbol of the genius whose brilliance is so great that he is destroyed by it. He continued his display of chess prowess in the Candidates matches. feel that Larsen is exaggerating.5 points. Fischer won the next four games to win the match by a comfortable score.. to win against Spassky. then the Executive Director of the USCF. 1972. .5 (+5 =3 -1). the second best non-Soviet player after Fischer himself. Garry Kasparov wrote that of all world champions of chess.Robert Fischer Robert James "Bobby" Fischer was born March 9. Both Mark Taimanov (USSR) and Bent Larsen of Denmark. Grandmaster Pal Benko. were crushed 6-0 (+6 -0 =0). losing only one and drawing 11. Americans were willing to forgive his behavior and views as eccentricities. To enable Fischer to compete for the title. Fischer's final opponent in the Candidates matches. the Interzonal. 1943 in Chicago. the skill gap between Fischer and his contemporaries was the largest in history.8. mechanical. away from the cameras. gave up his coveted place in the Interzonal.5-2. Only former World Champion Tigran Petrosian.S. After three draws. Boris Spassky.000 payment from the United States Chess Federation (USCF). the first on a blunder. Illinois. whom he had never beaten before. The U. thus. while Fischer was the solitary genius overcoming the Soviets' claim to dominance. and yielded to Fischer's demands to move the next game to a back room. It was the candidates' cycle that started in 1969 that put Fischer on the road to the World Championship. refused to accept his conditions for a title defense. the second by forfeit when he refused to play his game. and outspoken political views.. In 1971 Fischer had finally earned the right to challenge the World Champion. Fischer. and oppressive system of state control. All the other participants also had to agree to defer to Fischer. 6. Petrosian broke the streak by beating Fischer in the second game. a feat which has been compared to throwing back-to-back no-hitters in baseball.

Because FIDE would not change the rules to give Fischer more of an advantage than previous champions had enjoyed.Icelandic authorities granted him an alien's passport.S. with 15 draws. citizens were present at the match. and. with two-thirds to go to the winner." although at this time Garry Kasparov was the recognized FIDE champion. and he laid down numerous conditions for the match. who insists to this day that he is still the World Champion because he never lost a title match. Bush based on UN sanctions against engaging in economic activities in Yugoslavia. the U. The purse for this match was reported to be $5 million. Switzerland issued to him in 1997. On July 13. and Japanese governments. obtained an arrest warrant for him. Sympathetic to Fischer's plight . Soon after his clash with FIDE. Fischer was arrested at Narita International Airport in Narita. Seeking ways to evade deportation to the U. rejecting Fischer's demands on how the match would be won. Fischer claimed the usual system (24 games with the first player to get 12. Fischer emerged from isolation to challenge Spassky (then placed 96-102 on the rating list) to a "Revenge Match of the 20th Century" in 1992.but reluctant to grant him the full benefits of citizenship . FIDE agreed to all of his demands but two. Japan near Tokyo for allegedly using a revoked U. As confirmation of Fischer's new citizenship reached Japanese authorities. government had singled Fischer out for his political statements. although he had been as high as 2785 in 1971). Many detractors argued that this proposal was unrealistic and would turn the match into a test of stamina rather than skill.S. following the match. and were not prosecuted. After 20 years of not competing publicly. It wouldn't be close between us. while Karpov had to win by a score of ten to eight. with the first player to score ten wins winning the match. in a sport dominated by the Soviets since World War II. the champion (Fischer in this case) would retain his title. ." Fischer has not played any competitive chess since the 1992 match. Fischer was scheduled to defend his title against his challenger Anatoly Karpov in 1975. Although Iceland has an extradition treaty with the U. W.The outcome of this match cemented two milestones in Fischer's career--the ambition of being the World Chess Champion. that his participation was against the law. Fischer resigned in a cable to FIDE president Max Euwe on June 27.5 points winning) encouraged the player in the lead to draw games. Fischer used a genuine passport that the U.S. passport while trying to board a Japan Airlines flight to Ninoy Aquino International Airport near Manila. Fischer instead wanted a match of an unlimited number of games. they agreed to let him out of custody to fly to his new home country. Fischer's supporters have stated that other U. 1974.S... specifically reporters. but which was revoked in 2003. Most controversial of all Fischer's conditions however was his demand that. Embassy in Bern. The United States Treasury department informed Fischer. Fischer. government filed charges of tax evasion against Fischer in an effort to prevent him from traveling to Iceland. Garry Kasparov wrote: "He is playing ok. When this proved insufficient for the Japanese authorities. demanded that the organizers bill the match as "The World Chess Championship. asking for Icelandic citizenship. Fischer won the match. was now an iconoclastic American who defeated the mighty Soviet chess establishment almost single-handedly. in the event of each player winning nine games. Many grandmasters observing the match said that Fischer was past his prime. the Al ingi agreed unanimously to grant Fischer full citizenship in late March for humanitarian reasons as they felt he was being unjustly treated by the U. The win over Spassky was also considered something of a Cold War propaganda victory for the United States. Fischer had not played any tournament games since winning the title.S.S.S. before the match. which was not good for chess in his opinion.S. Icelandic citizens may not be extradited from Iceland and they reaffirmed their perception that the U. Fischer wrote a letter to the government of Iceland in early January 2005. Around 2600 or 2650. draws not counting. Philippines. He has been wanted by the United States government since 1992 when he played a chess match with Spassky in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia which violated the presidential executive order #12810 of George H. Meanwhile. 10 wins to 5. Fischer disappeared and did not play competitive chess for nearly twenty years. In the book Mortal Games. confirming as it did that the strongest player in the world. and being the highest rated player ever according to the Elo rating system (a rating of 2780 after the Spassky match. 2004. according to Icelandic law. This meant that Fischer only needed to win nine games to retain the championship.

