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A.Li" U _::I _ 1\' .. 1

.iJ.G.,A. 1~.




il.,vn'A·~[)L:L'{(,'.(!l" ~~[lWI'T I,,,,, DEli NDRSii:& V.IV£~"'S'~ ... !";;,..AI<:!U)fill!1 I Os liD, U. Ha;;f'.·:Fi:r,m;. KI..iISSI': l·9+S. N,tI. :[





E. J, 8!RiLL ""lIItlqju-.rllii'i1 ~",I Ojl\iml~1 Soob-.Il ••

LEI'Cl:i~_ !-!Oi.I1.At-U~



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.·0 '.

The problems raised by the disco[lv'elCY of the Kau~al[ya. Arth<ls.ru.tra ha~'e not yd be-en 111'111lly solved, The wud: begins w:ith the foLlowing st!ltemen~ ::

Pt:I'Ju~~ lfiMtfJiili:mc e;ti )'ifwnty artha,Slistr:'~,( ,pi2Yl/(l(:{iry{u1e jwastnlip'l'I'aniprll:yasas fan~·5fl}~'hn'y(1.:k(,l1,11 id(1;~~t a'l'tht.:ls{1$drcfl1?,i Orlaem, by malnJ.y CO'Ji'lidens,]ngtb.ooe ~1'i~ha~li$tr<J!s \\":hk:ih ha \Ie hMI:1I. composed by earlier tead~,ers a bouf winning and gl!l;il.lIi1i.ng tnti@8Jrth this, one artha5:astra has been made.

And we are riot I@1l in do,ubt about the identity of the author, (or in the fi:l'Ial stafizOi. we read:

yC#(l S(lff.fra"~~ ,~ sastl~(;U!~ ca Nan dartiil1;gaM ,en blm·il amQr~.(:}Ji()(Mll.rffjfJy (lsu .trud $,li$h'a'V'l Mmtz krtGru II

thi:s, tI'eatise has bee[i made by him who DJlirldi,gn ati.m:l. q_uictl]y extraeted jhe tr.ei~ti:se snd 'the SWOii"d and the earth 'tha.'t had gone te th.e- Na ndaking, Andthis is !n accordanee with Indian tredltlce. i.

If the Alitliul!l!listn itself is genuine, we call with safety draw the: conclusien that it was actually the work of KlIll~ll~ya;the minister of the !\'I<fur.:y2 Cand,ragupta. For he is tnrou,ghou,t men,tioned as the final auUlodty. But, eurleus 'enough, 'the fr,eq uent expre-SSlon tt.i K.at4IJ(ya~ has been considered to be :apt to raise sU$,Pici,an. Jacobi, Ober die EchtheH, :po 833. iliilYS thati1t is, ,as far as he :kno'i!.iS~ 'thil only argument wh~cb has been uF~d against Kau~alya~$ :ilJ!ithOrsl1'ip.

j, cr. HiII~b;r""nillt.l OIb~1i' d~s .1i:.~l!~n,r'1l.!!~8~rll, §:a.nl"e'f;'Q;Cn~t :r1ltr· wtetr:I~lI1di$ell~ Kll.illti~.I' ]:908, pp. I ff~,; J~QOI!il" Z1!!~Fri11l!<ts:~bicbJtc, dct uiild~~e'l\i PIIHo~pbN:.S:a3A[91 l', pPI .. 73~ fl'~; J!:@&tur.; Spr~h· und Lit~ml:h~.!li:O,fis>c.be~ llI!U dell'! Rag~lI'y"a, ibidem pp. '95+ If", i'rbcr die, uh!h~it des Kfl:CI~ilJy!1" iblc!cm !!,H~j pp. tla:1t fr.; Wintctrnit:::, Ge:scl!li~1.e d~!' !'ldi~(!hsn Liter.tlllur, ill:, pp. s ~, II:


HiU~;brandl, I ~ ~. ',p. nl~ thOlll,gh:t lh~t we have ·t.o do. with a werk by an -unknown at.iho!lC~ belonging lathe schooiof K;:I1.1~]ya. But it seems to 'e;'that j~cob~ 1 •. c. pp. 83:2 L, has shown th,at 51l,ch canner

be ehe case. . " :'~ .• j-

'. Am "~r~U!~~t agall1si~ ,the'.:lUthenticity ,or the wor.k has also beei"l fOLlnd in i'ts"disagreement, j['i some ciet;'l[is \\ itih Megasthenes' accclI.u!l't of ]ndia. l-]oweve~, he eall:n.ot be d:aaractt:!rized as a cridcill oblSel'\ er, but a.ccflpted e\l'entne most pharJiwsticii.1 tales he: heard, 0" Stein, Megl'lsthtmes und Kautilya" pp. 104-16, laid stress on M..egastbenes~ statement that there were no slaves in India; W.')O [1.J[ll}i'll'oa 1'~fr.IXP ~il1'ot;: 3Q\Ji..o'J iJ'YjM~I:rr; '1:\3 ~p&.::lri:t·r sf ~!!)t j ~!'I«~, ~& x.~t 't'61i~ I):iy~ ~'I' ,,~ "[ Wi~'I' l'n r.&'t.i"t'\:.!~ "r\liI)Clu~ ~!v.:;:-'I' $),Sli.l{l:,~p,.w, O'JB~ .. We( aOtlt.l)" S~'i:;(~ >W,,36>~. Kau~~ly:1, eu the other hand. spea,ks of aiJsa$, slaves, l:tl India. Breloer, Ka.l.IJ!niIya. Studi.en HI pp .. 1:2 ff.j hs:s shown that the terms ao'flloj,o~ and ilii!/!,(l [ire nots,ynonymous. He might have added .3. reference to I\C:m~aJj.Yfl, m. xiii : ml«:chri/~!Tm ,adIJ.:,,;.ah .fm{1jr;..'/~ 'IJ,y"7(!llm~ Iidji1lfUl~1 $lIZ' ml Il' cuaryasy,a U4saijAU'vai), it is Il10 fault with. 'barbarians, 'eo, sell lhei r children or put them on" but all Aryan cannot bea slave. Such a !M:atliment would be apt to lead Megasthenes astray.

The fact t!liat the I{,u.l~alryilis, w.ri.'ttelll in S:u'l,skri.'t mightleacl peeplete doubt that itc"!1 be $0 old as the >\1Jh celiif:Ur y a, c. E. Senart, J. A,VIn .. viiiJ p. 4'041 says: PO'Uf]e sanskrit c]assiq'll.e, sa preparation dans le milieu bra'~m:arliqlle" {ondc:!e materueUem!!nI: surla ]af!!,glJe vlld~qtu~, pro\i'oql.lee en falit par les premiere.s appi.ieatiolls de l'ecriture 3.iJ.X. dialecte,s popu.l<lir,es,. doit SI! placer eotre Ie [n~ siecle avant J. C. ee le Icr s:ii::c'le de l'E're ehretlenae. Son empto,i. pllib~.iq'lQe eu omde~. Il!a. oo:mmemllii de se :r~9i1lfidn'l: q 1,1'& la fin du ier sU:cle 01.1. au ,c:ommen,cement dil n"', AUlCI;m Ol!lvrage dels li.tt~ratul"e d"I!l1slque ne pent ,l11trll a:l:lt~rie'Lir a. cette epoque.

Jaco,bi, Ku]tuli'. Spra.cll. IJJndliten,tlUi"hi$~orUsc:he~. p. 961, Is Of!i"tatll[Y right when he says that alreadythe lise of Sal.lskri1t in the epic;s shows that such is rtet the Case. The case ,of Al!io1i:a was an !f!:xc:eptioill; ,an epi'slode', p:p. 95,7' f., In bis administradon ili~ Bnhmi'i1's were not the 1eading: a!i.!!tno,ity" and tl'le"restllt was not ah~a:ys <ldvOllltag,eo!J$ to hi:s: ,em pire ..

HiUebraii(h. l. c. p. 13, drew att~:rn,tio.n t.o the fad 'that there wes a fi.xed and Muted t.erminoklgy fn Indisn po]itica.1 ~or~;.tlndl Themes,

1945, NO.1 ...

JR AS [90~l'o p. 4:66, 19 I 4, p, 3~3, &c. ,po.~l1It(l<d out th~~ there <Ire :5()I!!!e unmistakable parallels W .[{"ll~alJ<I's tenns ]nthe £\JQkain:!!cdp~iQn,s . . But that doe's Ilotp!,,()rve tb Sit s~d1 termswere o6gi!'l<J&i y coined in Pr~krH. They Call liJJave beenteenelated from S!anskdt for the use of A~ok~'s omt:~.1l1s. lt IS t:empt;~l)lg to ~e anulldk:atuoll tnthls d~t in the use o.f tenns such as pr('id(r!!;j'ktl'~ lJUlnilmlJJ,)'(l', samaja·, &c .. ,in the Gi un.'U· v'e1isio·n.

ThM th.e K;1iu~allya W<l>S or~g:~na]ly wriUenin Sa!'lskr~t C<l1!1 ha.rdly be. d,oubtced, an~ also KOlu~a~ya'$ predecessors lIlre.~ 1"".11),9 quot~d .. in that h'Lllgua,ge. nHilt does not, how.ev~r., :itnp.ly a hlter clatethan the 4th cent;ilrry B... e • .)Nt:. h~vtl: <'tnJe&tlflnsi'll'>eplf@se Hlierature in Sflnskrit, in the BI'.lInma"all> il'lci!.lding the Upllni~a.ds~ lind ]11. the Satii<JiS. And the okl g.rmmn<l~kal H~eratlJJre was based O'ln, and written in thatlangu:lge:.

Tben we h:l\!'e the. [{~masi:ltr<li, whkh .;I!.cc,mlj!'lg t~ JOlcobi, Ober die Echthd~l p, 8,p~. irl ~.bs· (JI"igilla~ fo:rmcan not b ~o.ldetthan the l a,st half of dlesthceTlh:lry ~. e., htlt\:vili~ch we onlyp<liSsess ~n a ~.a!ter retr.~cta6Q. which Jacdbl dlolil,ght .QQuld not be Ql,.derthan~he .3Dd cemhl.ry A. D.

An()th~]t problem is raised by KlIll~<]:~]y;l X. m~wh~r.e wereaJ: ap:i/uJ' 5lokc.~e bJul;,vatab;'

ynn: y(l:jll(1·s(l.1?~Ch(J;is ta/mslJca ''P£pm~ S'l;!fH'ga£!j.'~Uilltpmnl,cay'(lls ea y'(luti ~ k$atlMa liiina.P" (;Itryii.'n,t:i §lJ~iil~ jJrl11;il1~StJ,yuadI1l!~u parityaian(a/l II

'lUJWlJ1J smthla'11 $alilas~va pnrJ,lm~~ stl~a~j'skrt'~1r~ d!arbhakrt{)ttm'fJ'(m~ ~ tM lai.yrI mil' MU]J.~ "ror.'(!IM'tp .c~ ga.c;c/zrJiyo' bhar(ryl1Jl!asyak.,-.lefJ(l yuilh)u!/11

The second s,tanz".ls also foul:ld L!:lBhl$Ol,'s. Pf<i:tijilri).yo1l~gll[!(dnar~ya~ll,

IV. 3, and it may beasked eo whom rto .. ]gina]~jt be~Qllgs~to K.llilli~a~Y<l or to Bhlsa.

No'w GJl;tapati SastrlJ in the introdil1ct]@1] Ito his edit.ioil':l or the Svapn a~a.sa:\i'ada:ml., p. xx·dH., draws :lttf!!n,tloll eothe fact th.u 'Kau'!ilya dees not elaewberejetredeee hisown v~'.rseswi·th<lny such remark as here, Ol.!:Id he dea w$tne ~nfer~ncetha:t .KSiifJ~~ya has bOft'owif::d d"e ~t;u'h~a [f\Om Bh!lsa,while Jaaobi, Int<emat!QnaieWQcl1,en:5,C'l'irii't, 1913., p, 65S, UWll;ght th!!!t we may have to do with glo!5ses. It 1$ not pOSSJbl e to aerlve at cer~<!il'lty~ and ~f the,stll'l,VlIza:s 'C<!Ilmot, for the ressen ,sta~ed by GaU1!p.ati. be ascribooto K:all~tllya; of which I am not :8it all eertain .• iheym 4ly belQJ:!ig to that flioaHnlg' $w,k of st;lmzas by unknown authors



H .. ~F .. Kl.

w hkh w·~r~ carren t ill al:1I::ie!'lttim!.'l!5 . And it sbould not be overlooked that .Kall~tdya quotes h.vo stanzas, :lind tnat Q[lly one .fJ'f them can be traced ]1:'1 BhasOl! 's play. ] cannot see "Ulj 5~do1JsobjecdQntothe aSJsurmpl[oIl t:hllt .l3Jhisili has borrewed hls st'anZ3. f~orn Kautalya, .!!ii:ldJ so far as l CliID S~Ie:, there is noth ~[lg thn:toould lead us to think tha1 Bttbai$ not oonsi.dera.blyy1oQ.mge:r than Kaueslya.

The most serious ,objection Eo refelil"iillg Kauta.1ya to Lhe4th century a, c. lms been formulated by Jolly in his ca:r~flJl. Kellektaneen zum[{OI'l.I~il~ya Arthlis!iistrn, Nachrich~en v·on der K. Ge,sellscha;n der Wi$$enscl'laften .ZIl Gouillg.en. PhilQliJgisC:h·Histor]scbe Klasse, r9··16,. pp, 348 If. He mil]l1I tailled that~hepllF.al]~lls fOlllndin Ia w- books and medical texts. lead Ucsto trn.in:k of 8. period consklenbly kiter [than. the 4.)1i~ century~. c.

This lir'i(,! of .argunumt dees not, h(jiw~v~r, carry convlcticn, It would be illil'lCOn ceivable tha~ta work such as the .I!au~a]ryal which was certainly considered, durj[lg .Oll very I.oli'lg period; to be the· leading al!l~ho·rity on Arth~l!ist;ril had been hrifldedl down withoot any changes or addiUo!'ls. '~e must .aceordi.ngly .make a car,eful exa.mill3.t;ioll of tl'l,e worE itself and try to !lnd oue whether it contains remini$ce.llll:es of an earlier stage, without such cll:I3.I'Ig.e5 and .additi,ons. That has been done by Ja.oobi in h LS :i mport<lD1 ~ papers in the Berlin Sitzungisbenchte, ,agld I cam olnly add some remarks ",s a; ~lJPpl,em,entro his argUlme['rtatlcm.


The second adJllyliya of tile fiiS:t adhikanQa opens with the re'ma:rn JmRk~ikl tray', 't)il.rttll, d'f1}ffi}.1~rHscetl vidy1l8. I shaH fQll4;nv KalJtalya~s enumeTiltlon or the v;l)riou$ branches of knowledge, and begin with the 4n-vtk$ik'f.


Thill ·~erm itsel f is wen kr.lOwn from good scmr.ces. and does not lead to any ,ehironoiogka] inference. :E!ut .it is. ofh:ltere'S,t~o see what K<liutaiy<li. meant wi~h!.t. In L ii he says that i.t compris~s Sa111khya~ ¥:'0ca <l.:_f1jd! LDk5yata;·· Sn.'fl·khya'~I: Yog() Loka)iat(.U!'l c.eJy .i"ul~~;kl~

The best 3J[I,alysis of this st:Uemernt has. been given by Jacobi.

ZurFruhgeschiehte der intli.schen Phi:lo$Qphie, Berliner Sitzung:;berichte



19 II J pp. ?321f. SQral" tl~E can seehew~s eVIdently rlght li.r bien he main taJJlililld that Katl~.aI.ya\"8!s tl:!,(l_ fil rst ene to tea.ci:l that there are four ~id:yJs, the fourth being th~ A~7Jflii$ik~, which leeks in~o, right and Ut~ right ~.I'I the T,cayi, <lJdv:aL'ltag:e and dlsadvanta"gein the' V:{Jt'1tu~. right and\",ro~g measures-in the D(1.1J4(m~ti, andjwith te.as[liIlilng, Into the strl:lllgdl and \",~all.tn Ei'&S of lh,~$e (~nree) ifidyct$;· tllmc11Jlidlu~n1Ja~e tra.'~1.1, arlh/tual"fJmu iU:lritaflr~~~ 1.laJh'1;jMl'ytl:l~ daI;J4a1l'itya~t~. lJaID1:mk (;ait~lr.ti1ll /ulfflMl'r <Ulv.ik{>amu'vl'l. .Amik$iki JS :aceordil1g:iy a sY5tema,tk;lIi method orl rlve'St~fJ:alion, W ithoUit refel'!enoe to the charaeter Qfthe illdhridu<!l 'UidJ!(i~.

KlI1l]lI~ya's p:!'ed~C~Oir.$ are :!;U,ted~o have denil!ld the existence of the A1l1.!i4ik! as a ",{dya orut$ OWIl. The Ma:I1.m!V8S i ncluded it hl the n~ayi.:' iruj.itdl,c$o hy ~~Jvu~iki; the Bliirhas:patyas alse e:xch:!ded the Tra)fi, because it wasol'l1yan O:Osc:uT .. tlon to him who, k]Jow~s the ways of the WOIli]d .sa~WJcu:a\':Pt.m~rJlra~ll I~I: #'ay"l/o1t(lylitravida iti, and the Au!lianasas did Ilo·t reecgu izl;:' more thJ~ one vl:dy(J~ the J)afJ!jm.iit£j' because aUe'Jo;;t;l!"tiofls i~ vid,Ji'l!~e bQil1!1!d IIp with it: ta~}TJ Id $(1p@b:vidyl1m~tMal; pratibaddM £l!:.

Fcur'es d~e nll!mbe:'.' of llh.e 'lJ.iiyt£s wss ]at~, on recognized by an !iiutlil.Qrities.. But it LS cl~:ilirac:t~'r15t~.c 'tbi3Jt th~y make [hie ,fiWUf.k.~I~i an all~,la;viJY4, i.« .. it oUlght t~ be orthodox and. leadte final emandpatlon.

Not 00 KalltaiY<lj• aad he "'r>uldac~ordiIlglyenllimerate the LoH;ya.ta t'Og:eth~r with Sa'11/.Myac and Yogra~ though be k!'le\l: tJOllt tneBi:!1Itiaspaty:as were heretles who did not bdi~ve' ~nthe ~#:. .LGiayatai:s tbemethod of tehIs ~\t'"OrM~praml"al pni]O$opby, whleh was an.auxiHa!:y inev~r.~l braXl,ch of lim Qwledlge. Jacobi draws a.t,teratio,n to, the f<ld that: Nyaya .tnd Va~~e~i.ka are ,t1),ot Im.e[1l~]QI'I€:d~ c~flar]y b eesuse they did not tih~1l. e~l$t as ]mde'pemd!l!~t s.ys~e:ms, !1!~ir the two M'rmllif!$!lis,~ b~ca:lJ!s~Ka.1lJilalya irlc~.ud~d ~h~minlbefmyJ'. ]: dOlllo~dol,llbt: tn;llt: Nyayallind Va~,e~,lka. are litter outcomes of~he oldt.ok:lliy:aHI, but: dl9JJt is ef no impoirti'lnce h"l the j)!:\e,se'nt cenneetice, o.n trn~ Ci~h~, hamdj it ]5 ofin~e:n;stm;1Jt there is norefeFtltlCe to Budcllhist ~l1ets !Such as ili,e, K:a~iko."'lida., probably be~!'Iltl$e tl:J!!!y did net ~~Oliy a promiDJe:nl rO!e in K:aU!~al.J:aj:s days.




H.-.F. Ki ..


The $e.COfild v~dJ':'i. aoool"d.i!'J.g to Ka1J~JJawa!> TJ:<.!y~jl~ e. th~ three first V,edOlis. B~,t it ls added that also the. Atnarvn ved a and! the: hi h!lisav~da are Ved1ISj ~nd that the Il~r.m also c(Jmpris!\'!s the Ved~nlg<ls, S~k~:it I{alpa.~, Vy;akat~rQIOl.~ Nind,.t'!,Cha~dot\1id,ti a~d Jylot~lI:: SFimCl ItgYajtlr. ~J'Crlas t~iI}\I'l!'S Tray~'. AiJwri~a-v~dEtil'lfliS~v~d{J~~oav,e;(ub. $ik~{l Klllp() ~yll'kar:a~u1J~,t N;"~'i.kf;(l~r,= C1M~l'fio~,i'c#ay(1t1~am il£rJlf~~ll~ This is i:n a~cQrd:irtce w~th oHler old sourcesand doe$ not lead t.GO!I[lY chtjoI1Qlogicf.l~ inference,

Th.e hi.hlisallleda is ,staJbed~in 1 v.,~o fflch.lJdie Arillh9!~5tra and Dharma~stra, ;A.mil1},aJll Jtivrlla.!~IAkhyJyH~i'f (jd{tfj'{jl~l1lJ(UI~ DlulJWlU· :J(fs(ram AJ'thaS'{1i$,tJ'"a,r!~ ,;uti' Ilfhlis(1lJ. With regard to Artn,a.s:astra this is ~xpiain~d in. tjh~ 3;rd .stan il:a V. '!.!''l of the g.rea~ ehapter on Yoga,vrttaJ dl~ methods of gove:iI.nment offidals, ·to· ';'l!hkh the Arthas~~tra prQ:p!llr~y bel.ongs:

#i7;rtla'Pm-a~:l'iblryii'~~ /xxlhayca a1~tlU1.SlJst'mvit :1

know! fig-the ArthaSilIislra be mu; ndnist~rJ! !;,rnoM]ci hns:t:ruct (the king) tbr(mgh iliv'fttCl I.!nd Im'J'l1~l.a. The ArthaMstm ,c8iinthius be ]nduded in the term ltikii"$j' W w'hidl ~.~ dQ~:S not p:rop~rlJ beJO!lgl beeause It. contai nsac£!outlts of h.owthing:s hsppened (i#-u:rti'a) and old tales (pu:rJ;tta) g[V~I'I"'5 m,l15t]'ali:ons (udJiltl'r:a{,a).. The :!>il:me thing-can of course be said of the :Dh arma§:is't::ra.

It is of no ]ntere5t :for o,u:r present l?lllrp(}Se~o give pred5~ definitiQn~ of the va,kl·U$ teems used in this text. The import!'ll'!J.t.tlliil1g to U$ (ire these tales thJem.~el ves, beCA1!l$e:the fo.rmt~,eytakfl: In the KaU!~ll.'y8i might coru:;;eivOl.o.]y lead ~o cn1fQ(noiogl.c:al !nr:~rn:nees;. cr: J aeebl, Ku]tur, Spraeh- lUnd L:it~rlltjtlrhi:$tllnscl!~5~ pip. 970 f. rt wm, ~h,erefore, be advis:al:d~to g:o .Ii:lto detl'lU~3. W~: ('!vi.d:~ndy have tD do with a:n:dent tiad!ftio[la~. ,u'ld popl]]ar talesj, whi.ch pardy €!xlsted :akeady in Vedic t]mes, .un.d ~'thi.ch 'W,e .:d50 know from the~p:ic5 ,a[ldfolk-t;al.~.

L vi me:ndQ[!s rulera whc havepe:l"ish~cl b~ea:U5,f!: th~:y hadUltO~ slilbD!ued their senses; ~nd etherswac ~ol1ig e'llijloyoothe e,i'lirth beeaese they ~xtetrnil1l:a~ed the: slx [[I]mkal ferces {safIW$a',¢wrea"r 7Ji~ kam:a~ I.i(j'pll'~ lolM:a~ m·tWa, fn{Nl(l a:nd h,Cln!(J.,

:1. ,klima',' D~~i4.aR:JD '1iu~a J3hoj.ah kflmfJd bnJhtnotmlu1:~JJ~~,1 ah~~:· )\lI(,l'ltvd1.!Ullla~ sQb(mdln~lfj:;lJ'o 'lJi~~lUli!JS(l R·a.rJla~ ,ea Flaititlull}, through

1945. No. I.



desire, violatIng s, j)rahma'l.lJli virgill,pe.rI5~~d. with ',elatlves1im,clll1:i~~gdQu], th~ Bh~ja ~Simled Dl!Q(j,<lkya a,nd ,Ka,l'l1la the Vi.deha·[{Jl]g. The ta~e about Bhoja D:tII)JJ~;akya is,SiS mentioned by Ja.cobi,!'\efe!"!'ed to lfl the same terms in the K!lmasilllr<;l .• p. :24~whi.d1 is ym,mger than the K:lIlu~;aliYIl, <tn:d further !n the Rlm!:!.ya!~~" VIr. 79_,g~,whe~e' time' king':ll na:m~is Da~Q.a, a~d the' Jatllkas 52g.Z!~ :530,~!WrM!:r,e ~11(l ]£lc;]]~!ltd Dal)@.aldn. Ti:1e,Videha,pfiru~eKlI['1ilai$ rnEl[),tklllJ~d 111 the Vi~a.y atyiiigopad,eSal;:ulak 1I!J wlli.chis not a(loo.s:!llbi~to me, b~It is evi.dent~y ,ill ]at:e work.

2. kopa,. koP«i Jmu:mn:jayo brfiluJ~aUI1·~r~ v~TR.rfinJ(i's Tii.i(1jm.jgJ.i~§ca .Bllr:gm;th through O!~ger h:le',lsh.ed!) Janllrn.ejiay,!lJ, ;Jssamng: b:r.!lJhml.u;las, und T!l.]aj,u1gha wkh tbe .e:brgu.i>. Mllb~. Xl L 15(M W~ :I"'ead.

(l's'id 1-a:j'ii ,,~all1l"'!!irytltl F_ar£ktp'j ]a~l-amei(ly(lli I

ab,l~ddR.ipil'r.mm (~gaechad 1n':a!j,1~i(lIu:t$J'fi;~N 1#altl,ati/J ~~

there: w~s a king Qfg.r~at: 'ilUgoWi, Jal'la.m.ejaya ~he son of P~rik~lt; i:nj ilH:) iciol1sl.y he betool~ Mm.se~.f to br;J.l:lm aij.a" mU,O!e'f. And M lil hh. m, 303.u runs.:

amana.yau M 'mltl~G:rllfjj~ .V:i!l(~lPI:S ca "Ji'ttMistt1'al} II nlhato bl'allirn'tJdat~(,ll!na WWjailgll..as Ittt:lzm"1ltl ca .III

3, la.bll(l.~ /lIlJ.lriid Ait"(l~ t-a.t.!W'£ifU·Hpam a,(1;ltlhlZrayam~l~!ail $(:!m.l'lr'(1s , (:'11 Aiabiudlil,(~, thtn1ugh 'gr~~d,O"el'9!S5I~s5ingttJ,e fGI~" '!ifarg,as, p!i!:rrs~H~d

Aila and Ajabindu SallJv]ra:, Cf.. Mi:lbfu. L 75. ~o fr.:

1Jiproi/) sa vigra}m'~~ cakr(!~~ry(1m.1uJ;ltal~ /?'1,tr;fln.:tf"oJtili ,I jd'ilraca sa 'Ulpr~~~~ 'ral}j'iil·fY r.j/R~'()§atri:1t'l ap£. ., . t(lt()~.laAa~·Mib 'wud(ih'a~'&Sa.PI'QsadYO~GIUlsyGta U

vigour·maddened PUIi],ravas qua:rrdledwUb the 'hn.hmat;I!.'ls, and he toek a.w.ay ~be jewels of the ltd,h!nOl:Q;$:, timali;l:gl:! tlley cried (lUll.. • . . thenbe1i!t onee perlshed, cl.l!l:$ed by 'll1~ :1Iing:ry brahmatlas.

4. muna, 1.!liit:t'id Rri1Ul~~(Jff jNlx'ada:raJl ap.r.G.JaiCch<ttl: Du.ryfJtlha~m .r6e)'ylid a~.?,I~a~rl (Ai,~I;m:mghl.l<l,ugiuirle5S (perisbed) H.l1vaf.!A nor g[\11ng 1J p the othe'ulswifej and Dur),od!hana (f10~ givrng up) 81. share .in the ]dngdom. The tales here .rderr;ed to are too w~M known to need any comment

S. m:ada: ~nadMpo.ulliIUJtiM(J/l;JtJ MfUlJvamlin'i H a£IUly.asca .• lbit~~~J.~1 thr-.ough wan,tonne!!'!!· (peti$hed) Qa~l!i.bl:!(HJ1bh:av8i l'tJ. despising (other) beings, and Arjul'la Haihaya, Mhbh. v .. 96 Ndates. how Dambhodbh ~Vll

re ;1



H.·F .. KI.

went abotrt in search of somebody ·equaJ Oil" superior to h imse]f, was r.d~m~d to NaFol and Nal"a:y:aQa, was dill.feated and I.mmbled by them, a nd tne[(l beg.'l:[1 to pr.;ict~ser~ghte()·lQsl'le$$. lieFethe'rt! is no reference to his pelfi:shitilg'..Mhbh. m. I 16 11 srrates 110\"" the Helhaya A!"juJll!3.

came to J~rnaciagnPs hermitage, earned off the calf' of the h()<lJl(1dlu'!uu ,r

and jmlled down the trees, Para~UJr:!ll'llt'l dum chcpped off Arj un.a 's thous.<lJnd arms and killed him,

6. hm~a';' im:r'lffd Vatap.11' Ag(j$fY(j.matjll5(ld~y(ln Vr$1)iStJ7lgha's ea DU(uplt;'1onl1m i:ti,~hr·ough m~ITY'In:aldng '(pel'islled) V!i.1t:api doing ,dO:lc11Cfl to Agastya, and the V~l)ii·commU!ni.ty eo Dv:a:ipayana ,(cr ... boee sub kOjJa, 2, for V.!iUi:pi.,. and Mbbh. XVI. r. :I:5 f.a bout the V:rolJis and

. D vaip:i:yan a: :theY'n eeked Vi~v.:'!mHra" KaJ~,·a amd Nrir.ada, dressilligup &!mba .<lis a woman .aDd .uskmng t,niEl ~jrlts whait he ,\'@1.dd gh'@ b~rth tot KlIl,*lya"$ st:a.tern.f!l1t that they ,did violence to Dvaipt'lya~tll ls o:i importance, for, as, mentioned by Ja.cobi·, L1lJ:iers bas sholi\'n~ ZDMG 58,. p .. 6~u, tliiat this is in accordance with. the original veraionof the Jiltillka!:i .•

The n1il al stanza of 1. vi then mentions jamadagllya (Pai8lIllrAma) and Aml:larL$!I Nabh~ga es havingenjQyedtheearth fo..1' a .Io.n.go time because they kept aloof from the Sl1lru$a¢Vtirga. As pointed out by Jacobi, there is l'lo,indkatio:1l ]Il the Mhbh. or]11 thenrst two books of the Rlm:l.yaua to the effect thllt P.lilrnSUl"!lim.a ever ruled ove]' the: earth asking"

AI1(ither s>e'nies, ,or tales is. :ili':lcll.cat(l!d in tbe Nis~llt;)pr3'~idhl, 1. NX', about t~~ dangers l.n~l]acing: a k:il1g [fl Ms harem.: a~/argrila!ftJ,~ali' stlUl!tJirastrlPaT'~{ldM~t~ dt'lJi~~ jm·§~t. ria ·;m,t1C!"d' ab/ugacchel. dl!VZgrJu! If;J~o hi blwiUi! Bhadras~(lJ!~ iagliana, H.liiilf~ !>lttyytlf#(wgams ('n put:ralt Kanis.am. .. mj{J't; m'(ulllttlleti' :lJife~a p,(J;r;p.'(}.$)Ul deevi Kal£raiat/~,'f)l${f(llghma nupwel}tl Vaira.nly(1Jt·1j.,nekll.aliin.IQl)in.'fJ Sa1Wlt'atl', JllJllhaJn tJdarS4Jto:j• W~)\~I!~ IJfU!llm~.r sash'(url krtJa iit.vl Viq.flraIJIti1,1' ja:ghaJu~,. having e!ltel:'ed the inner a.partment. he should see hiS qlle'en~ .after she has been proved to be pure by old weraen, and not aPP]loach any. For h:idd~n in thie queen-'·s. aRp.a:rtmellt ~be brother kmedBhadr;t,sena,. o:l:nd, lying in his nu:nthe,,}'s bed the $On K~rilJa." The queen ]i:iI]ed tlil:e· KMi ki:ng ha.v1og put poison on parched grains, saying it was honey, Vail:antya wilhan ankilet besmeared w~th poisOO"l, the Sal!Ivirn. with a girdle-jewel, J1iltitha\vith a mirror, Vi4ul'alth3J after having made a weapclI:! hidden ill he.tbraid... Some of these tales are indicated In

1945. No. r ,


E:am'H'Idaki. VB. 51fE, wheve W~ fil]d Vairopya iJi.W Va!:rajya fOIfV<!~rafltya'j and Jal'll~ya for J!i!iUUllA" G<!,I~aIMLt[S!li's~rjj everywher-e pl!'!i~",phrase$ the' Ka,u~aUya ~!:" t~,l~ Mhbh., ma'k~ng 5io'm~. :addutUotls which ne may partly h:l\!e take!'! from :a v~rn="<:;i:i]af' CO!inmentary in his, pcsasssion, but WblCh eannot be eonsldered to be :In eld SQU!"<Cie,

A s.light cl ifferem:<e h~tw,tJ:C'Eii. the K;iu,l~~lIya lInd the Mhbh. h<!J!O belen po.! ntccl out by.J aoobi, p, ()7'o,KaJll~l1ya., IV., vm. states that there h O!ve been people who have b een fm,md amo,nlg'th ieve,S\ivrthout t~ie(]j!$,e]ve$ being tb ieves: yatllli Jri lda:~4t1c'Qy(l1) k(1rJ;r~aklcsQ;6Ju1ylJd acornb t:oro '~r.I.fli· Ii brm)ii~!al), as MaQ;~a..vya., w:hQ was [lot 0'1 th~!efj but :said be was from fear ofm()les~tion", Mhbl~. T. ny]. 9' ,says: na frdt!/,r:M vall'm"l!a1!~ rlfj(Jm.~ afjl'llT},Wi ddh,v asllilm va', ha cd idnot say 11 '\'ItQr,ol~ good 01:' bad.

Knu~~d[ya V, v l r:lCiLdca~es the n~<ces5ityor obsen .. itllg trnll vat]olls behaviour also ,ofQltrr.el:' bdflgS th an men, anci gi"~s the foHowinlg' exam plea: ~yaM,~ u(t:{l:i{~'$£,u!I(J,flt£ Kiiityli)1Wiab pr(l'l,l(f;v"tJ'}a,[{~ty5yam,l, toekthe vows (sl'l:ring:): t.h~s!JIrJe' spl:'i[!kles~~gh j An~uil!co'pa$a'iJyam ,iti K(}.'t~liik() BhrJn;,b.rija.~, Ka~iii~a Bhamdv!ja beca U)sethe1:1e"'V3S ' 11. heron from the ~eft; trl'}am £H Drrghas Cii:riiJQ?J!I2{I,D]['gha C!ira.y:a[lllc onaoccmnt cof VOlSS,: Sf ttl snr1li GAif).tcacI1.mkh.at~~ GI1(),~3mukha because d~e eloa k w8JS (loki jh(Wlpra{~'a1d~$r'd ~'h" .1{ifljtJlk,ail, .IGiljal ka because .:mel,ephant spnnllded 1iowrlwds !lim; r(J,il'l{iS1Jm~l In·f!Mmt~s'ld ai Pt'csllma[i, Ph~una because aearrlage with horses was pFariseo; ./J~'<lNrtl:oo,e S!U~Q'I.! PMmMtjndra!:lj. t:'he:50n of Pi~una wn ~',n! a dog barked .aga:i:ll&l~. hlm .. These ta]es .a:re not, 'so :far as J 'kIlIOW j. referred tio :in other SOU'C~5,. GlIl}apaJti~~tri giv~$ e~pl ainaHon~j b1!.l~ we do not ].;;rJiO'\"i' a:nyt!l1ng ibolJ!t his 5011roes.IPi$una ]s:al~(l q uQled ei$e'l:l,I' he:re j e. g, Vln, ]ii, wh.e~ he 15 stat!l!:d to hav~mai]] t3]n~d th.:!'Ilt htllH~ng is worse than gOlm.bl1ng, i:leclIlU!!:e h'lthe C::).~e of the hme:r 01.1$ may Wi1!, as did JS:j':JJ:bsena and DlJJryQdha:rllil. E!ut[{!I'lJ1talya 0 bj'(l:ctsti1:at out! ml]~tah~"lly$ lose, as shown. by Nalaend Yl.ldhi~~hin,. Jacobi, p, 970, lif!mil'lds us of the fact d"JJ!iI,t tlii,~ Mhblh. :speaks of P~~kara ,<lind not 'lOf jay.atsell:sJj bl;1t rem<lvks ilia~ the I <ltt!li:r [5 a likely name: of N,da's, br'Otl~ef,

Such tales were e'V',identiy nu:meroll!~. 00 the g[ber hand we $urcdy finci any ir:ld~caJti.oJ:ls I?o;nt~nlg W the ce:~dstence of khY<l:S, of lyrical poetry, ora r-eal dr~ma. We k~ow from. ]3uddbLi$t: works and

A.f., Kt

from the d~;s,cQveries. in Chinese Tl!Jrikistatl ~hat th~r<l: were many Jydcal poets ilfl ancient days, And the: oldest ,kavi ~.rlQw:n~o ItS., V1ihn'lkh the 3:utho1i of t:he R1Ill:lly,UYa., t;[I"~S us baek.jo an eaiHer time thalli the 41h century ![!.c., and Jaaob~, p, 91'2~ m,ai n,i<l! ins that A~\I<lghot!a's phl.YS arid. his ]3.[lddhllca];'~ta5ho""'thllJt the~e had beena long d:ev,elopm.er:lt \vhi.dl cel't:ainily goes back t.o~haJt time. I am nQt able to a~ce'pt t:hi:s vJew . The Mal-i!l,bh iij,OjI a does llIotm,"mtioCi the drmim ~an,d }\,a;\!'a,gho~il 1;5 not elder ~h;8inthe: second h:a]f of the' rse, or, aocordul1igto my Chl''Oll oioS'y, thetlF$.t .. haJf of the gndi c~nt:!J ,y II .~. The Kflu~a~'lya ~peOlJ::$ '0] Kli:rmli~ti"a.!'i., N:ai<l"l~l~rkasand M~uhl'lrt1kll$ .L xiii, an d about N 3~~5:. NiI~"t:ilI~3s~ GiiYOlrl as, V:!l:d!'lkas~ V!igj]".a!'l:~:!!. aad KuW;<lv:a:s I. xii~ btl~.I.\'hat is m~8int <Ire c'1early V.lIri.01JS merry a!1!d!O~ws, m~mers} IlCl"Qbatsf meunee banks, &c.. and mot aceers aif real .I?~.ays. A nil we Qli.l!gtltto, rememberthat !O~;db a:rtisU; are mot rn,e!'ltione:di in the A~ok a hlscr~pti(lns" So far as I cans[J;e t~le a bsenee of an i~ld!icMk!!ns pOln~~ ng to a real Ol"1Irnlli$ an import.a.l'JJtsig[l or ~ge,

Pan f~ e O[llll, n d Te mpl es,

'VVitl~. reg:ard to lI~~ug~o:n, we fu,e,arabo1J't Ga~ri.lkes (:Wl1jna} as 0t1~lIS5io[J5 when 1'1. Ik~:ng may be ,easHy seen a!lG attacbd,. ami al:Jol.lt t~rnpJes (grha}fo'r dcdti'i!s suc-nas .Ap'lf~jitaj Ap!iatihata~ Ja.Y~llbt Vf)Jja;yanta, S.~vaj Vai~ra\!'<l!I}a, the Ahi!1s~ SrI <i!lfLd Madi!:'!!. j81boUJt v.ttstude-.,af,[f~~ (h.o~se·gods). abo~t aWjras (~QWIll.gl:Hesll ded]c!'l,t~c1to Bri!hm!li} Eml~a, Yama! and Sen!'llPa,ti f &iC.t blllit rno]",e ]5 . said abeue ,obsf:'J'vance$ and ,rites ofa-I], Adlarval'licl:!illt!Ute. ]V. msptl.aks Ofj1.rZJipffji'lj SaC'iNI."Ulm·· G-.a.netJ~tmnMl'ta. MaMi.k{J.c(hapi1}fi~. XIV. n menfiens varfeus methods for disJ~glllti]'lg, coloiJr.il'lg,~Itl:!'ling dise!lises, hea~ and fever, fOf heal~!'Ig and mating ins,el1sib~e to .hea:tand pain, preventing nre, &c., and .XIV. m ~p,e<!b Oil herbs, appliances. and cha-rms aum~ngat seelng in ~he daFk~ making ol'lese·]f and caWeimfi$iMe, w.al~il1g ][11 th.~ mr, openling stlil;llt doors I PJlilitting peop:ll1l to ~If!~p, flI(lU,tlfilJizil'lg weflipo~rns, c<'!,ulOJngooil]sf;ipatuQI:I and blindness, &r:.. The d'uiI,t:m:s. COl'!lt!ll1.I:'! several flameS - ofdleitiesfillda:surns:: Ban Vailf;Q.CIH'Ia,Satamll,y3, S:amha:,a:,. Bn:a:~u:lirnp!k8i, Nnl'at:::'l~ Nib:1lJmbhall Kilmbhllij D~'Va}aj' Mar:adaJ, SI!\MIII}i G!!Ia:lJ'riI., Slmam~PIJiJ;~pl, ]?j;,ahm:iljlTBr@.i1llull.KltlffiaJdh .... .aja, &c. Theyare pardy knewn from~l1e Mhb]], and othc1i seureeaand we have evidently

19+5. No. I"


to do w.it!ln. prilct~ce',s whIch p~~yed :!I!.conslderab]e rote ][J the cn:li:y pol,iUca.l sy5.~t!mof tjh~ M<lury:a Ul ~Il ~5te,'.

The i\yur\!'ed!a was he\id to be an Upllnlga of the .Ath<ln!:a~·edaj and\ye hOlve aJreacly seen wJ;l~ch gnlat role magl,r: plays in. Katl~1li]ya'5 medical notes. We there learu his ~[lrn es of various d rugsaed herbs, whi,ch am m,o;;tly kllown h"Olil oM soerces such <IS S'U~mtaJ' C:lrOlk<i" sndthe BowerrMa:mJlJscrup~, e, g. A'nr~ikelJ il'l~pfs5a~ed mUk; km-:im~r!~~'1'l~, corj,mder., tmmrii, lac, &c.. TI:1J,{!re are m.l![H~TQl!;o detlli~ed lI{l'tes on fermen tatitm, 011 g.if!l]IlS, and p!allb;",oll (m~:s an,d~~.1~ir treatn.llent" alchelIlY, am!a~g,am, ,c3]c~.I"Is~iol'l, '&c'., It is ,of l:nte:l~M lbat mercury (rascal was km)w n" It is alse meneen ed bJl" Caraka. and S~5rut<l, and i n the BoweT Man user! pl, b~t elsewhere r[ltttll~.y in later texts. Alse $,l~loa~ sulphur, OCCUf$j and it is perhaps ,bes:~ not to b"yto fi~]d out whetn,~r l~' lilliS, aJlj'tihlng" to dQw.id!l.the L:H~nw()rd.

The whole s:yste:m of tih,~ :adminj;stra:tloi]~ llil'ld~r which everybody i [I the ki~lg' s Ileigbb@~rhood,the q~ee'n!,. the pri~Cles~ the: miI'lLcste..s .• and down to the meanest laitlourel"~ \,::1.$ .!nist~~ed and watched ,!~clI to detailecd rules ;lilld regulaAjollS ~bout e'i,"eryting.

Tn~:L~ is only OD~ :!5,ta~m!1::nt in the Kau;~a]['ya whi.c.h iseonnelCted l",it:h S]~;a, ;;j,;. noli: (1.M~dd'y'(J vin'tlJs frl!;(1!!5tl'~} there are 63 S(]'l,l!ndls, b~girm,ing' with a. ,",v:e knew from theoofl1lTle~t~l:'yof tb~ Ta.~tt. PrlthS1khy:a tllat ItheSi~~kllra ~!Iad saki tri~~'{i:s t!:(li!l~r;a~#t· '<Ill wrQi'l'{l SamouJJ.i{tle :nt{l/,{ttt. The nillmb~r 63 i:s,al:s@ga,ven i.n the Ha:riv!lIT!sa [616r.

:2. Kal.ptl'.

The: .K;dpa.smras are S,ral:!Jt;~·, G:rhY<L"Oi.[IdDltarmasi!itr;as" Kiln· ~<!IY<l!mentigl:l$ dIe \:v~I.H";1I1I own rll les a,o,Otllt the: duties: of tJ~efotlr var~Ul:~ (ca;$,t~5) T .m~ wliidh do not enable us 1)0 dl"aw ;liny cilrorlo,]og.kal inferenee. 'We mOlY note" hewever, the:refe!Oe nCll to re'ma:rria,ge"of a w.id~j.w, Ill, if, whi.<:'h is ceril:aiH~Y<! :si.gr!iof 11 COlfrll(H'It"lIt1vely early period.


H.·F, KL

3. t)rJ;wwa~tI .

.Kauta1y.a's not~:5 ,S1oout Vy'ka~i~{Za ~reiJf con('>idel'able h:npol:taIl'C~ III connection with the questien of dll~.

If we llI'bs'!:r,act fn;ma P11.llniJ the mest importantokl grammatical work is tb,~ M3~iabila$J'1I~ whicb preS1JppCi1SeS Ol,km.g Glflvel.o:pm eu ~ of grammatnca.] lo.e b~tw!!:;e~its <l:UHIOf"!ld PaQ~nli. And we' can, \,~'hh ,scnne cOflfid(2!n;c~, mil'lnt~in that seme of P,!iJtaiij.a~Ys statieme\IJ~S have b een taken over rroim his predecessors.

Some Qfthe' .1II,1thorities. h~ qu~tes a.re,dso lkn own fh;Htl the:

K,1'.I11~all]J',a and the .Kiitna.silitra,and as pointed out by jaeobi, Kuiltur., Sprach. i[Ulld ['iwra:~l]rl'ti.storI5ches, p, 959~, the pired ecessors O'f Kall~alya and Vatsy§ysl'la WCl:re 5:Oime'~hnes· alse grammarians, ami the!"e~sj moreover, a l'emaJ'kabl,e agreement benli'~(Ml Pa'tafijalial'ld Kal!J:~alya in the use ,of som e glramm:adc:il:~ t:enni$.,.

K!liu~al:]ya It x says: 1)(W~~Q!Sltl~,igniila~ padam. me. caturuidba~jl ~iiit:!~likhyatop.a'S(jrg(.mj'p{il{jd(;l!tii a """,nrd .is:! combiu<!itioll of ~ol,mds~ and it is of four kinds:noUJrI, verbjprep(lisit~onj' particle,

This .agrees with Y~ska~s NlrlJ!k'ta I. ·8; c.(l.t:ijvli:n~ padaiiitiJ~u" ,1I}m{j, kllyilf:c 6rt/h1$arc/'t~=i~lfi.~ ati~ lInd Ma1ill:ibha!~ya p. 3 ,ur: t(lirofiiri padajdU!ui tt(JmltklryJtapasa.l"§ilf~.dptUl1s CcG.,. Piil]lJ:] I does not '!:J.s,1!! the tC'lrms wlma and {l'kh~ta fOir' noun and verb, respectively j but li,ep!aces them by sftPand tij~. ]t woukll, however, n01t beadvh):aMe to draw any cbrnIlQ.log~GaJ] C(:InCiIll,S;UOI'I$ [I"om thi$ difference .in t~rmlnolog'y.. As stated by J aooMj 1. c, p.. 966, Kau~a~.Yfl's dl!!finitiQD of dle terms ~~paf.apga and nipilla are, mQrC1:0V~lI. 11:'1a:ccord3.nc~ \!l~th Par.a:in:i and evidel(1Jl~y based on hi,s rules: ()If .Kilu~aJ:ya IL x krl;!-avise~iN!~prl1daYrl t",pasar{jii{l. lI'lJY8)'oaS cada:)'f) mPiJtl1'b w]th P.!i~ini I.iv j S6n. P1~g rnc11'an n£p51lJ'~, CiU/ayo '$t.jm~!?,pTlidaya ~,tm$(}.'ptfZb kriyllYO~.

Asm~Hl' but [nt~restlng detail. IS the IJIs.e of the p.<'!!"tkle l#ab in summing Ill' a disc~:S6:iotn, i f1the fil:'lil.l stllTIiZ:' of VU. vii. hoihe~e Shama.S~str] d1:a:ng~ to J:da:ltj', as, rr~q I!l.elltly in the M<!h~bha~Y<l! w~th the!Iru;OI![l]n;g (al1d I say)' ~ therefore ~ ,. iEtl\OGuc:ing the re:ason: d. Lllde:;$~ Si~unlgslbel'khle ~9161 1'" 'f ~9·

r'-'-- .....

- . - -.----~-. -~-----~-,~-. --~ .................... ----

1945. NO.L

4. Nlrukta.

We; eannet expect 'to lind any remarks eonneeted with 'the fc urth Ved~l)g1li,tl:J,f! Nb'rmia, .i[1~heK.,u.l:~a]'i'y!I. ~,ut the iii nll.]men r t~on of the (OUT classes o:f words justmentlcned, with lheoo[i(;hu;:lirilg ceti, looks like 01 q~ota.tLOrl :from Y:I.skil.

s. C I~(:l~uia£ ..

Kau~31ya. eannot be expected to, give rul.~s .. bout metrics, but .I:11cobi, p, 97 r, h<ls sh,ownti-la:thi:s CI'W!'! 1.I5~~ is in dose ,ag.reE:ment with that of the Ram!ii,ya.lQi1l!j arid this, ]S certainly a: sign of age.

6. lJl()H$a~l.

Asmentionecli by Jaco'bi,p. '9721' a primitive as:tro]ogy e~isted in K,ul~a.]ya's days. Of pl'ane1:s, m:dj' E!~h~sp.ati Uuppit.e:r) and Sukr,a (V,el'l1.!sJ are mentioned, ]t xxiv, but that, does not: show tbatthey were tlh,e only Q,nes known, (lind ~X. lv W'e read .. bout ~,Mk'$(llra5 .md tilhisl the latter without fUTtherr fl1->l?i<ll'lla'lioll.

Much fuUer are the notes alb out, the c<lletld sr, I[. ,~i ell:p]ai:ns the term kala, time: rlJia,'1Q}~$'!l~!.l mllsa{1 piJk5}o di'<la'saS ell 'jJyw~t(lm. var~(j" k(Jj~.I'(mtagr;$J".i(i{l(JJ~ (rti..va$tfpt(l"t,fll dr.Nl$'W111'/; pa,k~lfl.i, se$:i!# frtmJlJl;. Prln-dg atihlnlasaka ~fli klIla/;, rosa] year, month, IortJJl,i.ght" and day {a.re} the v)'~~{!1.. III ~(lr\1lt:'l~ (the rai I"l!s), /u!;nanta (wllite.i) arid grl.$uul. (s,u:mmer) thethi1rd and seventh f(>tt!!'!igilts, an .1acl:.in_goI"l!e' day, the oth,@,j'" ones are full.. The Oldditional mQl1tnstands apn.rt, all this is killa (time) .. Breleer, S'taa'tveT'i.\la~tlJl:1g im alten Indien, pp, 257 f.., IblloW,5 Sham as.asu'J' Second Oriel1ltlll. Conference, Cal'cotta 1922 (not a'OCl!sSiible to me') a:n d takes tp'yllf{a~o mean begit~ ohl,g oj the year, but the use 0{ iii befon~1jJ'i~fl(lJ as elsewhsre in Kal.lta1ya's practice, shows that we hawe to do with a, lecllnicl'll term, \\r.hich seems to mean gone: aw,ay! ef 'UYU~la in the Rllp:m!!.til e-d.ict of A$ob.

. E:a.cb . af til~ three seasons, mention ed above contai.ilt!!id hv<o mont:hs or Four fo;rlnig;h,5, thus together 6 months or twdve fortnights. The third and the seventh fortnights were e,ach one: da.y shorter t:lh~n the ethers, There were thus .2 ,short as ,against 10 ful] fortnights; but nothing mere is said! abollit this maUe'!". Then eemes the <licce.ssory month, and aU thIs is wbatis called kit/a.


I I ~


H,·F. Kl

ll; x.Nwe l~ad: (~ril'jti.l£k() ~m~hfJrl(lil. ,part,cad(JsomuAn"i()' (/iooSQ ri1hi~ca Caitnt mii~'i:li' A$,7,)'rryujr. ea ma: ~£ l/ka~w:t(* talaf.l para,?, i}'loid," :1mdu1.rta£r (my(J/(u·d'l~ '$a~maStl~f~rJffrdij(~tt,l Im15~lc ctll', a :muil,w'ta hss two II,aNs. A d aJ'y an d <I. night ia$;~ .f .5 muil~ir'o.s In ~the ulonths 1 Cnitra and Aha~~.l~ja a. c. a;t~he v~f'I]:3Jl and !lutu:ml:llfl[ equincxes], Thereafter ellher fflcre'.a~e$ Or deeraases d~lii ng sj':;,: lJmoU'~hs w~th three' muJJ{h:I~5' {~'. I! .~be'Y ln crease from Caltra clrIw:rrtl'ds and d ecrease froi!In .if s.rayt1ja). No'w as a ~11~1t!#ir.ta~s ,eq~~"JOlJe!"!t t:.o ",8 mil"l1:l~es, th,@imlgtll!j,t d~y would have 18 muhltrlas er ~4 houtS 24 mimrtes, the short:e.s:t 9' h. 36 m, An d thus is ]1] fun llg'!'eel'lle.nlt w.it:h cldseurees, aDd with the I">e'mad;; abol1tthe dlree short :fo<rt:lil.ights. W e ,ev:h::l,ently have to do\"'~~n the day:!> of rheJunar months.

The term vy~a is also used abolJ~ the ent-ed~~g of receipts 1[1 the ak$ctpalala hnl'3~uryl. ]L vir. 'TIle superintendent should enter the incom.~ a:fh::r tp}tl$!a~. plOl,eeof depo<s<]t!. ti~TleJ' headlng, origin, way of comlng- fn~tiIleaJ5uj'\e~ paye~rJ' conectQr~ <C:lll'tari.ng d~k, and 'mceiving' officer, vY/1l~~{(lde§(lk'til'am:!mi~o.I')t1I(J,I1;Jj:!Fdrltipra:l'.ltifVad{1yakttdtip(duu~ilmlf" dJ1Q,_k-aPFQ;!£/f-ro'lu)kai$ CJyIU~1 SmJttl;ltayc.~. H~"ethe finot, .. ryljs~a), is the ~iliq1)'aI'~a, tbf!Jl~~u' ofth:e king', <lind we I;;nol\\I' {romtbe A~okJ fnsc:ri plions that re,gmd dates were given in elapsed Ye'ars. The enl:ri~s, Siboll~d ac(;oflciingly me~r:lUQ<n l~ow _rn:any ye;il,fcl:lJ, monlh~, [ort[lIRgnt5.i. and dl<lYs b<lidl gone' when the ,payment ''''as made.. the place wh.~mitwas m<l!dej the time (rai.fl'S~ &\C:.) of ~n.try~. &c~ Therel1lr"-l: i;!~rnilar i.l:'Ist:n.lct~oi[!$ aEi out ex,pe~n,ditl] .. e ('iJy.rJ:ya), ea.put:al. (1./JJJ'V, bUlt: all this has, nothing-to dQ w.itbthe c3.]e;m,dar •

.About tbe lU[larmon~ih$.w.e:r!Bladl, 'It xx: ./J'Illc(uiaSlihomtcrl1l). ptJk$al;. somll.ryllyana/J Sukla~.$D1.iUI.;'Mr.ud~edanQ balmla,~, a fortn~ght has [.:5 d<lJy-ni,gbt-s; wl1:ellthe moon. lncreas~s,it l5 brigh~, when it is OlJtj d~rk.

FUFtnerW'('l mUl v~tbt:' usual distinction between tile northward alld $,DiLUJi1.w.ard motio~ ot the SU!fI, the former beginning h~ the eold $.ea$ol:ljth.a laeer in th~ raim,; sUiiiJ.dy!' utta.r(Jyafj{l'm. 'wrWfjdi dak{;intl" J~ll'nam. And w~~a..¥~ the usual six seaseas, eachcont<linil'lgh!~ mQnths:d'i.J'(1t~ 11.IU'sil.... r~r~b. .5:raua~d Pr,t;)~i{h(1p(1J(l~ ca v·(lr:~gb.· M~~.Il'lUja4.1 .Ki'lrtliktlS ce sarat • .Miil:gaslr~a,b P(1,~if):(tS ca Ifc'mcmtab.' Ml1igka,b P~M.l!JItmd ca Msir:~,fJ. CI1!:t:n;J Va£$iikAas C~ 1Ja$anlal~. Jy.e'fiIAii~rflf1ya A'IJ,rl,dhas co cii~m(ll~. Thi$ Sleem$ to oe in, dioslllgreeme'Il,t,wit:hithe BrlbUlISi~as~ whkh g~v,ePha~g;llna and C:aiua fo:rtltj$@.ia] V(l£sakha and

Jyal~M(j for gr~la;' A5}dt!ha <lilt! $~'li'~Iiltl!a forr u(l:r~a6t.l' &c., But it will be silen that tlll.s only me .• ms that in the I{al:l~!lJhyathe mowl,ths beg,in with fun· mooUl , as,is some't~mes also the C!lISJC'l jill other o!d,SQlilrc~s.,

Then we have some r~m!lik$a OOt.lt the varying le'[Ig'th of mO:r1~hs Cor$pedal ]'ea$O[!$: trb~ISadan()r(i't'mJ; lraktu'lmn.~~i!i$.a~,:3J wQrk·moI'ilh has 30 das·niglI~$; s(h'dhali .WU~M' (l" a. SllJrl"mOilltti30 If::; rmih:m'lJ',I'l~la$ di~itih'jJ~!fisa~" a uloon"ri:1iI1I'lth 2911i.i.. sapta1Ji),tl$,ath- nlE.~abwwif5aJ.h a Nakijiat,ra"lm:mt:b 27; drrffjtpir~~sad~j,ullaJm's.{j~, 32 the inten::alOlJed month; paTical'ritrlsari (J5-<mc<Jl'lJll'l:y.{l{~. 3,5th'~ mandl Oif horse.groom ing rCG· t~rb,11S(1.d dha$,ri#ih(jylJb,~o the moneh of eJepna'nt.·grooming.

These rlll]~ are' I!iot knQwn, r~om ,ollier SQUrte.5 which 1 have seen. KaiJta~.ya~$ ge:ogrn:phi)ell~ ilor.izoIil can be as,ce:rlf;ained! frpm the nam~5 ofl.oc<lUti~s 1itI!lt,rlt:iioneci by~"Ilm,. es:p!i!:!cl.8IUy in conn.~ct~o.1:'! with the prevealenee of Var~OUi5, .objects H. xi~ xiii, xix .• sxlv, X~\i'; xxx. It tab$in the whQi,e or ]Filmll.J.[f'O~fi fhe Hlml];Iya. 10 the north to the T.\'IrnH ciOu[!tryin the south, frpm Afghl1n]st!'jiIJ in tn~ \Vest to A$S3liill. and BIlFrn8lin the (la;;r" OlJltsidCl: of India. Katl~a]ya knew Cey~ofl and. China. No chn:II:IOI.og'ka] infere:nce,ca:n be d~a wn from tbis sb~e of lh:~ngs, for Jacobi WOlJS prQ baJb']yrighit. 1[1 mll intallJ mg, Sptac'~. 'Uitld Uterat!.1rM!O~O\rl;scl:!e$l? 96I~. tn8i:t~he 1:'I:a.m~ Cli!.Ja 1S nee d(':dved froID the dyn'aBlt;)' of tile Th:S:~1] (:<:47 B. c.).

The geogirapl:lkal na:l:liH!S @ccu:rri.fllg' ~[1 the Kau~.a!iya c~mno~ aht'ays, be klefl'tifiedJ, when tbey are, not kno.wn from, otm~r SOtlJl"C!I!S.. In mcst case'S Ga."apatl Sa:stvi lla;stne;dIto do ,S!O~ and. th~'", I ilia ve addled G.r", I)!fter th,e name, Sorne,t'lme'sit !Can be doubited whether we havete do with a name or ]QCll~~tyor with a. noun. derlOUflg~ome q!;!aJhy~ <lind fn $~ch caSeS ] h:'l\1'~ added a query. [have the[l dral,l"l:!iIl1P. an :dpha b(l:t;ic31 i.ist of sillch words .• ' which mlly be of use, adding: rde:,e:noe,s to the t~xt and the produce s~aJt:edto be fOllJnd in the "'a.r10Ils, ]ocaltti.e~. A p.arl:!.Il'ta(Ko!lka~ and Mala bar) ]1. ,x i (COUOIl), ~;;:Jv {about qJLI<lmJl1ty of

ral fl needled for ~.owingj.

}WIlIltl (MMava) ]1. 2'::dv (the samel, Atokagraull:a On Assam) M. xi (:Siaflda~,". Mmak:a U"" Sind} 1[. ;):.x:iv (as wiih A ~'<u]~i}.

Ainlt:a:rapatya ((['{;Im,tile RivlI'lr Antara:vaU~!'l A$sam~ Ga~,) ILx] (s,8inda~', Ar.a~~a(thecolJ!I1IEryo.f t!h~ Sln.dihurljl<lj. cr. Ml)~. VI. 8S. 3.7,84~ Il •. xx:'!:



H.-Y. K!.


Indrav:l,[lika (from Kalin,ga, G.aQ.) n. xi. (diamonds).

Auu:arapal'v,ataka (from the Nor~h·Mourltain, t',~. Himalaya) n. xi


Kapi~!'i (river and t:O,Wti. in the [O!bu]00 Urlt.TY' 1.[. xxv (wine). K:lntani:ivaka (?) Il, xi (skins).

Klmbub (?1 sO'me mOu'Il,t<lil1.Ga.~ II. xiii (sUveT).

Kambojab (from Kamboj.a, Easter:n A(ghMni.sU!Il) II. xxx {horses.). Katdamika (fI:,\omthe river Kardama, il, Persia, Gal,)) 11. xi (mauJ.:tika). N::alaq::lIl.Fvat<l m IL Xl (sanda!).

K!1ingaka (From KilUng-a., Coromllndel) n. xi, xiii (cotitOtl and b:HICh· stones) .. ,

K!!:s<ik;a, {from, Bcmares) n. xi (cotton and k$tirm'l't&, silken cloth). K!i~maka, KIlil'ltJra, or KasUrii (re·adlng' and exp1anll,tion uncertain] IF .xi (diamonds.).

Ko~il\:a,rapal'vata (?) U. xi fS3.nd.a1}.

Kau~a ([rom K.ofl:f between MalaJ a !lnd the sea, GIl~) It xi {ge:ms'J' ma~Jn

Kallleya, (f:r·om Kllla~ a river atthi~ Maytlragl'llma, Ceyl'o!1~ Gal;l.}

H. xi fJ;1(1;uktlka" pear!).

Go~r~ fMal<lyaika:de'~e; Galt.) IE. xi (sandal). Ga,Th~ika (from. GElllc;la,. N olth Bengal) It xm (.sih.er)l.

GI~merll.ka (MalaY<I!.tkadesi!, GAQ) U. xi (sal:1da], tailap(ln.JiI~a sandel), Caki-ava:H (an unidentified p.it) II .. xii.i. (si]ver).

Cillapa.~iI, Ollabh'llmij.a: (.91:11.:: doth from China) II. xi.

Cinasl [in BaJkh) II. xi {skins}.

CaurQeya (f!'om the 'dVH Cili'I)L i!;l the Kerala. ClOuntiy, :n.ear the tQ,\11] Mmcad; qill)) II. xi (1'1J17uittika" pearls,).

Jlmbufl.<lda, {from 1 ambtlnadi; ol:'ll~of the: branches (:If the he,a. v~n,ly GangaJ• d .. Ma.h. VI. o. 243) II.:xiii "goLdJI,

Jilvaka Or Japaka (in K!lma:rilpai Galj .. ) Il, xi (sandaij ..

Joi.Jgaka,o-r Congaka (in K!mar'Qpa, GaQ) n. xi (sal'l!cla~. ,tailap(lY1Jika

sanda], aloe). .

.ra:pipll#l:r;a (Ili stone fr'Onl tbe ,[ver npJ, GaQ .. 's emenda:tion~ II. x:iii. but r. Klil~Kaka stlllll1 Pfi$iiJ./Q va (a Ka:liflga. kettle 'Oil' stone), U. xiii ,~touch~tcm!l:l.

Tlmbrapan)ili:a (from the river Tamr,a.~al"l:u in Malaya) ILxi (pearls) .. T!il'Qa.sa (1, {r'om theriver' Trniill.sIi,Ga.~' U.,;;d (sandal').



r l




i94S. No. I"


Tuttha '~an unidentified mounEa~n" GaQ)1 U. "iii (silver). Taftahl (unidentified' n.xxx (Iloil'se.s}.

Taurupa (in f{a.ma1iilpa, Gal).l I], xi (sand,al). Dai"'3saM~,ii (?) ]L ,xi (sandal],

Dongaka (in Klirnarilpa, Ga:iCI) ]1. xi (il,o,e).

rh;{jdn:sagr:i'JJ'1afya (frolll ;I; 2' mil~cch::l. vm<lg,es in th:e Hima~ aye, G8JQ) U. xi

{liis: and mail.fili.lsi sk[nst N:igaparvata {llInidentifiecl)] L xi "sandall,. N;lipllaka (from NepiU) It xi (sheepskins),

Pa.J;I~lyakav!Uaka (irom .Malayako~i hmj Gal)) Il, xi (nhlttk~a, [leads). PapeJI',aka i(unkl!e:n'tifi(l;dl Il. xxx th,or.&es).

Plralauhityaka (from beyond the Lalihitya, the BrllbmOlputral Il, xi. (sanda]).

Pl!.rasamyor,al::a (from beyond 'the Sea" ~'. e. (rom CeylOl:'l) ILxi mal,i. gems, aloe"

P!l~ikya lfrom Pl!i~jkli,8L river ne,,,,r Pa'~aHpilirra, Ga!)) II.xi) I~uauktlka~ pearls],

Pu.n;;iaJkildv:rpaka (from Pilin~lIcl\'~pa [1'1 K:tma rllpa, Ga1;i) II. xi (ttliMp61n;.!ilm sandaI).

Paut~dli'ako. (from PUll)<;.h"a, Sooth B~h~rlilnd Bengal] .n.",,:i 'd:I,fk~'l,Ia:

silI:j R$(1um(l. silk, jJalli'i)YIl-'lI silk).

Praiyaka (unid~ntifiedJ Il.xi (~ki.llsl"

.Bm:hlSiv~y:a (rrO'Ill Ba]kh) H. xi (sk:i:n s'J; Sahli ka It xxx Ulor.;e5~1" Ma.gadl.m (South Behar) U .. xi (ptr.t~elr!la silk), :dx (we'ights of stone). M~irnalltaka ,tbi[1 In, NOlrtberil! l'ndi1!, r, ·mmJ-tlt.alM, d. A<bh. Xl II. 18.

IS28) ILxi <[diamonds.}.

MadhJ'amar!'l~~ra (tile Kesala country) n. xi {diamon ds]. Mmdhura (from :lii'Iacil:an) Il.x] (coUOI'l)'.

M!ll§! (river between In.dl.-~p'rastha and Gi1ii:vr3lja,c£ Mah. II. 20'. 7950) ll, xi fWla~i" ge.ms).

M.ah~alta «the- ,C(j'untry 011 the Narbadli, capita] MAhi!?ma:t:i) U"xi (c,oUon). MII.heodra. (from Mal.e11drapaFvat:m., the hills from Orissa. to Mad un) ILxi (mauki.ikoj pearls].

Mebla (N!ount Ama.mablJtfllka whw~ the N arbad_! has i ts s(n:irc~; cf.

Mah. VT. 87. ,3855, where we read that the Mek.!!las fonowedt~,t'l' Kcaala killg} Il, x:ix: (\:1.'eigbts; of seone),

1ihingaka(fro:m Vaflga., Eastern Bel1i~SiU Il, .:d (.d~dmia sUk).

,H.··Y. K.I.

Vat5ak:a (fmi:n VatSa..G:a.p~t3.~ KlIUslimb]) .H..l'd (ootton). VilJl!i_JlIU. (U!nldflnti~C\ld, cf. Ma~. V1.9' ,365), Il, xxx {horses). Va~.Qa,V8i Ifrom Mm.l:t1It VeijuJ unidentified)' n. xuli (gold,. ::!lrOl,taku:rn bha hlirl. id,ent~fiedj ef Mail, VT. 9· 326} II. xlil (go] d), S:!ikala. (Sill U.@t) II.::-;i {inferior sand ~U.

Sn.odakry<l f?~ Il, xI r. nleriDf s:nndllil.

S!,'(lgllsukti {il!i SUivllr(labilQmi, 'Galj).'$ bha~f!!ika~ ILxUi '[gold} . .sr[k-a:~amlka (?) I L sl (d iam:onds).

Sab~9:r!i:~p·alVaidarb'h[l, Berar] Il.xl (dill!IWinds).

S1tana (?) n. ~'d (sa.nd.;J,O ..

S:Uilll m ll.xl (otter ikins).

SamQra, S!milU 0) Il.xi {:;;~~i[ls f~Qm Bafkh], Sailldha va {rrom Slnd) n. x x.x (hors~s). Sauv'itab (fmm SUli!1ra) ] L xxx (holLs;e~)..

Sr~:Ut',a.s]'y:a (from Srl:.ltasl, a river BlItltiarai:iliirflJ, G3.I;)'.) 1[, xi {mauhtika, pearls),

SI1.l;n~a~bhilmi [Burma) Il, ):.~ (k£thlyaYa,. saffron); Sauva:r.Qab.l(Jyaka ia£i(zpat'~!ilm~ d1>{luJ.l.ff~ POlt"llP.'1,Jtl s.ilk}. {.~cc. ttl E. MOJle" Journlll of the Pall T~t Soc:u~ty I,8a.S, p, IQ2 "most prebably the co"~l from Ra.ngoon to SingapQ r~j\.

Harieendana ~Haride5f\ja, Mala.yaikadeSe, G,,~} l[.;!bi {s<l!l'ldaH.

Ha~a];;a (Gam:Jh<l:rv.u:.ak~[ta. desa, cr. M.all. 11.2<8 .. 1(42) n.xm. (goJld). H!nhrCiira hhe K:!Ibl,d~Qllntry, J{,flpiM:ya~MltiH'amhf:lramj' ]I.N};'" (wind. H"'~lnav:ata {from Bim~l:ay<l) ILd (f~.tlJtJktiktJ, pearls).

Haumya. Ha.imanya (/dllJil,mbuni1ij(JJya, to, be' produced with SI'IOWwan;~f, cr ~ from the HimaiO!y~) ]I.;I;""iv {.~[llO ~t1t of rain needed forsowin,g) ..

Hr!'l.d]ya ttr~mthe Iwada Sl:']gh"n;~a in BlIifbfll"akil!iJl, 6111)} n .. xl (~.j1,a.uktiJm~ pearlsl,


L iv opens with th.e; remark: kr$l~ftri$I{:pi11ye ~m,t.!ijya C11 'OJurUf1, a_grkIi.lJt;U!re'~ c:~t~le. ore!l!ldillig' and trade (constitute) the :rJ/Jrtm ..

T t

a. k.r~l.

.Kr$i, plr.;lt!ghi!lg, is ;lgr.ucll]tl[J.r~ iPro:p~, sowi['Jg and 1:1 at,.e~t~ng'.

It .xxiv we v~ad: $;ilryuli Iiija5:l:ddlril),. from, the 511n the m.atliiring of

, ~

r !






. :ee==;azs:gs

.1 94:5, No. I.,

the seed: brh(lsjm(rb !l'a~~t,l~IIJ;'!1 $.t(lmlm~vwil'il, fl'tlTn Bril<1l;spOlti Ul;lppite'lt, the de,itj" 0 f the l:n.Qif:]t~.b Pu~yiiJ., Decembe r·,l<il [Iualf,Y ~ th e fanning of ears: ~';"l>d~rtl'd<'r;Ui ~I,. fmm SlJkli:l. t\l anus, t;b e d~.ity of M"y"j'll.['l(l:) tllemi n ~ tola/; jwabhm(xlakam d/p.()«(lk(l.r!~ '<Iif S(l:5)!'dI]t ~1iP.(j:J'CI. then one should SQW theg;ra~fl ]]~.adfng [I1lucb or ~iHh;: wa;te'r; .~al£v.1'ilirk()lb'a<fati.lapri. ~'fflilgudt!ytd:(~'t){mdttl.lj pi~r,m'lJlipa'~j' sfJii :ulldv.y'jM rlce,.,kod~"'a~.1ll l[Pasp:illrum 5ic:robk:u~flt!i.ltn), s~:nn,pn)af.l.grl fp.ani,c se,ed~, dr1raka r?t~~arnka {<I kl n,c] of beans) are the first so",,,,.ing's; MmdgmnI1,{;'Os.fJ'ib),1l ma,dhymili'J:pab, '~J'ltt"ga~Ph<l:lleoh:!s M~Il!,go) and m{i:ja n?ha~eotlls radiatuc$) beans, and ~{aib:ya {?),~he midd ~e i!i{)I\,\'ll1gs, lml!m~JdJ(,rma:$.rI!·tjk.rdl~tth(lfl"ifag(Jfihn1}'l/II • . kaltJ_Yfltasl:s(:r:;aplil) pasctUlt'i!f!fil), .saff[owlC'r, ]~tns,. smaU carci>ll1nlom!l j, ba,r~eJ , wh~at:" peas,. flaxj• mustard, the blst SQwil'lgs . • • • lIiIyf,7d~" i),'Cf)(lIffm., rice, &(;.~ is d'le beSJt; ~~'·j)lfiQ m,~.dlryum(ll!i' !J(l1J.(/a (~c:c. ~o GII!}@p,ati 1t18!!JlIoa'!;., midcll~!]g, N~w.r.ll! pn~ty>fl1J4t'(J~. ik~avo hi b(Jhlibttdllfi '<)J'aytllP'alzi:t1'a.~ ca,slLiga.r.ea[ltl lS, th~ meanesr, ro]'th~ sl:lgi'lr·can~s are oann.ec.ttldwrth mUlCh rlloruble snd call1s:in,g expense.

We here have 110 do with the well-knewn klmrij andnilbi Cl'OPS, ripcmung in the ]ate<!lUtlllmn a:~d spiring, respediv,dy,i, q. wid'i speda:l imHat~ cQndhio!'!s<~'hi(lh have nQ~ changed 1[1 histtork:iIIll times. A.t the p.ut'se:n t day the ch]e( kA:an! crop is, Flee, andth!'l: prindprli rabi crop wheat Other .:rops Fotlltlea wilth rice are khadj m~l let, khariflins-eed~ &c. The' mos:timporta,n.t 1'(lbi crop .IS wheat, If'Ota!teciwith, li!'lseed" 1'l!Jhi millet, crn!,ck.p~a., 6i:c. Th,e staee of dlJng:s <lc,cording to the H.a.tl~a][y:a

"lS s.o 5~im i]a rthat rIO :f~;rther re~arl\;;S Illfe' neeessa r y.

A long' series of bota[liCll~ nam~s, \~'hh notas ,011 pr'Ov'C'll:den,(;ej. co~,o~;r, smell a~id! qu:alitu~s., isJound n.x~: Ctflttia'IHl',5and a [ wirh V311'1,e.tie1!; 'Caned .~:i':latmY'l;lika, MI(Jd.rasI"'Iyflj, &c.; (J.:gt~'I'/'~, .. ~oe; Rlll,!,Y(1IM, C]J~!1cnma xandmFrhb:<I, &ie.

131ll71J~icdd;J1"(N'idhlh1tlHJ~ H.il, d~!:dswl~h ci~MnJ!:;. holes, gaps'j in the soil, "nd is. of importance for our 1iJnck:rstandirJ1g' or the' term Mnmiccllidmn,Jfi.yrt, dle maxim 0$ the rent$intbe: :soa, w:n:ich [sso commol'l In ]l'Iscripti.ons; aA:farOl!!li1;!~ /))lflmau, paSflMyo vi'iittim:p,myacdu!t, 01'1 soil that 15 [lot to be plQiLlghelD! on~S:houldi leave pasture-greunds [or the catt1.e; pY(idi$.(t1blt,aYIl!!,thfjo.mr(Jjai'JgamlJ~d C(J. .orlJhfna1,?t1Mya hrah~.naSDl!I~(1ra~yani,. .Iaj)Q?J,Qju;uJi C,~' tt:l:ptJwibhy()gotitlk(l.p(JJ'ri~£ jJ1"qya:> r:ch.et~ groves tor study and .58icMfice, where !>tJltiona.ry and mevsble Qbje:cts<tre secl]l"e, o,ne: shouklj giNe! w br:thma~ai!lt an,{I groves foil'


I-t·F. Kl.

au:steTitil'1ls reascetics, destlned for the .family (Ga~l" ecrreetsto gtn:ll,t(1~ paril1)~l. 111 inscriptioIls we occasionany r-ead about go.trlJmsa, 'the family shllre,.

Much information about cattie·breedi!lgis found in the chapters dealing wjth Hl e overseers or eews, horses, and dephants (grx{hy«k'$t~ H. ~x:ix, ,11.hiftiil;yaR,§Q, H. xxx, l~(ls.ty,atlliyak~(l II .. xxxi], We learn to

. know the designations ·of various. kinds of herds, including th.elubtlhak(1s, bun ters, wbo h8i.ve: eo guard agains.t harm fM:nH snakes, wild an imii:Is<~ &;, They sho·'UJcl be paid in c,ash lJlim~!)'(J) and notw'itli mil.k or butterJ, in order not to harm the calves.

Each herdsman takes care of roo nnimals, Jn~he case of old CO'W:!l, mUcIH::oWS, pregn~:rrt .cows., po{1lbaull~5, and heifers, these should be equaUy di.viclled intorn.ve. grQups, and one perscu sli,ould take over each g.I"OOp.

The term j)a!ilhm~hi is of lrlte'Fest lt is used in thi! V.1iijasa.lu~y[ Sal}lhitaj the Taittiriy,a Br:lhm<ll.t<l, t.h.e KI'ii[11iki'l, tbe K:tty:iyan.a Srau. tas!llt:ra, Sind the $iltapailia.andi explained in c:omm eateries as a four yean; old h.eif~r.. The actual mea nin,g is [lr>iJbably ~ :IS ,su;ggested In the P,etersl>urg Dictionary, able 00 calve, ruttish. T11e fontl ,is expblined II] Pa:tafijali"s no,tes on P'a:'Ilini Vl.iv, 132 and the three vllrttikas the, e, and it is ,evid~[Itly old.

There are notes abo'Ll.t vario,tlS breeds, about llC'rding, feeding, grooming, training and stabling. marking and cHpp~ng, about trapping'S of deph.3Jr.Ii~j galopping, tro'tti:ng" .&c.

ileUs are to be attach.ed to the animals in order to fr.ighten a,.y,ay s!i!!ikes and wild 1inimals and te warn tile herdsreenebeue the danger.

We read <l b out hides and! ski ns;abollit the hairs of deer, about wool, silk, 'cottOin, &c..,. and! we are t.okl about the size of the loads to be earried by the varlous animals of burden ..

It was a eapital crime if a herdsman slaughtcm'ld or carried a,wa.y an .<lE'llimal or .C3USed this to be dene, But, as remarked by J aeo;bij• Ober dle Echth.eit,. p. ,8.p. Ii Kall~.I.ya has no objeiCtion. 'to m~.at-eati:ng. We know that Aso].:a. cm]y after some ye'ars made great re$trictiOiIlIS in tb~ respe,ct, and Y!jfiavaU:y,aJ, Slat. Br. m.~+2.~lj deelared tnillt he did ,eat it if it were soft,' And 'the sale of meat was regulated by



I ,.


.. - .... - -- _ .... --_. -.~-~ .... ~---.- -- - -. ~-"""-~~----""""1iO:.


the SiluCidllyali.'1O-, the ovcF'See'r of thesllllllghterbouse, it xsvl. There was also a regulated sale of alcohelic drin ks, under the stwlidlty'a!::sa, the overseer of ,$,pi.ihIO'ns Hquors, [J. xx v,

AU this h. I!:iv~de[lt'ly a sign of ali early <l.s:e.

VO{liJ_J.rfi,tra,d'e, WOIJS an ~mp'o\,tail,t :it~m :and orga~]~edilili greilt dc't<l'il. The $tn~it(1r'r. collector, n. vi, had, t"~ter alia, 'to :10011: 1iJf:i:,j!lmvt1~,ikp(1tha; mer,cliLant'spatb, by I.and (sll:alapaJila) or by sea (V-di-i. patha); after the pctyyasa"?lsthiJ"wiilre·bousilS, the 'UlJ{tij,uradJers.1 &c e. 1 and tihe oyer, official in,come CIeri vee fl:1om such il'eims. The p(1,7}yadJiyaJ~~a, ware-ecntreller, ]J. xvi, has, to, be infonned abOilt Wllr~, p(rodu~.ed en dryla:nd and [iiWait-eJi" (si!:ia.lajalaja),. bl"O'1Jght in by land or S~3·routts ,(stliaiapallu:wa1ipat1loj.fJ)'illaj, ~1::I!i,'lir varying value (slJrapha!gvrJ.l'gluJrllara), ami whether the-yare mud:! or Htde delll~ndJed! (p,riyap'f'l~Qt(J). aboue the proper timetQ distriblllte @r to eoltectJto b!,]yor to sell ('Ql~l!p'o· saJ~Jk,r~,e'fJakray.({Vlkm,'ti:pr{tyo)fak~'la)'; he s:i:l:cmld :l1x priCle$~ re'gulate the s.ale, and control tolls and taxes.

The niivadhyah,;a, sbi.[HJover,s.eer, .]1 xxviii!. should I,oak <!Jfre,r sea.' goi~g.and river-craft ,(smUiub'tl$lutty:linwwdimuH,tdarapmciJra);' th~ mudradhya.k!jfl, $ea:I.~nrell'&eerl ILNx.xiv, sholltdl provide' the carrlers of in- ,<I[ld out.go.i.nlii ware;swith p,O'!.iS'sage·stamps. d;:s.rging II. o~nai.~arn'oUJnt in fees. Pr'Cwid,ed with such s;~amp$ ,onecoul.d enter and leav ethe place: mudradhyakfj() rmutY'&!t niQ$tlR.CI.I(Z b-8 guRias in eash] tkldy1il. sa~mldr() jan(.lpatiG1!1 .praVt~{m1~ ~11~lU'l:mtfl!.i.J'~1 m laMeln.

I [I this cO!iIl!i~ctkll1 it UllliY be eenvenient to mJ~n tion the cbapb::r' janfJpatia'l-rives.ap, J].i, the kans£err,ing of people from Or t.o Qfh,e:r' countri.,es: bMtapnrv.aJu t16IjntapanN).'fI -v.(i jtHta,PfltiOI!J jH'wiJrid6jJaooha. ~'it1la s:1J(:I(Je~;;bM~Y,'(lmia1J,mllaft,t1.1a ~ ni'l:lcsa~tltj an old or r1.~W place for people he should settle by leading it aWiY from other countA"ie'S OJ; by ~ vomiting'~' 't]h.eslu·ph,l$ oJ oX1,e"s 0\'\10 ~m,mtry.

As me:!lJtiollecli by Jaoobi, Ku]tllr." Sprach- lund Liter~turMs:to:risc:hes; p, 960, we are here informed iii bout serndillg our co:lonie'$j and he ~s c'ertain]y right in ml'JJintaining that noton]y the Dekhan, but also Fureher India had been brou.ght W'lder the sw,ay of Brahmanism in I(ill,ltBlya"g da,ji:S.

H.·T. Kt

The term simtlcsi1Mif.'f0m{aUm1l'l1lIff is or some il'l'~~mst, because it 'Was ,e\',idently known ~.o Kl!lidasaJ. ROI.ghuv,arrn$3 XV.29 and KumarasambJ1l.lV9i VI. 37 he says 'that Matnul'.Ii and O~Qdhi:prllslhaJ respeerl ve]YI wer-e fOIl.oded, as it we.-e, .afli~r mat ins' ~ ~ vomi ting ~ of the su.rp,]l.1s (populati:olll) of heaven (svllrgnbMt;yamiafuo,l1MuUil!l k!1iJet..'fJ' }am·fleSi/aj.

T .ha.vti no doubt UUl.l K:lilidas a has berrewed ,thi:s ex pr,ession from the Autba.~~st:rf,lj' arid thelll ~;uobiOJb]y from the I'::lIu~;i.ilr.ra. For he ]s ~vkllendy indebted to the same source in another p1i!s.sage. The fi.rst editor of O'l.H' text, R. ShaU'u!. Sastri, draws attention to. Kall~a]Y<l's praise of IUJntin.g, VlU. iii) because it leads to exerciee (~J',il'yaml'Z), does 3! way wid\! phlegm, bile, fat~ and sw,eal: U.lcs;.n(lfJJ·llamed,rhs~c:da"iI$a) , m akes Oin,ii' farnm,f(r with ,!-~ming i1t fixed and movable ,<lim!!'; (fXJlc stlu'rt ca 1'l!:J'C lak$afM'ricaya). gives il'!,$ignt into tln.~ mind of' the deer inangeT, fi!!a.r, standing: and striving' (kopablta:yaslham:hite~~eca mrgll'~uJ}]l r;iilti._ jiil!naj'. He aptly eo,mpares the 5th stal'lza of the se.oond act Q:f tl'l~ Sal;;untal1!i;

meOOschcdahrsoiiM"C1f"/I' lag/m bliavat'y t1Jth{J)~(};yogY(!'ji~'J tJ{Jlmb

" sallvM1i.m api k,l'k~yale v~fkrlimac·ci'l1tn1.1 hluzyaRrtldltl'I;IOb ~

n~/uu~ab sa &I'Z dl,m.!'JJ/Ptii'!l ynd £$Q';kl(:, sidhytluti lak$;YC ,cale mithyaiva !!IYIl$,tUrli,!l 1j,alitlwti mrgoylm :fqrc vimrJai) k~'fa.Q~II,

the body, lli'l.tlh the: belly thh'lJled through the f\edl,ilil:t~oml or fal, becomes light' and capable; of exertion: one also sees ho'wtil:e'menta]ity of animals is modified in ,anger and fear; and t.hen this glory 'of the ~rchel"s that the arrows hit in the movil1lg aim; f:3J~iy' indeed dQ they call i'HIf.lting it dissipation; where is ~h ~re s:!Jld'll a pa.stim,e?

There are here S.Q' many parallels, even in tl'liC! wording, that i.E is diffi.cl!l]it to li!\roid the conclusion tbat Kli.lkli!isa knew 1{au~a~ya's, text.


Datt#a4fili;"the leadi~g of the: rod", i, iI. the exercise: of punitive power, is the most important branch of knowl,edg'e from the viewpoint of government. Some of Kaw,.:alya'S p:redeces$on;went so far as to sOllY that it; WIIS U!~ O:r:JJly (line. He' himself st!l!te:s~ 1. i 'l'. 'tha t: th~

1945. No. I ...

IIdngl makes. tll~ own paJrty ilIIlC! the other party Sllb~cct to his. will by meana of kvsa t~reasu,e.J' and da~ula; {plJnasiuing pow~r); .Ji'i1ll(,i(1 provides s.ecur.ity in the other branches 01 knowledge (i'!·"~l;k#kitmyi. mirllui1iil!1. yo.Uo.!uJcluasifdham;, (((v)ifail), and dmJ(jelliJii leads to aoq1.li:si·tiQIi of what one bas not got'j preservanon .()f what one has got;incl"eas,e of whOlt has been preserved, and IJS~ ·of theincr:ea~ fOF worthy obj eets (alabdJmlli Mii1'iM 1(;IINlIlopaFi·"(lk.~a~,J'~ NJk $i'lavz' 'U(1ydhau.r: '<irddlulSJ'(l hYt".e~~11 pra:t/plliltmJ w.j; the coarse 01 wordly me it dep.endent Oi'l, it, :lOa he who cares ror this shol!l.ld ahll'a.ys raise the d(J~f4a ,(fasyii.m ii..walta tokoyDl'rll I lfJ.Sffliil lolur)'lZlrJJ,tM 1.Iifyam .lul;ml(lda~llf(11; syat); ir it iSn.ol applied th e reslIh, .is the 65tH'll a.x:im I for the5tl"onlger deeours the weak oneswl~ere there .is nol:lodywho hold's tll~ rod {ap.ra1Jlto hi mi'UsJ-a~lya:Jam udMlf:Wyati j bfflfJiJ'~' (1bala~!.r }~i lIrm;a:lt lim)tja. dfs,oriibhiivej'.

Here W'e should aJcoor'd:in.g]y expeet telearn more that] an.'ywh~]je else about KaLl.~31ya'$ poUey a:lld principles, the more so because Ms remarks here make ill strong pe rSOll1Ii1l i mpl"ess~ol'l.

The plooblems. conl!ilecled with tia.vtjaufti have therefore been .c,u·.e:fuUJ' dealt with ~y the auth,o,iUes quo,.tecl above, and,m,o,st fun.:>,. by Breloer, Staats\!',envaltung im alten Indien, where we also find a ]ong list of tt:!:hr~i.cal t·enl'i$ and speda] expreseiens, K~ w1:1] not, therefore, be necessary to. gave a JOing analysis of a ll details ..

111e k~l1g is the· d(J~u!adJl.(tra and, em th~ wlh.ol.·e, tile supreme ruler, But kingsh.ip has to be exercised thr!"Oiu:gh asseelates, a shl,g:le wheel (ani undh·ided role) does not roll; therefore he should appoint ecmpanicns and listen to thei D" ad/vi ce:

s:ahilyaSiJ'dllytllll 1-aj(i11Un'!~ cakram ,CRam. 11a wrll1it II

kuwltlJ .sj(:u;iVllt~s la$mal t8{Jfi~!1 ca Snil.rty~).j ~}mt.fUlt III ~ J. vi i.

We: read .• lxiii, about the subjects who made: .Mantll Vail'ilSvata king, oppressed thrcm.gh the 1~,IOtsya"ry.1iJla.and settl,ed as his share :3J sixth. of the gra.im, one· tenth of the pmc'!!:I!cl's. of la.<l.de·J and gold~ and thei'eiore the kings bri:ng tlbe sllbjecJs secilirityan.d take aw.ay t:he~l'"giUih;· even the dwellers I.nl the forest bring a sh;~h of tbdr gh'~arlitlgs. Tbis w·eU·kl1m'i'n .fk:ti;Ql! is, l~ept alive, out In re.alit)' it h. the: impossibility of rnald[lg' om'! whee] run whieh malk)~s il neceS!!iary for ~h~ king eo have cOllajILttor.s.

H.-F. K!.

A~ntUJii!Jlpalt.·f~the .ap po]nti:ngof mi.nlister.s.J• is dea]t with Lviii, llnd! thllJtof couucillors and fami]y"prie.'lts, mantripl~~':OJdt'O<~p'(1tt,~. I. i~, and dl~ neeessary q 1.l1l~ifk;ltuOj1]S for such ella rges ar-e di.s.C::lliSsed. L:i:.~heflprQceeds~Clshow how Ule re~l<lbiJuty or nOiHce'li:abmty of the m;lo]st<;lrs $mol!Ild be t:\:'SItea by various tr[a~:58!rldbem.pt<lt](ms. Vi!1~thollI~ su ell. tests nobody istnstea.

The killl!! is the cemral ~gure orth~ 5~atejand Itmll_Y be ,vort~~ w·hil~ noeingjhat he is simp~y designated r/{ill, <IS A$ob in hi$.edic'l's. I, vi ~llcuh;:.ue$. d:ileimporhn:u::~ ofi!ltiriy.a:iGya, ~vichll'Y over the gens,~s~, selfdiscupl~nel. w~~holJt which du: king-at ence WDu.M 'p!!:n:sIl~tholJJgll be r~]ed Qv~r the ea.rth within Us fQu:r iimjts. Ull.de:!f~he head of iti~asaveda, above pp. 9 f., we· have· ]1e:ad about !l:'Ia disastrous. results of neg]ecdng thi~ dis,clpn ne under the irllflw~rlc~ Qfad~at!'[!,arlfa, the ,s:i:-. inim~cal forces ka1JM~k.()pa. lob/m, mJll(l·~ 'mlaaa<!Jnd JU1;Y;/$a • . ]. vii is a ct)ntur.!~.ance of Lvi, a.ndch~mls vlth rrJial'?J:t~;lrt!a:m:j the proper behaviolat of the r,o'yl;d s8ii !:It: t"mi1'iyajaYfJ~~~ km'V'rtilJ ~rddAa$(Jif!.lY.QIP11~ prtijrmlll~ ciln:ua cak~llJ;, r~thflu.qJ1a Ji'()gak~t!J.rN;J,~iJJlJall(l']r, eiiry{l1msfisa- 1,l:tlm·'lWadharm.Gsthtijra"'ta,~~, :l\i'i"l~>,:aj~t vidYoP(ld~sellaJ. ./oRtfpriyalv.tmt a1,thasa1!ry;ag(",f(t~ J!it~'(~ '<Jrllim, he $hQuld effec:t v.ir:~Qry OV~r Ills senses, in~ight throughaSiS,odaHflg w:itoh.oM,i. s. .!!xperilf::l'lcl!lld~ pseple, eji'~ {sight) thm~f:ln :spyiJ]g~ meams of secor.ity through. en~Jigy~ kC\lep:~l:lg p~Clp~e to Itheir duty by instmction ]11 wl~Sit is~o be done, d i:scipHne by tfl'H;'~inz kl1io'w]edgej[lO~M,darity in the: world by pNvkllill'.gfor its wesl, ,miCl! r-egl!lb:te h~s· condi!lcj; by wh;,:t~i$\vho~e$Qme.

Th~n {onow r:n~ c:lilaptil!:T:S about the cbo~clt!: of cOiJlnc~Uor$ and miniSters and t:hltl :up(1dMe~, tdeli:s, trials, used for t!estnng t!he[rtru:sltworthil:l ess,

I."i; tfpodhiibh#~-smidlll!milfVfil'Uar Co glJ't/lwj!rlu'11!,;"!an flljindayci ki'i./$likfJd{l5iMtaeJ·hapatik.Gva~·ddU1ko,t~~'P(1:fi@ya}'ifQ.tra.M' saftr£tJk$~laM:!N~" da.bll,.·k~uhJs· ca~ navi!:lg' tested the host of oOiu:ndUors by means of tr!a1s. he should appoint lh~dde!'lpe!C$o!ls (secretage'nt'S) d~sgtlised 8:5 M:p~tfl~(i$, mi(Jt;ilu't'(l$, cr/!atm#k(i$·j.vaiddlak(l.s~ iiJ!)(M;a5~ and! s(tlt};h)lls, ffil'$~~ii$. ro·$,ad{i$ and bliikt;uR.ls·" Tbeslt;l~eTm$are: t[len e:xp]ained; panUtJan.lj,flfi'ul~i pl':a,gaIMIllj (;hiilrol~ kal'tl~£ktt(l, .ak:tpatika! i~,m ill trep]d scholar who knows the 'Il!'e3kpo][1ts of others; pr(l:I;Jrajyl1;· .p"'al~<Yas#(Jb pmjfiW$tlw::a:yu}~/a udt7;sthiiiJ/;,. an uda:sthi,tlll is ol::il~ '!ino has re$Qh~ed t:otJke the ll'OW;9 and Is in. p0551e5s1o.n of lrl!s:ig'ht <l_lld

1945. NQ. I.

honesty jka,~~k() 1w#jkfI~.Hlb ;'"(1 jJFla5f1U(:(lyukfo ,grlmp'O"i'i!J,al'y'(J1u.J,~ i' a ctdtivil!:or out of emp!oym~.Ii'It~, who is, in ,po:SSl"-ssiQn of ~nsighl and honesty, is a househo,lder in di$g:l.Iise; ~'iltlij(lko tJrittik!fJ:~1.tl{. pr(J:j~la. s,atJr(1y~,kl() ~mi"dcA'(fkavy(JiijmJ'(1I}, a tradesma,nin disguise in a mercil:al1l't out of eunploym~nlJ' who lsin poo$ession ,of iflSj'ght: and nOinesty; rmtf)fjo ja#lh ",I "'rttikilmaSmp(1.!fi,~v:y(rfJ.j(1.'~(1 tl:,llJll ascetic ~n disguise i:5 a persen wid~15:n aved hair 01" twisted locks. L xii: ye ,oapy aStilll" bamfldtm ·~11~(1."hartQ!lJya$ Ie /ak§tJ,)'am (.:Jil;gavlriyiI,!' ja~~Mak(W.idj6.}!r milJli~<:(lI(mJ iist'awadhm·:nl(u]'! ~linll:tt~'ffl ,(:m.fa.r(l.ta~rtlml~/y adldyrlllii}) ~<;allrjJ,Ja,l' sm!lsnrga1litilll ",u,and sllittl'insare also these who" riot being re latsd (Ga:I). r,eads :foe ,cll5JI17 ,salvba11til!i"uo ),and sho'uJd certain.!y be supported, who imve studied the marks Ol!iducatiw! of goed ~uck), tn!1l lore (),f body (marks), tlh~ ]Qre or char;J]']S, (d., Mh.bh. V. 6+,(1), dehiJ:s.ioli'l, the rules about the ,'.ui.()us stages of life" omlna, the ]n'termediate circle (i. r:. the m.,e:ai:ll[lg or the vllrYLl:Ig directj(m of bIrds' fiig,ht), or the art of "$sQci.~,t]ng with peop~~ (.c{ Mh btl. XIV. '.7' wbel"e Nna l«u:u~ha glosses kaf',,!a-v(1~acc:htl}ma); yc jmul'pad, selJn!; tydtlltmmu} /1easti~jfj';!1 "J'iila'l~' 1i:a dravya!wlo'b PHi!.iyodha-Yi!JIl$ ,t~ lfFt!}fJn{l; sihaipfm:; are those who wi~h danger to their life, for the S9Jk~ or g-ain fight i1ne]epl\i,ant or ltg,ell" before people; J'C ba};l'(illrt,,""!~ .niiJsJ"}eMi~ krlfr:iJ'!1 clUa:s'ii~ ca tf! 1"aStltta,(l, poiseners are these who'J' not iovi.ng 'tileirrelat"'e5, are: cruel and idle; (Ja'f'WI'ilji'/t" vr.tt£kiim{t dendra 'vidluwa pr.~gaI6f1{t hrlZlim,(!'tt1J tm~J;p.I'w;e krtasatkIJnJ mo,'h.(Jm,afmkuld'fry tnihigacdet, a wandering' female mendleant, wanting a livelihood, poor, ,<I wldow" ltH;lidJ a bfllhmaQI; honoured in 'the harem, should a.pprroach tbe high officials,; Jjlli'k~rd~.rp7',YJti$lJdJII: dv.t.lf)StJrap.r:m;zmpI'Wli JI,,(it~pil,FVyailjQna,& §i'ipak4rtkdl.~ k~dlta'V'l! d4~yc va BrtamJdyabhllt'ullignrflull~'kJ~'sa,trj1iaMi'r vii ~rat~t .nirher(')Ill,l), where female menciicJ:I:Tlts are riot acimiUed"tl:ie dQo .. k.eepe'li5, one after the, other, people disguised as, paTents, or 'ChiiU"ll'~men, songstre$Ses, or fema]e slave-s). should Ori,ng out the information" OF ;others by mesas of ind]c~ttolls, thr'Ol]gh so:n,gj nmsic; or w'ritiing 11idd en 011 Ii.I tcnsi1s ,: dtr·gJUJ1YJ:gtm.mad1JguirasaV1: Stir 1t(!~I'atl!a g.fJtj'ham!r'!PrlN.l"aM'amj 'or they should go ,OlLlt secr:eUy 0111 aC'(:Ol!nt of II. Tong' Hines!>, madne~. 'OT' caushng fire or poiso.llil)g. r"a~~tiimekadk)I'C 5'1'l;?~pratjayal),. where three s~y Eht:i same ~h~.l1g, they ~hollild he' trusted,

Such .ilIgenb> the king ShO'lldd emp:lcry ~l'Iorder 1:0, g:e't infomu~d About ,everybody in Ms sendee if! Ilis own QOlmtry. And they shQuLd

n.r. Kt

not kilo,"" about ea!c:noth!i:1i.. They shoald alse be sent abroad, te (tH~ ~nd Jfr~C'll]dj' thos~ beeween ocdh,. ana ehese who are in.difi'"e!ce!'1!t, aJl1IG Hod Ollllit who ~<'in and WhOCOlI'II!lOit. be ma[l3g~d~ !Ina what people t~il.

!. ",,.-, .11'lm~lnldhiRti1'tlb, ghre5 rules· :abQ'!a.tth~ ddii:Jera:tioIls. ill council and ~bQu~ the neC\e&S:~ty Ciifsecrecy~ and here Kiuli~a]ya q1ll!otesthie opin.lolls of h~:s pr~d~c~:s$iO]"s andfina.!]y gi.ves hh. o~1l'f1lth at much depends OI:J th.e ,Hticrerot d!\cumstam::es.[1I!>nphl]Q~1 about the p1:'O~'l,~r num ber ·of !'ld!Ji$~ef$ is sim ila .. ~ Qne m;~st cO!lJside·rthedr abmty. The rn]err" shouM. ]ook j:j]!)OIil.lai~t~rs 1Og'(itherwIth tn.os~ who are presene tmd com:murlicatlft with these who are not. 11'1 wrm~g fpatrcrSClJ1Ip:ref}(1l)I!Jt(1) .

. His ~ne~Se]1:lgel"_~. (dfU/ls)m<l.y be funy entrusted with the object in vlew) \!Jith the power gf a C'Qundllor (nif;f:j{li.ri'A.tl), OF with a ql;lar~ei ~'ess (tJ{idafP~~~aJ;fn(lib pa'';'J.i.!'ti'irtlu1~)1 or OiiJiy \\lith 11. half, as simple· order-carriers (em:JJU1:gu~aJj j:"U!~ sti$tmalia 1'(11;)',. They must b~ care-fiLl:1 tlo notiee f.:lv~ryting ail"ld ro mvea.IUlJOthililg', as set forlh in DmapraJ)idM{J, l, xvl,

], xvii. .R(1;japttimJ"ttk${1!Mw.l,the w<ltchring ever jheprlnees, The khlg' glltal"d.s his nde aga~~st near and d i'sta[l~ people, <!i!lcin the .llr$~ p];'Ice against his COin sQdan.d s,o'f!iS,<liS $let forth !f]Is<ome detail LI'l this and dl.!! :foUowing cl'laJpters.

'L xi'l;, R'}apr.a1;idhM"gaves :n skatch of the king's W'or.king d.lIY,. ""'hid] LS:j' in mQst oetlliis,. repeated by r1l!~er .u,uho,s. h may be not~ld that the secret ag~r1t;g shQ!lJild b~ receiv,ed in the fll~$;t pi~;t of the night; evidently to secure gfiC'!at~r secr'ecy~ and they should be sent o~,t in the lastbllt one.

I.xx:i~ A:b1tar1Jk#l(l;k(M'~, tbe g:UiJrd.ing of hbe k~ng's)p~!fSQlI:lr~. rulJ.QWS how im.portant this lIlaUe'. was considered to be, As 500n as he rhes, he Js tak't'Ji11l eare of by female arehers (t0y.antJd, tftthilaf; s/rjgar;ai!' dlU1"I't)'ibM~~ pO)'i.grhy~:ta). M~fl [It:~$ deaFly the If'0YOll bodY'~l:'lliard of wom.eJi'l~ WhQWeTe ~.,It~·, on C'an~dya~L'i:n:i ~ 'Greek wOmen. Tb~s des\g~aJtiol'l is not, so fa!" as I kn@wr (Milia earlier th~n in i{1li]id!'it:>a~s wod;s,. .But i.tC:.al'l We U be' older. T.he "much diseorsed yava'~i1.n.r, \yJ]uch K!ty::lyana. ill V!!iruita. on P!~ini JV.i .... 9 says lll(taJl1S Grlld: writing, can very wei] mr~a:n .~ :Gre'ek weman. There is .8J bso.1IUt:eiy I:'wthl[ilg 1111 ])!I~.lini>s te'xt wMch points tQ :l~other me:,min,gti:lan in the remaJni.ng' wQr-.dsrGifmed with the suffix lillt, which all designata' th~ r.emale ,correspond~ng tOOl. masctllin~~l]ding ~n -a, And I do nee und'el",s,tand how tJille' Inldfam. could hac,"e reoe~V'ed Ol:!')), il'lform;atkm

about Greek wridtilg before Alex.lII:lder, and, we may add, KAty:iyana. P;!l~lini! on the other hand, must belong ec an earlier fime,

in other appartments tll~ gua.dillg in taken over by arm ed .attendants of '\!1.wious Ik.indls; in ttl'!;: kitchen t:h~ lr:i:ng;8 food ]s tasted .in befol'ielHmd, losee if i.~ may be poisoned, &c.

When the ki'ng goes out, ,et'e.rythi,ng is done to pr-otect him .ng'llinst danger,

The: second chapter, AdhYrl"~.Ii(lprtu:ti;mll, deals with the mny "over-seers" who have to loo,l\: after 'the ,"arkms branches, <IIoout their '0 ffices and stations. The terms '11S00. ill th!:s section ,ar~ lfiostly m:ilf.:nown

from old sources and p,roOab]y eeined ily Kau\al,YiiI. .

An lmporteneolflcial, with extensive' contrQ] of state business, is the $(l~m£dllll'tr, the depOlSitor or' 'Treasurer General, IT. v, Hoe provides for the building of a hoSagril,(J'. treasure IDouse ~ a /Hl(ryagr1j{l; ware-house: a 'Wlflh(Jl1fi.raj grnn,ary. store-reom: a kU:pyagl'lIa, wood· arsenal; an (I:yudM!igiir~, weapon-arsenal, and a 6,mdlla~iIffiJra, prison, and rules are gi.vefiCor 'tnetr erection and safety and about tile punistullent of negl.'ig~r1c~.

AtDo,~her high rUrl1ctiotil;,~l'y was the saml1hm'(r, the Colleetcr General, It VI, xxxv, He should 'control d!~rga (diffic;Jlt passeges, places to be approached with care), ri1~{r(l (p1ougI~iflgj. taxes, &c,), klumt {I.nirl lng], self, (places (or' sowing and irrigating fiQ\v,ers, Ji;ruits, &c.)t ~1~'(J ~ groves for c.awe., ga.rlile,,,,,·ood., e!ep.ll'ilnts),'lJ'raja herds ,o:f cows, buffaloes, goats, s.heepl dOrl'keys, eamels, horses and mules), and v,(I~li'kpath.a {trade!"liollt~S}'. AU tihese,partly artU]!daJ. terms are sp~cifioo. The various items form part of the ineome ,(tzya:), which sho,uld be balanced a,gaim'J!: the expenses ('<fYt1cy.a).,

Num.'ffi"OIlS cverseeers are at w,ark. ill 'this cotm.ectioll. ]n lh e aR$apata.la (tr(laS!L1ry) the overseer should have apleee made fortl'l;('l JdhandlulptfSlaRqs Ul!dger.sJ, wl:'i~re the number, provenience and origin ofilie vari OLlS, heads, gains and i,(}91SeS, proflt~. fees and tells, are booked. This is Lhi!i!gifV'l~ifr.y.~dMkctr(J.J' the' aeecuntantofflee, H. v u~,

n. viii explains l:Iow cne si'lOllld restoi"e 'what is removed by the ynaias,. a term whieh we know {rom the Aseka editts,. where it has been shown by Themas, lad, Ant. 37'2I,JRAS 1909, 4J6?; I9f4. 381 f[! to. mean ofll,cial. Every udeitaking is dependent on wealth, Sind eherefore ene should 6rst of all look a~tier one's we!lUh ,(kooSapfirriJ,(i


H.-F. K~,

5m~a',mbftilb II it!,sm(fJ p;m.1011~ kM'aTU ,(po!ckf}l!ta). TI1~ terms kOSlWf(MM and i'o$(lk~(lya (ificFeas:e' and d eerease Qr the treasure], &c."at-e ex pJ:ali:ned, and we read about l'IiIlmy devices for cl1eating, and how they can be detected arid! punished.

• U. ix, rtPayuklapf1"ik~ii, tes:ting' oftne over-clfielals, enjoins the ;iLppoinltment 'of san1ii.rijr.yaRf'jt1.S (,o,verseers g,(iri,er;al), with the c:ompflh:Jlce of C10IlIflCillo,,; ({J/N,ruY(lsr:nj"lpaa'ojJcto);, aad aqU2I.intiililce, withthe~ir <!.ctiv!ty. They shouM act iI(:;oording to their Instrnetions, neither ClOtls,uJdtlg' nor oP'pOSLfIg each ,ot~~e-r', and th~' sho~Jd inform their m aster about everyt:h~ng they undertake, unless it is to obviate some cal~tllity. Their actions s'h,ol.lld be ,oontrQlled by spi,~5a!1d secret <Jig-ents.

U. x, ,$a1N:mIMI:£I.<W'oi}, the chapter <I.bollit f\oy~d erders, mentions the lekhaka, the secretary who has to ptlil: them. into writing.. He should have the oompete:ncy of a eeuncillor (amllty,{t$(Jrr,padojMta), kfliQ.V the- wh.o~e' cOln,V'I!I1:ticmal usag(l' (sa"f}'(l:S(J.~~u:yav,iri)j' b,e ,able to wr.it~ quickly (lllmgytilllua); !lave a pl,easillg hand-writing ,(corvak.fjara)), be able to n'ad out the wrinen. rm::ssage (l'ekiu,w{J.'can.(ls,amat"ilulj and tl:l wll'ite it down in the' proper ordeli' (art!m"~,I"f1m(!J <lnd se"quffi"Jlce ($ti"~/" (umalla), with oomp].etml.ess (p(Zripil'r~,(lill), urbanity (maJlll~rya), nobility ((u,~d{Jrya)', and dearness ,(Sjm${otw), i. e.; as poitllted out by Jacobi, K~ltl.ll"~ Sprsch- und LiteraCLl:l'historisch~s, p. 961. we have to, dowi:th ,the rudiments of a Hteral'y st,yle. Among the $iloll'tco.ming's of a writer, H . x, 1S me'fltkm,ed tlhe use of' dirty shee'ts (!itli'it1/Jatra"fa)~ 3[iJd fwm It zx vii we learn thiaJt; the writing materia]!'; were leavesof Ui/l and ttlla palms and birch·bark. Copperplat.es are not mentlo:ned., arid we do net know whether they were used before .A~oka?s tUlue.

We Jearn t,o know a .Iong series Qf adhyak$tlS, overseers, superintmoents: the Jm§ijd~J''ak~, It Xl, rec!I!ive-s ever:ytilli'ilg of value-that should be deposibedin thetreasury, pearls, necklaces, gems" sandal; aloe, oils, hide$ and sk:in$J'woo~, &c., and th,1l! designa:tions, proveniertce and shapes of seeh o,bjects are ment~oirn eo ; the li~l1r.ll'1M.'Yt:lk$Q,:, the mining overseer, II. xii .• ]ook:$, afmr the piiOclill!ceQf mining, ores and met:il]s fr·om eld :lind new pi'ts, Irem the ground or from water, their colour, smell, a:1'l d o,ther Cea:!ILlre.s, theirdeanirllg" weight and sale, the punishm.ent of embezzlemene a~d fraud, &c.: the lo!:.ac/hyak$ataltes care or ccpper-, ie,:ilid .. , tin·. me["~;a:n·y·· and be[l'm:e'talw'og'k and the s,ate ·of utensils nlade from. th€!m; the lak$oa~~{fdJfJ'ak$a l.ooks afb!!!r the

st;amping of cOlm;; tile n7:potiar$ali:a ,. iiss:aye. p regll'lates the p~!t(~y;JfFu, tbeproce'du1!'e of p'ilyir'ig' and reCeiv.il:l.g feO!$J the rupllM with 8 ~JQI' the 'l)!(ij1 with .5 'riJoj the jiar.lk$ikll with Ills ~io; the khanYQ·dhyaR{ftZ, the pit-overseer, provides for~he works eenneeted w'ith sheUs, dill'momtds·, pearls, corals, sQlltpe'\!!;'e.and for their .salle·, the ltroo"¥,ldlzyo;/J!}'(J coJrects tli·e sa] t-tax and d'l.i::l duties Oil sale of salt.

Il.xiii, M$(lSfiJil:Y:{i}l'J sUl.J'm'l,f.rul1f'Y.(J&t;d,. the g'old·ovt:lrs,ee:r in the' treasury, provides fo.r the erectio'i:lof a. treasure-hall, with fOllF' uncoMected II"OQ~l1L$~ <lnd ll'bstalls a dexsereus and reliable go1dsmith .il'lthe maie street, who c3r~fl.l]ly examine!> the metals, N'o $tranger W!lS admitted,. and those who had to work there vere c.arl!f'uUy sea:rehed on enter]ng and Ies ving. W·e read abeu] thev;rriolJs kinds; of work acme by them., for which cr. jolly·s. Kollektaneeu, pp. 355 ff.., where ·m·o.st of thet~C'h!'lic;.d tenus have been sat:isfadorHy ,explained.. Cf. II. xi'!' ,. 1JiSikhrl:ya',r' !MIM'f}(ln)fkap."I'(i.ti!ralj,. tht'l lllctl\'ity of th~ go·]dsmilh in th~ main s:trnet, , .. here 'we also read il.boillitthe various wa.ys of defrauding' .md the :~:I!;U1is~llinent of {nua.

H. xv.. k()t;#h~gUn"ldky,aklia',the store-house o~'ers;eel', S<lJ:pel"intends sUa, :lq].${raj• kmJ~itmlj ptJriwarldo" pr.fiJl.I1"ty.aka, a/Ja1,;.iifyakllj. si,1fl/l(;lnika, (JJryajri;ta~ vyayapra·t.Ya)'arand upastkfln,a, .aI'Qd all jhese ·te:rms are ex:pla.ined.. Further lie' tal\:es care of corn, filt, molasses and salts (dltiJt.ty.tlsjjf!h.ak~,~rola1J(J~U'l). honey (madllu); adds (suktaj',sonr ffuits and gruel {a".iJa~r!1aJ. pUlligeriit .stlJ!ffs, peplp~T, &.c:. {ka{uka"Y!Jrga}, dried fisb,meat, roots, fru.its,pot·h@liiJs, &:c. (Sakt1Va1'ga),abQUlt an ef'wbieh l['!JJormadon is ghJ'Cllj• i:.a, about h·QW much i:Sto be eaten byelepl'lants horses, &c:.

U. x lI.i j.p(lJ;v'fldhyaR!2o, the ware'-IXlrltraUer,. $. above under 'ii(l~li jya, p. 23.. H .. xvii., kupyt~·dJ~.5JQ., the im),'a conb'"oHe:!", ~ilkes care tbat the raagers bring the lmpya, i, e. the l!'allll1libI~ wood; bambees, creeper-a, bark, rope materiais, ]illaws, 'Ao'\:\'er:si plaats, poisons,. snakes and ~\lQI;ms in jars, hides, bones, &c.j of v.af'iollls. a nim:als, iron ores, wlekerlind clay-atensils ...

IF. x vHl , (lyudll~g{#1idJ.iJ.YJ.k$a; 'tile controller of thi! weapon arsenal, provides Co go' tn,e mi'llil,IlIJa.cuUJdflg· and depcs ition of all kinds of weapons and war.impLemen.ts.l, armQur atld b"~PP'jl'lgs.stra.tagems., &c ..

H. xixIPaui:avfl~,.ak$:a~ the' wdgM- and meaS1J~e·O(m ~ro.1 ler, takes care Q·f the various. w'eights and scales,

H.-F. KL

]I. ;Kl'!:,j ~nl}.~(jd_~;yq.~$(l" the mea~I,:!l:,e"CQP lroaer~ $houkl be famm<lJf \!!i,ittl 1ine<il" measlI,:l!:oel:l,the sllbdivls]OIl:ll Qir t~me~ &le,; d: above under J,\()ti~j [Jip.l5 ff.

U. ;!;~i, .~.fdJtadf:~k.~,ll1,e t~~ tooIrQU,er ,estaJ)lish.e-s a tax han (sl",lkdliliiJ with a badge (I!' HlIg (elh'IJ.aj'aj near th('l hfil!lJd.ga~e~ where Ule~aK·reQeive!"$ OQ.!1~.fo!. me'ftha:nt:$;llld others and SEN;l to it th~iI;their ware:;; a;re prop.er!y 5hl.rn.ped. The traders off'e:r~heir w:n~$ for sale: and pill._Ylne ta.",es: 1wdi dmle,s,W.e relldaibout~vhat: can be broU!ght UI Qllty.free, and lIbol:l;~ the pill:'!is.ilm(!;nt for attempts a:t d,e:fl"8!udillg.

U. xxiiJ l!.~dk'(lvya~ah (Wa, deals with th~ t,ax. q u€',stion, There wll$ O!!!'l atitlryam (gu.er>L's tr-eatrn,ent}Qf ollil;· and in.going w:aTes~ !ind duty for what should be brought _ outsud~21n.d ,ent:ru"e-.dj (lmh,JtlIU JlJhyaularll'l~ catillJytu!~! tli$k.fiiJ~.I:1/l~2tp'l'a<J$4.yal'rJ ta sl,llkau~).,. The g'uti:'st'streatme'rlt; app~i~d to t'l':>,portsa.nd lm;ports free from duty, is spfcifi~d n.x.xi~ -;mfulE!tU~l1,mwlvaj'anQm alctPffJIl1m·"ha:il?lyajfJ~k~ja:pn,m(1"<I(1na~1ni.ikd~X11!.~ dtvejy.f{;cmll()pafilayrul.a!fO-da1favrat(lr/fkfJl;J.~jij,d4!'~ !wl)'lJ'!uitJtqe!JuMar.~{i~1u 1,(c--rh~~lhai!~ ffGcr;lu!t~waresa!'lJdu1ie!l$H;$ cOIlnededwith 'the marriOl"ge and hom,e,bi,ingil'lg' (of tne ])r.id·e), and whiliniitiatiolfi in the cer~iIlolljCS:, ill sacdfices, birth, off!i!rings to the gods, tOI1J5uJr~,inv~stil1g with t;he ssered d:-r'('lad,. ha:Ll"cllItting,. vows .u:ld c()lnsf-cration, should pass free of d llty. "The duty jt5e~f vsrles fl10m iJ~ to iJl(J of d"le value.

D. xAm.. sfUrrJiihyakw<!J, the [Jlire"d·inspedG!"~ t~ke~ care ef spinning and lYle.wing operations.

H,~,,~vl $mufh.yaki$a~.th~ furrow-inspector, is in dharg'e of plou_ghung and ~a:ri~stfrttg, cf.abo~ tm der Vtlrll'li., p, ao,

IL x:;:;v, surildhyak{ia, Hlie liCJitl.or~sillperTI"lt:elld!(!lntl mgtd:ate:s tha lkp.Jorlo.tnde. 'Ddnking "'<IS !:liot yet a gl"ea~ sin .

.n.:;;:x vi~ .s,flttfi(ill;;ak5j-aJ the! slau_gtlteTlu~use~1Jpf!"in~ende:t'l,tj' takes c<!r-.e that protected anim"l$ a;e );lOt sla~ghteredi,<ll'ld regulates Hl!e sale of meat, whkh\"':lls by r:!ome;1~ns fibtrrbidd,en cf. abeve un:cller paSl~a,tyG ,po 22 •.

n.xR¥i:i,.g!lf}ikli{lhy{lkWIl~. th,ecQJurt;ezan.;il1$p,~c;tov, ha~ the' s~:per~ vision of br.otbJ~ls, &c .

. [[:-;:x v:Hi, 1Ul~'otihy.ak!iaj the :ship.:5.upt.r.un~lldf!l:'It, s, above Ill]d~l!' fJat,lj'ya;. p. ~3.,

n. Kxh::, jfodhyakfJa, ~he catJtle-s!JI[H:r.tflt:erlde.ntj n.NXX~ af".mdhya.k{i(t, the heree-superjntendent: U •. xx"" if Iwstya,dJJ,yakrl the e]eph:ant-sUipe:r.

--, -.-- ~_.·· ... P- .... - ....... ,------ ...... -- .... -.-.

1 I


int:eJildeI'lt; Il.xxxii hrr$l.Yt1(lliyak·.~e hasHprlu:llra the deaJiI'iJg;;; with elephants under the elephallt·slIpe.fll'ltEil'ident; n .. xxxiil, rntlliidllyaR$a, )alJytuln)'" al.·!)I1, sCJ'liJp!1tipr:CI,Cf;'fra. the superintendents of war·dltll"io:rs. and foo,t· soldiers, d~e 3c-thlity of the army-leader, are offici.als whose .li.t:tivit), ]10 clear from :th.d.r design ations,

Il.xxxiv 1UIuir:t;I'lillyakljtl,. 'j)i'i.lUlidbyt1~aj thes;up.eril1i~nderlts of passports and pasture I and. bke care th:u out- and in.go~Iilgs can be oOIl·tl"ollod ..

n. xss v. $lJl'11illmr1rlu'natlm!:, gr/l'liljJalitraldt/ta/JatapaS(l,'})!(IfJjalltiJ.1 pra1)hl/w.)mi). the a~t~t'ity of the .snmahartr, the seluHng' O'lJt of pel'Som; dLSgU ised 0iI~ householders, traders, 'Dlr ascetlss, cf~ .ai) o" .. e pp. 26 r. Under the direction of the sfunfi!uwlr 'nthe-.i' (l,fficialsilct <IS inspectors, a gopa (h:l.. cow .. herd) of five orten vi]]a,ges i <JI .su:'lim7ka (lie~te:1l anU of a district-qual'bel"; per;:;om;. g.nrbedl 3$, hOl!!lseb.olders. of fields., heuses and ramiHesj othel">!i.,as b~adel"$, of wares and products from mLIl]ng, forests, &c.; ethers, as ascetlca, C'ulti.vawr,s, cowherds, eraders, .&c.

][. X~ x V] '1t'lgat'(jhpr~~lidhi, a ppointlnent of a towl:lrch:ieJ, police. master, whose fLHictiom.. are similmr to these of the 5tmllUu.fNr~ but limited to·... town. A grJ,/!tl 'has charge of groups or 10; 20 CW 40 families; .a stllllllika of a dtuga·qlil.arlOOr; the d"#r'}lfivasatM1U:tll~ the managers ,of the tihanm17.1asI1ilaa !'lOW called dlmYnisliiii, rest housel• put up sectarians, !l'.a~:eners~ ascetics and: learned persons, &c. c.are: ]s taken to Si.VO~.d and to exli.ngiUisll fire, 1;0 prevent incendiarism and tlu',owU1lg Ollt of rubbish, swee.pinJ.gs, &.c.

As ~,'{e have seen, the reler bas ma1i'llya.ssi!Otants and h~lper:s, but they are !:'lot t~ri!l$tedj' but cOMtantly -ccntrclled by scouts 3:1'1:d secret agents. EV.(!11 these are distrusted+ Tb!1!Y must not know each olherr, they are reeel ved .and sen t out at night. and their reports .are examined and eom[Jin·~d. When th r.ee agree, th~yma.y be' relia ble, DUltsLlspido[! is the p]"(ivailli.ng attibu:!etoW!iurdseve'.l"ybody. It]s difficult to avoid. 'thinking of I~gveda VII. 61.3.;

prortJr MiMJlJtl:n·~~1'i:prth.ivyttJ.i

Imi di1Ni rqvfi4 or1wfd$ s,~ul'nfl II SpdsD dadJj'nlh~ oS'adhl~u VfR)51U ;:dkagyald d:n.iJ;.u:~a.I~I· rtfk~am{1;1J~, II


H.·,F. Kl.

o Mhra and Varl!lQa) from the broad "il':1Irth, from the h,igh heaven you, pi ace s~ollitsi 11 herbs <lml dwemngs, who go s(;:'Parat~ly, w:at· ching them witbout shutthlg yQUY eyes.

And this poli:r::y is ancient in Indlll, Wha.l!S $a~d about MItra and Varu\:t<l., WII!!li a :refiex of what tVa$, the rule III tbe' st.ttej, (or, as tne lndia.ns say:

ya,aamll1,1fo ~tft'UfO Mavail: ttu:l(m~Ujs tasya dMmlti~ ~

what mall ~a,ts, that his, g'Ocl!s ~at, i,». man h as ereated the gods in Msow':rl image.


An impor~ant telTllin Kaup!lya's poUti,eal language is ma~itfala, ci:rch:~ s.p:hel:\eJ W~letc~ tn.,!,!! po'iitica& methods llre 8JppH,ed~ ;.lnd its ym,i£f or,ig,il'il, source: cf~ VI. 1. ,1I.u.!~iial~yoni:~,"rt com:prr!5~S theruler, wh.o wishes eo conquer, hise:nflmies, those sta:r1d:illg btUW~1] th:~m~ ami the in" diffel:en:t enes, Theooit1!!Otiwent elements of the body poHtk are ruler, ministenJ peop]e't :fastneSSe$l,tteasure, "'rmy and frIend£;; 5vaHwamii'tya,. ja_luiiltladur gaR(}.Sada~l'tlamif.rri.~ti prakrta:Jo,l.f, We ar-e~old which accompH5hm.enl:S a:rtl desha b ll! whh each prakr!i; cr. VI. i pl'-(lkr.tisampadab,

VI. ii samavyO)IIillfl,lliarn,abol!Jt padficaHon and vigour). opens with ~he r-emaI'k~bat ~hese t\VQ arethe seuree .of ::.'lJcquir.ing and pre.se,ving. $~nna,~ya.r~I'~~au yogrzk~may;()ry.o~ib, [!lthis COir:ll'lJeCnOn aloe added the de5ign.a.t:~o.ns oft:h~ pf:lrsolls with whom the $itate po]l~yis eeacemed; the 'Vij~git;;u, the ruler bent 0.[1 canquest; arip"a~!,li~,.the' e!'lemy elementj i .~. the nfligh.!:ml1rfn,g ,Idngs (iaczyasrfflll.'mtalo ml1J:!r$alibhf1Hi M:{'lmyo(mtar'); the 1,I~i~~·~prdltilIJ.the fri~rl.d e:]~.me:l1tjSi~para:ted by another count.y (M~~JN!/#$~larl'l). After the ~1'l~my wetnc::n ~:ul've, ill iJrI]n't(,:rIlpt~d s~qufl(lCe, rrtend, foes friend, iHelld's friend, foe's :fr1end~s fr.iend in fro:n.~, the pa.rwigl'iiJ~(l, the~k.ra1!ldaj ~hePtlri;f!i;grifhilsara and the l1:k,n;J,u/aswra b~hind {ia$J~i'i1z ",~£fra'~l ar£:mitra~~ mitram£tra.,,~ (In"mITlr(Jm#ra~l; cll'l§f!l'lwnYI!'I)1!l blifm~fl~li1"fclpra$(JJ";yaU .IJ1,f.r(1~i{J;t I PtJs.c;(U Pl1~'~?'!~ur(ihankr>Gf1dai) piJ'r~1)Fgrilhds.ur(l iJltya~d{j$.{t.Fa iii,] am notable to g;llea. satisfactory tr<tnsIOlJ.iQll of the5~be:rm5, which ha.vlil perhaps rn.O$,tJy been coine<1 by Ka;Il~~]y:a" but ti'leirmea,ning is p~'rfectly dear and fully e<xp1alned ulKay~alyOl:'!O~e'xt,







The seurce of .p'<ld{icatlo~a ~d vigour is the iOh;:,:qu<JilHy gro~p ,(lfamm.r)~ya)J·!'9'Q.r ym.!ifJ~dguuyam)" T~]'I'l word f{ltf!p{{lya is lIot known from o~de~r goU!r~es and W<lS probs. bly i.ntrodtl!ced by I{8il1j~::l]y;ll.. It Is formed :in :accordanotl '~'ith P~~fni V •. L 124' gu~~av(lr.'(mabriilm~(lf)f/;dibltyUJj karmat~i ttl {the !l;uffi:-: j~aii} af~er wQrd$e~proe$sive of q1:.laHty 0111 d <I«1er bJ'nlmw.a~'(1j &c.j, in the sense of he-II'):g8iod of act~vtty. No :alu;ha6ti~5 :are q L:lotedin tb e d1,<lpte"5~}~'allfdl(jJ!('m:!~l iU'IG 511m~"li. ydmilmm~ which mak·f! th.~~m.pre$$ion or bei!)g the independent WtllJi k of KaLQ.~aJya.


!?fit!g:tIJ)]nl$ t;rea,bedat ].ength il1ltlle eight~~:rI sections Q)f the 7th adhilmntJiJa., Its ~(mroCJe~sthe pr(lkrt~'ma{~t/ala,~ ~(i:4:ttf!Jya!5y,a' lW'akrlb~f;(J1;}ial,(J~t ,y(J'I,Ii.~.Diff~ringop]~iofl'S . a:;e occ<lI:!"iona]]y ql;J:oted I u5ua]~y withth'l'l remar!;: Ui ,ll',caryr('!'p., th~$ the' teachers, bu}t Ql'J!ce, VI],.i., with the addit~Qn :iN VlllMJflidh£l,s~tnus VliJauyadlti., We g~t the~mpjf.e$$io~ that K"u~"Jya has prut the sectio'mlinto its fill rill si:la,pe, :aft,:er h~s prede~sQl;"s n.lld be,~lln to dra:it it Tbereare several oompllr.uso.nS! f,om dajly ]W~.and pra(~ke, wlil]cm make ti'letext ]ive]~er tban usua]it1l thlr!l Kll1]t:::lh.y:a~ Olndw.e have every reason to think th<'lt they are dll~ to Kaill;aly:a .. , Thus VU. m h:ewn.Q go~s to war :aga:in.st: a .$troiJ'i'ger one is compared w'jtilO'rm who fights, :&:1"1 ~hl:phSJnt on foot

The six ql]ll!lities axe enumerated Vll] , smJldh~:> l!ig~'aJla~ iis~ma, yilna~.~q.a~lSrayal ,e/vaidhfMl!v(l, !Ina here Ka1iJ~alya ag.reeswith his pred~ce5Sor,s,olllly V~lavJ~dmi diS$e~n,6!1g. Sa'f~dll~·I$ e~xplained 11$ m~a.nirlg 1)(.'l~j(jMj1dluzj.~gr~l1lment: mgrnb.a ;)$ apak(traj• harmi[;lg~ war; lis.mr,ajs:~tting, as up.t.k!}ri~ Qverlog,li:.il:lg~ diis:regardiIlg; ft~l~~ going, ma:rcbi.flg~. ,asabJ:yucI.Jaya, i t'lIC'r~a5~j' $(;£1. of one's own. resourees ; iSm~~Sm,;lo'a, J:eag!Jillg~ jioill:im;g, as parl~~ia, e:ntrrusting oneself to aMth.er, and dvo.idhFoltliva., dUiplidty ~a!O 5'a1!}ldld:1I4grohoplldiitU! j adiopti:ng agreemlElnt and light. it is shown alt grellt ]el1gth wl.~ ~chof the ~:ix qtlalitie~ b.riFlgs t!ne g;rea~esl; 1I0vllIitillge In the varying' c~r~il,m!l$t:am::~s~ an d howens ought 10 act wh~n two go t'O,gtltlu:r IiIInd each of them wants to get the better ·of ~he other (a'liw'11uilnltm'1).

H.-F. KI.


The 3tld and 4th 1~dhik:!lr1l1~:a$, .J)i~(J~'nlf1$ihJYff. the judge.ac:tivi'ty, and 1(a.~~.ra/;rfJlod]rtma,the thorll.cleal".lng" have bsen fu]]y dealt with by J oIly, Eune:n.e ue ind iseh Rechtsq[lC\lUe I j and it is superfluous ~o give it detailcdan:al.ys,is in. ~he present place.

ru. stated by Jolly, the fonllcr d·eals with mlner, the laUe," with more serious crimes; the former under th~ presidency of three judges (dJr,(!Jrmatf.lhfll), and! three eeunelllers (amiUy.rz). the·llIttel." under three hIgher judge!> (praacfW) 0'11' three c'Ounci1i.Qr~ (m'~'lfi(ya). The former ,comprIses twenty, tn.€: latter tbtr~~enadlryayas_

The ~'ol:"d dlu;fJ·,.nas.t!Ji:_?a 15 formed wit~ lhesLIffi x iya.: 2 .r~0!11 d~,t1r:m(1$tlla., which Kull il ka stat:esto m~am fn1itl~Ii<N1ka ~ Judge (Manu V Ill, 51}' K(1~1!(lk(l, thorn, is!illccord l~g' to the :s:ame authori tj' {Manu IX. 2S2}, caw'(1!l.aA(ls.~·k4di, thie,'es~ felons, &c.,Umrns (rom the V:lllmr" po[nt of the $t:ate~ ~.!1 e'rn!,~!! of good governm(;:::rlt:. Praticw;tr ls kmHl.!'n from. th.e PmJ'icata.ntra [ed, Btlhler, 2.edlt!on"Bomb~y 4.,881, p, 48', but the 1J hiLmlte seuree ·olfthes.'I'il terms can ve;rywill be Kau~a.tyOl.

S~nce jJudsdictkm is <leaH with . in the ArtIlUas:tr<lt one: nt~ght be: indilled to think thatj from thfl b!itgi.nning, i.t fotm~d part of PQlitIcal lore, as is wa<$ finally codified byKatl~lya. A pr]or.i~. however, we would !il.:iipt:ct ittiO beJong to the: 'Diha,mat~stra. And s.uc:~ was e\·ldendy the case ...

N Q weight ean be .~aid on the faetthat Dh~r!l1~~~$tr.aismentionecl be:fo·.re Arthas!J:stra ~nthe ~n1Jmen:tio.n of the treatl$t;:S ,oorlsdllUtjng the h~b!l:$a",e!,b~ J, v ~ PI:lr:itlSlm, ltivruam, .Akhy1i._yiktll~ Ud~har.a'!)am, Dhar.il:m.s!'i$tum,. A[tilas:i_stnuu. .But it is of ~spc;cial i:nteI'El:;;t that we read in the Dhar.ma:sth1ya., HI.!! that when. the judg~i5 in doubt \vhic'hprindp.!e:5 heshQuld apply, he~hou]d act accord il:lg~o db armll.:

S(u'Psthii .yli. dh(m~t.as~:tr.e1..U" Slish'OI~{l :1Jia <J:ytlmil~iii"'lkam r ya~mhm art!!e v£rmiJl}.'fJla dJlfJrme~ffirt/1,a'tl 'lJiniit;.t1:yd II,

where :tbe oonventiQ!:l or the lawsuir-Iere (based O!1J [he $.lying of witnesses) Is In. disagreement with the Dh:;m:n :3J~straOTIH~ S~bOtY.1d decide !l:.ccord~ng tIO dlJ~m.ua. Shama Sash".ioom p1lir~:!; Y!ljilavalkya .][. ~H :

'Zd,t!l~!lrlft Ctlr v~iI"g:lcimt;[I.d(l R~>c'h!~'''''i~se'''!sQb~f:t, .37 j. p.P.:i,~'9 - SoH. ~. See; R~,ol!ii, (;f~m m~tr~ s"'Lmstrit.!!., .p. ~5 r,

J .~




I -I

artlm s(lsimi .t~l halavad dhm"ltaf,i'JSithm~ ifi '$i'Ir~'tlb'!

i:t is"," es:t!'llJ1l:in.edi ma~ im that the nh.ar!1Il<'l$~$t!"<l" bas H.Qre· weight than the Artha:li;iistra~ !;\lb~d~ can. 'we',y well be based on th~ JK.lI,ut!lihy~; c{ Nafll;G.lI. I.;i; .39 f.

There!;$. :stiU"nort:he:r detail w fui ci'l $,bQ~kinot be o\'erloob;d. ]n the adhJil{ara~lI$ dea]Jng\iVith j urisdiction Kal]~lI\y:a oldy .q~otes stat:b <l;l"rtborities saare ],:no\vn.a$lIuthoirs. of DhOl]".mas[l;t:ras~ U~!iJni!l$" Brh aspa t] :il'ldManl]~a!'ld not the pifild(?ce$SOfS or K<lu~aly", in the .Artl:l<li'!i~5tl"a. Us.uaHy we ilnd !i:uch .st<!t;em~mJ ts as !:/y ilCil}Jia{l .,. ~'tI: Km~~(y'll1J UTI. i.v, v ; [[[,,.ix, xx 6~'t1H Ka'!{'al)ml~; m" vi has i~ Aus-rn~,;uo ... rb}~~:gall; m. vil 1"ty f7cllr;Wlli " " " it)' trJn1il"Q , , • #i 'J(a.tttalya·ll; III. Xl £tyAl~sri:1l1lS11b • • ..~~" M,fi;j1flcvrll) iii .Biidj'll${.J(J,t.1{j?~." ltl .l(m~{rl/)I(f!J; UI ;;,:vi[ Ui jl'f?i,11mfib • ." J'ty A'It1s{jna5ii~ " " .. it)' .Kcmta/:ytJ.J.l.,

SilC:~il'ldii:atiQfl!5 pOint to the conelusicn that KlItJ!~a]y;ls d];:lI!p~ers 01'1 jurlsdk::tkm alCe based 'o:ntheDha:mla~:a[itra59ind have o!l'lly been slIghtly modM'lt!di. ]o.liy draws <IU~nti~n to cma d!l::taa,tbe c-vident tendency to n:p]ac~ oo.rpore'a~. pl!.lniihim ent, Qeeen <I ~ost b~rba.r~ us ene, by fines. Alld Hll~"t'l:3S01'1 lS e~id,eilt, the f:] l'lIe$,we!ltinto~he killg"S pocket, w~th aclld:ition!li~ payl'l'~~.[Jts of J'i1p1.'l {wi~h 8 ~1tJ} and tJ.vlij'i (\\luth .; ~M,

On the OU1~1" hand i~m.!ptlya doe::;" no't make any referenee t() ord~a.ls~ bill, he spe<lh of er~b~een kinds. of torture ora most bsrbareus description (Pl" \tum,. A bnMm(l.~m, however, ,c~nno~ beWNI,lIf\ed~ :!;i;Iri).rJ:pt1rdd.k~~a.pE(/a.tjiylJ' brliI.11f,~(j'fal1" His fo"eheaciisrn arl\:~d .as hekmgi t'lg'to a criimiUl.8Ji, [Ina he can be b!lln~sht'ld orr :S,C'lnt to,the pks .. As is well lim,()w[l, thus e~emption from tortll,'e is correberated bY' OJ: compar.ulve·]y old seurce, in the Mrcdlakai~i:k!~~od. Stemler j p, lot I .~. f.) Ca:l"'ud<JItta., wholm the: SaJ'dtra accilsesof ha\\' i1i'l\g' m~udel'ed v.asantasen m, asks. tn!:l Adhibi;ra!}Lb,if the ~Jocl.I!.<ltkm made by :5w;:h a vmaln snol!lld be ac~epted and not tested Ih,clI~gh an oiideal (I(l:d er;i,71I{Yaf~1 bIJ(1:f~(lt~? 1W lad v:icat;(j.~tJa~!l?).. And (p. :!i SO,l)

'iJ£fias~lilaftd{iC~iPranhftc ,,~c viw.nr

ImziMr:am ~'l!a $rtr;~"t: vik$'Yt!l ti(lt"/1!-!:YaJ.~! ll1(1. i

afh(J. n't#~~a(;rmId vJ brliimrat1Q"t,j ;},;;.",n UilUl~/si /J'Oiasi .ilarakama'dlfj'f! p~{tr(1)'(Jtdmi~ sa~J'Mfa~ II


now SJ neean ordeal concern ingn~,e, dUQugll po.iSorl, wlI:ter., weighing' or fire has beef! de.m!li!loed,lI!HI aner seeing-the saw-that s,h~u]d be applied to my body~ if you then s:l:aj me, a bralunal~;~., on the word fir my en,i:lrl'ilY, you fall into the midst ,of hen, <!ccompanied by yQ~J" S(l!l'lS and sens' SOilS.

Tbethree Jlmrmastll(Jf, and U1~ tllre,ei;lou:l'!cUllors should dlsch3rge hlw·s~its Oil the border of <I dis.tdctJ at: d1~ g',rCIUp·, d~·v~Y(N:apitaI, a~d $elOsiDIl CQtl,t$;: dllan~ta!!ilh{j5 tray.o· mil{yif jMa'Pada:sa1wihi~q.f1:tW grl!ll~rtl!mdn!JQa"~~t~hIJsfllu.nlJt'$~~ .. ryavalMbikiTu arMJ·I,i AmrYJil).

M05t of thes~ terms areexplalaed in theaihyakljQ.,/wm:rlrn, II. L Af'mr having 5pok~mabolJt the fm,Hlda.tioIlSindSiHangem en t of "mages (grlJnU'J.j K"'Il:~aIJagoe's on to s.ay:i r:l the centre 0;('" grollp of 800 ",m<lges he sbeuldestabllsh ." $til(l11.rya, of 4;00 vUlllges a drt)!;wm!fdflm,. Of:2;fiO villages a k~lJnp'Q,W~oj of I 0 vin~g'e$ a $(liJc~'alim.pl. These words lltili o.fr.at{l oeearrence and! pro ba.b]y belong t:o,th~ ol.d te'rm inolQgy of judSidk:tion. The Divy!li:vad~na mentions dro}.m:~.jjt~hya (p .. 62Q.~) and !.'{lnMf#k,tJ~45.2:J)."KI1,antJ!~·kfJ is formed from .klu.n"1j(jla, which tbe M[t:l:k.$ar.ii, Yoljr!avalkya U. H57r gJosses pr(u;urakafJta:kl1sm/l.tii~tl· griilna~ a viUage 'l;\thh nlany ~thorn$~> adding thlltthepan~llM~, ·cirtl!mfe'.r~:mej 0'( a c:rltma~ <I Ua.Yw~a, and a wlgm-a sb ould be mo~ ::l00 fj])[1 400 dlm~usJ' I'es:pectivdy.

Kau!alya th~ngoe~ on. to explain what lkti'u)ts of hm'·s:u,its the jtJ.d:ges shotlld refuse to delll wil~,: In .. 1 ~yaV.t'tJl~1:Y{l~/J~{iP(l1l{l ",h.rllda· :p(Jd(lJ,,;hm.rJh~~, 1llrrlmg(\lme:nt of prccedure, treat'lsEl on Q bjects ,of .101. wsuit!>. Tiro1litaniQml,g;:l"ml(J,kfilra~'IY(}pddJrJupahvl'lmkrm1'~IS tIT vYG..,ah(1rll'/~ p.1"IJHf!edl~aY~1,4! they ShOllM not admit 13w\,slJltS abcur what is done ]1'1 sc,r::retj wItihf Q the hoese, a:t night, in the forl!:5t" deceitfuUy, 'Oil" Clandestine]y. There are exceptions to this restrlctiOrl,a.nd they IIDEl el:lm'll!(l:rat~d; d. Yajn:avaU:ya It 3. it r., N!lnu:;b. U 43.

Th,en f'b,now5 an. important tn~attseaboutrnar:ri<lgillj III. ii ~l'Vli'· has.anl.Ydte ~1'vaJuldlm't'1.na(~$.Mdha'itrlrof}a Q'dJn'vcdQ.m7mm, in cm:U':Ii~,c:ti.()n will, J:fIar.riage, the ma:rrI:'lge U$fige~ the law about W~nlf:'I'lI'S property, the gifts to .~ 5uper5ede,cl! w.ife. Then foHow the d esigf]a;tions of the t,a.aitl.on31 S k~ll!d$ of marri<l!ge, in dOl!leaeoordatloe with the A~\'aJ:lyan3 Grhya siiltra t 6:

.1" lM.i'{Vd'da.h",af~1 fmniJllm aiaiJ.krl))'(l uri1lwUJ ~£1/a.l!,{lb

A:~\~,. I:.,.amid~rlya; J:(i!1{Y~lm t~dq.lwp'nnJllIJI (:kulytid €!j(r, orlJlmw 'i,,~VithalJ;

1945 . .NO •. L


M\·.,. 2. rtlJije ,vitalt kan.n.a,~~i dild)fld ala~krt.J''(l £(1 aoJv(), see K.al,lJ~ldYll· 4. 2., s(lhadJl(,lnJUJ'Ca~:fl'i p1'aj(i1!a(YGJ.~, ~\$v, 3 saJr,(l dAQ1WUill]1 c~mia i.tt" :(J~j'iipalyal).,.

3· Cl)mi'tl~1mfi,rili~/t'i(l (lr~ah, AsV'. 4 go~.~1itljf'{jJ·mflda#'N)jm;ymxh8#,"l sa Ilrq,a~l

~. (mf~rwdyam rfui),tdiinad d .. dvt1l:h see J:V'~·' 2.

:5. mit/lab $(1ma'llJyl1d gii~uilu:u~a.~~ A,:S~'. 5, mit/wI;; $aH1iajllill!~ Iirl<i'fY/HzyGCl1JINa sa gZ'b.ui/wriJ'ab

6. s$l;.lkfldoiJulfa ilStm;i~! Mv, is dJ~al.r(m()/l(I:t'OffJy()payacdwt(J $(,I' (i$u1"i1b: 7; jJra's,tdryli:dfitUid 1"tik$asal~, A.~.v. 7Sfpti'lI~(i~!1 IN'f11!nat!jj'w1~~ ~l4pall(l;rlt! sa p(tr¥Hicl1.~~sere Ka!l)l~" 8.

8 sU/#iJdi!-Jlirt p1JiSdaall, See .K.~v. '1, Mv.S lialm l)J:dll-m: 'Ca' .ifr~afli ,·ti,daffl!'~ rlldaaMy.() /i.a1"C,ts.1 r,17k$,a$alz~ :s~e K:au:~. 't-

The-correspond anee is :S1O clese that we must infer that Ka;u;~"lY1l has simpljl'fJldop:t~cl! the Ved~c de:finiti,oim.. The numbers differ:

K<lu~. 2 """ ~\~Y. 3j I{a:~~. 3 = A~v.,. 4, [{!liU~. '" = A~V. 2,K:aI:l~. '7 -= MV ... 8r K.a!.l!~. 8 = .Aj~·. ']. N:ttrada. XU. 410-4 f:01l!ows Ka'l[l,~fI~.ya,.

P£rrlwiml(l~{Jtwt~~rah pUf'VYt dlmrf~~J~J;., ~.nrJri%p£trJw:aj~~I~JaiJ sfl.w·a;b; Ull~ 11.1: .~I.~lkakaratJ; dl1~ll£iu~; (1JtJ.fI:.tarabhli'Ue ':l:lJ'Gtaro 'l1a~ the fOiIl,fiiliSil cnes :3 ",('l lll~.def dlril authority of ~he f<lthe, and! I:'jgh~eo!J!$~. tl:i~ otn e'r ones al'~lilnder' the ::;lIIlthofuty ofmoth.e-fllncll fa.ti'iilllr, flOr those tcwo take the brid,e·p:ri~e forth~ da;lIght~rr or one of them if one of them is. .no~ ex i:st:ing,

D?iiiiy.mtl Sulkm.l~ str.~· h(1.ra.~/ sar'~tQ,,!lpl'f~~r()Pa1}alJ~ alwal#ifldam~. <'l :second (lIdditi.oina.l) mrig.e:'[bIl"f(le the wife s~:!lo:uld hIke' j to all it is jjnforbidde:[1 wg~ve gifts of love. (Si:lama S.8Js~ri ]"C1:.ad;SGdtt~·n)a~tl).

Vrlth' ii!J.aJ/~ya,1!J va 5tridluma~1~. Pm~cui~is(lha'S,r{j :s:tJrlljlyll vrltilJ r alu;rdhyffniy.ama/)r ma~llte.n ",nee er crnamears are what is due 'to the wife: tile rnab:lte:l'la!'lce sl'J;OIl~d! be :set,ued up ~O 2;000; there is no restriction em Qirnam,ents.. Jt !,1> fi;itther st<lted ]Jaw sbecan~~e'r!d this. What has been eiujoyed intheg(itull!ardtl arnd (~rasbe should be ~1J'ul,.de to giveaway, that iDt~,~ rllR$((tj.{l anC1 paiJiica s:be ShoOiUld give· a;s lfit \;';l,er.e: .st:olen.

Mrit llll'tl.nari dJt!J't'1~lak,iJr;ta tadllmm ftV,Jstldl/iy.lh!u1ratfa11l Cfl laoneta, whc\ln ~he husband has d led, she sho'uld £"et ber ornaments <lnd ·th,~· r~mai:rJJder ef the b:r£de,,:piike, :if G,he wisne!!; to smbrace a re]fs~ous nCe; d. N'I:rada ]. ~8 j lfl~dA'ri wa ~.itJda.JI~{jUlt

s(;l1,JrildMko~'T~ ~r.MmyaJl~ d~pye(at OI"J if she JUi:S fOlUnd ta n1'!\lr h!J:sb~nd), she~houlcl be :rnaaeto l"eIlOLlno('! llo:th; ku{umbxd~til.ntr, .t1~ S"l1stll'1'a· pfft£datt(l~~i 1~£vd(lkaJc la/).fj'l!ta, bl:ltir she w]~he$to ·ta:ave a. hmJ:seh:olr.iJ she should get wh:illt J5 gi.v~]j, by rather·in~II,i\ii;' and husband; at the tlm,e of ffiie'titJ,ing down; cl~41&lwaprntil[mt.JI€J~ff 'va uivitr/rJ ,~':)(1S~{~·ajJ~ui. da{ja)t.~ j1y,cl:a j' 0", jf she has settled down against the wish of the' father-in-law, she .shQuld lo$t;l, what: was g.iven by father-ill·law 3.f1d hus:b;]na. jfj,tihasfiid (l;f;JJI~Jj'lr$'l(iju jimiayo y'a:f,Mgrhft(l~!j dad:yt~bJ' if she has: been ~io];)jted 1It: the .n.a.['Id of htlr reli:!tiv~s, till e rd~ti\'es should giv:C'lti:lem ]1'1 aeeordanee with wha:t W<lS reeeived: 1~yqpa8!!lliy(11) p.m~ijmtlif sll'1dlum(u~~ ffOfa.V.i!t~ of QM\¥!tO has b~el] approaehed according to nile themafl who gets her should guard the prmpe'rt.y or the wife; palid('ly{u!Jviuda~."Ili'Jti jiycl(j~ when shef:1nds (<lnotl'l:er husband) she S~.10 Ll.M. i05etrn.e: !nh~r]t:ancefrom her husband: Jllarmaklt:mfi bllU:ij jUa,if sha wishes to ~mhrf:!lce a religious life, she should enjoy it; ln~lraMti tJ'h~~lamftnll !S{ridha~(M~~ )'lye/a J tat if' Ji.tr.rdJl~Mnl~ptftnl hareYIl/j" If she has S.QII'l,s <lnd finds (mlOther ,ilusb<lnd), she should

I QS,e the wlfe·'prQP e['~y ~ but the 100:nS should take it j 1m'tl"iofb}~(lrCf~!artl~m~1 tl\if 1)i"du:mibm putrariUa1?l sph.litl/mrytlt}0[' whensile fin dSiQifle:, ihe shouJd lncrtt;'ls,e i.t {:orth~ bt:::nfl:nt of he~r :SQ[lJS j !Jahup1~1'/~'ftlpFaj.in{i'f:J p~tr.{jt!{1f!t yatha pitl'datlalJl 8tr,Xdluz~,i(lm I'lMslniijN1';fei, {lOr ~Oll$ ib:eg>oU;etl by marlY men she snouldset;tl~ thfl wife.property :;'1$ it wasgI ven by the C .... the.$ ;.. . a'P.tdriipalt5aycma~'/~ pillaya1~fi glt~'u'$tm~i~'$tf.~dltrr:nam i'i},u:{Jk$t1y{l:d bhld1j"ttaj.iZpv.i(l,l'l!uJ,'ll Ai strtdhmJam, IDtdkrJ(.f}tl dayada~l g.tr,~~hd, if sheJh!li:ving no SOilS., keeps herr 'im:sha:t1dts bed, ~.!1Jthe: presence of her Siuper.~[)r$ $!l,e shot.lJd ,enjoy the wif~pmp{lrtytm theend of her life, for the wife·"property is thel:'e f<lr~he sake o:f cOlil8irnfti.~s,. and aft.er\.li':ard5 it should go to: th~ }]dr,

The In@ti,n,ttlresting feamr~ in these rules is the .fad~ha~ they s,how that 0\ widow :could manry anotnel" husband, and ~hi,sp~ints to al1eady date for the Ka~ta]]Y<l,.Modifh:.a~ions ll~d mi!'lQradditiolns thelil'imay haw,e belen made, 'but, so far as I call ,see~ JacobPs judgement Sibout its authenticity stili rem<!in:s the most Hkely one.

Var~il"~y tl~~(jpra jI;)!(1"'t'ii11,(i,m apubf.i~~b'(11.l'(/hyii1V '1l1dink:~tJaj' dasa' :nb~Ju"t:l, dvtldtJ;#J. k(JnylIpra5'(luln;m~· .f:ttlab/Jub-arlh'i dvtb"yiijri 'q.in,dda/ iasyrUiJwal/flc s:ulka~~'I.'5tr'ldlul1lam Gr'dluu:fl C{tdhl~'U!!J(J,',lika~~.1 rkUlytlt, ,r;~~frvil~~satlp,a~~'tlpm'ill~]l C~ d(l1)4aH,J.,e'~ght y!ll:liWS he sh,QlQldwi.~t

e . ~

when the\,v:ife does net bear cnildrfl'll, ]",13£ no :son~ or is b;ill·r~n; ten whel'! sheu$ oeliv,el'edi of a dea,d ehild, twe]V!!ll when :sJm give$ birtll1 til:) gurls; after that he $1.10~,1d find aseeend {wife), jf he wants a' £on ~ ;ift~r the Iapse of tt!:1.a:the Should g[ ve the bride- prIce :lind balr of the wlfe~s fo,rtune<ls ,rsdM~$t.i(utlka ~.gin ~'o the $upel:'S>eded wife~. and a fine tlpt(l2i pa~!'(M, ef Yajl'i!lv:ai.ky11. ]1 I.:J,8j. M:anu IX.·8I.

Sulk(1.Sdi'£dhal~'N~ (ltlu/~(lslTXdlumris .ltltpra'iI,Iil"~~a~,I~ Qfit.iv.e:dG1!i/Ut'.l! aJuwfipm~t '{~ 'tITltb!~ doU'Q(I bvdW1r api vitJrietal fmMlr#uI M I>lri)'tl~" havirlig given, bdde.prl4le ,md\\.'!fe's. property, a ~a]pel!'$e$io!'l gift of the same va,lu~, a[ld a sultaMe m!lf~te!1!a!lce~ he may .a~$o find many. w'ho have not received bride-p,·ice or'f, ... iJe:':s propel'fty,. fbi· women are there fo:. the sake of (beal".ing) sons.

m.!il Vt'vi!J~asm~ry~~.kiesff{;:r.fi~iMll(1rm1Jp~rrl'iYaJ1.Hl:!jlE~.~.(:(ir()p(1~t1mvya· 'VaI1ifr(1pmtr'~'e'(!lllJs C~J ]0 c!O,nnedlloiL'l: with marri~5 ~ obecllien,ce ,(~o p"renl1s}, matntenance {of fe.t1llakJO.),harshness (in words·, alld llictS}, d]:saa"edion~. lh~$oondu~tt forbidden f1l\fQI[ir$ and a~,od.:Jitton"

DWld'a!safj.fi~'$a $irf pr:apttwya.'iJtdll1J'7i bimv'ati !}'(j4asfZUar$atl,tt€J.l~,l.tJ~ al~l (b'dlwat)~ a~u$rR~,1fJU1~' d:dEdasQ/m,o/J5fn'yi! d(1~Jd(Jl) :frmllso' dvigrl1;}a~~ twelve years o1d<l wom:anoomes of age, SiA~ee!l years did a msn; in the' case or df!ilobed~~IlJ;;e thereaft>e~r a "l'Or1J1In is. [in~d lr2 pa~la,:iI man the double, In the ebapter about rmarr~<lg$ th;isc:all Ol;!i]Y bur lr~f~renc~ to the prriper age of rtl;]rti.a.~ "lc[ Maml IX. 9'4, NU<ld a 1. 35< f,.}, and ltis ther:llfote of intflres:t, l1'r:1rthe yQ!!ll'lgC'lli t11~ source,the lower the Ilge.hll. tll.ertlodernact aiooUit marria,g:e of Jl91~9 dle correg,pondirJIg .fi:l;iu]"C!s sr~ 1.4 and IS. Tbere is :no l'efe~·eIlice' in the Kau~.al~j':fl to I:narr]!ilg~ b,etwC'l,erl ·c~i~dr~n."

Bna.r:ma~tyJ)lJm an~h;U~/akillJyll'!~ ~<:rfJs{jc""Chlf'(iQ;nm!i v?idMk(j~Jt yathl1. fRwu,"~aparh;nJ'(j1~! S{l'Ui$e~lla'1~ J~r(l.flt/ 1l~:}·d2j.((jldUliy(i1?~ tat sa1J~kjjyJya bandilaJ{~ ca aad;JofJt, SUlkt1.$Mclhm~{it!hwctim~l:kfiw.{J)n .m~lidfjrtr: ca, s';MSrmzimlapravi;'J#itya121 '<1iM~MiiYiiJ1~ ~t'l' 'i'lih/l.IJfojyalj; p(lti~~~ when th e 'maintenance has. not been determilliCldl 3s~o ti:rm~'1 h~ shotd.d gi1i .. e rood and dotJh~!]g; or a lIul,[l more~ according to the place of the man,. 'withSDmethingaborv.!'l ~ If it is deeermlned :11$ to time he should C01!,lrlt OiIJ~ jusea mueh and gi.ve a 'ph'ldge, aad withlout ta:ldngaw3!Y b"ri.de:.pri.oe~ wif~'s prope.rty or 5uper\!l~ion gHlts'i if sne has gone bJtlle heuse of her father·,in·l<lw or if there has bsen .fl. panitiol~ of the property, nle husllJan ds.11,OU~d! not be' saed,

H.,·]i". Kl.

BJf,G1WUltlyii ·El\liCletlti.y refers to the same ~bing as bluuma. The f!~ea.!'lil'lg ~ hire~ wagesJol g1\lllrl in O'UJr diction <ll:]e's is due roa ml:surla,erstanding oJ Ii~millcarldm's AbbidhaJ1Jaci!'lti!il'!1<1Q.] 3~63. The .rl:leaning' Qr ptlr~1lllfm is llIltCC1:'rtSilll. M:hbh. V .. ~ ~ ~.~ N[iakal:!~h:3 gl05S~ sl:h,DJ:'ia:. G<l!)apillJt~ grkr:tMaw~f~ja~tf)paka}'lii{<l(Jnalih,';';ll!j1'ff~\Uma .

P(Jnft;yamt Itarsnness, when the husband seelds or beats his wife, .!l'\artber ~Qmme:I'It is not necellsary. J)~,'.e$(l, d!,~a:ft~CtjOfi. .A~r some remarks a fuom. what Sh~ldd be dQneun the¢&$iC1! of conj uga.l ~.nfi(]eJity, and aitloll,t, the hU:5band'$ oMigadot!isinthf:i case of physical defects ~r. dt!!JtaNiI~gp) arid false statements the wxt deals '\\'i'ith divorce, m~~o~~p blulrltw akii'~}~a$)''1>1 uw,$r1/i hltrJryli, blmryllylJ.g ca Marm~ paraSll\tlr(f~~1 d:mlilJ! ~~lok$'(1!~, a di5:aff"ect~d\~'.ife of a nQ~~lo·"~[lg husband <linda (disaffected) I:msbandof (a not"loviflg) wife cannot obtain Ol. d'lvQ"oe, but there is dlvcree from mutual dh.aff~lcti(lI1. The h:!O!t remark is .n.otin. agre>ementwith later te:l';ts~ d. N~T:"adll XiI. 90 w~y;a'"'!l lJ"aja{'(w aga ll.syfid (J;~~Y"'nya'VimriJ(llt(1ytJb·

Str,vlpraMriid ~a pttrwjas CI!U mQh'$tlm: ~'!;cJuul yall~agrllit(J;~ll asyai dady.~t/ pt~J'tl$(ftdpr(jkiIn1dVla~t"1 €.~~~ mokfmn lcc,;um nasyai yallM't. crhUa1!l tllu(yul; 1fmoe{io dI1l:lrmlJ.iJi"Vii'h.5J~Jm: ~)i, if a man wishes a divOltc:e OIl. aCoolmt of the wife 1m.ruting· Mm,. k'te should gi.\!~ her 3S he h,lS ~~c:ei ved, or if the wiCewishes a divorce on aeeouae of the man insultin g h~., he should not gi.ve her as he has recel vee; thC\lm is no divon:e in tbe case of tlle dharrn(l.'I)i'Vi!ll{l'S (the first four kinds of mar.ri.ag:e).

At{w1'if1, misconduct. Pit:r[)i$hfiieTI~Llf!lwiCe who, alber having' been warned (pnlli~i{ldnli), shows &n"Ofiahc~ dr.iflks, or takes t~ coquetry j gO~5~Q a show··ent!\l"tarinm~ht of women or metlin dayti!~,e or in t'!1e night (d. Manu IH.84); sleeps itltoxrca:~~d wlle~n the h~balld has gone a.wayafld s:h.uts the door to hi III j whi'll] she ~I]rn:s him out at n ight; when woman or ma:n m:like gestures. w·]t'htheir body a~mlng atoohaout!ltiQ!'I;. or talk together in a. secret way ~ when th.~y catch 1.10,](1 of th.·£!! hairs, th·~ dQth] and make use of teeth or nails; when. there ]S ll. ao:nvers3Jt10n at: a suspfciQ.li,1$ plll.ce!; .pr(1t1fJ~~Jdjlu· sber darpo"M' d:1tif.k.yf.rja:lli.~l; (twa 5l~'rprl!k$Jvi/~ar.ag(l.m(l'J:j'e; l'UJ'u$a:pnk$fi,1)ilt:lW:agcm.I(.ffl't •. . • ,.fUr-au; 5Mptap."I'tM"Jf:lllfi pJ'mN.rj{}.-w.~ bhar/$lr !Jmt1fll ca aoo1'a$)f(J; ~"iUm~~ ~~i$k.fJf.i.mle,; slrWpuJtJs-ayor mia£ih.t~~ilrth'e"~i:ng(mlc(!~!uYfi1!~ palla!}. sfl(lsa.~!lbir!t$IJ'y{t I!l ~/ kesa#r';)id(mt(lHakliiJ'Ualttmk.'n~$.~~; $(f.fIJ;itaslJlafM stllJlbhii:j.fiyfiJ!l.


UIMkl!i.m'!:ytMJalul">fJplJ"'ati~tdha~, forbidden f",vom-s and assoelati.of]J. p,.atl~{ddhay(}~ s'trjp1ill~S{1y,01'' lmyoniPo/MI.'iir:f, when \VOma nand man in spit~ of prohibidon fSivollr~d'l otrn.er:prO').N#d(lJu:t:P'2l!~U. {iav)'(~va!fi'jlr~~~t]n ;JSSOdfflldollSWml forbidden persons, cf .. Nalfaclia XU, 6~, 66 -6{t

[It lv, vl(!{jlrtl$nJJty.!~kte~~iiq)'(Jlaj,uU!~Plithy ,anl~~:raV'.a~ll brrJs,<m!N"a'· misa.(t {li.'f'!JlMp}~I1$i'i$as ta, :~ln,()Om:H!CE~On with mar-r:i~;ge:n.llning awO'l.y, fo'Howing on the road, $howt ~bsenlc~, and ~ong i11ID:sence.

Ni"~/mtm,um.I~. rIJIlllninlg away. P'lllni!lh:met~lt of a. w~fe \\.'Il.o leaves hCilf hl!l:5band."s house if she has no~ beef! insultedl (a/~yel'ro vipnilm.rlttj; ,if she goes b eyQnd ~he [l,eighbolJf'S house (p"at~'v.c.{(J:grhr:nfuafafllJ;) " if she has 'ootab:ll,ed ad rniiu,a!'lc(l~ iII~m5, or wares., Ff'!SJU;:ctL vely, frQI!l neigbbollrs~rl1e'nd~cOl!!lts arlo' traders (pr~ltivldiluzhlj'ik$~kaT),r:Hd~/jakli1'l.fim a1.!lIJ~ti.iaMih~~tifJtl,{~yll'diiut); if they have been forblcl!(I~[I he]" (prtlii$~'ddJ~ii" '~t'l1~/); if'she h~:sgLm e beJQirldthe SUJiTO u ndirlg hOU!5,,"S (ptwigrJrillig.atrJ" ylitp); cf. PSira!i;ama X. :218 - 30.

P.arab.kJry,It'a,kastJd1:~lc satya atIJ,.uto 'uy:alr-npudM:t~b :vii'r:at~aiI1!ii'. -'Jo:yor 1u'l"do1J,al~ prati,JipraMi'rlJl',\vllililnadmitt!l[!)ce has bsen give:n ttl anether'e l!dfe, t:fuer·e is, fl iJ,ne of It 00, if thejj~ is not a cal,arllIty ~ there is no faJult if they forbid or do nlot kn~)w ,. and agil inst <'!n insy~t.

p(Jtijilmislfkha~sth(lgr:anri~~~:rilid;,Md~il'1~~~k'fjlilJtil.mlanlJm tI;tu'atamau~ a.prfYW}(lm g(U~lum adat;a~~ ity Q,c.irytl,~,ut r~ [10. f;'lu~~ t:o g:o to gne of the houses ofa relative .of tile ~li~ba]i!CI~ a happily estab]lsnt'ld "vmag~~ 11J bail, a ~rektdye ef'a fem:a]eme:li1;(llcant., lif tlle'r'e is no man, thus the tleach~.r5; sapt.tr;u~m:~1 ~ j'fj(Uic.II1am, '.mio hi slldhvij'auaS'ya ck,a!.a~t~. MiRJmm (tIed a~ahDdd;um~ it£ K~u;alyal~, or t10 the hoase Qf a re~adve where there ~sa :mrall~ for ~lQ\vCQuld good WQmenfo] k deceive? thO'it isea$Yro fn~d 'OU[J thlLl$ K!llI~illlya.

Prda-~J'lI\dhi{l)y.at!(J,~(lgwbll(,ltl£m~:tfam alw.a:t1.:$i'ddlll1~~evq j11'lilikJila. camCl:1Mlnlj it is ~ot forbidden i]Q go to a re~advte's house o~[I :a.coonnt, of death, disease, 01:' pr-egna.!:!~y; "~j:m£ltaJ?~ 'iMl"qyala drJ'lida~apo~() da~~'(/a1J.j t'ltr'Pfgllh.(l~nt:na $1J'IdJ~tl.J,~t!l']l J'fytta~ j'iilUayotii'l d~daya'MI(!'I~ $~/oo'se$(lm! if he {the llusbanld]1 dcss 1'I0~ admit the reason, there ils tI.nl:le ·of Jl g pa~a~a.nd ~ f5h~ lleY~:rtheiessbides U:I1~:rej she should lese her wife's p:r-opefty,. orth.e re,]a:ti'\i'\t:l~. who fuJide her the l:-emOlitnd,e:r of the Ilride.;pttQe.

H.·F" 1\:1.

Pathy ai'Ui'.sartl~;tam! foilo\"\!ing OIl the way. Palilml1l11 tUf;ptilya gramlil1tm"(J{fmmUie tf~llld(j.~t1pt:tJ.I'O d(l~lr.f,trlt sth'ii/lyiibJuW<l'jil!QpaS sa, when . gO'ing' to another v,illag~ !'lifter havi,llg run away from the husband's house there is til. line of 1:2 /J(l~:~f1 and 1 oss of the' ora aments she has to deposit: gamyma ita p,W{!Sti MJUJ;pJY/,S#tfJ'IlC ,CGtlln.lb~lsati'I){1f.I(j{i sal",!1(ldllr:J.rmuiopas ,cliJIY'l1lm Mat"J~/(ldlil,ll'IliY'h.a§,I'(Jlllal1(il;,IIJ'a1~i pl~'t~.sali pflrtlall S!''ilr(l,scu/.a·{IQall t/~JyasreY'as,ab, pIIjJi]!tJ80 ",mlh:ym}Uf,~', bamilmr (l{la~uJfl~, pmli$ed}~c' ~:nIh(lda"J{la'{I,!, it she sets out together with a man wltla whom,she: Cil[ll1ia~.'e intereoerse, the fine is 24 :/J'lIJjO.', and she' loses. II Il her ,rights with the exceptio 1,1 of ,cal"lng' for 'the I1Ul Lllten,3.nee and s,oing in thec~'Llr5es (to, the husband); rOlf" the man it is th~ firs,t vi'ol~nce fine (250'ptl~m), if h(: is of equal standing, the middle (SIOO'), if h~ is tnfe'rim (cf. Man,1,I vm., 13,8 about :Slflu:t$:tld('l~d(rl; <l relative ]$ not ttl be f:ill,ed,. if he i~ forbidden~ the' half.

Poilu' <1Jumtarcg12'(piadcsli/)/liCtmuuw mait:)umlfr.tlrc1ia s(n':tldtaf!ratl· liiddhlibh~lil!l to.Dpatlty rmus.lh'i1,J(I sa~IU!'(lIU~~ta'l~ vld)rUt, when she goes to an intermeodiate hidden pi3,ce, or fol]'QwS on the way people suspech:d or' forb~d.den withre,gard to coilabita.tioll, one should know that there is a sexual asscelatien (cf. Manu V[l[.3S6).

Ta:li!pacar(l.c'tlraf,UnnaJ$yC1ba1~dhakalubdljak,agopi'ii(lkastm~utiMjlifnt ,cmYC$Q1ll ttl pra~~tastf'iklIvi~~.t palllY amlsr:wa~,lam tldO$tl~, there :is 110 laq,lIe to folloW-Or! the way dancers,t singe.l's,fis:llelF$; hU!'lters"cm'o" herds, liquor-sellers or C!thllT$ with Ieese wives,

H:raS1)I'lI!1'(wli$(l,~, a short a bsenee, How long a wife has till waIt for he~r ab.serl't husballd, and then to whom she- should turn, for it is a l'engiQus murder to obstruct the courses (lir{h.o/J{wodlw M

dharmavadha&l. .

J)1~"!J1ll'l'p'rarssa~:, ill lo[lg' absence. How lQng 3 wife h8JS to wait ~,..h~n ttl e husband is long a way, has take]1 the vows, or is dead, and then to whom sl'i,eshoou]d tUFO.

Ill,v, DlJyav'iMa.ec dllyahra.mnizJ in tile partition of inheritance, the StliCCl~S~ion at j,nherilam;;e. How the' d~ffe:Jient heirs sho'uld inherit ise'xplain ed in essential agr,eemell t with the Dharm3sutras. I foUow Gag;l.apa:ti in readil:lg rikMiJ~l Jn4J'af!ata~1 puljr-~ duMtaro v.cf (lIun·mi:~{ltr.r;.u 1JiVlihc$'l~ iiUMJ, the ,i:l'lher.itan,ce aftier a man who has SOIlI:;;, the sons or the daug-beers ooom in r'll8'bteQu$ marriages (the: first four kinds or ma.rr.i:'lige) should take, Dirnctllt -ls tl1~e passage adliyijJakQ.~~i rrrja


liard isl.l~f~',!'/iJp}'e.trtkad.t7rymmrjai1J. I~ Seems to mean that 'the killg sheud cOIlI'fise8Jt~ the lnherltanee if there are flO direct heirs,l!Xccept when the deceased has been miserly \\ ith regard to the maintenanee of his w ~fe and his duties toward,. the depiEilf"ted 01fl~:S. Ga~Jap a !t[ ,ch,;lnges prctakmiarya to p.relakul'ya, which ]oo,ks Hk~ a piS-a/181". Ct !Manll lX,.~8!'iit ',!i.rada Xnl.So, Vi~~!!' XVI]"4-9., Ynjliavalkya ,n.120.

m. vi (1J'!l'srlflJiMlf'go(" .i.ppol"tilO!l!I!,ent of shares (in the inheritaneel, £kasb-11mjrli~l/l~ll jYe.!Jtflu,!~sab::; hr7ifJmJ(ll~finfim ajil/;, J.;~alri),{J~~rJm a 5 <JIJI; , '~raisftll'd'''~ giivob. s/iddlJ,titm' aOlf1'yail. am.o[J,g SQn::; ()if one mot~l.e:r tl1 e principAi share with ot"(tlmw?I.(ls are ,g"O\:ilt5, ~!tith k¥G,tri;'as hO~C5j with lII,aitYQS cows, \vith §ooras sheep, &c. Nm,i:lJs,tr~putl-(j~liiJ~,J. . . ,tnlt·. 'lmiaJlm(ma jye~{'IU1bMl1all. ill'nong sons of differ'fOnt mothers, the p rinclpa] sh are is by p!rituogenitllr-e; cf is",pastambSi II. 14.7., Man 1J lX. J~,6.

m. '1di '/J1I!l'/lllibhapll, different sons. P.CirtIjmjry,;lfrohc lJfjam :1~f-sr$((Ull k$C,triJ,tllll ily i!'ii'r:,:wi~" a seed thrown into <llliother's property 'belongs to the owner of the field, (l1u$ ~he teachers: l1MJU: Mast1'i1;,),asya ,I"ttl(.l$t ttv5)lllpa'lyam £~v apare, EtU!! mother is <I leathern hag,. he who has UU~ selm.~tD,~o him belongs the child, thus others., :l)idya/~t,TJliJ,m uMu'ryam iii Kar~M!ya~I' both is to be f'o'l!md,thlls Kilu~nJy:a. This is further explained, Auyt'ls.a, legili!!lla;~e,!. is a son who ]5 begotten with one's wife; equal to him is the Imtrik'lilmtraj the SOIl ot cne's da.ught:er" 3[1d a son begetten th:wugh levirate is k§riraja, bern jintbe field, l, e. ]e-gltil'nlat~; ia.na)dtIoW asary "myasmi;"t {}titf"lt sa e1JJl dv£p·Hrko ,Jv~"gotr:o Viii if the beg,ett,ev has no other SIlI'l, this one witi have two fathers, e\'enUuaUy two go~a$; latsadllarm(l hIilU.dllill1ll1!' crMgFlqli'tljiUas tu gnllrajtl'h" of equal fights wit.h. h im is he who is born in th(il house of r.ela.t~\'es., but ftH4fuli~r 1:5 one who .is bom dandest:ine'ly; ixmdku.m:jjS}'~~O 'ptt'tJhldlurb S(J}~15A.'ilrli{~ p.it~J'a!J, One who is rejected by a relative is an np.il'Qidd/ia, r~j!!t'ted, and i.s the son ,of him who initiates him; !ulnyagr:trbh(ll~ k'lIf1l'uli"the: S01l. of an uflmar.l"i,edwOfilao is a k8'ni:n'a; SCig(WMdfjljiiyl.lb sah'or!ha~i, he who is born by a pr~grl,aflt wom all is j;I sllhDrJlm; pUfwrbJrmiJy6l) }tnmarblufir.Hl:!;, the son of a remarried woman is 11 p(l:rm{Jrl.)lur~a; cr. 'VaJ~~a'\I',l\rkya lLI~8 ff.; Manu IX. 52, 166 f[.; Niil'ada Xll, 5.51,58. Several other d,esignations ,~re added: datta, ~lpaealll, krlalm, krUal (lmAIJ~f/jl(J (sen or a bril.hmal;l3 and .3, vai5:yl), w'flidaor p~'rosa1J(1 (01 br:thmaoa 'Hlld !tQldr~)j 'ftgro, (oJ


, [i.-F. KI.

k~a,tr.iyaiilIHi sod.raJ" 'lI.r-alya {born by b;;:lhm!lQasl k.~atriyas er vaiSyas with women of 'the same castes, but without ma',rill:ge'l sflJrQd (Jy()gava, RjjIiZUf", ca~ujjjia {by OJ! $[lJdra. with a val~ylij' k~~tl'iy:l and bl'ahm!~m, re5pediv'~ly)j Mitylbl mligad/!(1vtlid(!lulA.\a,,~ (by a. vlli:Sya with a Tqlrltriya iind bl'lbrn.n;d, re:s,pect'Lv,ely), k:r;.aJriyIU siiJab (by II. I~~'triya w.itb. OiL bralnna.Q.il, 1m/aka (by Ugr![;Jjnd 'ai~adl), pulkasa (by N<li~!ida and Ug:r[ii'"v,a*a (by Amb3!jl~hll and Vaidehik:i)j. lmsfJava {by Vaidc:!ha.ka and Amb.~~h~'Jsvapiilla {by K~3ttr 3I1dUgrtJ'j cr. Many X. 6 tr.

m. viii grll(~~slulu:ml. about: the homestead. Rules about the arrangement ofehe dwelling-place.. its, posilion, wjth r~gard to neighbours 50 ~5 to avo.id 'CO!llmC~S; d, Nl'lrad a XL 15.

m. i.x. v:Jsh~'1Jik'f';ay,aJ.l, sai,e of the homestead. Rules ,about 'the sale of homestead, settling of di .. sention w:ith regard to boundaries, fields, &c., The reading is some!tim~s uilce:rtai:n.Fol' ke.d/J'~'()!1(ldlu1.M()gail; Oil:Q.lIpati r~ads k~dllrop(lbM,ga~~I,.appare!1t1y without support in his manuscripts, cr. Y.3jilavalkya n.]I' 50 fr.; Mllnu VIII. 245, 258,:2650; Na"raa <I XI, 2.. 1,0" 1.2, 2.6.

Ill, x rqb,).~taJMjetralatlu:ddl[j.${j $(lI'1(lya'Sy:rJ.tta/JDRarma ca, d am.age to p:flJstuf;e-grollll1dls" fields, and. patbs:: Dot ftllfiUlng of ~ngag;emellts. R ules about no·\';' topreve.nt daml'lige t@ ethers by oli:!:sUl,lct'iflg the' water"iS'upply, p:la,dng dams and o,bjects of wo.rship on flJn::ign grollnd, :'ilPPFopiating' or seIling law-barriers,; obstructing the paths; about cHhivatio.rili not doing the!r duty ;a.bout II, vil.lage·b.eadman who, turns iii vmager out; s.bollt improvi!ig ,and protecting the pastJur,e-grounds; aboot how to deal w.ith cau]e grazing them off and :h.,ow to. d:rIve t:hem away; about plQughmen. 110t dQing their duty; about admittance to shows; a.'bol'lt lisleni~,g to, one whQ says wh!lt is good rorall~ <md abollt insulting people, &c. Re,ading and explanation of sOme passages unce!rtall'l. Cf~Yajiiaval.kya 1[. 159 f~" 162j, 16S~I9I-3; Manu v.m. 22 I, 2,31. 242; Na rae a Xl, 11" 5" 34, .38; Vi!;!l;'iil v.. '13,

Ut xi, r~jijd'anam, r~c~veri~,g of debt; Detailed "remarks .al:im,lt rates of interest, :re-sponsibiUty fOIF debts of deceased persons and several debts: abo'llt people who C8illnot be made respcnsible; a,bolllt: wilne,sSe$ and perscns not admitted as witnesses; about the different WlllYS, of examining' witllle'sses, <u::.c:orclingto their caste: about the preeed U1re when. witnesses disagree or do !'IO,t aI1.$WOer the qlh~·.s!ti(m:s ~n!.l:t 'to them pFoper~y, &c'i in gel:ieqd agr,eement with the Snlrtis.



_,_. --.-----.----------__;~

cr. Manu V Ill, 6gtf:, r 20 C., I 40, I 42~ 152, 160; Ya:jfi.arwllli:ya n·38ff'.

HI. xli/anpanldhi~(lmfllbQUlt d.eposh:s. .De:till~.~:ed rules Ol,bo"'t~pptmidldj deposits, ~ndth~ ~sp()n$tb!Hty ef the d~posiuliry; 11 !bOllt his I,!ti]i~il1g the: depo<sit or sel]J ng it; .abm,l~ hi1> l'eflls.lng ee give :it bSick and \!3rkIlJ!s ways ofcoflfoum;Hng h~m;:lI!hQl!J.t iidcsa and am!l!aM,instrudiol1l:S and deposits g~;ve!'l by one, e. g. ... senal1ltJ to be' handed overto ::l,no:ther: about ~oa~l,s.gra;ntecl 01'1 reqw!st, (!r hired object$ • <lbo!Jt ;v~~J'd'V:rlyat\{" kraya', sale tbr-ough cornmJssl.ol:'lers;abo:l1l~t rest~t[llio!lof de'pol$itsthat h~ve been, lost or de:t"t'riolrabed, &C'. cr. Yfijrn,:!Iiva]l!:ya ]t :s.a If.; Manu. VUL ~i4, [8 rff., Na,;Jjd!a '~r. 3" 7, 8, 18.

Ill.xlii, da$(lludp,aJlj, the s]a;ve,·]aw,W.e have a.hieady seen ~h;'lit an. :aryaean not be a si8!v.e. Even 81 SCan C~tUll@t be sold SiS s13.vg.

,But mleeehas clln sen cr hILlY th,l!lir ch~ldFe~, A~!rJ':a caa pledge hlmself to wetk {or others, but must be em 8!j]dp<'llt~dwben his ebliga.ttansare acq Il~,w~d. They must, not be put t-o: improper' work. The ch]ldren of one who has ~,~oM" himself <llIe IJryas. Cf. Ya:jii:ava!lkya J[. ~9f C., ~'91; Ma~u VIlE. 2I7! 415; Narada v.,S::;:' fr., VL2 r., 18 f.

m. xiv, k::arm(JkarakaIPa./J,.5a1~tMf(,!la :S(l,mfl;t#H:lI~am.th.~ ~awabo!Jt hired labourers and collective undert<'llkings. How to deal with a ] :ilbO'llJrlltf who does not do his work; how ]f this is dllJe~o n~fless,; simil<!lr r~les for servant;; of a commlUn[ty~ ciJ.]hivllltQf$~ traders: sacdfidr:lgpde,s;t!O~ &:<':. Cf.Y!!ijiia va va.lkya 11.::1: 93; Manu VHL 208, :2 ]:5, .. 2 r '7 ~N!i.rada, HI. 8 [,j VL2, 5; Vii\l~u V,IS3~ 157·

Ill, xv "'jlkrita.k.~lmm!MI)~{lfIJ' r'!'lp~:ntingfl 5a]~C)Ir purehase j d. N'a,radia VUL 4, [X . .5 f., Xn. 3., 33; Vi~iju V. 1:2)9.

lU •. )1;,'1'1 d{JJta"5~~(1,.p;t_kanm,i, (lS1J"{im~:vHn·(1y.(J~j' $'JJl!sMmi'$t:l,!~band'hah, not.deHvery ·01 a giftJ' sale byol'le who is not the .oWl:lleir,re~~t,~o~or posSot:!5siJlj'1l! amd pessessor, S(lyti('iS~'~~ p!#r:fl<d(i~'{m~ ,eUm'li~M'I'rJ tH .. tltli1~rd!ly.fj'Jab pr:aya~~ll{1laj dhannaa.fiH(lm Q.sfidil:r;qu ,k'U"M'iL1S'~ .~t;lJlpagll{lmu:~u 'trill, rw.fittlei(i:mJman:u.palfiJ.ri$1! apdl!l'£!}utli'!, kilmcuillfcu:mr (U.U;WfI(!!{jU cal yallfiJi ,;1 tillfapy.atigraliftt! ,a "J()palla{:(U~ s)1(71,,"~t talhli"1td(lY.(r~ lm:Jalii,~ k.alpa.vcJ'u~/ tia~t4a.bJUlY.M .akro~1JMa:ylld arthaMa..yl1d·~ Dha"uda~laJr,J prcaligrlt~"Ulta~ swy.a(/a"J4aJ;proy(u;,;hatuS ca, ,ro~adllnM!>l pa""(1M~~!siiytt'fl~ t'5j~m'nl r~pMl d:a,.padlll1at)~ (:(1, (:atrot/aml) dGJ},(/'ab, whe:J.~ Cine repents having given 11 is whole prQpelfty, c'h~kl a~dwire~ ",nd i:dm:!5e]f, one should d.e]iverit to him; {so also) a gift {"Or r-e~ig~oU!s pur!p(li!l~s ee people who· prove te be

H.·]l'. K1.

bed or tel'lg'Olged}i:n harrnful deeds! <l money gift to people who do t~Qt help one Of' who harm one',11 love,gift to unworthy peeple, and pro fidem persons should s~u'e about the regrc't,w that give,' and T~ce'tver are :n ot prejud iced, he who aeeepts 01" gi ves a g,~ft of (emir, from fear of punishment, Q.f c~!ls[lre! abc:n,lt Qnc',~ plloperty~ is pUJrlished as [J, thief; (so also inl~he c;1:si~ of) .r1 gift of wrath 1n l~,arming others, and a gift ,of pr]d~ to Idng5,th~re is lb~ highflS.t punishment, cr. Yajflo'lival kya II. 176 r::

$Wlj~~ kU,(lmlbavirod.lu:na rie,ru~l d'iiraSu.liid rt,; r '.l(i1.11.m;_JPeS(1ri stl:r'V'a.waJ'l~ yac c01wasm~£pr,~itnlJi(im II

IN'cdigrrlJuzbp"'aRf'1 St;t,~j $Joat :st/i'(iVtll'VlSYtl 'l;n'seFfGI~h: j df,.'JfJt!l lmltisrtJI'(l~~,J ,(;ttiva rir:dtvrl 1.J.{lpalu.w.etpu1li1b n

M1II:lu VHf. .::l.I2 r: :

dll(lrm{JrHMu~~ ywa datla)·~ SJlli.t ktls,,~!tJi~M :pijtaJe dl!(l1jti'l1~ r pa s!!':i%G 'iii! llil fatha fat S';Yi!1~ 'ltl d(yaJ.~! t(lSji\a tad Mm~t n

j'adi sa~~~sa:dh(J.yllt un tu da,:pllt !a.Mcna ~: .~1~tl.l! I

rl1jFHl d~/yal.~ s!War1,ltl1~l $,Jill M~y(l $te.J"l@,a m:"krlil); II

So far ,:];SF can see, ~Iler-e is here :,l, di51l,g'veem ent between K.lIU~:liiya. aad Mann: The fot.m·~T spe3ksabQ~t gifts given to ki[l~ out of 'prJd~, i. c.~o5how oW, and th~ latter about the Id[lgwi:lo wm. p!Jnis~ hi III who l'\etSilns thegiifl:. Manu hastnen appan:ntiy mi~lL.ul!derstoQn.d1 his SOIl!"(e, and this, wculd be of ~n~rest for the question of date,

PrlilibJravya·~fl d(l~tfasul.klJsQ~~lm i!J;!.u;~·k'U!l I>tmrlk(1.~rJ ~7matia7Ja1!!

CD ,.i'i'iki2"~~ail putra dJ:'O'.~do va ,'~:~lhal1tn'o d(ldyilt~ <lg-ift :for whieh there is a, b ailJ or where them :isSln, lmaJcqu~u.ed rest of afirle 0... a bri.dtl· prk:eJ <Ii debt Incurred thr~u.gh preying dice or ddl'lking, and a lovegin, a. s,on Qr an heir who gets the ]nb.e.rft8iIlC~ should not pay ~gain5t his wish, The readiJlg is certain; d. Yaj.n.flv,dkya It . .:ft :

sm1!:.kfJ~Nlld'y.iiUakrlfl"r~ deli'..~cf((sldM<m§l~lakm.n ,I

1jrtliaJ..a11a~1~ mlhaiv'f!ila lmfro tlad}\Wt~/a jmi'idmm Il

MI.IXI~ vm. l39';

pr'(iliblla1{y(U,1~ 'i;Jrtk{irJ;j~wu akfJika'/il

5(lu".iJM,~ c,a joMlJ I

III ~)F'-+- ~

da~l'(ta$Jd~fiwst~mt·~ Cl~ na .t)1~ro d{Jt~~m arh(Ji£ II





a~'1liiml~.ik.1~(ty(Jb~ sak by Ill. :pers1o[ll who, is n@t the oW.nler. Na~(~'. palwia1Jt asadya ,~ifmt dl).(tnnw.;:tb~.(J, grlllwyet, d(rSG}J/lJ!~Up.attatlvil 5~)'l:li11~ l:rll,jw(}po.l~fJrqiJ dh(m~l GstlMl.S c;a &I!;:tJ1imuua/!l~f/rtn./U~ kuta5 ht lobdlm1J~ itl_: saeed iiCfi'YdnUMf2t dat.$a~/a na vtlrfJ.tiira~1~ f,as)''a dr:av,ya'''Yfftli>1Jrgu~ta mlu;yc.ia -' mkY'eili ted dr$yqt(~ )1.l:Rb.a,!lsk-y(ld(l~l#a~~ C(ll .'ill &eiapa:;llram: adlfieaa;lteriapa$(J,r:efi; ttpnsiil'nc!}(ryadi/i, k~(1ye mnly<l.~!~ $t~yad(1~,4'mtl ca dadyJ/, having-corne across some:thul1g" lcvlfllch hOlS b~en ~~QlSt ~nd ta.k.iI!l:1 Q\".ay, dH! ,owne:lr ~;;nolJld C.a~;Se ltto bese~zed by the j~d~1 if it Is beyond him ~tJ1t! jlldgtt)illi placelllnd t~m!iil he should hims!'l]f t<!ke it and bd~g it,. and the j Udg{lShoUlk] eX.lm]fll~ the oo"l'.l'JJer: whe:i~ nllvf!' you Itilke[l it :fl'om f if he poin~out the course of proc.eeding but uot th~ buyer, he $.hou.M. getr~ee by h<lndil:lg over the ooj,ect; if th~ buyer is poinred out, he $hQu~d (play) the v .. ]ue,,~d a :l1ine fQr tlheft;if he dl@llld resort t:o an egress, he wouidgoe:t o;Jf untJI.the re~O'ft stops; if ]t ~lop~ he should pay the value, and 11. :!1Jnefor t~~ft.

cr. Y!:ijI'l.3.''i.'alkY::l. II. uS8ff. :

suar?~ taM~lfwlyavlkr"itmtl ;,.,:elur aMs" ~pt;(Jkli5'£tc I hinJ:d mJw himum71y.~ rJr:illhilte Co tllskL'lr:lil'{i: IU

'I(1tf~fiPtilll·t(lm a~tidJ!a har{;itra.1~~ (lr,aJUlye.~, mrJ'am ~ dtsaklilfiHpa#rJu C{~''fJJUv'a .~yqmarpaYI!/II

""J"lmlbtY' tillr-sanfic duu:kih£ll S"<ld'1~if~ dn:wya1'~17Wl)(J d(1J11~~'u.i .krctll ~~lrt!y(lmafllf!»wti .'/.asmarl Jlas ll1~y.avfk,(ayi If

tltf'l~ncunPd'Mogeua ~u1§tm/i MOWj1a.rj,j ai()l,.ljlt!'11I1,{j ~ paIJ'CawJ1J.ho dQ,ma,~ ta"ya ~'flj;J(} fi!Mi1rdbllavlte II

hrl;fr~!~ IN'(ll!(j~~I~J .1(.1 dr(Jvym1~ .t)(',nlh\fJstffda1)lipw.:t~:Jat i a'li~!cdj,a ~rpt da"lif:J'ab S~ ff~ $tl:r;navQ,lhr~ pa.~~tl n

Mal'llU vm. 1:9jlf.

~Jr:l«rlf)iJt! }(Jrazya$-V(l~y(J' S~"4:mi' sVil~,~ag'a:l'1'Im(l'JOlt ~ tla. t.tl~1 t~(1ycla sd:~Yll1/t lu .'$l~(lm a$Una1uli:~lill.am li

lFoJilliil:ry-o Mawc ctUVll ~n:IJayab ';a#ala1~,i da'-!lam r ~1~ra,'lVtfyo 'na'Ptl$tlra~ p'r1iP.talJ'$:Y~c .cmmakllbi!jlm:! n

alba ~.lIt2laj~~ a,~ak~ry.a~ pr.fl/lli$:dnfJ'(l$odhit(l~ I (ula~4yc 1jlt~9at£! 1ti;j'1i.i ~JJiI~\~iko l'ablraie tilu'l~um~ II


NU$~i/,m;cIICl't S""a:k\J1ra8,a)~t k.rh/tl 1U1${~pr(l'tyiJhrt(U# lablltta.. svaRa" rat~ubJ~fiv~prmc.'(fbtl:ndlu) llayJalJ i' tac ca d1:a~JI!'I~~l .r;tli(1d/~armJ'Q'~1 syllt, ~~ai!jI{JP.hrt(l:m (ud:ve;(lyo.tkm·l,ffatai) s<JrJ'~:l~~"~(1b p.r;rval) slllu~sada~r4abj having' made an atit:ested apprQpri.dioJ'lwitb regard to the lost obiect he m:ly take what was ]QSta[ldlbrQught back i if there fs no appmpr~,"Hoo, there 1$ :l.A1f1eof afirfth of d.e valae" and the ebjectis ~ubjected to t]m;e kili,g'S iiaJW j. for th~ ·OWIHlr who takas over whal has been lest or co!l'r.ied a:~vay w ~thoiIJt gMng infor:maHon al:mut lit, theft:' is tha 6rst: viiillel1ce"fine.

$:rdkasl/tf!!ml n,a~{ii'P~hrlQ.tpam~a'1!! (Hl1.~s Ga:ij<lpaU, other Cidltlons "pam.m s) li~etj' Irtpa,/ttjiidflrdhV(lm anabhi$.~'"(l'1~ raja bal'lJt, fS"<!.i1m'i 'VU ;5iWkara~:l\!,lna, pm1mpauilu!l1~~ mJ1pada.rlllm $y(.l~it;kraym!1 d(ldym, calu§/)'(u)ika:m !JlmkJl~t;pasya~ (m.ipm.u'~m~i gf'}fJl'(lM~~'sy.a.j J!'4'dil~'(J1~t k~lwi1'''a· /J(l,sfuzti!!1} t'atNas.tJra:pllaigu,klfpy.fiflil,,~~pfliJc(1J,w~ $atrrl~ dad,ylJt, WllOi"t has been Iost or take~ away and reeevered ll:lithe: t;ax~QffkeshoU!l.dre:m~i!l there, if there uS n.ol'lgress affe't, threle fOirtn:~g:hls,th~ king sh,ol.dd 'take itaw<lY, or the 'OWIl~' tl'nlfough llppropr:illti.O!1; he should give as redempUQ!'l lfl!\re prJ'fJia for ,e",ehtwo.foot~d, fQor fJ'(l~(1;S for eac.h solid. footed c~~aturej~wQ fJQ,~'acs [0" GOw:sand buffaloes, a q~uarter~;{lJ.~~ forsm sll cattle, and 5 ~/Q fo:rgems,~ \i'SilI.l3b]'~ and bass meti3J~s,

C[Y!lijnavalkya ll. I 13 f, :

s,fl;!tlkikaif) slhth.tapa/ail" fJi1 nfliitapa/Jriam tlhrtaJ'l j arcVJk $tfJtliMrStMv"U sdm~ hare/a ptwnl(}1IT}tl& n

p.t;J~ycln eka$ap.ll£ tladyiid caiu!",,/) l?d~~(''a miinfli.'j.~ ~

mah (~O'f4J"C111'ai1iht.l a'Vau dum~ pr;daJ11 j)'i'lda~t a fo,'vikc n

'There is Ill. s.]igh~ diKere~ce in the last Slum:!: a , where we have ~}I(lIIi$(J$tya;ga{).f1Jf~ ins:~e~d of g(mu;~}j#a'SI·'/Z. The l!1~er~io!'l of ·tj~lrltf Gam.~]~ is :S'USpi,C'.io1]s, beClll)a;Sea'lMfU di/,at~ leads 1:1$ t~ lhink or two8incl not th"ee species, jiust las, plida'll }t1da:m 1l~;5, rtlferellce to t?'o, goats and sheep. Eise~where there lSaJ. ,do$ea,greernen.t betwee'nKau~a]ya and the two smrtis" <ll:ld whe,~ w,e hi,we been abl~ to point to disagreement, .Kau~al.y8J.'$ te':-;.t ISleem!5,~O '11H:l the better' one.

Tl'JJe words .a.pasaM arid! apaslira have beea espl a~l'I~d In different ways, but: t~e meiilinl.~g. seems i@ be perfe-etly dear. AjHlsr me.!l.Il$ to .rtIn i'lwaj'j to wHhd:ir8W r"om an o,b~~:gal;uo[l,afld !tis used by

KitlUlik:a to glO':ss ap.G(lhall~. M <II] U VII[, 5-!!-. arid ,apelsllra is an egress, [l means t:o trall$fer one's respoim.ibWly to another person,

AnQtrn~r ~ntermit1.ng~~rm. o~'ClU!rriF!lgin th~$pas;;;ageis sva.kl:l~'ct{l1i~ milking one's own" whi.ch W~ k:now fro,mlP'al,;l]ll] 1. iiii, 56~ \V~~er~ It is - used ~boiJtrn arrying. The form is ciBrt3:lEl~.y ,old, but has been d]s, carded by later a~thors.

The passages discm$Sied aboverll!.m~shed us with an e~cepLio'r:la]ly rich l:'U!lJte'rial [0., s:scelt:ah:'ilit'l,g Kal.l~id:ya's :relationship with the !iii!1!'tis" and I 11 ave therc{ore thm~{l'ht it ad visable to go in to d~t:nU5" but it would lead IU:S~QO far' to proceed IJl t;he same way 'w.ithwhat fellows,

TI!H'lI~e lIre r.emllrkslIbDl!]!t ,objecfus bl'onght :fh:lI.'I"D an other realm o:r frQttlt1m,~ rornsts, carried away by thil!':::\'e,5, &¢., IlbOWl,~ the Fe]OltIO~5hip bet.wecil property and OW.t1~t, aboult ti!lullIJ;$ ather.!:> have ui§ed~o llleir plI"ofit~ &iC. cr. Gautama X .. ~6f:; VU~I}U 11[,66[., Manu Vm.~'4,}" ~49; Y§jriali'E!.~kY<li. H. :2+.? ,13 ...

Ill, xviij t;lij~a5am.. vi,oleFl.ce: m~,"tr;}a'O)tltp,rasabhakm~ffa, '\'io]~nt seiz,ing of what is cOinllllwn property; '~j~ra~wa_yc stcym'rl (J'P6lV)IGJ'Gllti '(01, if it is not cornmen property, andi! o!'le denie$jut !Slhetl;t"f. V!l:j[l:.lJ" valkya ]123of['J 24J3j 2750 C.; Mall'l.l vm. 322 r:; 3,3:3, 344.

m.xvii]~ rikpaI'M~y,,"m. v;oh;mce i[iJ WQ,dS:lip(W{7dn~f kNt:$rrW~~~,1 aiFhi'blra'l':tSlmrw:i iti, cenlsu,~~ abuse, thrC\latC\llling; ,cf.Y~.jII'i: a ,\!<!rkya. Il, 2Q41f,; N~n,tI vm 274. &c.

m.xi z, da;~r4apiJrx~~yam, sdd·v~.oleru;:e, Oldu;l!l \i'iole!lI~e: spad~~(J.Ujj' m;mgnn.m~~tJ p"ahalom ~:tr'j touching,,$Il11kungl, helating (i~juring with hand j foot.,we:3!ponsj tihr-,ougn <l;snes,. &c.~; cr. ¥r:tjffii sval kya] ~. 2] 2 ff, (thecornmet'lta.ry qU!ot~;s, Nfirada XV,. 4,;

parag:(1b:e$~ nM idroliQ kllstaplld'flYNd'hlttiibh{J; I

bl:msm(ldibh Mc()paglli'Uo da~41);p{l~'$llJyam N({y'alil il 'j

Manu VIU.::l;18ff" &r:.

][1. x;,:~ dJl,jUa,s'il'J~,ji2JwaYll:!!~ p.r:dtl''J'}ajiJn i, ch~Hengi~gto g'ilim bbn.g, d. Yil'ijjlava~ky~ n. :199 i:.~ MilUJiIl lX.,. ::<:21 ·if.; mlseellsnea {punis.hrnent (or v<lvi,QI.l:!S kinds Gf nlisoondu:ct:); d. Ylllji'ilav:alkya, H. 2,32 iF:, 24-3, 2;5'," 29,o~29S ff, The cerreependanee is only slight

The rema] rl,tn:gdl<llpteli's ~r the K<l:Ill~a Uya areOfI;:OIl'siderabj.,! ~riltC'l:rest for Q",r I.md er.5ta;n,d~rng of his po]ibco1!l t~~ory and prll.c~;ice, bUlt the1y do I]O~ !:leip us< with !Oegardto tlle qUJe:st:.iQfill.bout the

H.·F .. KL

au~h,or'!O da,te. InhLs importamt p<Ji.pers iL'l1 ~he ZDMG 6j~ PIp· 49ff., 68, pp, 345 ff, Jo[~y has gi.v~CI IJS .iJi. cQmparal;L\'e s.~lldyQn K:a.l'l~3Ty,,!s r:ela.tkm shjp t:olhe Dharma:!i:i:stra. He tried to .shew thil!t W(fl liml the g,~a:~est agreemellt in late!!" $m rti$. B~t, he himself d'r1ilws flt:ten~km 'to the f<liCit thaJl: the clOrre,s;pondanr::eis m,os:t m.:lrk;ed in the case of Y~,jj'i.a \,<11'-5'''''


Man.y words,rn.enti01'H'lcli :ni;)O\'~ a:rJe rare o..Oir.t"I:~ ~t~yQP.ll:v~,. orr Qnly tnown, ftom ~c'xicogrnpiher:s. $o'me a.f the la"tte'f ones can very wen ha."':e; been ~aikefl fromtne Arth!cli5:5tra; we ha ve gradually learnt th.at .~n.di::m.lel{kogl"al?hen; to II greatexbellt drew o.fJJg-ood ,~Om·Ces. Itt'l'ol;lid [1iOi~ $.erve <l!:lY pUFpo:s<e to d]~iU55 aU such terms, h~tut will be desirable to examine s<lme ofthel'l1 ~ whi,oh rnugh.t b~ of in telfe$t for jhe q_nel)tLOfiSlIbol]t. date <'lndabtl1l,t Ka,u;l'l]ya's authorsh]p.·

iJsnrf S($/i, [X.,. vii m.rf{;lklldf11111J~ pm-bitf'Uo.t,}attir £ti Madl1awl),: kalablz(l1i!l!J'1 g,]earling, V.ii (He'nli .. an., Med.): C!'l.Ct1l'MlarT, XU. lv, XlV. i, m1:,l$k-rat = t.'hr~chm~da,'; [Manu, Yaji'l.,M<llllbhl.)~ Rajarllgha~'~Il; dlwUM, XIV'!J !Ficl!.l~ ladiea (Tdk., Hem,1l.n., M,ed.), &JC. It is bar'd.ly possible to d ra \!if amy fnif:e",enoe fFom su:ch e;;::<J!llples.

'[he same us the case with then l]m~QUS mWtary ~errm\, There :are several .kinds ef fastnesses, drtrgll." (l'W1a~ll! (Wll.tel"·{astnesses) be:tw~e'n tw~ isles (a1~ta.p.d'J!pam), o,r on s.lmre a.midst low plaeea.lakes, &c. (~t'!(1.1'a,tl ~#Jl'I}tavm·urJdh.(m~h prJl"Wrlta lrm:M;mtain·fa5tn~ses} 0[1 ]\Qck$ (pNl$larIH',I) Or in :COlVes (./Jultam); de~er,t .. fastnle:sses (fi.hil1,1.'O)1l1,J(lm) in p]aces\y.i;f:hQ~t\li'a~e:r and g.ra5S ('.~~:rUi:iaka5t(Jm~~,jV 01." barren silty gro'llnd (£ri.~mj~); .fQ~~t,.fa$lr!ess~$ (vtma,d'tt~:€t:1J~. where there :h; :mu.ddy W<l!ter .(kha}(uU:l'lif1ktJm)ort~icket-S of teeds ,(sttm~hagalul.fl(fm) maldng it: difk;ult~f:) wall:tj. U. m.

Detail~(I relss are giv~m about d'li!l::se! f<lstl'u~~e,5. They :should be ~llIrir-OUinded w.ith moats (p.ariMtri), di.tcrues (wnpm), ramparts (fJ'rI1ki2'ra); there sho,u]d be wab::hwrwers ratt4laka)~ gang~'ay$ (p1"atoh), plaHolI"ms (i~zd*,nJt(}.sG)~ secret e~dts (di?-vrrpiatlt.aA p]:a!oosofref~ge (pradhlJv,itUr;/J).. &c.; outsidew~13:re ja'l'l$bhaYJj(1"lf~j ~I knejeAm~aker~ ~ ; tr;fsRt~prakaras. tl.".ide:n,t.spok!t's; ki:lfa$j lron-!'ipokes; (1;'I;)tlp.a,las., p.it.faIls, &1;.

I t

~ ,

I j

1 i








DUl'g(ud.''l'sall H. iv deals wlth th.e Mre~'tS.~ d'l.e pISiC~S occupied by the: king, the harem, &c·., and with Ul'H'ltH] ol:lt,gpi nlg prov lslens, The term used is vlfvadha,. l;~'hkhis well knowu from Vedk sources. P!lnini 1'v. hI. I'i IUl$'/J,i'r)tu/h(!, byt r<l!tai1j1at~ wvtuilu"Ic c~li V'(lkta1)ytu.~~ and elsewhere, Il, L36~ It [],~ .. ~. 2 on1y ffi'Otltlluz. The SlddhliintaJ,aUillllGi says ~~j·MdlraO!l;?M"illaStIMti1) u/).1'Itt:Y'at(J.!mtldba!;i!..'Yc~qJM~~~lh'{j uti1ryei ki'i$!h.c ~!(wtdl',thewGrds "'i';mdlla ~ nd 'ilil!(ui/t.rt art; t1sed a.bcmt a sti.c:k, wit~ s~.in,gs alt~ch,edat b01l1t ends, 'to be carried on tlleshot:!~d,elfS..A ~i'.,li1!tuilu·ki UV.iV,I j:), then".i5 a person carfyul'lg's~ch a stH;luMer·y·clke. Allid what he carries can be seen from the Mahi;jbha;lfya L 390 I~ uti(rku1,tll.() ?AT.;Jfl~i1k'lij' 8. :shou]deli""yoi.;,e {or (fc'tchinll'l" wat~r. The ward also . rllccul.-si:n t:he Maha.bha.~ya or! IUn. I g galJQ,r./Aakarmt;J't~i dm:· t1yilca~fYth,Ym~ t1tf.t~(I;y~lm aluufhv'am", <.lb o,ut lMobj!e,et of {vel:'bfil) me.a.ning' to go ehea~cusa~h;re!i!nd the dail;uve <J1:i!l ll!~ed t>a ,de:n,ot~ dlCi mot;ion~ but not in thecase ofa way.. Thus we' can, on]ysay pa'ltMij~:a1:J~ gae&:lurti, r/i'imtlJj('i'1Jlga'~hal£. The K3:a:~k!'i. h.t::I'fl' rep~aJ.c;e5 :rJrvmflla'l~ by ~1~J-rg(l)?~, ~Ild later .1~xici()grapller5.stlch 3S Am., H. an., Ned,~ Vaij.ayant:i give ~way" as one oifthe m.e<lllil:1gs of~1Vadha, Am";l!W<1! has p.ir;yahi!in:ls cae mrTr;gGs C!l ",h).adJuf~~ v~Mdlun~ "!1/~~~, bl!I~ M.ihetl;\\,ilIta. iilddJs: hlwn to ehr : [-I.<l.n ,fii~(JJA{J _!1.fJ.adlu) M'ifJ'E jJGryiihi'l'l'iJ{jlw.m~or api ~ and the VaijayarU.'i ~/iv(jdllO ~)h~dlMS Ca d1}.a:I~ p.ary.(!i]lllr.c 'Jhvo.:bAlZnJyo8 (W!l~ the origInal. r~a.d.i[jg ptJrjJhilrildhvaoimrOlY0/:}?)

KOlll:talya gi\1es the fO[~olw.~ng ]MormatLo:!'J; vffJ.lliit'tJf1l! prasFiPl'l~, !s~l(ldtl;#td an<ffl~t:h' '<I!Jwd/~(lb I mitralmlawlistJrab. pl'(ls(f~'a ....;, provIs:iollls from fbires~$; "I/nmdha = brunging in fFOrm. ·Q!fHl":S' ow.n, 'OOlultry; tl'sil\l'a = 11 {rie[ld's fo:roe; f."j~P(J.dhii$flrfJfJagM.to rak$a:va ... ity .asvci:.kartl"Ii~;u·j dEl$truct:rl))nor gluard!img' of Ofi~i{;fdlu:r .•. arethe business of th~ cavaky: (x'.lVJ; .cAltl)1ilrH! 1fNjtldJlf'jsiirapra~lfr;;n vi! (tlbl:dhanJt~l~)', 'Or {they $~cndd d.~5tiroJ) '()7VflfiJM~ t~e frJ:C'md~s force" andthe forest .. p:rQvls10l:lS0I!i. anonemarl's. pMh {ZIL :i"J; vlfflmast.1w.sya m~$~i~t 5~£ya~~1 v(li Ju:mjrld viva:" dlul/w'asl!nm ~rn, :for one wh (;I is in diik:ulty he $h.o'llM d,estroythe seed or the gras5,o.r~he ;I1:"iJadb.a :l,[lg provls;uClfis tXnL iv).

k i5~ ] t:h~nkjclear U110l!t wherJ 'JJ.ir.mtlIJ(/; l:S5i1lid to mean /)llZiJ'a, ]oad~ fls!liol.dder"yoke "lead ~s mean~, snd 'Ofimui/tml! iJactlu#i means ~ he goes the sl~ oulder·yoke \l,tay'~ ~ he is ,employed as a. shQu]d~",yok~ C'arrie'r~ the ;;!)CCIl$at;[ve bering a.dv~rb]a]. We here have §I.D eX<lJmple of how ht'!\.icograpl1:~:Jis sometim es mi~l:Inde~tood goocl S.QUJfc,es,



The form "<~iM(lfja foT' 'P.D.Qi.rii's. 11'hmdba is of chrono]oglcal iflter~stJ' b~in_S' .evident·ly later than Pai;linl. but e<.'ltablis,bed in Pata:Bj.ali'.8 time. His addition v'Evad-hflc cell Mk/'avyam is acoording' to, Klelhern not a vi't"itik'tl, but can very W!l!U be older dl:lan PatanjaH.

Mal1!y' curious terms are used about the v3ri eus k inds of battlear r ay. An ~rmy isr;(1t~wallgiu, consisting of four parts, elephants, chariots, .cavj,dry, and inf..'1nb·y, but this term has not been found earlier ·than in L11e Mia hi!ihh::lrata and the R lirnii(li'8.Qa. II] the battlea.rra.ys. Kautalyn. 8!fI:~I" quoting the oplnicns of Usanas and Brhas.paU, who di5dngurish between d(1'~l4(l" staff.; Mo.gtl., c:un,e; mG'1,lt/aia, 'ring, aad trSa"'/lhata, not beaten t.oget!l,er, 'opelll,arnd after mentioning the: wings (pakjari), the f1a.nks {'k(lk$Ot4~ 3.rld the centre ,(urasy.a), describes tJi.~ varicus kinds (X. vi):' tm/.:$akak$OTl'lsyail). sat}ur.I~~ 'iNwJ(lmiltw d'l~ufali, staff, whe[1l gob'ilg ev\eflly wut.h wings, flauks, and 'Ci~n~l'e (<I!Iso AK., M.,Iian., &1: •. 1. with 15 vari,~tiessuch as IUlk$if.t.ikrlJtltall prail(m#.i'! ·teirri.ng W~lerl JUf1C:h:~ng W ~th the Wiflgs bey.rln,d (the enemy); sa t;1N.rp(l· k$akak~ll!Jll'ylb!.1 pnliiky;ll:Juo' dn.iA·'lkafl, sU·.OI1Ig' when attack.ing with willgs and :f1anks, &c.

pakg,dak-forasyai7' ·fJi§(1n.l(Jtf~ 1tartam{1J1l) MIQgal;, eurve when going unevenly ~!j':lth ~7i'in!l$, flanks, .and centre: $'(1 S;(ll'pa~ri gommri/m <ta, it is .moving Uke aSllak:e or like cow .. urine, &c.

1)I{'l,k~kdf}()ra'Syl!ui2'm .ckfMiiZlc mtl~lt!Il/(l'b, .ri·U!'g lOihel'l wi[ig~, flanks and eenere beeeme eae j sa !M.nJQi()niuklia~, st1r1.J(1t'Qbluldra~, Cl!j{UI.Ir.k.f) Juriayaiti m(J:~u!tlia'Q'y.ilIlllh,. it is f':acin.gi1iU directions, good il:i all dleeetiena, eight.faced, difficult to conquer, thus tiler.ing.al'rays.

pak;;a/ta·k$fJ1'l1.sy,'Tmfitn I('IS(U!I'/u;ftt!d' a$an.llmta~, not beaten together when wings,. flanks fl;lld centre are not beaten together, i, c. opel1l; sa pandl',:fHll1iJm (1):r#sthapanfid' uajro gDdli1J war it is called thunder. bolt er am.ga.tor ;acc·ordi~g to the arrang.emel'lt of the five faces, &c: ..

N'1i.I;merOU$ cunous terms an found 1[1 this. paS$llge, Since ICaUJt:alya mentiotlS ·tw,o predeeessers, i.t is possibJ.e~ that mOiSt or them. am: inhelrited. The same may be the 'case with the indicatlons.aboll.lJ the proper dl.Oiiee or baWe-ar,a.y.

Then we learn eekaow the titles of the ]e·adling ,officers: 1'J.{Igada·s{1- kasyalhl) p~tilJ:p.adika~ ~ ~dilMJ.das(J::~(J.sya:l72tzbs.el1fipa,ti~ I iC({lrilJsak.(I,s:ya~'k() 1/i1:y!:lka ~'JJ~pad;ka (co!cmeli), the only leader of ten afjgas (ba:tta]io[!.s),. st''1''Ya~i army .. ·lea.d!er Irge'n.eJ.'BJ]) tbat of ~i!n. j),Q,dlkas-, n,yaka [leader,

I r



eommander-in .,ehief) tha t of ten aVl:'lly·lea.ders; X, vi, Alsothese 'bel"m:!1l are' probablymherttee, but their exact [I1eOlllnil~g is, sO far as I knew, not known from older ~Oi!,l!ri:·e.s t!han the Kaill~alYya.

There are ml'es 31bQIlt the disposition of the fbur ,(lf1Cl1t; in the diflie:r\\!:n;~ arrays and eaeh of them ha\illi: di:ffe~ent l\:ind~of emp:loyment" e lvaymldA:{l~~i, ka.stijllddltlJni, ,'atiuzjltt(Mlrlllltj. and po(;ltliy~~dd/rlim: fX;. v], The gro011lil1,g ·of elephants and horses is i3JtilEnded h;); In H\lechapter a~boutthe awtti4yaki/i1J (U, xxx) Were ar'e notes ::IlDout the different wa y8 a horse moves: v'olg(maj gaUop; ,r,f,cair gala, m:nbHl'llg; J,(:lJ"ltJhana, p;ra.ncing; dlJOJw{11i i t'f'ott!ng; 1IlJr.o'${1'a I' obeying the rider's pressure, with Inany v.ari:at~o.ns, The ex:plai't'n ation of these: ter.msj, which are partly ,t1('it~~ lsyt5'!l$vo:, i5 not found else'\~;he .. e. Tlillcy are! hewever, of eensiderable 'in.terest because the ]ndian numerals aika, I, tfra 3,; pauz(j 5l,SaUtl' 7), &c" ;Ire used inthi:l Hettite m.anl;la~ or horse-trainjag found by Hro~n,y \ so tlhat ho,r,s~.trainlng must h ave been wen. known 111 their cOIJ~~ry long before Ka.U'~alya.

The Ca5Je is simna;r with r-eg;al'd totbe many desig:m..t.ions of w'eapofls'J' men tloned in the: ehapter a b O'lIlJt 'th~ arsenal-overseer, ll)'u· d/~ffgtil'iJdllyakj,!alij n.xviii. T am (J(liilble to make any use ofth~m for ch:ron'illogica] purposes,

COrllsideration of the: a.'ttitlld~' of neigh bQIir'ing rulers p]~y a gre:at role in military tactics, as, mentioned VII. xV IlI:HJer $liiCU'liJlO.. The piJnJ!,iC11!lla, "heel-catcher" is I;heprOiSpeetiv,e any of afilil]et who w'ant5· tfi tr.illJmph (vlj'i~1~) Qv,er his lfH'!:ighhoor; the ,~mJ ",SUlccoul"e'r". beyond the: neighbourJ, isal.$Ot:o bC'i reckoned as, .11. probable any. A :l1Iadhyama, ~;:[l,termedi3tej' ke!!ips d'ie middle bel;\Yll~n friend and (riend'.$ fr.i~,d on ene, amid 'ili'riIemy, ,enemy"s frie~dJ' end enemy's fdend~s friend on the other side, finally we have the rfitJ'sfna, out-sider, neutral. cr. Manu vu. ~07. where Pfi"f{zigrlJlia and aRl'Q7uia occur,

a'/Hls{!irab" Il, xiv, Ill, xvi, 'egfless, way out.

rrdJiiv:eda,.1ikam. ULii, wb<l!t ]s to, be paid to' the first wire when ma.rryh.1lg II. second,

iiya~~J inoo,m.e1 U. vi: f.l1lr:laJ;ll'Gn.a{j. (I'IJInningh/M'YyW}it(j Uastyear's), any:apias (goo.e astny} c(Jy'ab; vyayapmtyayab (e'.xpe:nse-tIliK), rema~r.ls of wnat has been spent on ~£k§tpa '(,0I1,u'm ''f), diseases,

H.-F. KI.

and undertakings; ;1~l)aili [increase of the value of articles of trade). 'Uyl!jf {g"ln real UZ{ld t!uoug-h dq.ffer·!!!nc·~ iu me as~re~, or increase when thei!'~ is a throllgof buyers (kraya5m!lghar~iJ·"(.i'a; '()rddh!~r if)' .fiy(l~V. The lJy.asarir.am, irn'co:me"~bodyi\ is derived from mining (khmlOl b!li!l]b and dams (s.(1,'ln), forests (.raua) herds (;Jrajaj, end trade-roetes (vWlJt·I'j'aIb.(1); th~ ~TyamukMmi income"head ~ ,oomptuses.- price (mflh.PN)~ [the kil'lg's)' shar·e (M[j!Jii~~. lM~ vfii./r (tax on increase in v.iillue" l'/:ll], p(mgJI€l.~l. [gaee-money], Idptam Ui~,,"d dues from villages, &c.), rf'ipikam '(8 ~~ for eontl"OJ1ing);. atYI1;ya§ (flIfI,es} dlymmlkJmm.

kli11urj"as C(lhlr.mrpl~J the rcmr'grt)u:p arising irom leve, explained fn vm. m,punt.~(1 .... yasaJ1m!,a}~·hjtheg·r.a;up of man'!> vice's:~~arg~ya (huntingl. liyiJlttmt (gambling), $/'rIJI'ali (worn,ell)j. and pa'l1(lm (drink).

iropajas triuarg«lfl thethr-ee-gt'ollp aris,ing from. allger vm. iii: vifk~ f!Drttfi)'flffl ,(harsnlleslS of speech, in,s;ultinlg ]al'lgu:ii,ge},. artlttui{i$'(ltum~ 'h~poiling of p~"OpertyJ is defined aSGd{j~la1u {not·giving), ifdltJI'am {taki.n,g away), 'i1;~fisaJ) ~de5i1:rlJctiQ~l, and parityirga~. Oening; neglecHng, of propertY)'j. dotu!apiirw;yam (ha.iSness in punish-

mentsJ, .

klmm'b,rn~ne5, H .. " .. ij• of SU'lJti'tlm (gold); rajat« (silver}, voir!) (d.iamo.n.ds), m(J,~.I£ !(jiew:e ]5), m.ukki (pe.ar]sl. fJr(lmiln. (coral). J(JJikk,a {sh.eUs), lana liron); laf)(l~a lsalth, t:dJiblli.~!Jso.·prfj:start1..(IMitlf:(ja~ {ons' in earth, stones,iiI[i) d water],

80/Jaii; Il, ;>:xi~ s;bJP~.'I"intel"ld,ent 0'( .<Ii gro;~:p of 'i!iUag~s (A.:I<., [-].~ Hen., Meet).

datp;ar:(1s.mlgt'DRaka/; ]1, ,X J{\! i ii, seizer of the mooring-rope (dDira else-

where -- sieve),

tlWaf!!!_thQl~ If. iii, god's patJll ,secret pass age.

d;;~s;~~ II. xxviii, pool of the' gods, <I. permanent poot 11-l{;kultaeiwJ'tJmII m,tree·lui!]ow deer, for emer.g'eflcy Or oo.sl!n'aI.tion. P(1,sNuJ!liti, !>e~ above p; 2'~,

}unlfia'[1J'as.alta~ see kti1J.1aias c{1{Ur1J-(Jrgal.!.

b.hfnnakINa, vm.v, !fspiiL-h;eiid" , a (".oontry th~t has lost its leader, YO'/[(UJrtt'a1':, V,i,. tricky behaviour, varlcus dec~it'Illl W:ilj'S of eor-

rl.lpl;ing possible enem ies., frustrating their endeavours, and geUi!lg' rid 0] them.

f'(Jsmi!l f xm .. iv,pro,v):siol'lsj food; ef V. S. XV. 16, Salt. Br. VIn.5.33•

_.",M ..... .....,.._ ... ;r. ~


. ,


, •


, ,"




nJ'5J{P£Wl, n .. X.v,rea.!m~t~]e reeejpts or the state, pil)qdwral) (Vm'fllge tl!l!xl, !imJM'i1:ga~! ~trne 6thpa.rt ,of giii',l]!l., &iC.), !umlJbftaktc; r?~ U'oocl ]O'l" tbe army), bali~ {an additional tax e""ac~ed'. 8(J'rab (t<!x" On fi"L,~H$, lree!O.&c.),f~ts(1i~ga~ (~lau:ncll·l;lIx .~obe pll~d a ner the b~l't!h of a son,' &c")~ ,ptl,nJ.ra'll. f"SLclk:", a,ddfE10I:l1l] tax exac ~ed by omd.tiils), prirJll'if,liktU]1 Ulnes whefl one's cattl,~ has done damage,. tWPti>'(l'1u'1M1~1 (what uS g hren as· .", presen th ka~f~{lU!Y'akmu h:::l xes ~o be paid whclil 1l:srng the Ik~ng',$ I;allhj par'h~ &(;.7) eli! rMtrm~/.

.Nl1mm Il, vi. a ptlslt·{cat.de") 1~lrga"(dt:l~·l' tlra~'ya."wQod·) h~sti·eJeph"!1 H ,m~(ljNlrlff.rall>() (fol1"est"e:n clo.slQr~)v.gJl.rmt Us c:flJ~C1:d ror~~t). "'lI.~itaJ.~llI1'lj 11. xiv, gild ~!lg ..

'i,lJ,~~#ib~, n. xv (fol'ed 'labour): '~~(1J"i(lka· (swe't;:'per), ~raR~(ik(l"'· {\"i'lloclnuerl) dJMJ'dRtt· (w~lght.il'l$l?e,(:torj, ~,~aJ,(!l.ia·(me!l:!lure'r)ma:p(1ha (measureSJUrveYl)r) dtiyaka,{p8Jye1f) dliPak-a.~pay.ment.iSUirveyar) sairiklip~;at£. g)'JllaJ~a.(r~oC1:lve. of srleks &c.,.) di15almrm,a'vQ,rg:a~ {the host, of

, :slave-wol:kers)ca cVi$#JI.

visaras,. II.. xxvili, a ])00.1 that C<I_Q dry up.

vctm~op,(Jlf1(iJMRa",.I~ n.~1>iJ{, s.e]'vlng (IiiS 11J;erdisme[l) for fixed w.1.ges: (arnd no!; paym.ent .ml milk o:r b~t]er)l.

'Vy~ya~ ,expe!l1.se:s, (of the :Oi.t.atC1l)~] L vi: d.f!'<Nl/lit'r)1Jilidffl'l~r:fIUl'tl (for the :~;ake of worshIp of god5~nd an,cestolis and ~f aLmsh s"V'(u;il~C,gm'l1U (com pli:~tl:l'lt;a.ry o'ff'edng-s to tbe prlest], a1lt~l.rp~r(J }rJ (the h:a,~,ml), ~~!Jhr1uasa11~ (the kHch_.eTl), dill;(lpcrli1:la~·N,.naf!l (s.t!:nding of m~5;SerigerS~j' kO'{i{ftlJ,~lr(J.m lthe ;tre~slJry'ja:Ylilrlb(jgUra'i~(the arsenal], pa~tyCI'grhrutJ {the wa.re·hol,ils<e),kupY~lfl'ha~t (Ibu]k]fngfor ror~st" produce, cf~EL xvli), J.l(m.~~a.nt'a (works),. vifJ~ib (fo,l::ed labour), jmJtyat-.Mnrth(1d!!lpapar/C~'t1.h'(l (m:airil.t~nanee ,of i~f!l!ntlFy, cavalry, d'iOlriots, ;':l!]d elephants),. g!)1\~'UIIJ4o.ttJm "oo~!,I"·hel'd!)!. paS1~f:ttrgajJaA$i~ ",y.f1fG'lJ'ii!ii.~ (end0$111r('!s for cattle, de!e1f~ birds, and w~kl animals), kli~{h:atr~M~(aS (endosu.re·J:!, for ''i'ood! ~Jld gr:ass),;l?ii 'U)'ayut:arl:1":mrl.'l (;l:!"ethe exp~l1I:5c1l;"body);

vy:ayapratyaya'(t (ie-tum of outbiy), n. vi![ xv: vik$,e.pavyfidMlfi~lt(lrl1- romMU1~i!~(l~~~ c,a (res~ of ,e~pend~~tl'il"'C1: on alanss, m,edi-c;1I1 tre!ll.t. ment, and un.dertakings) ~yaYfl:tw(,lt.;wlyah (com.tib.lte.s: the outl:llJ" r,~tu~rIli).

vyiif'i htr.ad!~.!htx), H. xii; 'Pailr;aka1!t sa.tam {S ~,fo)o~ n,;,;vi: !jo(/,asabfiiJgo . ,1\I1d'na·vyii'jl' Pf~~~he taxcumeesuremect),

H.-F. KI.

vrojrril (ll;I~rdl' It vi; gomahi$am (cows, end buWatoe.sJ, Qja'l);JUJ~i: {goat$. and sheep, fdu;l'''"04fifram rasses, a;l1IC1 c<lmels), (f5;i!,{'isva{(f,_rJs CI1 (and bOr5{ts and mule'sl~r'aj~il.

,"!.ft(1 (furrow)" [I, xv: SJllidlt.J'ak$'(}p(l,~lrta1) s~sya'1Ja,'I"~laka ~i ,sEta I(sl/a is the gn!1>S,.species brought if! by It~,e rlll"ll'OW·O\l'~rs~eT).

isch~b (dam, dyke}1 n. viplf,yrllfJll(llm:uttai!i(J.')(lal:i!dllram'fjlavii:pti~ !i,club (setti (or sowil1l,g' flowers, ilii1 d fruit [fl! enclesures, thickets, ,ilirigSited fields; and ,over roots).

" A 1!\:t~, l~'Y0I'-'~v«.

aVI'(lr.a}'aI;" 11. J.:xxi: lilfi[rahJil' tlll1sfi) a'/y«r{J'/'6i11 an. a., an (ele'pllan t)1 ,of 8 ,araill i.

adii':(~, XU, a woman living by shoiwiflg pietures of' goos, (Ga:Qapa,ti: nt:'~ttflcMte,kJlJl(lp,.,aUa,~'J(l:Vftt(lyab $tnYa~).

mmlfi,s.ab, U. iv, 3!CC. to, Gal} 3 p<lti= tlwttktf$fJ, spllIce,opening"

(l1j rJ.lJdhi(l, ntpentanoe, Ill, m, ace. to GaQapatL ef hawing e.iunlsted other'S with leaas.

,eioJjfU't4Mfl Ill, xii~ to c'O~np ensatel m,a,k:~ good rn.

GraM m. xx, ace. to G,a!;lapati. a.tiat piece ·of leaeher for playing dice 'Orl.

arJllapll/J.~liluf, m.,:;:, amOIlIl~ii'llg ,to tlldf a: palja. Gail,l.apati reads (lrtiJia· pa1lJIM, cf. hbflU vm. 404.

aU(l1Jcyimm,ij 1[, xiii, taking' ,away valuab.le jewels. and substituting valueless ones, (G<lI;I.; l1ieieiiJds Gjllm'S,I1non).

,(fvl!U}ulrsa6l'u'tti' Ill, v:ili, structure above a. v,er.3:!ldah to protect agaitls;t rain.

avas'ftfr:a Il, viii: siddha1!1 .M.;ltrm IJPrDPta,~~ kwoty apriIjJ.fa1]" ,prilpta1;,' l1C(:r tlf]11:$Zll1ra/);,a, is, when Olleen:~eil"S, what has been received and reaU:zed ,as I).crtrecelved, and what has noe been received a's received.

a$lak~l.. ]Lxiv~ lac, soldier.

,il~ll H. iii, ace. to G:iLQ.SillaH ;:Ii small door .. tUiwiu'ka n. vvi, NUL iii. trans'PQlt guard.

l1baJiyas(lm- XVU, the weaker's a,ttitude tO~'i'ards the serenger, ti:iM!M'l~i I1~:o: h', a c,ra(t$ma.[!).

illli!5Iam~ ]1!Jo>L'l,twisrting.


t~f{:nI-a1)l.~n)tl,ka Il.xiv: iiimr,I1Jilra""f2/Hi'11 ~Y)'ft(1}'a1,'ar:~!a'mlj~ aad II, pieee or coppe~'Ol!nd silver \'i'ith a d(l~b]e !ayer of go]d is caned ~ bese celeueed" ..

IIlsaf~!;(l Il, x v . ace. 10 G:lQapati :ifts to the king '011 th e bi rdll of a son, &c.

r,ulanjo.ra m,\'iii, <ICC, to GaQlapati a great ja1f, Cor\ .. ':H~1i" as <I safeguard

against flre.

l'&jm(.inm'ka, xm. i~ a kind ,of a:n,t, Rv, VUL l02,.:.u. ~eP(lv/1.sa, JII. x acaleivatcr ln the ~erv'ice of the \.i]]age,.

u!MslU", Ill. x,a tract ,of common land round 3. \'iUage or ,tc\~'l'l; ,cf. juJn/~tJrtl, Manu. Vm.2.3,7'

rJpastJ~fili'(r.I"i Il, xv: t:t/4mlJn'ii/Jta 1'(1'11 [d ifferent measure andweigbt, sc, ill buying <lind selling). lias,tapf1t'(1~IlJm (filling the hand) :Ilfk(w() (mbblsh added) fJ;)'ii)'r, !(rn:ise.cli measure-tax) P(.u'J!Ji#la,!l (of last yea!") fft':t1Yi~'tm1~ 'i exacted] ii:opas.thQ'n(J:l1!.

alldam:ka ]Lxxxvi, a. seller of boiled rice, cf. P,il!}.. IV. iv. I,'. aM/j(mi{jadj'k(m~ X IV the use 'of poisonous herbs, &.c., ,against Od'(!1C5,. lntptu}{ijika Ill. xv cofls,istiog in ha."lr.iJg' been slept w'it.1'i.

m~,pllytlm·'ktl.m U. xv, what is g1,ViI!!Il as a pres-ent" See: 1f~~Y'am. @bove'


1M~"~ti{ak(ln'u(J'nt(J. U. xxii, aee. to Gar.tap"ati. """ sntl'(J'.sm~ma/ulkanJ1.{1"

kacagJ"IJo/Jatlf U.x:x.xvi, ~h@il"·seizer';;', implement foli" remov.ing tha.~chi,ng in, order' t,o prevent fire.

ka,\nmiim~ ]I" xiii.: ,ar/aye! A\:Q'~l'1k(,l:rmm.'Ioi:!I~ jiDr!c(lMZiga~~' k6i'ilrn:r'la~'~$ dasobJiaga11!' ~a~!imii1itm.I, fOI" the settll:lgof'g]sss one should hand over 5 parts 'ofgQla, 3nd re parts as aplll:lgenf" measure, i. e, 111$ it covering OV'!!!:' the s.oettiIlg :in erder to make it stron,ger. (The read ing taken ~rom the Vy'akhy Iii) ..

!.ia:p.rUOf;lU,!'ls.ra,ya VILii, '''skuU·joining'', treaty on equal terms. ka'~(,lpr«l:ikaro n.xxix,ttllx-reqllil:al: g/lr1asylmtm varok'a-1J {B ~rok.(l c~3i'ifi,ecl buller} pa1};ka,!~p,tlc,ham h paJ:lJ'.l. ~3!d'l, tail) aJlkacanna (stamped hid,e, ca w.'r$ikI17!~ aadyii(l (he should give each year) iN J.\arn/m(I,t,~"}uU'al) (this is the ta.'l:-r-,eq!.l!it:l~).

karmii:hMgrahfl ]V. vi, la.1{ing hold! of th e d fled. disc~ esl ng a th eft and its kind.

k{lkQ.J}J"ka Il, xHi, \It.'e'igh ing a k@aJ}i; cr. krtki1jf-kal, 'Ma h!ibhaU3 V. 1. 33·

H.-F. KL

ki'lea ][.1'.;i.v,. aee, to GOlJl)apaJti <lind ]0]]31', [mud.

ft.i~!1)jjbandha U .. x;;;:v: .~']1i1$~I·~fllal~rdr());J.rtm ,ifl'lra~.~l sidd/ml!z ~~w fa d!"Oga be:lin-pasle' \?)J taw or 'OI;H;l]k,~d) /;ribh.ijglidllikrda~lrfo.~lm~ (with tJm~e p:i'l['t~ more of riDe) w(Jro{:iitlfual]lkii'J'$iR,aMllp:Y/~!J'lm!J (t:og~t.her wi.~h 9.k.ttr$(J po.rtion Of'HG.rot~, &c,) .&ll)l}{jblrjldlm~ Us the w~y of tls[ng fernlent:s~.

lmpy.a ILxv.i~. kitpyrr,dllyak~d~, the kupya'·Qve-.rse>!l.'r. .,C)aka.(~~3k) t£uJ~:a. {D:dbergi,a U.jj.eim~""sis) dhamN1IM" (AJlmgi,MfllImrllm} n~im.l(l. {T,enlllna,]i,Si Arj~nal ,n,alifllU~H· (Bassia LaU[o!i<l)t.'lGIm- (Clero. dendrumph!oUlo;des) $4JI,'a- (Vati,c'a, rOi;I!J,lS~<l!) S.iJf151~pa~ (Da]be~'g']a S~::;SQQ) GJ-i'li1Cd'a· (VachelUa FlIm~S~aMI) J'tijli.titi11a. (l!?Iu~chal'l<'l.nia Lat:~folla)1 #rr~(;l. (Acacia Skissa) Mmtli:ra· (Ac8!cuil 'Cat~chu) sara/a· ~rinlJs Loitlgifoiiaj ttlla- ~fal'l.p'a.]m} sarjtl" (TC!nn~rmU9! Tom.eflOO$ala8tia~ k.(n"{~~- (V.atic." Robusta) fj.o.maf1alka~ (.A.caciaJl"r.ab':c2I) kQ~a" (3 kind of AC<lda?) ar~lr(l- (m~l'lg() lpl'iy/o.R,a" (N.iilucle.<li CrJld<lI'llol!ll dlu!7),lf:di~ (Gris'Ie:a. TQIIMl~to$;,l.J. &c.) kU}'Ymmrg(1t~ Os the kupy-a·.group).

/wmlJ.p'f n. XX)[~., aQC. to G~~a:p:at~ a bellm above the post to which Qn e]epb Ant is Ued to m.ake d'l~ Mnding ,s;~r~;lI1gel·. krwiikrtyapak'$I/J'Yaksa~Nl I. xill, watcll'l[tlg over the p'l,I~tie\ll that c;~n, or Cll.[ililOt. bemanaged, i. <'l.sci'lerningat br~[Iging th~mtQ dese:rt an eJfle<my.

kf)srilsang~ VUI. i.\l: streff) mukl!Y(!$,t>t (sHddng t@ the chiefs) ptm"/£flrap.a./wtab (chllm.f1g.t1:d.thmilgl1 exemption ~ ,/!,J'akfn)Q (sca:ttered)i ~d·, tlO'li$.o.'1~bl.1f1111J (wrongly· cQ]~ectecll) s(int(lntlJ!(WiM.rta hat~en away by neighboll!rs Oir liorestf'rs)iti k()tJa'$a~C{ib {such the $t~ck~:n\gs for jhe rre;a:s!uryt

!lrrr;yiwa n x.v: tiJ:WlyalJmfyaJt1 (the com~pr.ic~) .Ju:danid~{7raJ.1 (lr-ell$·UFe·' h.oard~~g) .pm..yogrr.pl'"atytidIiJ'l.(l1~l ,eo. (retJJ:ll"ni~g of what has been Ilttli;;,;ed) .krayima~1~ tare tile pUirohase-grQup).

~'rp'lj~ltl It ""m;k-$epa~Jab ka,cr1yp.aUridfJ.1.~: '(R$~Jla~a "'-" ~eUl fig' glass, &c., "c. in gQJdJ.

Iiha~lrJ(J.plmlla m.. vii i,a:c.JC-_tQ Ga!}<l;paH sp;ut{l:tasa1~tsjt'lr'a~lrepilrri[]gof

lbTeakages •.

kl,,{l,roa!£k'4 ]Ucentre of 200 vli.I.a.ge:s; d.above p, 38. Ci:l.lJrJik~l 1l x ui~J ,;;,h~. <I!wH (11.§ oily).

gopa . n.:\: xx'" ,head of fiyeor ten v m.ages. golinga U. ~xvHi, a.cow-cart.


[94$, No", I.

d~Ql1.dika, XL ~ p~,edUection.

iaI1:g}~i1.{fl'a I l, xxx v, shanl<-ml;!~tit~d,e, ~he 1:10111 b~.~Qf I!~gs of ~11l&v iduals. ilwrak~l IV. i, water-earrtee.

Jadlli1Jfla .n .. ~x : yo ~d y:ad t#/JaayatfJ leU IttIMak~(l;yat~'j one wl~o dw.tcmrs all h~ca!li g!lt hdd ot

trk$~ra txiiyc jrmapade sarli'S (ya1:tnlmi1no !ms!i1~\(HJltJyiM'l~l~ .. Iff d:nlV'y.ahctoJ) prattyod/~q(!t,;lrus Ie l!ik~~1fil.l~ these whoa!> heroes, risking their lire, fight <lg a :~nst an el.>I1:'pha,r1tor 4 tiger befo:re: peo])<]e for nlioney'$ sate. are the sbarpere,

il'ilm{aka II.x~v, :lwo ])Or~~mils s1ive:r., ornesl!l.lphllir. Whel:1.th]s is used to t-em.o\·e go~c1 comi:rlg from th~ p.it, tliat :~5 caned tripNtaR{t: jmsrll'ita, rem o\'altth!'O~gh tb ree"fold ing.

l~{1'rt;l$!ru~S!ee above !P' 55,

1~lf$W.M m. x \'l~ cOn~,1?rfll[lg what is na,~;arl:Olilt.

11.~"idlt ]I]. H, a woman b~ar]llg' a d~adl cliii~d, H. S3 I. ll£sp.ilh.l, J U .. x i.v, ripening, comp]eHcm.

~,lai~d.(mik~ ]H.v ~ wbat!!> req l.:Iiredfoir Gemn~ upa separate b01;ls~niol(l: 8m~m! ~'ffr{l S'(WiltI1n (l.I;1!l~'!mi'Vr~~t{!Myt) 1!(l~:~).~~(1:.~!ik{n~~: d(uiyuli~ they should gl v'e:those wh.o have l~ot s:eU~!'ld down (i.e. married J' an equa'~ seuHmg,sl1m as th~ S~ilt~edon~s.

mU:$littmik£r XI. i, XU. ~v.: ~Ul iSet;~1;~lr~~'(11~1 ill :~uadll~$Gr.'(lSq;Yl.~kf('u '11alO,i{l'~ k1~~·,d)1l(jfl l;amsa~ p~qyac'Ch{lml)~ they shQUlld pr-e$1el'lt n ~I'ldred:s of liquor-pitchers WiUl ]f1tt1:1:lcOl:Hng poi~on 1I!5 a ~~ioat:~ol] ", jH/lUjf>rifkufi!lm XlV. i, tn,e fiV'e ,pal:'t$ of !tu${lul (COS.tU5 :spedlos~s) 'Qi:S. rlnd, leaves, nawers, (rult5Jrnots.

pariku{$aHa II.xiiv.: p.e~akapadt!tc.n,allr$ltmll gWJ(I.'l~ ,pi{<!kiil~~ 1M' yat ,p.a.risjjt(jy'fl~N lat tHlP{er4t'au{lw. olJtling'·aw(ljyi;swne~!lJ th~y cut off 11. Pr$ila, a .. threa.dl, or a pi~~hel' under the pret(;Tlce of $e!aktll.

~7I'iMJi~14tt, U. xiii :'Pr!Si{;(lkl1(i(l.k,,"m{lu,a~, .lr:ay.o Iu" Mlf.g'lii} ptU"ibltlli!ifa1?J tkau va:stffk{!.1!~', coliiitro .~ VlistulutltJ tmj!lllilp,;wl/;.fj:(Ir;ilam, of.S! pnila.g]a5'S~work.[n Pr~it~·g]as$,.;workf_lre U~l."e~eparts th.~ fr3,m~~ hv!O 'th~ bas:e~or four ~he - baSJ!!: thre:~ th~ frame.

jffln1Ull'.IaJUl II. V.I it ra'iaJr(W~~~am an)'alt.rm!!yet~~diftl~m~ selz:un_g th~ ~dng':5 pooperil:y by {5yb~titLJti]'Jg) oth~rpl"OpertJj d~ H.~v sa$Yfi~ar~u'l:wA'J~J r1.Fghll~lal'M}a 'Ubdmayl1~ prwb.Ml.riakcall'l jJaTi'1mt'iaka= ~xch:angiJlg grasses wkh :such of dJff~reint value,

pa:.risikm n. ,xxvu~ ~1aug~'te:,ed euestde the s'lallght>arhoUise.


H.·¥., 1\1

par£srpta. vm.!I: pari~rp"am apasrmm, p. = gone away.,

lun'£hi1Pa~m U. viii: k{plmn I'fymrz parilliljJ'(J;yali ~!)Iayarliv:a 1}.(;'lrd/tayati# parihripa~a1J~, he mak,es the settled in,C!om~ too low or i nereases tbe expenses, this is part:h~1P.(11pl.

jmroRla m. i eueruled .. ,

p~lJtf$_ud!lfJva'm [V. i sweepe r.

pii,:asom(l Il •. xx~, amule: ,cr. f1iiy:a~af)a, ill mnn of mi;o;:ed caste, SOb'!

of a brabma:Q.a and a $ndr,ii:, m. vii.

jilrlll'ivl'lul lLxv, 6fie-5 for damage done by cattle..

p;Jrik~.ika n. xii.;: p,a.rjt.rslktlll,l (ls~abhitC'ika1!1 salam the inspe,c;tiol:l duty 8 Ofo. plirsua Il.vi, xv, addirionel tax ,e""a,eted.

pllii Il.xxlv, dyke, dam; cr. Rljata[". V. 106..

pillik.y.a II xxiv, a kind a pump[kio [thus G8!jl'lpati, who reads 'lJlill-ikya). /Jf~trJ:(J., ]I.xi'.i', (ra~dllie'rd $lllbstitLlti,(;m of less lI',L'l.I.l!lablemaUeT, e.g; glass

for j ewelsj $~.iver for gold, ,&ie.

}in'Ch(j ]1. xiv, f~a:th~r used by goldsmith lor b]owing up fiue. Ifl::Uiki~(a II. xi\' j rust.

fJr.#ta U. xi.ii, XlV, "sprifllded~!, m(n,.!]ilted, set; pr#lal.'ltcakarmn, settimg g1a:ss Of' pearls, &'c.~ ingold UoUy: hollow).

pc/aim U. xh', one of the go'idsmi,th's ways of decei.v,in,g. It is g!it.#w, iJrm, or I!iM~yu(ldlliJ"Jll, rernevable. A gi!rJ.lulPe~Ma is a, piece of lead "smeared" with a g{lhl'·]eaf ,md fastened inside with lac (sf~~(1rfil,am SUVl'l rtlafJatr:e~liJ':IJ(1,f#tl(lm aM/~fmt,waffl(l:$#defta baddAmJt) .. '\iVhen~here is c,n]y fok~ed la ye:;s,it l$; removab]e (SIl ei/$l' /J~~ral(tsa.t~f· ptltef~!'I1MYI~dtilrlir_y.'(1b)·

pra:tik}'O$trJ Ill, b an overbidder,

!mat~~graJj(f X. "":i, the rear of a bat.u~:·<liray .. pmti'1l'oFlc;a II. Hi a platform b~I'a}1.(;a) filcillg' anether,

prat,!)'" U.iib dwy.or attlJlakayo,' madhy.e s,oll«rmyadvltala',!~ d~'YaJ"tillii. ;y:{fmf!i'l~ prato/rJ'!l kllruyel I at{(;rlaJmjJl"(lW/rm(J.dltyl! 17".klhiiu:~IIInUh1·~ ${hllna~ stf.p£dh{imlc"hi:d,-op.halaka $,('I.~!.IJlIltfJ.m ii.rudh:rk()$(lf~,1 k4rayei., betwee.n hvo w,atcbto\ver,s he sho!.ild let make a praMif wi th two m8in!ii;~OI:Htlrfa·a~:%i, (cove:r.ing !tile roofs of the two t.owers'?l\ 1 jig ti.m~ more bro.acll(th!ltl high); b~tw~en tower' and prato/! he should ]crt make fI.pl.!ltform~ as place for three archers" beaten tOge'ther ol planks with holes th<!it ean be covered: an 1~1di'dQsa (pl~t{i;lmlli'. Pr:atoli Ils,lllally means head-street, Ol<lt in medieal





• texts .9. bandage; her-e appaloenUy ,a strueteee above dl!! wateht·Ow.eI"5.

pl'adhlJvilj;k/i. n.m, plati! of reru:ge.

/Jras(J:lmDyoga ]I. ~;r;; v: d'IJfJdaSri41U1klJ'~1 pi~la'S)'Q, panc'a prasthllb kir,l!laSYll, p~~b"(Jk"{'jl~;akph(fi{iy,ukl'o' tlitl j(]tis(u~lbhi1mll- ,pasfmn6yacab. l2 il/fJuzka; flour, 5 pnuMa iferme n t, or ;'I cQ]iectlo!'i or species combined with the rind and. fmi.t of d1ep!ltralultiri!l.(!.; is, pr:a':''ClJnUl)'Ogff.

prtlsilnJ X. ii: V'(ffl.{ijwa/;' prasU.i':al~, forest. nourisbment {rice" gra$s.e~ &~.}

is prasc1'ra.

pran(,wrlV(J ][.xX\'J Ill.x, Vll.:n·i" XU.v, XHUi, fe-st.ival gatl1erin,g. p'YlJ{1v~ull!(lm'lm n .. xix clol'itr,oUing.

fJ11im#yaka It xv: snsyayac(mam ,a1~y(ltab p11!imftp,akutJI, asli:ing for gr;:IISr:;es n',om others iSfJramityakl1i t,ad Q-Vi< pyat/deinilrillam ape mi'1y11 iUN1J, when it is to be restored ~s ~PGrJ!lt.Yak-a.

pnlr1artiJ'm~ II.~..,. xiv, lIidhdt:y, iostf!um,entaHty"

pIJlmlf.{Jh.lI(1. H. ~l'!ill, f013l1l-stdkin,g, plaee resehsd by foam, near \'1~3'teI'. p!telti vlt .;t.::\lii; box, cr. Divylv. 5:03. 24.

Magl1()t$/,${.cI:ka 11. xxix: 'Oyi'id/rIWiJ'IJfQJi:{ffimmy(uio/ildi(rdohr:pltWaglilltl1ii'l' ,en stlma.vihlrlf'{!'tll/i ri'iptl~al.(lJ?I'/lcUay(m/("'s tajj'eilj7~{n",bbiigtJJ?I' tia(i;'l1r iIi /J/t.(1f:1iolsn((J/mw,tbose who tend Ill!.lndrecl (coW'S.), that are sick, crippled, no! t,o be mIlked by ,othe~J d~mcllil't eo milk! slipping the calrl r=quaUy di5tribllted~ should :pay the cOrl"espondi.l'lg due f..,iili. ~JI~): tha.tis bllagft,()l$nFka.

MtJ:tftiiHdMkara~~7 11. ,XlVi' support of ili1lpl~me'nt:s.

bllfigmm'Prav#ljj"~(l II. xx U~: 1}(1.r:a~akr!J(arif6h(lJf{ld o.n.~prtWl~!lffi't{H~~ jNISlt .. 1111r!ipiikmadlutrlncrJ.t'l d.asdMga~~~ ~iadyur iti' ,hhllptt.itj'lra'VJ"$(afmm! for tbek!l:epin,g' of cattle broug:htin fFom fear or other rulers OF 01 foresters they should pay 1/10: that ~s {),hdgtJml.j!w(}.v#taka.

bllrc${t IU. xii ]055 {of eatrusted property which one has bee n un 1'1 hie to· prevent); c.f.. )1Jijfl. U. 66.

in./i'nasnivrl It xix, !J(IRtli{.wdMlig.O mlJrla.~rlht() dr.a1Ji!if)J1~1 ,ll5!l is the

measure: tax for fluids.

mu~ula/~twm!J'ai' mUJJiak{ulMl'tt U. Hi, I?erhaps a strilld1Jlr'e~,a door m.ade • . ox lopped trun l~s.

mUSrl,l# ,11 kifld of ~1i"eaponl!l&ed in defence or IOFtresses,; lUii; d. blIuS't~~ztJi?

mfilt'lh'(lrn. ]I. ix: yal) jn'trP'a£liirlloh',am nrt/i(ln;a'!,)'uyclla blmk~tl:yali. one

H.-F. KL

who ~mproper~y eeasumes the weliith ll"lherfted from fa;the'r ilnd g,!'lIl1d r:ather.

JfJ1.dpo$a1ra [I,Ui, ii]~ breeder oif Ol.[lima]s .• SIJJch"", chid"en~ pigs, sheep and gQ~ts, OOWS .. ~d buff .. ]o·es~ horse\l; aJ:ld~n~~cs.

va.mzla{i IU.viUi,aac. iJo Gal;)iapliiti .80. velC8Jndah.

vi~(o,ml'iHltlm Il, ;;:x}1vi~ t!:l,[l nrst <lind t'l$t~Ul/11m~ of the night, '\"'~ell

d~e :mJ.ighh1i'8it!::;h drt.nn vas struck.

1u:ttaka It xiv, a~ :allloy~ ll .. df iron haM :5~~,ve1i.

'<Jaidhara(u~ H.xiiJ:\:vi, ,"'x\!'~ ma_ki[lS' geed lesses on £'Ovemm~rlt wares, ~ya;!:ltara m.iv, rem,o,te.

vyaji" It 'Ii']" :o,:;uit1lix on UleaSll r1l:1g~ paid with ,5 ~rfj,., ta'~~a X. v = Lt ~ilgtlI3 ..

§fJ.:l'jM Il, XKN:y[~a wldcer b<asJ;;et:, used as a fan for li<eep]l:lgoff smoke, sa#ro Vl], v ~ X. H~.: d!Ji'l~lvaJw;sa~katapa~lmiaflan£mJ1a:'Ul$IrI.mmi!17.){J gt'tV(lY :S'al>a(,;wYW'liO ~,trkiiira 1'l1trir #i sattriip.i, a desert, narrow, millddy~, stony, Low, U!leVe~r:! :[phu;e,s), shi,p~, CQWS, a chariot.army~fog, o]gnt are the' sattra,s" S atJNt~ .~ $~$5io,n ~ ~ means a greilt: soma"sacri~t\e, arid hence a dliic!.llit work. About the' saUdp(I,b, se :Jil;)orve' p. =7.

,sJ'Jrmrdl,Um XU!. ii, a fQr~rm~.teUer ..

$~,'~d1lriiJlika It Xy: kj,~tW;lkarol;aknsaktu5ttj,t(Jpi$takarmCi t(l:iiru(N~'C$U lalla" pfcja1U'IJ'n (I~1'abll,r.a(;~krik~$1j £k$fUtti;1?l~'a k$}im.lu~nrl,G .5~''J?~ha:n;Ml. S£ltlju~~iiklj l:5wha,t comes in fm.m Willi.:: on cl'Ushing'j ,add hag 5tim]J]a:n ts'J pOIJl:ldinI2j,ad.ding addls., griml]ngJ amo!tg thQ~ewho h<l'l'ie this ]iving, ol]-p~"e~~;irlgJ with silee'p" and goat.btl~chers,. 8JOG [)rl;ldu.cing~rea,de'J &c,. from ~U!_g:OI.fIoCa~,es.

sruikrJl~,rl.pa In .. ~·m! wen (for cl!ea!'ling) a. iying-hl woman.

S'U(l/rl;ar.aJ,;m m.A.vi, making Qnl~'$' lo:wl:I~be-stitkatkln of ownersh:ip; as to t~le form d" Pln~i[ll Uii 56.


Many of the wordsl'tu~ntioned i!J,oyt': have already been dealt

wHh by Jolly in his p:ap!!r L~:x.i,ka!i5ches8;1JiS clem AT'tha!l;!stra,. ]I'ldo,· germanlaehe FOIi".schtmge:n, XXXI, pp. 2,04,-10, , .. !J!:Ik~ I ,orlly bow from his important paper Arthiil~iIs;tr.a umd D~:I1l.]"rn!lJ~:a~tr.l.... ZDMG 67, PP.<J;9 ff. His;esl;q]tlO are mainly the same as ]11 the Kellektafleen: The Kau~ai'ly!lJ if! numereua detailsiilgmes with the$mrl~:s, and El. spec'Uy .1vi.th oomparail:1vdy late WOJ".l;;5 .SlJ. ell as Y~jfl:ava.]ky!lJ. a~d N.ilirlldll.~iI:. ca.nn,ot~ thJ!'lFefolfe~ wen b'e$Q old as the 4t~] ce:n,t(II:,)'

1945. No. L

13. c. But he ~lim:;e]f draws at:te~ti!On w<se'\i'e!l',<lil desails wllLetli show 110\'1 c<lil:\efu~ we mill ~t be ~ n drawi[lgany ,su(:n cotildillsi O]'l,S.

The Dharma@strfl has: had 11. ~ong d e'!.leklpment,. and 1Tl;li[lyof thesmrtis are 1]!it'{litteclily compa:r~ti.vc]yl~te workst but stiill .it ]5 possibl.e to speak, of ancld keme],. which goes hack to ;ilcon;sl.deliOlbly earlier 'P~,iod than the 4th ~e!lt~ry IJ:. c. ¥fn,ela:terchanges aod neoiogi}slll!iO c:an n;il""~ been t.ak'!llll over f]"omthe Arthat:lisb:Ji~ ",,"'hieb can slse, as 3]t"~8.dy remarked, be the seeree fl">om wh!!C'h lexieogra:phers hav.e taken SOfJrolf: of d11e words wek~lo,w il'om tn.em a:l:'l.d fli·om I(."'U~IIIJa. A m:!. the cases of diverg;t!in1oe can be due to th~ dlif~l;mt 'l!'iew·pohilts lnthe Ard'lr:as!str~ and the D·hO\lI:'ITba.$!istli'a. It s~em5to IIill!!that 110 .com:luslveeviden~e b~s been b.mugnt forw<Ji~dls .aga~:flst ] acobi's view that our Kau~a1ry:a i_s'J ess~nti.aliy ~.!i:~'nlui;n.e and that llts <l1lt:li'Ior WOlS rhens ini~~ef O'fth~ M!lllrya.emiperoii >C"'!ldl"<\gup~a.


B.-F. 1'::1.


References to pages wbe:re il wO'li'd is given and, e\"entmllIJy:, its ~);,pl,al:l,[idon begun.

a.1l1~<!vibh!liga 45 ak~<lipa~,ala 29 Ag,asty 11. .J 0 <ll?llrt.l..21

.1Ingav~.d}·~ 2"] AjabindUi Sm .. tv iI:(1 9 a~~laka 52

aUclli,ra 41

atisall!ldh~ 35 A~har\l'a'\·eda. ,8 a.dmiy~d~ 44 adbya'kf,lapmcara 29 anabbis,!\r"a So' anearaeakra 27 :intarndvlpa 5,2 anvay,gvat 5t a:ml'r1.dhii 4'] an\'lyaua 32 a:pamityaka :3: r Apar'ij i t!li r ~ Ap,ar'II'Ha 17 3.pal;'iddha 45 apavyaJ:ana .5 J! apasara 49. 55: aprat:ihatfll ! ~

a bh.iblilJlrtsalla ,51 a,bhi~ya !leia vamalla 23 am§.t},3, 34136

am§ tyQtpnu:i 26 Arpbarr~a Nlbhlga 10

;atn.bil~~ha 45 ;aJog.av::l 416 ai:'HlP,riilq~ti 34- arimitra 34 3F.i~8J~v<lrg:a. 26 Ai"jul'l,a Fbdhaya9 arthacUina 4- "j artbSiSa1f!~y'[)ga 26 aV<I;gllrl}lI 5 I Avantl. I']

avap!!ita 52 A&okag:iama, ~ 7 Asmaka Ji7 as.va.kan:n 01 53 MVrI!\'!Iham:tsa 11: '1 a~lo':ridhyak~a 32

A~vin 12 -

!lSIIlJlhata54 aSYil1mivih,aya. 47 akarJdh yak~'ilI 3/:1 ::Ikll'!lk~!li 40 ,a,kFatida 34-

iik~ik8J .4J:l,

1llkhyata 14- Aikbj'!!,y:ikm: 8 acchuiana 41 !i'tab 14

!itiU'Dya ,3g IItmarakl:i~taka 28 :lbTI'l.'\~;kraya 47

a:deta ,47'

adll'iV1edafl ika 38,; 5::; Antaliapa:tya r 7 AnvTblllki 6

:ibadhya ,39 a:mlavafga~ -31

Iya ~9J 55 9iYlld])!ig!!it3. ;!2:9, 3. I Ara~J\:a. I']

i'ir~a vWaha 39 a~rll.m.adlha1l"m<l. 27 Mvayqja 16 - !'Is,ana 35

!sAra ,)3

asura yivaha39 aSlJirf s!.lti 52 ik~UA :21

[dvrtta 8 Whi'isavedil. 8 Indra I~ indrakos3 52 K['!Jdravlinika ~8 itldriya,\'ij aya 26 ir.il}s 52

ugra 45 U~c:h1l1kill 32 una.d,Y<lllJa 16 uUh::!.fIa :26 Ild!!sJ'tI<l S5 udas'thita 2.6


19.t5. No. J.

I, I

Udah!!.r<ltlll.8 uP:ak.lI~;~" '" [

t 45

26 upanayana 32 Ll.paY!J,[.;t;a 30 llpav:i,oil, 5~ upasarga I 'I). 1,;!p!l~tnlina 3 I unsYiI 5+

rQiidiril1la +6

rt,H 10

ekakhura 05,'0

eka cakra 2.'5 ek:i.J1;1:llll 53

Ai'hi 9 -

AuUan:lpanrfltJI 18 :ltlda.ka S2 aupanidh~t:a 4'1 m;lpayll~1ika 3~ a.ura:sa45

kaksa 54 k<l!~~bh;pgll 52 kll~!l;iIb:var,ga ar:

Kal!,"lin,ki .J3.h!lu.dvaJ!lI J.I ka~~ka5odhal:"l a 36 k21d,arya. 45

[{a.pi:fi~. 18

[(Rr:;}a Vaideltn 8 km,'mOlbu'avIka]pa 47 Kalpa ~3

1{~t'yl!iY!lrl a I I Idln'~na 45 Kantan~\laka I8 !.<ili·p:atil!::a.20

ll:!lima 8

k§majatri vilrga ::;6 k!lmadi!lina .-&:7 Kam.::Isi.'l:tr.a 50 I{ambuka. l,a

K~,m boja ka i 8 [{!r[]~a . .1;0 k!~Wi!'lt~b ~ g Ktllrdarlli ka ~·8

k~ li''yn!'lI:.l~:lS1l!ll!a 26 l~i!l.~a 15, kai.lIp'lItr8Ji<:l 30

_ K1i]a:p3rvat~ 18 Kiillngaka IS U!,eY<lli;:a ::l,f KMlka, l8 [{[iMr:iji3i~o

[{ &;$.ltl3ka r B IG[~alka II k!u~:1Ik1li.4J6 kll~mnl:lali;jQm~ 40 kutsana 51 l!;up'y1I!grha29 kq;apj!Mhyak~,a 3] K.~mona- 12 -

KU~!i!.dhvajll 12 kl1~ilava I' 2, 46 km.tl1nl~l:lJrlJ 13 ktl~a 52

k[1I'(:~k!'i [3

krtaka 45 k~~20

kOfi'll 8

kO[l!3,j.a tnvargaso

Iro$a :2'5. 34-

ko~ag:rha ~9 [{o:!l!ik:ir~parvaJla, 18 lW~!:I(:l!byahOl 3,0 ]!.;,Q~~h' gll"<l! 29 KQt"~h:ligai~!l.dhJ~Ik~aJ 3]

~'::.a!utaJ ~,8 -

K.au!t:!li.y1!i. 1 [{au.1~ya I8 kraya- ::2,3 krayim:a 31 kr'lM145 lk~atlr46 h~dI~~,p~!U S0 li::'1'et:r.;JIjll.!. 45 b;:,eu,in 45 Ml!!l~i .29: 56 Ikh!i.rv;1i~ika 38 'Gai!ga p:i!!JJ!jj 12

ga~tkl:j.dhyakt'i<! 32

Ga:l'I\~:a I ~ -

g,5.!,l:anilyad.hi:kAm 29 gil n.db:ar'Va ... nva:ha 39 gay.sma l2

sub!, 52

gu\lh:aja 45 gO\lhade.$~ bhiglllutlna


gij~lh:aptln.!l~a ::;;:6

gr'hap~lftik:!l.!, i26, 33 gr~·l!avi!stuka 46- gocl:lini:l3~

godh!'! 54 godhyak~a 3::<: g,opa. :2:2, 3:2,~ 56 gQpa:~,a"a 44- Go~m1:~1li. 18 Gal!J~~ka ~8 G!:Imeru b 1:8 grilSa .,p

gJ:'I~ma i5 'Gho~lImld~h<l ! I e9krav~]i .~ 8. C8iI;\!:i]a 46- c.~tUiral'\ginl' 54 eandan a ~ ~ CamJragu pta I C!l.l'Idmni [!is-a l'i csra '20


alla I"'hl8 Olla:5t IS cUCUfld:rri 5.2 Cailrll 16 -

C1liI1r~e:ya. 18 cal!lhi 3~

ehsudas IS Jall!li.])acla 341

j aina,p~daHiv,e~a 23 )iOlna:padJa5<li[l1dhi 38 Janamejaya 9

1 a.m.bhak~v.id'yi!'i 27 )<lyats€tllI. 1]

1-].,·[<'. KI.

Jayanta 12,

Jlim ad s,glnya HJ j !n~bb.aiij an] 52:

Jmm!nmad1J! irS Ja:1iUna, ;1;0

Ja:vika, 18 Joilgablg ]i'iltikl(l~agallil :!Iniil 43 jyef}'~habhiliga 45 .1yoti'!?a 15 pambhodbh<l\'a 9 tap8.S1Ji. 26, 33 TIipf rS TitmbrapairQika .l,a TarnaS3 18 nJ.~jai:lgha 9 t~JapacarilJ 44-

dthi IS

nk~\.Ia!2:6 tfl'thop,arod ha H TlUtha 19

ttlvs.ri ,13

Taitala l,g

T aHa:parl}ika :2 1 J'aur'Ciipa [9

TFayl' 8

~["i~;o.lilpra~!ra, 52 .D~lj!Q.a~ya, Bhoja a dal:!$IQllya,n" J 6

daQ4a. 25. 34. 54 dal;ld,anui 2~ da:Ii).(lap1!i,ru~Yll 51 dau~at1Jlk3$e~a . ,48 daUa +5 dauasylnapakarma 4. "l darpedana ~'i d1!i.tr;il5a.il1gr~~~ah 56 d~.yavjbhag,a 44 d~saludpEli'4 7

divasa, IS

dik~s,r:t'" 32

DJrg:h,a C!raiy!lIQ8. I.l d1'rghapra v:'iS;l! 43 44- dUf,ga 29~ 3'1, :52

d'll,r,ga[l ivesa 53 DQJfY'odhana 9

d tlj)~a1inga 42

d[Ua 28

devapati.la 52, 56 Deviila ]:2<

devasal"1l1) 56

dew;~jya, ,32;

dai"'a viv51(la39 Dalvasabba 19' Do.i1;gaka 19 dyuta:sam!l.h'·'iJlya _5I drouamuldul 38 Dv,t'l,diilsllg,ij m]:Y;l! r 9 d\·ar.li!['2 dvall;istilaparampllr!l 2'7 dvigotra.4S dvipaiial'lllpa 50 dvipi'trka 45

dvesa 4:2, d\'a~dbfbh!!.\·n 3S DVOIiipliya[1l1 10· dh<l!!IlVinI 28- dha;rmadiU:l<i 47

Dhal"m a~astt"a, B di'!armastha 36- Dharmaseuya 36 dhannlli vasaJthin 33 dhanvana 42,

dhon~la S5

dhvaja 3~

nak5,lItra ]j 5

na~a l2

IHlidipOjja I ~ Radrmut:hata.rapradl"a


N;;l.1!'akiil ]:2; nartaka.. 12, N:da ]:1[

n ilik.'ji:iltra.masOi ~ "1 Nag<l[J,arvata. 19 [ii~arak<ll 33 nama 14.

nayat:a 54

Narada 12

n!rof.i~ra 55 l'iinra.dhyak~a 23, 32 NiiklJmbha 12

nindu <f,oJ' 61

nip~t.l :1:4-

ni bandhaputaka 29 nimina 27

niFa.!1I'i.'2y:J :5 [

!l;~ilda 4:5

NiukEIl 15 ni:aantapraQidhi HI ni'Jpa'talHI 43

n~Sr,5~ r tha~a.

nitail" ,gala 55 Naipllihika 19' .I'Iairnlttiklll 12

paksa 15i 54

[l~i'iica bandha 50 palJlyag~ha 29 paf.ly,asilln:sthi 23 pa~yai,d hj'ilk~il 23 pllthy anusaraea 43' pada 14

padika. 54 paradesapavahana 23 parab h!rya. vaka.<iad§n a


padmitiltnha 28

pa:rivartali:a 31

pari v.r'.ij ik:li 27 pu\'atapaja i 2

P i1I'~upatyi!l 2:2 pa~d.dv!pil 2: I pa.!jithauhl 22. 56 Pa.J)~yaka \'<ltai':a r 9' Papey.iI'I.:a 19 P!il'alatuhitya.ka J 9 I?lril~avll 45 . Pfl'3saml!ldrak:a 19 p.alik~ika 3 I p.!i[\l~ya. 42

p~nra.ta 52 p~r'~1)I,igrlh.a 5.5

jpgik.ra 19

Pisuna I I

Plsrm aputra I I pigal1:a3c7 putmdiilravikray:a 41 puEra \'ib'b!l.SO! 45. puti~IUi.p'LI;tra 45 Pur:ilJa .8

perusav yasalil a 36 pUII::a;,~ii 46 PillC~la.kadv]l?1Jika. J 9' pOfva \i"~pa 2 £

paiAii.ca viv:lh:a 39 Pauuc;lrika 19 paut"IlidhYiik~a 31 palUnarbhaHa 45 pni.kiilrmamas:mJ 1.1 prakrtayab 3.<1- pf'aiJidha.ya~, 33 praeelt 5'2

p.rll.cle~tr 36

pnldh! vHi ka 52 prasavana 32

praSAra 53- p!"as~~s,tr ka 44 prahatn 51 '

p'raka.l'a 'Sz Pl1ij!J.[:Hitya \'i vaha 39 pr!ltibJ]j~vya 4.8 pr:ipta vayaska. 41 prlmityak:a 3 I Praiyaka 19 phen:lghlit3: 6S

phe·ll 03. ba!:idhan!li.g:lill"a 29 Bali Vairocana ll2 B!hlaveya 19 Bjhaspatl 1 s. 21 Hra~mit12~

Erahmr:!lll r 2

brilllma viva;ha. 38 bhOlgnots,rntaka. 63 bhag·cjik!ldhikar:i:'uta 63 Bhau.41Ni.paka. 12

I ~.

Bhadrasena 10 bharma 41

bharma Qya. .p bnastr!l. 4S bh::lig!lrlu'Pr.~.':i~takrli 63 Bhilsa .5

bh~ki?-U 26

bllil"ll!lilkiita 5.,6

bh lIl.m.iccliidr.a, vidh!lma


Bh!:,sa~.'<lb 9

bhog<l! 54

bhn;;:S;lJ 63

Magadba. 19 Ma~itnai1 dUlka 19' Ilia qa.(jla~a! 34. M maQ,(Ialayo.n i. 34 matsJany~ ya :li8 ma:lSya.oandhaka H rnada 8

Madira 12

madhu 37' madhyama ,5.5

Mad hyOlmlllrl~~l"a I9 nladhyamavap.a 21 1lIl.3ntrMI1Liki'if:l 28 Imdamli:ll:a 17 m'1.l~:r:;l::a.cch apijJj~ l::i;l Magadlha 1'9 Madilulr'a 19

ml'il1la 13

mi!inasrit"'a 63

m.IUl !lidhyilk~i1- 32 m!liy!gatll 2'7' M~tl4avy3. r I

Mall ::i:9

m~s:a 15

M!hi.~ak:<i 19 Mfll.hencir.a ! 9 mitn34 mUI;I.Q.!l!harlli ya 63 mudil!idhya.~i;la23 mu~ti :53

musro~i ,63

muhtlrta 16 mQllaila r <! 63 mO~ik1i S2 mrg·a,Ya24 Meka!8iI9 mo~ 42 1l1i'llUlhilrtlka 1 .... y:ajlla r a, 32 Yama 12

yana 35

y~lktn :2'9 Yudbi~thk'a J I Yoga. 6 yogavl"tt<l!. 56 yonipOl1ak", 64 nLth:'ldhyal;:~a 33 ,".ai!!im] 56

vasa 13

rasada 26

riik:r;asa vi v:lha 39 rl!.japut!f<!]"a~r;iJI.la - 28 r!lijar~iv!'tta .26

rlja \'an~a IS-

I":!:]a 29


ra:w·,," 29. 3,1/ 51 riipad arna k a 3 r rn..r;sda'na 41 l~kl!i'I~"a 2']

I <lkl',iaJ:lMhYll.lksa. 30 1.'1I1gha.na 55 lubdhaka 2:2, H I,eki:lai;:a 30 Lokiy.a!la 6

lobha 9' lohAdbYa!~a 3,0 vattik.patha 23, 29 ".atlij.y!!: 23 V;\Il.<lC29 • .51 'll'anadurga .52 vapra 5.2

:!talgal.l;a. 55

\'.al'$ilij. IS

"ilsa nta )) 5

H.-F. K'I.

v5.kp'm:"l!l~ya 51 va,gjh' ana 12 Val'igaka IQ

Vatii.pi .10

V[U!i~k~, 20

vildaka 12

Yin tll,a:~l' 64-

Vln!i.yu 20

l:'ili:rtt~ 20

l;",:!shaka 57 ,,"as;~I:Id.l!v.atilJ l~ ,,.~stUlfikmya 46 t'ikr3y:t 23 vikritfl.l!:ri'tlltly~aya 47 "",ik~epa, 23

vi,grana 35

"l~lgl'!$\iI 34, 5:5 VidOratb-a 10

,·idy~.b 6 vidyopadda, ~6 v.indam!ina 39 \,ibhakra .,. I

'rlvadhaJ 5,3

v L "iihadnarma 38 ,'h·It:ak~etrap;u;b ahhpsll

+6 Vl\·nn,dilya.i:::1l'1i 33 ~'lsikh~ 31

vl~.\1.n [iJi,k a 6*

-~:i~i, 51

visaras 57

vtvadha :53 vrt~i39 vrddh:as3liil1yoga ~;6 V !~:IJ.isill:"gha 10 vet:a.nopagl1l.llika 57 V,ed:§.iflga 13 veUak;~ 6-1-

V .!Jj~J anta. :i:~

valua 46

VaiJ.i:a,va ~o vaidehaka 26,33, 4'6 vaidharar;t3 04

\."ad;y5\'!'tya\'iikr:aY:l.47 Va:i1::arltya. 10 \.'ah·a,dl'iika 53 vlIi\'ahok3 32 Vag~l'l1'l'afll,a ! 2,.

vyan tara 44" 6.fvj'ay::l 29'. SI \yaY,fl.p,l"aty:llya SI, 'l3'n w~h!lnl 4 [ ~'ya!;ahr!r:ilsthipa n! '~ylk"r;ll,tla 1 4- v.Y~J[ 3I, 57, 64 \.·yu~~31 IS

vraja 29.58

"nlla 32

v.ralJ~a 'fi6

SSic~n;~Ual;a H) Satal;;urnbha 20 Sii!il~rnayu .l!2 ~ntFu~a.(,~\'n.tga 8

~ama 64 -

s .. milvy~yamik:a 34- Sa inbara 12

Sabia 20 saimvorga 3,1 ~!i]j2I

~as",nah an 28 Si'v.ilI, u~,

Sik~ilIl:3 SU:ooakiya 20 8uk&a .31

.$ukril r 5, 2 I

~u 1 k:lvy a vah !'nll 32 $l[I~ktlSth~l'ut So sulkildhyak!jiQ .3:2: sulba 13

Su~rjj~iI 41

~ilrpa 64 Srng~lJkti 20 sa~~d!i:ka 44

Sri ll2 .

Sdka~al)ak.a 20, $v<lplh 46

~a,~![J,a 21 ~lIlflilla$a r6 ~jj~gul)Ja 35, 55 S3111"1:!irayil 35 .S:iJlI.JI:st'li1 [[ 36 sanskrit 4 S31111lk$epa 23

5 7 S<!i~11,g"l"3h'll;ta 38 .sQc:i;va 2,']

38 s<lUll"a :26, 6 I

sattrin 2']

sa:l]lrl,idhllitr 29 Sabhjjrii~~ra 20 s.amayana.p!karma 46 sam:!hartr 29;· 33 samlldra.sallllylll'la 23 S,fll'Il bhIGY!I samQlt.th~.na


san asvavihlll'3 4. 'i s,arI.'J.d,byak~a 30 sas;yn 53

sab:o\l~a 4,,5 S~llfIkhya (5.

Sll31i'l1l.; SilUbla. .20 S~.miir[, Siimiillf 20 :sllmedhik", 94- Siiv3n_l1 12

$iilila.s:1.I fP

siihrJisad ~I..wa ~4 si.,~h<ll:lil;a 3 r, 6+ sni ,5.8

snadhyak~;a 32 sur'lldhyak:!}a 23, 32 S1;.!\~:arI;lap;~~p[ 12 sUlvar~dhyiik~a, 3.1 sOla .¢

silti.bkiJi.pa. 64- s"iltrtldhya1i:$a 32 SUn3id hJ:a.k~ 23. ,32 setl;l 29'. S8

senl8!p~'lltj 11<:, 5+ Sa~f1dha.va. 20· saur,am 8i58 I']



1945<. No. I,


saurika ",8

s al,]Var:tl~ ka 3 r SaU\·jnl. I 0, ~O sh"Idhaml 38~ 39 s,lt'ha.]a I.l'~m:~ ~ \. an.ld:dlha


. sthilnika 33 .sthIlJl~ya 38



I i. !

S'P'" rsana 5 I ~nuta:siy3. 20 sVaJkar,ru;:lil 50, 6-'1- S\l',£l~JaMl'[lm~ ~.o :s;y,a5vlmisil:l1lbandhil .;1- "J' $v!m.un 34- H:ilFi,c:ancl:u:ll:l 20, has,tyadllyuk!;!:l32

H!:~i!lka 20 H~rahnr,a :20

hita 26

heman'til 15 Hai.milya :H) hrns1l8,pra vllsaJ ~.,l. Hra.diY~ 20


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I SSll e t: acer dI

Call No.~ 294. 7/K·on - 85·69

Title- Kau taly J. stu d.':e.s • 1st-earlY.)

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