# 1/19/2011

General Physics II

Kinetic Theory of Gases

Homework Solutions

From the FIFTH edition Questions: 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 15 Problems: *, 3, **, 8, 13, ****, 25, *****, ******, 33 Be sure and do these; do not just wait and watch me do them in class! Q21.1 Dalton's law of partial pressures states: The total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of gases making up the mixture. Give a convincing argument of this law based on the kinetic theory of gases. Pressure is a result of atoms (or molecules) bombarding the sides of the container. If there are more atoms in the container, there will be more bombarding the sides of the container and this will increase the pressure. Dalton's law that the total pressure is the sum of the partial pressure is another way of saying the total force or pressure due to the sum of all the atoms hitting the side of the container is the sum of the force or pressure due to the different kinds of atoms hitting the side of the container. Q21.2 One container is filled with helium gas and another with argon gas. If both containers are at the same temperature, which molecules have the higher rms speed? At the same temperature, the average value of the translational kinetic energy [(1 /2 ) m <v2>] will be the same for both helium and argon. Argon has a larger mass so it will have a smaller value of <v2> or vrms . Helium has a smaller mass so it will have a larger value of <v2> or vrms .

Q21.4 Although the average speed of gas molecules in thermal equilibrium at some temperature is greater than zero, the average velocity is zero. Explain. The average velocity must be zero since the center of mass of the gas is not moving.

www.ux1.eiu.edu/…/HmwkSol.html 1/14

tells us
T = 0oC = 273 K R = 8. CV = (3 /2) R or U = (3 /2 ) n R T. there is more internal energy stored inthe motion of the molecules for the same temperature than for that temperature in a monatomic gas.ux1. Q21.edu/…/HmwkSol.7. If the volume remains constant. Since the molar specific heat is greater for a diatomic molecule. That means the average speed of the remaining atoms is decreased -.
21.13 An ideal gas is contained in a vessel at 300 K. while. for a monatomic gas. an increase in temperature by a factor of 3 means an increase in pressure by the same factor of 3. P V = n R T. Q21. Find the rms speed of nitrogen molecules under standard conditions.732 (b) by what factor does the pressure in the vessel change? The Ideal Gas Law still holds.4 liters under standard conditions. Explain why the temperature of the liquid decreases when the container is partially evacuated. The rms speed goes like the square root of the temperature so we have increased the rms speed by SQRT(3)=1.) The faster-moving atoms are the ones that escape from the liquid's surface (that is.html 2/14
.31 J / mol-K
www.eiu.12 Why does a diatomic gas have a greater thermal energy content per mole than a monatomic gas at the same temperature? The molar specific heat of a diatomic molecule is CV = (5 /2 ) R. 0. Recall that 1 mole of any gas occupies a volume of 22.and the temperature decreases as the average speed of the atoms decreases. they are the ones that evaporate). If the temperature is increased to 900 K. (It is possible to freeze water using this technique. meaning U = (5/2 ) n R T. Eq 21. on page 590. (a) by what factor does the rms speed of each molecule change? The temperature has increased by a factor of 3.1/19/2011
General Physics II
Q21.00 atm pressure.6 A liquid partially fills a container. SQRT[] means "Square Root of" because it is easier for me to write SQRT than to go to a graphics editor and construct a Square Root sign.0o C and 1.*.

0 g (0.43 x 105 (m2 /s 2 )] vrms = 493 m/s Be careful with the units.43 x 105 (J/mol-K)(K)/(kg/mole)] vrms = SQRT [2.html
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.31 J/mol-K)(273 K)/(28 x 10 .005 kg) and a speed of 8. 21.
www.3 kg/mole vrms = SQRT[ 3 (8. They're important! They're not just an afterthought.43 x 105 (J/kg)(N-m/J)(kg-m/s 2 /N)] vrms = SQRT [2. If the collisions are elastic.3 kg/mole)] vrms = SQRT [2.eiu. find the average force and pressure on the window.ux1.0 m/s. Each hailstone has a mass of 5.3 In a 30-s interval.60 m2 at an angle of 45o to the window surface.edu/…/HmwkSol. 500 hailstones strike a glass window of area 0.1/19/2011
General Physics II
M = 28 g/mole = 28 x 10 .

66 m/s px = m vx = (0.52 x 106 (J/kg)(N-m/J)(kg-m/s 2 /N)]
www.just to see that the idea is the same even with different numbers.** Calculate the rms speed of an H2 molecule at 250o C. This time T = 250oC = 523 K M = 2 g/mole = 2 x 10 . But it is always good to work similiar problems -. this is basically the same as problem 21. from page 590.52 x 106 (J/mol-K)(K)/(kg/mole)] vrms = SQRT [6. Of course.2 kg-m/s F = pxtot/ t F = (500)(5.31 J/mol-K)(523 K)/(2 x 10 .3 kg/mole As with 21.1.2 kg-m/s px = 2 px = 5.943 kg-m/s 2 F = 0.707) = 5.
R = 8.83 x 10 .005 kg)(5.60 m2 P = 1.0 m/s)(0.7.2 kg-m/s)/30 s F = 0.943 N P = F/A P = 0.31 J / mol-K vrms = SQRT[ 3 (8. we begin with Eq 21.66 x 10 .edu/…/HmwkSol.57 N/m2 P = 1.57 Pa 21.943 N / 0.66 m/s) = 2.eiu.ux1.html 4/14
.1 above.1/19/2011
General Physics II
vx = v cos 45o vx = (8.66 x 10 .3 kg/mole)] vrms = SQRT [6.

5 (1350 m/s) vrmsO = 675 m/s 21.) This problem. What is the pressure exerted by the Xe atoms on the walls of a container? PV=nR T P=nR T/V P = (1 mole) (8. what in the world is a J/m3 ? P = 1.7.5 vrmsO = 0.52 x 106 (m2 /s 2 )] vrms = 2 550 m/s 21.ux1.8 If the rms speed of a helium atom at room temperature is 1350 m/s.eiu.09 x 105 (J/m3 ) [ N-m / J ]
www.edu/…/HmwkSol.*** One mole of xenon gas at 20.
vrmsO/vrmsH = SQRT[3 R T/M O] / SQRT[3 R T/M H] vrmsO/vrmsH = SQRT[ (3 R T/M O) / (3 R T/M H) ] vrmsO/vrmsH = SQRT[ M H/M O ] vrmsO/vrmsH = SQRT[ 4/16 ] vrmsO/vrmsH = SQRT[ 1/4 ] vrmsO/vrmsH = 1/2 vrmsO/vrmsH = 0.09 x 105 (J/m3 ) Now.31 J/mole-K) (293 K) / 0.5 vrmsH vrmsO = 0.html 5/14
. what is the rms speed of an oxygen (O2) molecule at this temperature? (The molar mass of O2 is 32 and the molar mass of He is 4.0224 m3 P = 1.0o C occupies 0. begins with Eq 21.1/19/2011
General Physics II
vrms = SQRT [6. too.0224 m3.

0 moles of helium gas when its temperature is increased by 2.09 x 105 N/m2 P = 1. For an ideal gas.1/19/2011
General Physics II
P = 1. U = n Cv T From Table 21.0 K) U = 74.0 K) U = 75.029 atm 21. for helium cv = 12. Determine (a) the new temperature of the gas and (b) the work done on the gas. It then undergoes an isobaric process losing the same amount of heat.8 J While helium behaves very nearly as an ideal gas.13 Calculate the change in internal energy of 3.0 K. we would have U = (3/2) n R T U = (3/2) n R T
U = (3/2) (3 moles) (8. we can do this calculation for the actual behavior of helium.html
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.09 x 105 Pa [1 atm / 1.ux1.5 J/mole-K)(2.013 x 105 Pa] P = 0. The gas undergoes an isovolumetric process acquiring 500 J of heat.5 J/mole-K U = (3 moles)(12.]]
www.2 on page 647 of the text.eiu. we find that. [[ Note: Part of the earlier solution posted on the web was wrong.edu/…/HmwkSol.**** One mole of an ideal monatomic gas is at an initial temperature of 300 K.0 J
21.31 J/mole-K) (2.09 x 105 Pa P = 1.

ux1. WAB = 0 Q = U = 500 J For the isobaric (constant pressure). TA = 300 K.500 J = (n) ((5/2) R) ( T)
www.1/19/2011
General Physics II
For the isovolumetric (constant volume) process. QAB = n CV T = 500 J (n) ((3/2) R) ( T) = 500 J (1 mole) ((3/2) 8. the work is WBC = P V We know the initial temperature. from A to B. no work is done. To find WBC we will need the temperatures TB and TC at states B and C so we can find P V for the expression above.5) K T = 40 K TB = 300 K + 40 K TB = 340 K QBC = n CP T . process. from B to C.eiu.5 J / K ) T = 500 J T = (500/12.html 7/14
.edu/…/HmwkSol.31 J/mole-K) ( T) = 500 J ( 12.

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.Utot U = n CV T U = (n) ((3/2) R) ( Ttot) T = 40.1 K T = 15.24.eiu.(500/20.1 K TC = 340 K .9 K) U = 199 J Wtot = .31 J/mole-K) ( T) .1/19/2011
General Physics II
.9 K U = (n) ((3/2) R) ( Ttot) U = (1 mole)(12.8) K T = .edu/…/HmwkSol.5 J/mole-K)(15. ]]
www.Utot W = .ux1.0 K .9 K Wtot = WAB + WBC WAB = 0 WBC = P V Qtot = Wtot + Utot Qtot = 500 J + ( .24.500 J = ( 20.8 J / K ) T T = .24.1 K TC = 315.500 J) = 0 Wtot = .500 J = (1 mole) ((5/2) 8.199 J [[ This final answer is the same as was posted earlier but part of the earlier solution was wrong.

edu/…/HmwkSol. PV=nR T T=PV/nR Ti = Pi Vi / n R Ti = (5.0 L)/[(2. watch the units! Units are not an "add-on".0 atm and a volume of 12.1/19/2011
General Physics II
21.0 L)/[(2.0 liters to a final volume of 30.0 moles) (0.even vital! Ti = (5.0 L)1.31 J/mole-K)] Be careful! While that equation is true.ux1. we will be far better served to use R in units of L-atm instead of joules! Again (and again and again and again!).0 moles) (8.0 L/30.0 atm) (0. they're important -.0 liters. we will find the Ideal Gas Law very useful. Since we have pressure in atmospheres and volume in liters.0 atm) (12.4)1.4 Pf = (5.0 atm) (12.0821 L-atm/mole-K)]
www.4 Pf = (5.2773) Pf = 1. it is also clumsy or cumberson since we have such strange or mixed units.386 atm (b) What are the initial and final temperatures? Again (or "as usual"?!?!?).0 atm) (0.25 Two moles of an ideal gas ( = 1. (a) What is the final pressure of the gas? "Adiabatically" means
or
Pf = (5.0 atm) (12.eiu.40) expands slowly and adiabatically from a pressure of 5.html 9/14
.

The gas is initially at 1. It then expands adiabatically to its original pressure and finally is compressed isobarically to its original volume.2 K 21. First. (z) What is its initial pressure? PV=nR T P=nR T/V (a) Draw a PV diagram of this cycle. As we move along the adiabat.0 atm and at 300 K.ux1.***** Four liters of a diatomic ideal gas ( = 1.html 10/14
. Here is a rough sketch:
(b) Determine the volume at the end of the adiabatic expansion.eiu.40) confined to a cylinder are put through a closed cycle.edu/…/HmwkSol.0821 L-atm/mole-K)] Tf = 253.4 K Tf = Pf Vf / n R Tf = (1.1/19/2011
General Physics II
Ti = 365.0 L)/[(2.
or
www. its pressure is tripled under constant volume.0 moles) (0.386 atm) (30.

this way seems noticeably easier. PB VB = n R TBB TB = PB VB / n R TB = PB VB /[(PA VA / R TA) R] TB = TA [ PB VBB /(PA VA) ] TB = TA (PB/PA) (VB/VA) [ or. the start of the adiabatic expansion. VB = VA TB = 300 K (3 atm/1 atm) (1)
www. of course. we could have gotten this about as easily by noting PV=nR T PV/T=nR PA VA/TA = PB VB/TB TB = TA (PB/PA) (VB/VA) Having done this both ways.1/19/2011
General Physics II
or
(c) Find the temperature of the gas at the start of the adiabatic expansion At state A. PA VA = n R TA n = PA VA / R TAA At state B. But.ux1.html 11/14
.eiu. the result is the same.] TB = TA (PB/PA) (VB/VA) Of course.edu/…/HmwkSol.

eiu.TB T = 657. We know the pressure and volume for state C.5 U = n CV T U = n [ (5/2) R ] [ .77 L PV=nR T P V / T = const PA VA / TA = PC VC / TC TC = TA (PC/PA) (VC/VA) TC = 300 K (1 atm/1 atm) (8. WAB = 0 WBC = .ux1.900 K T = .5 K ] How many moles do we have? Go back to state A and find out.242.U T = Tf . PC = 1 atm VC = 8.242.19) TC = 657.edu/…/HmwkSol.77 L/4 L) TC = 300 K (1) (2.
www. the end of the adiabatic expansion.1/19/2011
General Physics II
TB = 300 K (3) TB = 900 K (d) Find the temperature at the end of the cycle.html
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.5 K (e) What was the net work done for this cycle? Look at the work for each piece and then sum those.5 K .Ti = TC .

5 K ] U = [ 4 atm .483 J Wtot = 336 J While I have labeled this Wtot.77 L) WCA = .4. We could just go back and get it.001 m3/L] [1. U = .77 L-atm [0.4 L / 300 K] [1/R] [ (5/2) R ] [ .08 L-atm We have done this unit coversion before.8.8. as in the total work.08 L-atm [0. 21.1/19/2011
General Physics II
PV=nR T n = [ P V/T ] [1/R] n = [ 1 atm .****** A 5.L / 300 ] [ (5/2)] [ .ux1. too.5 ] U = .77 L-atm WCA = .50 atm. What is the average translational kinetic energy of a single molecule? <KE> = (1/2) m <v2 > <KE> = (1/2) m <v2> = (1/2) k T
www.483 J Wtot = WAB + WBC + WCA Wtot = 0 + 819 J .eiu. we could also call this the net work and label it Wnet.125 mole of an ideal gas at 1. But it's worth doing from "scratch".4.edu/…/HmwkSol.242.4 L / 300 K] [1/R] U = [ 1 atm .8.013 x 105 (N/m2)/atm] WCA = .001 m3 /L] [1.html 13/14
.819 J WBC = + 819 J WCA = P V WCA = (1 atm) (4 L .0-liter vessel contains 0.013 x 105 (N/m2 )/atm] U = .242.

edu/…/HmwkSol.04 x 10 . 2002.33 Consider 2.5 atm) (5.0 L) / [(0.0 moles of an ideal diatomic gas.125 mole) (0.23 J/K) (731 K) <KE> = 5.38 x 10 .0821 L-atm/mole-K)] T = 731 K <KE> = (1/2) k T = (1/2) (1. ToC
www. Find the total heat capacity at constant volume and at constant pressure if (a) the molecules rotate but do not vibrate and CV = (5/2) R Ctot = n CV = 5 R (b) the molecules rotate and vibrate.html
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.ux1. we must find the temperature T PV=nR T T=PV/nR T = (1.eiu. CV = (7/2) R Ctot = n CV = 7 R
Summary Return to Ch21 ToC (c) Doug Davis. all rights reserved
Ch22. first.21 J 21.1/19/2011
General Physics II
So.