he was able to steer play into quiet positions. he returned home to the U. Spassky ended up losing the match with 3 wins. he has lived in France with his 3rd wife. when he played the legendary tactician Mikhail Tal in the 1965 Candidates Final match held in Tbilisi. he again earned the right to challenge Petrosian in the 1969 World Championship. Within the next 2 years. Iceland. and 17 draws. In 1992. For example. During his later years. 4 losses.10 =15.S. This time. Since 1976. and his "universal style" was a distinct advantage in beating many top Grandmasters.R. 1937 in Leningrad. Spassky was reluctant to devote himself to chess totally. he relied on his natural talent for the game. He became a French citizen in 1978. It was seen as symbolic of the political confrontation between the 2 superpowers. Although Karpov had publicly acknowledged that Spassky was superior. This accomplishment earned him the title of grandmaster. Spassky lost the match with a score of +5 . The match took place in Montenegro and Belgrade and was a re-enactment of the 1972 World Championship. He learned to play chess at the age of 5. at the height of the Cold War. Instead. He continued playing and won several championships including the 1973 Soviet championship.S. The match was held in Reykjavk. In 1972. After losing. in disgrace. This was essentially his last major challenge. In 1974. he played against the up and coming Anatoly Karpov in the Candidates matches in Leningrad. Spassky was considered an all-around player. When he was 18. Fischer emerged from his 20 year hiatus from chess to arrange a "Revenge Match of the 20th century" against Spassky. his flexibility of style was the key to his eventual victory over Petrosian by 2 points. he lost to Bobby Fischer of the United States in the "Match of the Century". and sometimes would rather play a game of tennis than work hard at the board. . Spassky only kept the title of World Champion for 3 years. Karpov beat him by a score of +4 -1. Belgium. he won the World Junior Chess Championship in Antwerp.Boris Spassky Boris Vasilievich Spassky was born on January 30. This enabled him to play in his first World Championship match against Tigran Petrosian in 1966. avoiding Tal's tactical strength.

Submitted to: Mrs. Fe Damian Submitted by: Krystal B.Lavoisier. Cordero III . .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful