“BUILDING A BRAND FROM SCRATCH” Brand Building Strategy for Beginners

Prof. Rutu Mody-Kamdar Assistant Professor in Marketing Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies (Deemed University)

FOREWORD Brand Management is an important topic in Marketing Management, both for academicians and more so for professional practitioners in live marketing. Branding adds great value to a product and is therefore an intrinsic aspect of a product strategy. All management institutes have realized the importance of this subject, and have introduced a separate course on Brand Management in their MBA (Marketing) syllabus. Ms. Rutu Mody-Kamdar, one of our youngest and energetic faculty members in the Marketing area, has been teaching this subject in her MBA classes. She has extensively studied the topic and her class students have appreciated the depth and devotion with which she has been teaching the course. Now she has put all her conceptual teaching material in the form of a booklet for all those who have interest in the subject of Brand Management. This booklet would be of special interest to students, faculty members and even marketing practitioners. I have great pleasure in releasing this book “ Building a Brand from Scratch: Brand Building Strategy for Beginners”, which is a treatise on Brand Management. She has covered various dimensions of the area like brand definition, brand positioning, brand associations, brand image and brand identity. NMIMS appreciates the efforts put in by her in producing this valuable publication and hopes that she will continue to do further research in this area in greater depth. I personally wish her all the best in her academic career with NMIMS.

Dr N. M. Kondap Vice Chancellor NMIMS Deemed University March 7, 2005

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INTRODUCTION Branding can be called both an art and a science. Branding is a science- A science that seeks to peek into the minds of consumers and create offerings that cater to their individual and aggregate needs, wants and desires. However, this extremely ‘soft’ area of branding, is difficult to identify and classify clearly. Consider the following: Brands are about consumers and their minds, their extremely volatile minds. None of us can claim to be a champion of the human mind as yet. There is indeed no computer on earth as yet that can claim to clone the processes of the mind and its volatile nature. The mind is still being understood. The only reality around in our lives is change. This all about change that is an amorphous process in the mind of the consumer. This change is seldom a continuous trend. It is as discontinuous as it can get. There is seldom anything predictive about the pattern of this change in the consumer mind and mood. It is as maverick as the consumer is! Branding, when studied from the perspective of the quantitative technique and parameters that are empirical and scientific, is a theory that is never really alive. Not as alive and kicking as the consumer is! Yet, let’s look around at our brand-centred establishments. Every corporate worth his corporate culture and coat is into the realm of the science more than the realm of the art. Much of the time, the hard area in branding dominates the soft. Look at branding as an art then. As a qualitative technique! As a soft-skill operating in a soft terrain. The soft terrain of the ever-changing human mind. A terrain that depends on the apt and adequate understanding of the human mind at that point of time. A skill that depends on the ability of the reader of the mind of the consumer. A skill that centres itself on the realm of consumer insight that is truly soft and real. Not hard and quantifiable, but soft and somewhere there. This soft-skill is, therefore, the essence of understanding the consumer and the brand. And this is precisely the skill that modern corporates have shunned for long. Consumer insight and the soft arena of reading it as precisely as possible is the only true blue cutting edge of branding; therein lies the advantage for corporations in future. The case is clear then. Branding is certainly much more of an art than a science. Get in there with your artistry. Get in there with your heart and everything soft about you in the understanding of the consumer. Excerpt from The Soft Art Behind The Hard Sell IndiatimesIndiatimes- Business of Management Harish Bijoor

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Chapter 8: Reviewing Brand Identity 9. Chapter 5: Articulating Brand Identity 6. Chapter 4: Brand Identity 5. Chapter 2: Gaining Customer Insights 3. Chapter 3: Brand Positioning 4. List of References 4 . Chapter 7: Extending Brand Identity 8. Chapter 1: Brands and Brand Building 2.TOPIC INDEX 1. Chapter 6: Executing Brand Identity 7. Conclusion 10.

logo. The word helps in identification. or a combination of them. where as blue and green packaging may connote cold. Colours are not really only colours. For example. figurative aspects like the name. what matters is a customer’s perception of a product or a brand”. sign. are only brand elements. which stand for something in a prospect’s mind. as brands were means by which owners of livestock would mark their animals to identify them. Red packaging connotes warm. term. at a deeper level.CHAPTER 1 BRANDS AND BRAND BUILDING Brand So. more symbolic meaning of a Lux soap. Therefore. and symbolizing the often intangible meanings of the brand. differs from the external physical world. The word ‘brand’ is derived from the word ‘brandr’ which means ‘to burn’. but moreover. sign or symbol. how does one define the oft-used word. cool. packaging and endorsers have only been used as an expression to the deeper. elements such as the name. term. Signifying. however. being simply. It carries a meaning behind it. Brands are symbols. calm. colours. People do not perceive the world as it is. Slender tall bottles are used to connote feminine qualities. it is creating a brand. colours etc. hot. logo and packaging are symbols that the marketer uses to communicate their intentions to the customers. Therefore. are only the signifiers. They are used to connote certain moods and values. symbols and images of young actresses to symbolize a far deeper image of beauty. These. the name. glamour and success. at times.Brand? Branding has really been around for centuries as a means of distinguishing the goods of one producer from the other. Lux beauty soap uses its brand name. or design. A word is a signifier that marketers employ to facilitate communication about brands. acts as a symbol. this definition of brands seems sound. Hence. This definition indicates that whenever a company launches a product and attaches a name. Symbols work by stimulating the cognitive process. intended to identify the goods and services of one seller or group of sellers and to differntiate them from those of competition”. only an expression of what the brand really stands for symbolically. logo. The consumer’s perceptual process is nothing but making sense of the symbols present around them. “The objective reality of a product matters little. Brands names are also only titles that are given to the brand. the intentions of the brand manager. Technically speaking. but it is limiting in many ways. The reality for an individual is perceived. Their internal mental image of the world. According to the American Marketing Association (AMA) a brand is defined as a name. 5 . symbol.

e. 1. the marketing Guru. Products versus Brands A product is a physical entity that lives in the real world. and many other stalwart brands. benefits. or related services that distinguish the product from competitors. drinks. or special airport lounges to augment themselves. The ‘complete man’ of Raymonds.g. They unite people. The following concept is explained using the example of airlines. It is important to effectively differentiate between a product and a brand.Another interesting perspective of brands is that brands are the ‘human face to the product-consumer relationship’. the basic need of transportation is being addressed by an airline 2.g. e. people expect an airline with an airhostess. All of us have carried living images of brands such as Raymonds. vivid memories that people carry in their minds. i. use. 4. Expected Product Level: is a set of attributes or characteristics that buyers normally expect and agree to when they purchase a product.g. 5. Surf. the airline may have special loyalty programs. the airline may introduce a special ‘home pick up’ facility for passengers in the future 6 . companies. Generic Product Level: is a basic version of the product containing only those attributes or characteristics absolutely necessary for it’s functioning but with no distinguishing feature. Potential Product Level: includes all of the augmentations and transformations that a product might ultimately undergo in the future. Kotler defines five levels to a product. inflight entertainment and service. consumers and stakeholders…brands form an emotional connect with people. e. and therefore are living. Augmented Product Level: includes additional product attributes. a product is anything that can be offered to a market for attention. They create and bring humanity to the organization. Brands are essentially about people. which are as follows. or the ‘exuberant girl running on the cricket field for Cadbury’s. Core Benefit Level: is the fundamental need or want that consumers satisfy by consuming the product or service. acquisition. e. According to Philip Kotler. hot food. and have redefined our relationship with these brands and the manner in which we use them. A brand is a perceptual entity that lives in the consumer’s mind.g. or the smart Lalitaji of Surf have all entered our lives. or consumption that might satisfy a need or want. the airline with a basic seating and pilot 3. e. Cadbury’s.e.g.

as in the case of Ad Gel Pens. because most companies can build satisfactory products at the expected product level. 7 . where an ordinary product like a pen is given a larger than life status. or it could be small. in accordance to the concept proposed by Kotler. brands emanate mainly at the ‘augmented product level’. but one that adds other dimensions that differentiate it in some way from other products designed to satisfy the same need. This augmentation could be either very large. let us revisit the meaning of branding: A brand is a product. Hence. as in the case of Mont Blanc pens. and there is no significant augmentation in the form of branding taking place. At this stage.Potential Product Augmented Product Expected Product Generic Product Core Benefit Kotler also points out here that competition between products essentially takes place at the product augmentation level. where each product tries to augment itself beyond its basic product offering. where the brand is not emphasised on much.

where ‘Iron shakti’ was identified as a major selling point. which was a functional benefit that the Iron ingredient provided. what distinguishes a brand from its unbranded commodity counterpart and gives it equity is the sum total of consumer’s perceptions and feelings about the product’s attributes and how they perform. Iron was the product feature around which the proposition was centered. the brand now talks about ‘intelligent child.Brand Organisational Associations Country of origin Product Emotional Benefits •Scope •Attributes •Uses •Quality • Self Expressive Benefits Brand Personality Brand customer relationships As shown in the diagram above. far superior than peers’ which is an Emotional benefit which appeals to the hearts and minds of all mothers who want to see their child 8 . emotional and intangible (further away from the core product). about the brand name and what it stands for. and about the company associated with the brand. The differences that are identified at the time of augmentation could be rational and tangible (closer to the core product). At this stage. One marketing observer puts it this way: More specifically. when it was first launched in India. or could be symbolic. Over time. This depth signifies the extent of augmentation that can be applied. Brands are also known to move from Product Feature propositions to Functional Benefit propositions to Emotional Benefit propositions. Hence a brand such as Kellogg’s. the dotted line expressing the depth of branding that can be applied to the core product. Kellogg’s moved on to talking about ‘improved memory’ for the child. centered its proposition around ‘Iron’ as a product feature. Over time.

excel. b. While progressing through these stages. it is imperative to keep these basic questions in mind: a. d. c. What attributes are embodied in the product or service? What advantages does it incorporate? What benefits does it provide? What obsessions does it represent? 9 .

from an economic perspective. consumers learn about brands. energy in building their brands? This question can be answered mainly from two perspectives. brands allow consumers to lower search costs for products both internally (in terms of how much they have to think) and externally (in terms of how much 10 . Housewives who are used to particular brands of household products.Why Brand? An obvious question here is that why are brands important? Should companies really invest that much of time. bond Symbolic device Signal of quality Means of legally protecting unique features Signal of quality level to satisfied customers Means of endowing products with unique associations Source of competitive advantage Source of financial advantage An obvious question is. As a result. would comfortably buy the same brand month after month. They find out which brands satisfy their needs and which ones do not. If consumers recognize a brand and have some knowledge about it. brands provide a shorthand device or means of simplification for their product decisions. Consumers Brands identify the source or maker of a product and allow consumers to assign responsibility to a particular manufacturer or distributor.e. brands take on special meaning to consumers. without bothering to change their brands. Thus. i. Most important. then they do not have to engage in a lot of additional thought or processing of information to make a product decision. Why are brands important? What functions do they perform that make them so valuable to marketers? One can take a couple of perspectives to uncover the value of brands to both consumers and firms themselves. the Consumers and the Manufacturers Consumers Manufacturer Means of identification Identification of source or product Assignment of responsibility to product maker Risk reducer Search cost reducer Promise. Because of past experiences with the product and its marketing program over the years. money.

The formation and maintenance of brand – product relationships serve many culturally – supported roles within postmodern society. Consuming such products is a means by which consumers can communicate to others – or even to themselves – the type of person they are or would like to be.. religious. and distribution programs and actions. and actual product trial and experience is necessary (e. and credence goods.g. the sturdiness. Based on what they already know about the brand – its quality. The relationship between a brand and the consumer can be seen as a type of bond or pact. colour.” Brands can also play a significant role in signalling certain product characteristics to consumers. experience goods. if I were to evaluate and buy a car for the first time. and so forth – consumers can make assumptions and form reasonable expectations about what they may not know about the brand. insurance coverage). With credence goods. Consumers may perceive many different types of risks in buying and consuming a product. product attributes may be rarely learned (e.g. and ingredient composition of a product). size. for many people. Because of the difficulty in assessing and interpreting product attributes and benefits with experience and credence goods may be particularly important signals of quality and other characteristics to consumers for these types of products. service quality.. 11 . Researchers have classified products and their associated attributes or benefits into three major categories: search goods. allowing consumers to project their self – image. Pulitzer prize winning author Daniel Boorstein asserts that. As Harvard’s Susan Fournier notes: Relationships with mass (market) brands can soothe the “empty selves left behind by society’s abandonment of tradition and community and provide stable anchors in an otherwise changing world. and case of handling or use). and service organizations used to serve – to help people define who they are and then help people communicate that definition to others. product attributes – potentially equally important – cannot be assessed so easily by inspection. Brands can reduce the risks in product decisions. brands serve the function that fraternal. With experience goods. Certain brands are associated with being used by certain types of people and thus reflect different values or traits. product attributes can be evaluated by visual inspection (e. Consumers offer their trust and loyalty with the implicit understanding that the brand will behave in certain ways and provide them utility through consistent product performance and appropriate pricing. weight. “With search goods. safety. product characteristics.they have to look around). For example. they are likely to continue to buy it.. To the extent that consumers realize advantages and benefits from purchasing the brand. These benefits may not be purely functional in nature. Brands can serve as symbolic devices. as with durability. The meaning imbued in brands can be quite profound. style.g. promotion. and as long as they derive satisfaction from product consumption.

lasting impressions in the minds of individuals and organizations from years of marketing activity and product experience may not be so easily reproduced. being bought and sold. This brand loyalty provides predictability and security of demand for the firm and creates barriers of entry that make it difficult for other firms to enter the market. and will aid my final decision. knowing that Maruti is a good. trusted and well established brand. Firms Brands also provide a number of valuable functions to firms. will help me in eliminating the amount of risks perceived. For 12 . Thus. These intellectual property rights ensure that the firm can invest in the brand and reap the benefits of a valuable asset. A brand can retain intellectual property rights. Brands can signal a certain level of quality so that satisfied buyers can easily choose the product again. they serve an identification purpose to simplify product handling or tracing for the firm. In this sense. Thus. giving legal title to the brand owner. especially those brands with which consumers have had favourable past experiences. A brand also offers the firm legal protection for unique features or aspects of the product. branding can be seen as a powerful means of securing a competitive advantage. capable of influencing consumer behavior. Operationally. In short. (The car breaks down often and gives me problem in performance) Physical risk: The product poses a threat to the physical well – being or health of the user or others (The car may increase my risk of having mishaps and accidents on the road) Financial risk: The product is not worth the price paid (The other brand of car was better value for money) Social risk: The product results in embarrassment from others (The car does not live up to my social standards) Psychological risk: The product affects the mental well –being of the user (The car is constantly keeping me worried of added fuel expenditure) Time risk: The failure of the product results in an opportunity cost of finding another satisfactory product (I am wasting too much of my time in deciding which car to buy) Although there are a number of different means by which consumers handle these risks. and providing the security of sustained future revenues to their owner. As noted earlier. brands represent enormously valuable pieces of legal property. certainly one way in which consumers cope to buy well –known brands. to firms. Although manufacturing processes and product designs may be easily duplicated.Functional risk: The product does not perform up to expectations. and packaging can be protected through copyrights and designs. The brand name can be protected through patents. brands can be a very important risk – handling devices. these investments in the brand can endow a product with unique associations and meanings that differentiate it from other products. brands help to organize inventory and accounting records. Fundamentally.

For a typical fast – moving –consumer-goods (FMCG) company.these reasons. Thus. Brand Building Strategy.net tangible assets may be made up by brands. large earning multiples have been paid for brands in mergers or acquisitions. the vast majority of its corporate value is made up by intangible assets and good will. The price premium paid for companies is often clearly justified on the basis of assumptions regarding the extra profits that could be extracted and sustained from their brands. much of the recent interest in brands from senior management has been a result of these bottom line financial considerations.An Overview Consumer Insights Brand Positioning Defining the Frame of Reference Brand Identity Deriving the Core Brand Values Articulating Brand Identity Expressing through Brand Elements Executing Brand Identity Expressing through Brand Marketing Programs Extending Brand Identity Creating Brand Extensions Reviewing Brand Identity Evaluating Brand Equity 13 . as well as the tremendous difficulty and expense of creating similar brands from scratch.

CHAPTER 2 GAINING CUSTOMER INSIGHTS Consumer Insights Brand Positioning Defining the Frame of Reference Brand Identity Deriving the Core Brand Values Articulating Brand Identity Expressing through Brand Executing Brand Identity Expressing through Brand Marketing Programs Extending Brand Identity Creating Brand Extensions Reviewing Brand Identity Evaluating Brand Equity Consumer Insights The first stage in the brand building strategy is to first understand customer insights. when you are confronted with the word. It refers to how to store the meanings of verbal material in the long-term memory. consider the diagram below: 14 . Semantic memory works in the form of networks. hamara bajaj. and the connections represent the relationship between them. Nodes represent the semantic concepts. For example. The network has nodes and links or connections. motorcycles. Semantic memory is one important aspect of consumer knowledge. value for money. So. Indian etc. immediately a universe of associations spring to the mind.key concepts being scooter. A brand lives in the customer’s mind in the form of a universe of associations. ‘Bajaj’.

The essential questions surrounding the concept of choice are why and how a brand is chosen while others are rejected. a good product needs to be supported by the right knowledge structure. For a powerful brand. For example. a node with a strong connection got attached to the hub-Limca. Customers discriminate against other brands in the category because of the ‘created’ network of associations. use experience. visuals from the advertisement. These associations make consumers dislike the brand. the brand suffers in the marketplace. Limca was seen to be containing a harmful chemical used as an agent. certain bad associations were inextricably linked to the product. It is also known that strong brands are generally preferred in the marketplace. product category. Development of a correct associative network is at the heart of any brand building exercise. Their success lies in their ability to be chosen above other brands. when the BVO controversy erupted. Which is why a Coke. Consider the diagram below: 15 . people associated. The result. the car did not perform well functionally. When something undesirable gets connected with the network by way of a new node. Customers ask for these brands rather than others. For example. when Tata Indica was first launched in the market. Due to this. Gillette etc are strong preferred brands in the marketplace. Create Network Structure Hence the key to making a strong powerful brand is to create a solid and appealing associative network structure for the brand. feelings generated etc. Nike. A variety of information is generally stored in an associative network of this kind. the brand name. Levis. and the sales suffered until the company decided to launch a new version of the vehicle. The customer’s choice is really an exercise in elimination.SOAP FRESH LIME LIRIL WATERFALL BATHING All brands are stored in a similar form in a consumers mind. So was the case with Limca.

Once the problem is recognised by a consumer. For example.Decision Making Process All Brands Known Brands Unknown Brands Acceptable Brands Unacceptable Brands Indifferent Brands Overlooked Brands Purchased Brand Not Purchased Brands A pioneering framework illustrating the decision making process suggests that the consumer moves through the four stages of 1) Problem Recognition 2) Search and Evaluation 3) Purchasing Process and 4) Post Purchase Behaviour. brands that are known move into a consumer’s consideration set. certain brands are unacceptable. and certain brands short-listed for purchase. As shown in the diagram above. At this stage. Out of these. certain brands are acceptable. he may face the following situation: 16 . he or she starts searching and evaluating brands. certain brands are eliminated from the list. when a consumer wants to buy a watch. some are ignored and some of the brands may have been overlooked.

step in building brand equity. Rolex Overlooked Brands: Citizen. Rolex. In particular. HMT Ignored Brands: Tag Heuer. the marketer loses the opportunity to succeed. such as the image of the brand. Timex. brand associations are the other informational nodes linked to the brand node in memory and contain the meaning of the brand for consumers. Omega. HMT. Timex Unacceptable Brands: Maxima. Casio. Brand awareness is a necessary. to be considered for purchase. Maxima. Omega. is an insightful way to represent how brand knowledge exists in consumer memory. often come into play. Known Brands: Titan. Consistent with the associative network memory model. because it creates the differential effect that drives brand equity. at the stage of ‘Search and Evaluation’ the brand must hit the consumer with the right kind of knowledge structure or associative network memory model. Associations 17 . The power of the brand lies in what customers have learned. Rolex. Brand knowledge is the key to creating brand equity. and so on become linked to the brand. Brand image can be defined as perceptions about a brand as reflected by the brand associations held in consumer memory. perceptions. The challenge for marketers in building a strong brand is ensuring that customers have the right type of experiences with products and services and their accompanying marketing programs so that the desired thoughts. as reflected by consumers’ ability to identify the brand under different conditions. then. Tag Heuer etc. Seiko. Lancer. Lancer Considered Brands: Titan. feelings. Casio. felt. brand knowledge can be characterized in terms of two components: brand awareness and brand image. HMT. Seiko.Total Brands: Titan. the power of a brand lies in what resides in the minds of customers. Other considerations. brand knowledge is conceptualised here as consisting of a brand node in memory with a variety of associations linked to it. beliefs. If the brand fails to get into the consideration set. What marketers need. In other words. and heard about the brand as a result of their experiences over time. but not always sufficient. In other words. Hence. Brand awareness is related to the strength of the brand node or trace in memory. Patek Phillipe. Seiko. Tag Heuer Unknown Brands: Patek Phillipe. Maxima. Timex. Citizen. thereafter in the ‘acceptable’ set and thereafter in the ‘purchased’ category. images. seen. opinions. Citizen. Casio Purchased Brand: Titan Not Purchased Brand: Timex The implication for a brand manager is that marketing efforts must focus on placing the brand in the ‘known’ set.

” McDonald’s rich brand image probably also includes strong associations to “Ronald McDonald. In most other cases. Brand recognition relates to consumers’ ability to conform prior exposure to 18 . consumers must be convinced that there are meaningful differences among brands in the product or service category. Thus. If the brand has some salient. Other brands of course. unique associations. then consumer response should differ. and unique brand associations. For example. For branding strategies to be successful and brand equity to be created.” “service.” Coca Cola’s marketing program strives to link brand associations in consumers’ minds to refreshment. For example. “ “taste. what might you say? You might reply with associations such as “butter”.” and “accessibility. “taste of India” and so forth. “ as well as perhaps potentially negative associations such as “fast food.in terms of strong. the strength. Amul has been able to achieve a rich brand image made up of a host of brand associations in the minds of at least some consumers.” “availability. favourability.produces the knowledge structures necessary for building a strong brand. unique and favourable associations in his memory.come in all forms and may reflect characteristics of the product or aspects independent of the product itself. Through skillful marketing. Brand Awareness Brand awareness consists of brand recognition and brand recall performance. “ “cleanliness.” and “convenient. McDonald’s marketing program attempts to create brand associations in consumers’ minds to “quality. will be characterized by a different set of associations. The key to branding is that consumers must not think that all brands in the category are the same. If the brand is perceived by consumers to be the same as a representative version of the product or service in the category. in low involvement decision settings where consumers are willing to base their choices merely on familiar brands. On some cases.” “golden arches. Different consumers might think of different associations for Amul. then consumers response to marketing for the brand would not be expressed to vary from when the marketing is attributed to a fictitiously named or unnamed product or service. favourable. consider the brand Amul. Your brand image for Amul can be made up by the associations that came to your mind.” Whereas Mercedes – Benz has achieved strong associations to “performance” and “status. establishing a high level of brand awareness and a positive brand image in consumer memory. “milk products”. for example. and uniqueness of the brand associations play a critical role in determining the differential response making up the brand equity. To build a strong brand.” and “value. however. brand awareness alone is sufficient to result in more favourable consumer response. If someone asked you what came to mind when you thought of Amul.” “affordability. the customer needs to hold strong.” “for kids.

character. For this reason. or wherever. and outdoor advertising. it is probably more important that the consumer be able to actually recall the brand from memory. symbol. brand recognition requires that consumers can correctly discriminate the brand as having been previously seen or heard. Consumers must actively seek the brand and therefore be able to retrieve it from memory when appropriate.the brand when given the brand as a cue. when consumers go to the store. the more a consumer “experiences” the brand by seeing it. In particular. it is often desirable to develop a slogan or jingle that creatively pairs the brand and the appropriate category or purchase or consumption cues (and. increasing the familiarity with the brand through repeated exposure creates brand awareness.. Thus. In other words. although this is generally more effective for brand recognition than for brand recall. packaging. or slogan can potentially increase familiarity and awareness of that brand element. Outside the store or in any situation where the brand is not present on the other hand. it is generally easier to recognize a brand in a store than it is to recall it from mere memory. brand recall is critical for service and online brands. anything that causes consumers to experience a brand name. hearing it.related decisions with the brand present or not. As is the case with most information in memory. Britannia uses the Britannia logo and its distinctive music to enhance its awareness in multiple ways). The relative importance of brand recall and recognition will depend on the extent to which consumers make product. in 19 . ideally the brand positioning as well. In other words. For example. improving recall of the brand requires linkages in memory to appropriate product categories or other situational purchase or consumption cues. it is important to visually and verbally reinforce the brand name with a full complement of brand elements (e. Although brand repetition increases the strength of the brand and thus its recognizability. For example. For example. publicity and public relations. the needs fulfilled by the category. or a purchase or usage situation as a cue. sponsorship and event marketing.g. at home (when making a consumption choice). brand recognition may be more important (and easy) because the brand will actually be physically present. to build awareness. Examples include a wide range of communication options such as advertising and promotion. either at the store (when making a purchase). Establishing Brand Awareness How do you create brand awareness? In the abstract. recall of Kellogg’s Corn Flakes will depend on consumers’ ability to retrieve the brand when they think of the cereal category or of what they should eat for breakfast or eat for breakfast or snack. or thinking about it. brand recall requires that consumers correctly generate the brand from memory when given a relevant cue. That is. is it the case that they will be able to recognize the brands as one to which they have already been exposed? Brand recall relates to consumers’ ability to retrieve the brand from memory when given the product category. logo. Moreover. in addition to its name. if product decisions are made in the store. the more likely it is that the brand will become strongly registered in memory.

symbols.g.g. it is more important to emphasize category links in the brand to the proper category or other relevant cues may become especially important over time of the product meaning of the brand changes (e. with an advertising slogan) will be influential in determining the strength of the product category links. its name or logo) or from the identification of the brand with a company. Two factors facilitating the strength of association to any piece of information are the personal relevance of the information and the consistency with which this information is presented over time. The particular associations that are recalled and salient will depend not only on the strength 20 . and unique associations to the brand in memory. brand awareness is created by increasing the familiarity of the brand through repeated exposure (for brand recognition) and strong associations with the appropriate product category or other relevant purchase or consumption cues (for brand recall).controlled sources of information. in competitive markets or when the brand is new to the category. eg. characters. of processing that information receives as well as the nature. Brand Image A positive brand image is created by marketing programs that link strong. the distinction between brand recognition and recall may not matter much. the stronger the resulting brand associations. favourable. country. Strength of Brand Associations Making sure that associations are linked sufficiently strongly to the brand will depend on how the marketing program and other factors affect consumers’ brand experiences. Strength is a function of both the amount. The more deeply a person thinks about product information and relates it to existing brand knowledge.g. brand associations can also be created in a variety of other ways: by direct experience.g. Consumer Reports or other media vehicles) and word of mouth. and by assumptions or inferences from the brand itself (e... Associations will vary in the strength of their connection to the brand node. or event. Hyundai Getz cars). of that processing..terms of building a positive brand image). For brands with strong category associations (e. through brand extensions or mergers or acquisitions). The manner by which the brand and its corresponding product category are paired (e. channel or distribution.g.. In short-. or some particular person. Besides marketer. place.consumers thinking of the category are likely to think of the brands.. from information communicated about the brand from the firm or other commercial or nonpartisan sources (e.Cadbury’s Chocolates). For brands that may not have the same level of initial category awareness (e.g.logos. or quality. or quantity. Additional use can be made of the other brand elements. Marketers should recognize the influence of these other sources of information by both managing them as well as possible and adequately accounting for them in designing communication strategies. and packaging.

Uniqueness of Brand Associations Brand associations may or may not be shared with other competing brands.product. and (3) how believable consumers find the brand association? Creating a favourable association also requires that the firm be able to deliver on the desired association. colourful. such that the brand is seen as highly convenient. Furthermore. (2) how distinctive consumers find the brand association. it will most 21 .. such as user type or usage situation. and ensuring that many retrieval cues are present as reminders. what would be the cost or investment necessary and the length of time involved to create or change the desired association(s)? Deliverability also depends on three factors: (1) the actual or potential ability of the product to perform. unless the brand faces no competitions. reliable. In fact. Marketing communications programs attempt to create strong brand associations and recalled communication effects through a variety of means.. exposing consumers to communications repeatedly over time. In terms of desirability.related attributes or benefits.g. Yet. or may be highlighted implicitly without stating a competitive point of reference. but also on the context in which the brand is considered and the retrieval cues that are present that can serve as reminders.related information and relate it appropriately to existing knowledge. In terms of deliverability.related or non. and so on). Favourability of Brand Associations Choosing which favourable and unique associations to link to the brand requires careful analysis of the consumer and competition to determine the optimal positioning for the brand. The existence of strongly held. Favourable associations for a brand are those associations that are desirable to consumers and are successfully delivered by the product and conveyed by the supporting marketing program for the brand (e. The essence of brand positioning is that the brand has a sustainable competitive advantage or “unique selling proposition” that gives consumers a compelling reason why they should buy that particular brand. in many categories. These differences may be communicated explicitly by making direct comparisons with competitors. efficient. the rugged western image of Marlboro cigarettes or the rebellious nature of Axe deodorants). effective.g. (2) the current or future prospects of communicating that performance. the main question is. favourably evaluated associations that are unique to the brand and imply superiority over other brands is critical to a brand’s success. nonproduct related attributes. they may be based on product. might more easily create unique associations (e.of association. how important or valued is the image association to the brand attitudes and decisions made by consumers? Desirability depends on three factors: (1) how relevant consumers find the brand association. such as using creative communications that cause consumers to elaborate on brand. and (3) the sustainability of the actual and communicated performance over time.

however. A maker of educational CD. For example. Thus.g. some category associations may also become linked to the brand. Product category attitudes can be a particularly important determinant of consumer response. although a railroad may not compete directly with another railroad. more favourable brand evaluations and a greater likelihood of choice should then result. Because the brand is linked to the product category. Those beliefs might include many of the relevant product. videos. That is. these associations are designed to provide “no reason why not” for consumers to choose the brand. and thus does not share product-related attributes with other brands. Thus. cars. For some brand associations. Note that the strength of the brand associations to the product category is an important determinant of brand awareness. it still competes indirectly with other forms of transportation. either in terms of specific beliefs or overall attitudes. Thus. it can still share more abstract associations and face indirect competition in a more broadly defined product category. the colour of a product. it is important to associate unique.for example. so that they function as points of parity in consumers’ minds to negate potential points of difference for competitors. if a consumer thinks that all brokerage houses are basically greedy and that brokers are in it for themselves. 22 . and trains. consumers only need to view them at least as favourably as competitors. Shared associations can help to establish category membership and define the scope of competition with other products and services. then he or she probably will have similarly unfavourable beliefs about and negative attitude toward any particular brokerage house simply by virtue of its membership in the category.ROM products may be implicitly competing with all other forms of education and entertainment. television. banks. as well as overall attitudes toward all members in the category. and magazines. meaningful points of difference to the brand to provide a competitive advantage and “reason why “ consumers should buy it. Research on non-comparable alternatives suggests that even if a brand does not face direct competition in its product category. furniture. Assuming that other brand associations are evident as points of difference. such as red for ketchup). some product category associations that are linked to the brand will also be shared with other brands in the category. such as books. it may be sufficient that some brand associations are seen as roughly equal in favourability with competing brand associations. such as airlines. For these reasons. bowling. and buses. In other words. carpets. branding principles are now being used to market a number of different categories as a whole. as well as more descriptive attributes that do not necessarily relate to product or service performance (e.. to name just a few. A product or service category can also be characterized by a set of associations that includes specific beliefs about any member in the category.likely share some associations with other brands. in almost all cases.related attributes for brands in the category.

23 . nor will they equally valued across different purchase or consumption situations. The evaluations of brand associations may be situation. not all brand associations will be relevant and valued in a purchase or consumption decision.Neither all brand associations will be deemed important and viewed favourably by consumers.or context.dependent and vary according to the particular goals that consumers have in that purchase or consumption decision. Moreover. An association may be valued in one situation but not another.

how it is unique and how it is similar to competitive brands. and leads to the development of a sharper brand identity. as the name implies. it follows directly from the powerful consumer insights derived. Hence. and why consumers should purchase and use the brand. A good brand positioning helps to guide marketing strategy by clarifying what a brand is all about. which ultimately lodges in the consumer’s mind. “ Thus. involves finding the proper “location” in the minds of a group of consumers or market segment so that they think about a product or service in the “right” or desired way.CHAPTER 3 BRAND POSITIONING Consumer Insights Brand Positioning Defining the Frame of Reference Brand Identity Deriving the Core Brand Values Articulating Brand Identity Expressing through Brand Executing Brand Identity Expressing through Brand Marketing Programs Extending Brand Identity Creating Brand Extensions Reviewing Brand Identity Evaluating Brand Equity Brand Positioning Brand positioning is at the heart of marketing strategy. Positioning is all about identifying the optimal location of a brand and its competitors in the minds of consumers to maximize potential benefit to the firm. or space that the brand occupies. 24 . Positioning is more akin to a ‘frame of reference’ that we are creating for the brand. It is a platform. positioning. Kotler defines brand positioning as the ”act of designing the company’s offer and image so that it occupies a distinct and valued place in the target customer’s minds.

can be offset by the greater costs from a lack of standardization. Competitive analysis considers a whole host of factors – including the resources. Other issues can be raised. 25 . In other words. the greater the likelihood that the firm will be able to implement market programs that meet the needs of consumers in any one segment. the nature of competition may depend on the channels of distribution chosen. income for. however. favourably and uniquely. at least implicitly. in defining the nature of competition and deciding which products and brands are most likely to be seen as close substitutes. and a access to a product. and opportunity to buy a product. Market segmentation involves dividing the market into distinct groups of homogenous consumers who have similar needs and consumer behavior and thus require similar marketing mixes. (1) Target Market Identifying the target consumer market is important because different consumers may have different brand knowledge structures and thus different perceptions and preferences for the brand. Defining a market segmentation plan involves tradeoffs between costs and benefits.Deciding on a positioning requires determining that frame of reference by identifying the target market. deciding to target a certain type of consumer often. In other words. (2) who the main competitors are. defines the nature of competition because certain firms have also decided to target that segment in the past (or plan to do so in the future) or because consumers in that segment already may look to certain brands in their purchase decisions. (2) Nature of Competition It is difficult to disentangle target market decisions from decisions concerning the nature of competition for the brand because they are often so closely related. it may be difficult to be able to state which brand associations should be strongly held. a market consists of all consumers with sufficient motivation. For example. A number of considerations are important in defining and segmenting a market and choosing target market segments. A market is a set of all actual and potential buyers who have sufficient interest in. it is necessary to decide (1) who the target consumer is. and ideal points-ofdifference and the ideal points-of-parity in their brand associations. the nature of competition. The advantage of a more positive consumer response from a customized marketing program. ability. (3) how the brand is different from these competitors and (4) how the brands is similar to these competitors. In other words. The more finely segmented the market is. Without this understanding. however.

and unique associations is a real challenge to marketers. ads singlemindedly hammered the key consumer benefit. favorable.related considerations. Thus. (3) Points-of-Difference Associations Points of Difference (PODs) should be strong..e. The concept of PODs has much in common with several other well – known market concepts. Creating strong. For example. PODs are attributes or benefits that consumers strongly associate with a brand. and unique brand associations for the brand. USP emphasized what was said in an ad as opposed to how it was said. the ad created or executed). the emphasis in designing ads was placed on communicating a distinctive. All that ultimately matters for an attribute or benefit association to become a point of difference is that it becomes a strong. Often competition may occur at the benefit level rather than the attribute level. performance. and unique association in the minds of consumers.. the ad message or claims) and not on the ad-creative benefit (i. The original idea behind USP was that advertising should give consumers a compelling reason to buy a product that competitors could not match. but essential in terms of competitive brand positioning. and likely intentions of various other firms – to choose markets where consumers can be profitably serviced One lesson stressed by many marketing strategists is not to be narrow in defining competition.. That is. Although a myriad of different types of brand associations are possible candidates to become points of difference. imagery. brand associations can be broadly classified in terms of either functional. favorable. Points of Parity and Points of Difference Once the appropriate competitive frame of reference for positioning has been fixed by defining the customer target market and nature of competition. Consumers’ actual brand choices often depend on the perceived uniqueness of brand associations.g. positively evaluate. As a result. In other words. it is similar to the notion of unique selling proposition (USP).e.related considerations or abstract. the basis of the positioning itself can be defined. a concept pioneered by Rosser Reeves and the Ted Bates advertising agency in the 1950s. unique product benefit (i. They may be based on virtually any type of attribute or benefit association.capabilities. Points of difference may involve 26 .g.. Arriving at the proper positioning requires establishing the correct points-of-difference and points-of-parity associations. favourable. a luxury good with a strong hedonic benefit (e. furniture). segment D car) may compete as much with a vacation as with other durable goods (e. With this approach. and believe that they could not find to the same extent with a competitive brand.

if in the eyes of consumers. and so forth.of. The implications of this realization for the introductory marketing program for an extension are clear. and unique as part of its point of difference. the brand association designed to be the competitor’s point of difference (e. they represent necessary – but not necessarily sufficient. provided safety deposit boxes.. a host of different types of PODs are possible. the fact that Whirlpool refrigerators announce their fast cooling features). Where consumers often need reassurance. on the other hand..” whereas a positioning strategy adopted by a number of other firms is to create a point of difference for their brands as the “low. In other words. In short. the western imagery of Marlboro cigarettes). Competitive points-of-parity associations are those associations designed to negate competitors’ points of difference..performance attributes (e. then the target brand should be in a superior competitive position. Category points of parity are those associations that consumers view as being necessary to be a legitimate and credible offering within a certain product or service category. is whether the extension also has the necessary points of parity. Many top brands attempt to create a point of difference on ”overall superior qaulity. These types of associations come in two basic forms: category and competitive . These attribute associations are minimally at the generic product level and most likely at the expected product level. a product benefit of some type ) is as strongly held for the target brand as for comeptitor’s brands and the target brand is able to establish another association as strong.conditions for brand choice. In other words. consumers might not consider a bank truly a “bank “ unless it offered a range of checking and savings plans.g. and other such services. if a brand 27 . Category POPs may change over time because of technological advances. but the attributes and benefits that function as category POPs can be seen as the “green fees” to play the marketing game. travelers checks. the fact that Britannia singles cheese has 1 glass of milk) or performance benefits (e.g. consumers might have a clear understanding of the extension’s intended point of difference by virtue of its use of an existing brand name. In other cases. the more important is to make sure that category POPs are sufficiently well established .cost provider” of a prodcut or service. had convenient hours and automated teller machines. are those associations that are not necessarily unique to the brand but may in fact be shared with other brands. however.. (4) Points. and what should often be the focus of the marketing program. favorable.g. Note that category POPs become especially critical when a brand launches a brand extension into a new category. and changes in customer needs. In fact.g. Points of parity (POPs). In many cases. Thus. the more dissimilar the extension category. Thus. legal developments. PODs involve imagery associations (e.Parity Associations.

can “break even” in those areas where their competitors are trying to find an advantage and can achieve advantages in some other areas. the key to positioning is not so much in acheieving a point of difference as in achieving necessary of competitive points of parity. Yellow Food Heart Attack SUNDROP Healthy SAFFOLA Little KidCartwheels Refined Oil Fitness Positioning Guidelines The concepts of points of difference and points of parity can be inavluable tools to guide positioning. Often.and perhaps unbeatable – competitive position. Assuming consumers feel that way. but consumers must feel that the brand does sufficiently well on that particular attribute or benefit so that they do not do not consider it to be a negative or a problem. A number of considerations come into play in conducting positioning analysis and deciding on the desired PODs and POPs and the resulting brand image. Points of Parity versus Points of Difference To achive a point of parity on a particular attribute or benefit. a sufficient number of consumers must believe that a brand is “good enough” on that dimension . where the brand must demonstrate clear superiority. Two key issues in arriving at the optimal competitive brand positioning are (1) defining and communicating the 28 . Points of parity are thus easier to achieve than points of difference. they may often be willing to base their evaluations and decisions on other factors. There is a “zone” or “range of tolerance or acceptance” with POPs. It does not have to be the case that the brand is literally seen as equal to competitors. the brand should be in a strong .

Perhaps the most obvious situation is the introduction of new products. benefits are frequently used to announce category membership. however. For highly established products and services. consumers need to know what a product is and what function it serves prior to assessing whether it dominates the brands against which it competes. separate marketing programs are generally needed to inform consumers of membership and to educate them about a brand’s point of difference. and relying on the product descriptor. Target customers are aware that Coca-Cola is a leading brand of soft-drink. This approach is a variable way to highlight a brand’s point of difference from competitor’s. The preferred approach to positioning is to inform consumers of a brand’s membership before stating its point difference in relation to other category members. Brands are sometimes affiliated with categories in which they do not hold membership rather than with the one in which they do. in which it is important to inform consumers of a brand’s category membership. For new products. this implies the development of a marketing strategy that establishes category membership prior to one that states a point of difference.tech products. and analgesics might announce their efficacy in reducing pain. that Kellogg’s Corn Flakes is a leading brand of cereal. industrial motors might claim to have power. Thus. Choosing to compete in different categories often results in different competitive frames of reference and thus different POPs and PODs. There are many situations. For brands with limited resources. category membership is not a focal issue. Efforts to inform consumers of membership and points of difference in the same ad. To reassure consumers that a brand will deliver on the fundamental reason for using a category. are often not effective. comparing to exemplars.competitive frame of reference and (2) choosing and establishing points of parity and points of difference. Communicating category membership informs the consumer about the goals that they might achieve by using a product or service. Defining and Communicating the Competitive Frame of Reference A starting point in defining a competitive frame of reference for a brand positioning is to detrmine category memebrship. 1.Membership indicates the products or sets of products with which a brand competes. where the category membership is not always apparent. There are three main ways to convey brand’s category membership: communicating category benefits. however. This uncertainty can be especially true for high. Presumably. These benefits are presented in a manner that does not imply brand superiority but merely notes 29 . provided that consumers know the brand’s actual membership. Brands with greater resources can develop concurrent marketing programs in which one features membership and the other the point of difference.

Head and Shoulders met success in Europe with a dual campaign in which one ad emphasized its dandruff removal efficacy 30 . To provide supporting rationale so that consumers believe that a brand has the benefits that imply membership in a category. however. performance and imagery associations can be used. each one devoted to a different brand attribute or benefit. On the other hand. favorable. is that many of the attributes or benefits that make up the POPs or PODs are negatively correlated.that the brand possesses these properties as a means to establish category POPs.lived brand that is seen as having a great deal of heritage. broadly. Heritage could be seen as a positive attribute because it can suggest experience. the POD has the potential to become a strong. the two most important considerations are that consumers find the POD desirable and believe that the firm has the capabilities to deliver on it. and unique brand association. if consumers mentally rate the brand highly on one particular attribute or benefit. wisdom. it might be difficult to position a brand as “inexpensive” and at the same time assert that it is “of the highest quality. competitive brand positioning requires establishing the right points of parity and points of difference. Unfortunately. For example. Separate the Attributes An expensive but sometimes effective approach is to launch two different marketing campaigns. the ability of BMW to establish their straddle-positioning image of “luxury and performance” was due in large part to product design and the fact that the car was considered both luxurious and high – performance. In terms of choosing points of difference. For example. they also rate it poorly on another important attribute.” Moreover. The best approach clearly is to develop a product or service that performs well on both dimensions. The challenge is that competitors often are trying to achieve their point of difference on an attribute that is negatively correlated with the point of difference of the target brand. Establishing Points of Parity and Points of Difference Creating a strong. 3. Choosing Points of Parity and Points of Difference Points of parity are driven by the needs of category membership (to create category POPs) and the necessity of negating competitors’ PODs (to create competitive POPs). Thus. These campaigns may either run concurrently or sequentially. The difficulty in doing so. That is. it could also be easily seen as a negative attribute because it might imply being old – fashioned and not contemporary and cutting – edge. individual attributes and benefits often have positive and negative aspects. For example. 2. and expertise. An Ready to Eat packaged food brand might attain membership in the Ready to Eat category by claiming the benefit of great taste and might support this benefit claim by possessing high – quality ingredients (performance) or by showing users delighting in its consumption (imagery). consider a long . consumers typically desire to maximize both of the negatively correlated attributes and benefits. If both of these considerations are satisfied.

This redefinition can be accomplished by providing consumers a different perspective and suggesting that they may be overlooking or ignoring certain factors or other considerations. Moreover. The first is how to deepen the meaning of the brand to tap into core brand values or other. The hope is that consumers will be less critical when judging the POP and POD benefits in isolation because the negative correlation must be less apparent. by not addressing the negative correlation head – on. The second is how to respond to competitive challenges that threaten an existing positioning (reacting). Leverage Equity of Another Entity The brand can “borrow” or leverage the equity of well – known and well – liked celebrities to lend credibility to one of the negatively correlated benefits. Brands can potentially link themselves to any kind of entity that possesses the right kind of equity – a person. it may be necessary to deepen the meanings associated with the brand. Borrowing equity. Upgrading Positioning over Time The previous section described some positioning guidelines that are especially useful for launching a new brand. other brands. With established brands. The downside to such an approach is that two strong campaigns have to be developed – not just one. 4. competitive forces often dictate shifts in positioning strategy over time. Laddering Although identifying PODs to dominate competition on benefits that are important to consumers provides a sound way to build an initial position. another potentially powerful but oftendifficult way to address the negative relationship between attributes and benefits in the minds of consumers are to convince them in fact that the relationship is positive. event. however. consumers may not develop as positive associations as desired. Redefine the Relationship Finally. and so forth –as means to establish an attribute or benefit as a POP or POD.while another ad emphasized the appearance and beauty of hair after its use. more abstract considerations (laddering). Self – branded ingredients may also lend some credibility to a questionable attribute in consumers’ minds. 31 . Updating positioning involves two main issues. is neither costless nor riskless. once the target market attains a basic understanding of how the brand relates to alternatives in the same category.

it needs to clearly identify the target consumer. It describes who the person is. Brand Positioning is the first step that a brand should take in order to define its ‘frame of reference’ for the consumer.” The concept of identity has been widely used n the context of humans.” “the characteristics determining this. points of parity and points of difference that a brand should maintain. competitors. It is like giving the outline boundary on a canvas. Metaphorically speaking. What you eventually paint on a campus can be defined as the actual character or identity of the brand. Hence. The Oxford dictionary’ defines identity as “the fact of being who or what a person or thing is. brand positioning is defining the outer framework or boundary for the brand in question. which will be discussed next. Identity card is particularly employed as a devise to establish the identity of the owner. we have defined Brand Positioning and its role in brand strategy. Military history is replete with instances where 32 .CHAPTER 4 BRAND IDENTITY Consumer Insights Brand Positioning Defining the Frame of Reference Brand Identity Deriving the Core Brand Values Articulating Brand Identity Expressing through Brand Executing Brand Identity Expressing through Brand Marketing Programs Extending Brand Identity Creating Brand Extensions Reviewing Brand Identity Evaluating Brand Equity Brand Identity In the previous section.

who you are not in spying) and whom you are perceived as. Consider the following: Cinthol. The focus shifted from brand user to brand ingredients and attributes. which would boost the confidence of the user. The whole establishment of spying is based on a critical understanding of who you are – the real identity and what you want to be perceived as – the brand identity perceived by the perceiver. once a very powerful brand has been subjected to several damages because of typical mistakes that brand managers committed. and thereby creating problems in gaining entry. identity card. code. may be. Appreciation of this is critical because it draws a separating line as to what a person or thing is not. languages. As usually happens. mannerisms. The brand ambassadors hired for the job were Imran Khan. in offices. The key consideration to their success was how effectively they established what they were not. lack ideas about what is legitimate and what works in the interest of the brand. in these instances. accents. It is the absence of understanding. The key to establishing correct identity lies in avoiding things. Now days. The result – they end up taking decisions. It is for the safety and proprietary reasons that only legitimate persons should be allowed to gain entry. That is to eliminate the possible discrepancy. identity becomes an important issue. In other instances. The brand further saw a spate of extensions – Cinthol Cologne. the idea is to establish congruence between who you are (not. Cinthol changed its track and went on to acquire a masculine image with up market hero/hunk user profile. Identity implies what a person or thing is. It seems. If one removed the brand name from the advertisements and television commercials it would have been near impossible to identity the true sponsor. mannerism. etc. They attempted to establish in the enemy’s territories what they were not – by adopting their dresses. which may throw the decoded identity out of its intended realm. Cinthol International. which may arise between whom. that the brand suffered because of the absence of a charter- 33 . The soap was initially positioned as containing a deodorizing agent. In the first moves. the person is – identity – and who he has been received as – decoded identity. In fact the brand communications depicted a slice of lime and a water fall which were very similar to those conveyed by Liril for years. where a large number of people work. language. Cinthol Lime. palm scanning and other electronic mechanisms. It is the rising popularity of Liril that forced Godrej to position its Cinthol head on with Liril as a ‘freshness’ soap with lime associations. the task is exactly opposite to what we have in spying endeavours. Accordingly it is easier to determine what is ‘in’ and ‘in ’sync’ with the identity and what is not. Here. which impact the brand adversely for they. Establishing what/who a person is can be done in a number of ways – dress. Many a times decision-makers responsible for steering the brand do not have any idea as to what the brand is. the brand got entangled with HLL’s rival Liril. about what the brand is that has led to the present situation.spies were sent to enemy territories to uncover battle plans and dig enemy strengths by camouflaging their identities. Vinod Khanna and later Akshay Khanna.

Bata shoes began to be adorned with brands. Bata also took severe beating when brand stewards took decisions. It has unique value for money position firmly etched in consumer’s mind. the brand has not been adequately supported by adequate media spending. They can be murdered. Brands suffer on account of: Brand campaigns. Brands are being bargained. The much hyped ‘European Collection’ ‘Hush Puppies’ and ‘Marie Claire’ ‘Julio’. For them Bata still meant an ordinary men’s shoe. which do not carry through in an unchanging core. While the high price customers never made Bata shoe stores their destination. the brand began to disenchant its current customers while the premium shoe buyer was never charmed by the Bata name. The slogan “Lime’ n Lemoni Limca…” clearly focused on the unique lemon taste. The lack of vision. In the late eighties and early nineties. The result. It is only lately that Bata has reverted back to its core by launching shoes with rubber soles and the ‘Bata Gold’ ranges in order to reaffirm its commitment to value for money and durability proposition. mainly Campa Lemon flavour with a great margin. But this connection often suffers at the hands of so called people responsible for steering the brands. The result. which displayed price tags not within the reach of its core customers. it always out competed its rival. Bata for Indian middle class consumers meant shoes that last. Now Bata is beginning to secure and hold over its intended customers. Like many other brands. The result. and battered. The thick cloudy drink formulation gave customers the taste they preferred. Bata brand began to alienate from its core when management began to stretch the brand upwards. competitive pressure and often short – term orientation drive brand marketing efforts. From ‘Lime and Lemoni…’Limca went on to focus on thirst to suggest itself as a great thirst quencher. Brands are the connecting links between the marketers and the customers. which did not match with the brand’s core spirit. Then came the ’take it easy’ campaigns depicting funny adult situations. For instance the waterfall and Liril girl is inseparable from what Liril is all about. The result. belittled.” The wounds are inflicted on brands by reckless decision.guiding brand decisions. But in the last couple of years frequent tinkering with the brand position has rendered the brand weak. Larry Light once observed. which must remain permanent. “Brands do not have to die. And marketing Dracula’s is draining the very lifeblood away from brands. During the last couple of years. The actions of the managers have left the brand weak and vulnerable. The brand communication stressed on isotonic salts the drink contained to offer better thirst quenching properties than the other brands. Limca reigned the undisputed ruler of the lime drink market for decades. 34 . May be it is the only earlier loyal customers who reach out to the brand nostalgically to taste the ’Lime and Lemoni’ flavour. Limca from being a leader has been reduced to a brand very few people ask for. ‘Westminster’ range gave a shock to the typical Bata buyers.

The purpose is to spell out the brand’s domain.Brand sponsoring event. It would demotivate brand managers into doing things. and visions. what is within legitimate scope and what is not is important. It determines the basis on which a brand seeks to create a relationship with customers. soul. It is not a tactical task.term health.term goal. Brand image is the decoded version of brand identity. These associations represent what the brand stands for and imply a promise to customers from the organisation members. which may boost on brand’s short – term performance at the cost of its long . Many a times a highly exclusive brand may associate itself with popular sport or event to gain awareness or recall as a short. A brand may choose someone as an ambassador who does not fit with the overall brand architecture. The only way a synchronization in marketing efforts could be achieved is by developing a statement about brand identity. The products by compulsion arrive in the market place with a name but they carry a hollow centre. Blind line extensions to secure temporary gains in market by cashing in on market shifts and trends. Brand identity would provide guidance and direction to brand managers. Pond’s once tried unsuccessfully to extend their brand name into the toothpaste market. Brand managers first ideally define identity involving difficult questions about a brand’s essence. What is its unique focus? How does it differ from the rest in the class? Brand identity is an insider’s concept. For instance. The public façade of identity is brand image. values. At the root of such decision-making is usually is lack of appreciation of what a brand is – what is its identity. crucial decisions are for the brand manager to make. In fact. Pushing the brand beyond its legitimate territory by brand extensions. That is. What is it that it seeks out to perform and achieve externally in the customer’s life? What are compelling reasons embodied in its essence that would attract customers in spite of a large number of apparently ’me too’ brands in the category? What are its bonding agents? In the current times of easy resource availability and barrier free marketing environment it is much easier to create products. Hence. which does not go with its essence. These launches tend to be limited to product level of a 35 . most of the new launches in many marketing areas prima facie appear to be brand launches but a closer examination reveals the truth to the contrary. Aaker defines brand identity as “a unique set of brand associations that the brand strategist aspires to create or maintain.” What a brand stands for is a crucial question. At its core lies the value proposition. Excessive reliance on promotions and price discounting. It is a strategic exercise.

and communications. All the powerful brands of the world possess this unique ’. the managers at the backside in their companies do not seem to have a clear idea about brand identity. It 36 . It is this ‘ness’ that is at the heart of the brand identity system. Consider an unbranded cigarettes and a pack of Marlboro. All these acts are essentially brand expressions. They all emanate from one single source. It is the brand identity that makes the fundamental difference.all have their roots in brand identity. It acquires a large meaning. External signs of brand – product.term vision? What are the key values that epitomise the brand? What is its legitimate territory? What the entire brand can become and what all it cannot? What are its essential truths? The identity serves to guide all brand-related efforts. The people who have made a mark in human history are the ones who had a firm grip on their identity – who they were and what their mission was. Procreation adds millions to the world’s population but very few make a mark. extensions. a particular set of brand elements. It is very rare that a brand could be created without a mission. These issues define brand identity for the people behind the brand. What does this mission signify? It is what lies at the core of the brand.. symbols. The conceptual clarity must be achieved with respect to what the brand’s spiritual centre is? With what missions the brand has come into existence? What is its long . What are the qualitative and epistemological aspects of brand? What is its philosophical core? What is its mission and where is it going? What are the competitive struggles and pressures to survive which force firms to get into reactionary marketing? The competitor moves are copied without paying much attention to reason and logic. It is the driver of marketing efforts including product launches. Immediately. The process is quite similar to human existence. The key sign of this is the creation of a plethora of marginal brands that start their life at the product shelf at a retailer’s outlet and continue to vegetate for long periods. etc. In a similar vein take the case of a heavy motorcycle and a similar bike with the Harley name on it. . That is. which determines how that brand will be perceived in the marketplace. which forces him/her to create the brand. The result is a barrage of brand launches without identities. The brand manifests its identity in these behaviours. A brand is a mission of its creator. The brand creator is one who has an idea about this ‘ness’. The development of the brand’s unique’ – ness’ needs confronting many fundamental questions/issues. The identity “is a brand’s DNA configuration. A brand without this just cannot break away from product boundaries.” In the world of communication many a times confusion prevails around the concept of brand identity and image.ness’ which forms the fundamental basis of brand relationships with the customers. Brand identity concerns the strategic and more core issue of what the brand is. the product is transformed. communication. portrayed or expressed. It essentially deals with what is to be communicated. visual images. The brand has added ‘Harley ness’. It is a blueprint for action for brand stewards. Identity is something that precedes all this. What does the brand add to the product? It is something which can be called ‘Marlboro – ness’.brand. blended in a unique way. while the rest remain as a faceless crowd.

develop. (i) the strategic brand analysis and (ii) the brand identity implementation system. In fact if the campaigns are intended to promote the same brand. Several academicians and brand scholars have developed highly specialized models to understand and articulate brand meaning to a product. The communication execution does differ from one country to another. The Brand Identity Planning Model of David Aaker The brand identity planning model provides a tool to understand. The brand is a great puller all over the world. let me explain two of the most popular models/views of thinking on brand identity. Nothing gets carried over from old to new campaigns. Most of the times. otherwise it could easily destroy what is intended as a brand and what is received by the market as a brand. The brand managers would not resort to subjective notions while providing briefs to client servicing from the advertising agencies. This can be observed by examining how firms manage campaigns. Many a times brand campaigns change. In addition to the brand identity itself. The best example of continuity is observable in the brand McDonald’s. Since the brand has to connect with a diverse set of audience like Chinese to French to Americans to Indians. The visible actions/efforts that generally keep people busy are essentially signifiers. something must remain constant. The brand is sold all over the world in different countries with highly heterogeneous social and cultural environment. i. David Aaker’s Brand Identity Model and Jean Noel Kapferrer’s Brand Identity Prism. but still continuity could be maintained. which are discussed next. but the brand essence or identity which inspires the campaigns must remain constant. Thus people in custody of a brand may change. and use the brand identity construct. it does not completely give in to change. people responsible for brand management are just able to touch the periphery and get trapped in the maze of less strategic issues concerning brand management. it includes two other strategic brand components. 37 .e. Here. The concept of brand identity has been theorized to a great extent. Appreciation of the difference between the signified and signifier is what differentiates effective brand navigation from the ineffective one. But along with them the brand’s core is also torn and changed.is signified. yet the essence of is left untouched. The campaign change my permit freedom in message and media tactics. The epicentre or brand’s essence must not change. This is the beauty of brand identity.

DAVID AAKER STRATEGIC BRAND ANALYSIS Customer Analysis Competitor Analysis Self Analysis Trends Motivation Unmet needs Segmentation Brand Image/Identity Strengths/Strategies Vulnerabilities Positioning Existing brand image Brand heritage Strengths/Strategies Organisation values BRAND IDENTITY SYSTEMS Extended Core Essence Brand as Product Product Scope Product Attributes Quality/Value Uses/Users Country of origin Brand as Organisation Organisation Attributes Local v/s Global Brand as Person Personality Brand as Symbol Visual imagery and metaphors Value Proposition Functional Emotional Self-Expressive Credibility Brand-Customer Relationship 38 .BRAND IDENTITY PLANNING MODEL.

limitations. differentiate the brand from competitors. and symbol (visual imagery/metaphors and brand heritage). product attributes. To do this. quality/value. local versus global).Strategic Brand Analysis To be effective. Note that there are twelve categories of brand identity elements organized around four perspectives – the brand as product (product scope. virtually no brand has associations in all twelve categories. a core identity. The brand essence can be viewed as the glue that holds the core identity elements together. a successful brand strategy needs to capture the soul of the brand. or as the hub of a wheel linked to all of the core identity elements. a brand identity needs to resonate with customers. use experience. Thus the strategic brand analysis helps the manager to understand the customer. person (brand personality. The self-analysis identifies whether the brand has the resources. Note also that the brand identity structure includes an essence. The analysis needs to uncover strengths. users. country of origin). The customer analysis must get beyond what customers say to what lies underneath what they do. Although each category has relevance for some brands. Studying competitor strengths and strategies as well as positions can also provide insight into the brand-building task. and values of the organization that is creating the brand. 39 . A good brand essence statement does not merely string a set of core identity phrases together into a sentence. customer-brand relationships). strategies. and represent what the organization can and will do over time. Instead. Ultimately. it provides a slightly different perspective while still capturing much of what the brand stands for. the competitors. since this would provide little value beyond the core identity. Another challenge is to develop a segmentation scheme that can drive strategy. Creative qualitative research is often useful toward this end. organization (organizational attributes. Brand Identity The figure provides an overview of brand identity and its related constructs. the capability. and extended identity. and the will to deliver. the manager must discover which segmentation variables have real leverage and understand the size and dynamics of each segment. The competitor analysis examines current and potential competitors to make sure that the strategy will differentiate the brand and that communication programs will break away from the clutter in a meaningful way. and the brand itself (including the organization behind the brand). and this soul resides in the organization.

A brand essence represents the identity.) Strong brand essence statements usually have multiple interpretations that make them re effective. “Do more” expresses the thrust of the organization that walks the extra mile. In some cases. and its function is to communicate with the external audience. the tagline represents the brand position (for communication goals). as well as customers who strive to excel. it is not feasible or worthwhile to develop a brand essence. Further. It should be ownable. When searching for a brand essence. top athletes. whereas a tagline is more likely to have a confined arena. it is helpful to provide focus by identifying the core identity (the most important elements of the brand identity). The core identity is most likely to remain constant as the brand travels to new markets and products – if customers perceive the brand according to the core identity. 40 . a brand essence is likely to be relevant across markets and products. Because such a large set is unwieldy. (Even an understatement such as “It simply works better” or “Take a different road”. however. a product set that offers more than competitors.The brand essence should have several characteristics.” which could encompass such diverse components of the Nike identity as technology. Though it might seem efficient to have a brand essence statement that also functions as a tagline. it is counterproductive to evaluate candidates on whether they would make good tagline. The brand essence is distinct from a tagline. providing differentiation from competitors that will persist through time. Typically. and at least one association should differentiate the brand and resonate with customers. The core identity usually has two to four dimensions that compactly summarize the brand vision. but in others it can be a powerful tool. All dimensions of the core identity should reflect the strategy and values of the organization. In sharp contrast. however. to provide even more focus by creating a brand essence: a single thought that captures the soul of the brand. the core brand identity will require from six to twelve dimensions in order to adequately describe the brand’s aspiration. insisting that statement candidates meet both criteria as diverting at best (and counterproductive at worst). For American Express. For Nike the brand essence might be “Excelling. A brand essence should be timeless or at least expected to be relevant for a long time period. And it should be compelling enough to energize and inspire the employees and partners of the organization. can be inspirational to those who take it seriously and recognize its challenge. and sub brands like Air Jordan. and one of its key functions to communicate and energize those inside the organization. the battle is won. It often is useful. and a customer base that is not satisfied with a conventional lifestyle but engages in more and different activities. It should resonate with customers and drive the value proposition. the track shoe heritage. while a tagline may have a limited life. aggressive personalities.

The extended brand identity includes all of the brand identity elements that are not in the core, organized into meaningful groupings. Often the core identity is a terse description of the brand, and this terseness can generate ambiguity; as a result, brand implementation decisions benefit from the texture and completeness provided by the extended identity. Moreover, there are useful elements of the extended identity (such as the brand personality and a specification of what the brand is not) that do not usually fit comfortably into the core identity. Brand Identity Prism of Jean Noel Kapferrer The Prism of Identity A six – sided prism may represent brand identity diagrammatically:

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BRAND IDENTITY PRISM- KAPFERRER

PICTURE OF SENDER

Personality Physique

TION EXTERNALISATION

INTERNALISATION

Culture

Relationship

Reflection

Self-Image

PICTURE OF RECEIVER

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Physique A brand first has a physique – a combination of independent characteristics, which may be either prominent (springing readily to mind when the brand is mentioned) or dormant (though nevertheless distinguishable). Cadbury’s chocolate evokes the picture of foil wrapped chocolate in a distinct purple and white wrapper. Ford Ikon car spells out superior performance and energy, Whirlpool Air Conditioner talks about ultra fast cooling etc. Physique is the brand basis. Taking the analogy of a flower stem, without the stem the flower dies – it is its independent tangible support. This is the traditional basis of communication, corresponding to brand know-how and standard positioning. It derives its features from certain key or prominent attributes of the brand. Physique is a necessity, but not, of itself, sufficient, forming only the first stage in brand construction. Personality A brand has a personality. It acquires a character. If, as often happens we identify the brand with a person, we gradually form a picture of that person by the way in which he speaks of products or services. Raymond is a distinguished well-groomed man. Pepsi is a fun loving bubbly person. Dabur is a trustworthy, old and dependable person. Personality has been the brand focus since 1970. Numerous American agencies have made it a prerequisite in all communication campaigns. Ted Bates created a new USP (unique selling personality), while Grey Advertising gave its own definition of brand personality. The Euro- RSCG agency made physique and personality the two main pillars of all brand communication, and considered these as the source of its style. The easy way to bestow personality on a brand is to provide it with a spokesperson, a star, or an animal. It is restrictive to summarize the brand as simply having a physique and a character. As we shall see, power brands have further depths. Culture The brand has its own culture from which every product derives. The product is the physical embodiment and vector of this culture. Culture implies a system of values, a source of inspiration and brand energy. The cultural facet relates to the basic principles governing the brand in its outward signs (that is, products and communication). A deep - seated facet, it is the mainspring for the brand. Amul is a brand that symbolizes a freedom- liberating culture with a deep-rooted Indian philosophy. This culture becomes established not only in its products, but also inherently in its advertising style. Culture seems to both influence and infiltrate major brands (Beneton, Coca Cola, Adidas, etc.). Advertising strategy has neglected this essential facet in its insistence on mere personality. We shall see this when considering retailers’ identity, too: the leading retailers are those which have personality,

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the consumer’s immediate reaction is to think of the type of driver that it would most suit –youth. IBM. The cultural facet provides the link between brand and firm. The confusion between reflection and target still causes problems. we see Japan. The three. Such a paradox can be explained by adults’ identification with youth values. as we shall later see. Its culture prevents Nestle from becoming regarded solely as a provider of mouth – watering delicacies.g. Lux’s reflection could be beautiful glamourous women. particularly when they bear the same name (e. coinciding with a realization of the link between brand and product.. This is particularly true of brands in the service sector and. has somewhat lost its apparent roots in becoming a totally international brand. Cultural associations are evoked in brand countries of origin. Pepsi has a much wider clientele. however.box bodywork and overall symmetry characterize the brand’s physique. Though its reflection is restrcited (young people). The cultural facet is an essential one. Amul. ICICI Bank is like a dependable trustworthy relation. When asked for their views on such – and. this would not do. of which it becomes the most visible sign. unlike Nike’s or Reebok’s highlighting of the virtues of individualism. etc. There is often a confusion between this reflection and a brand’s target.). in IBM we see Wall Street. Nestle). As a puritan and austere corporation it could not be otherwise. even though no personal presence may be evident. It often provides the opportunity for an intangible exchange between persons. but the image of that target which the brand offers to the public. Relationship A brand is a relationship. It is a type of identification. in Mitsubishi. for retailers.but also a culture. with order and strength prevailing. A brand’s degree of freedom is largely dependent on the corporate culture. where as Pepsi is a friend. transparent way. Mercedes personifies German values. executive or senior citizen. Adidas linked to the values of collective sports (soccer. In Coca Cola we see America. Target describes the brand’s potential purchasers or users. This approach ignores the fact that the brand buyer 44 . Dabur is clearly a grandparent. Reflection is not necessarily the target. while the Mercedes symbol on the front is a further epitomization of order. Adidas is embedded in a collective culture. Similarily. A product such as Mars. Many advertising managers fail to realize that the public cannot be targeted in a simple. but its target audience could be much wider setting aspirations for the larger target audience.such a make of car. It has only recently come to the fore. family man. Reflection A brand reflects a customers’ image. The Axe brand name has an air of mischief – an underlying sensual man-woman relationship permeates both the products and their customer appeal.

The brand identity prism demonstrates that these facets form a structured whole. Rhetoric teaches us that speeches always convey a picture of the sender. It is a figurative process in the sense that. Similarly. when David Ogilvy portrayed the man in the Hathaway shirt as a one – eyed man. The prism structure is derived from one basic concept. Such a purchase may be inconsistent with their career prospects. 45 . customers. Naturally they do not describe the real Mr. can immediately describe the brand’s communicator – the one who personifies the brand name. Thirty years ago. Likewise the case with products or shops. Lacoste. but the one constructed by the communication. Through our attitude toward certain brands. the founder. we develop a certain type of inner relationship with ourselves. In focus groups they imagine and describe Mr. A brand does not exist unless it communicates. or endorsing the products which it promotes – it can therefore be analyzed like any communication. for example are upgraders from the standard B segment car. acts as an obligatory motive for boosting the self ego.that the brand has a voice. Self-Image The sixth facet of brand identity is customers’ self. therefore.does not want to be portrayed as he/she is. when asked.) the sender does not physically exist.They have an emblematic value in the eyes of the beholder. Tennis is not the target market of Lacoste. a sort of Brirtish colonel who was injured at El Alamein. and to some extent. Since the brand has its own means of referrring – when speaking of the products which it encompasses. It would decline in strength if allowed to remain silent and unused for too long. he did not mean that the Hathaway shirt target was this type of person. They are simply proving to themselves that they have the ability to buy a 3 box car. Brands are used by consumers to build up and convey their own identity. If reflection is the target’s outward mirror. It is its cultural root and a source of positive image for people buying the brand.image. but as he/she wishes to be seen as a result of being an adept of a particular brand. Neverthless. not all persons wearing Lacoste shirts play tennis. The brand. These are the six facets which define brand identity and its potential territory. Pepsi or Mr. their type of communication allows us to imagine who is speaking behind them –the sender. the self – image is the internal miror. The brand talks about ‘spoil yourself’ which is a massage to this individual’s ego. Even if he is not the sporting type. The content of one facet echoes that of another. Lacoste. in the case of the brand (as opossed to the firm’s direct voice. the man who buys a Nike sees himswelf inwardly as sporty and athletic. The physical and personality facets surround this figurative sender. a gamble on their materialization. Many Tata Indigo owners.

Every form of comunication also points to the presence of a recipient. who in turn form as part fo the brand identity. The reflection and self – image facets surround this figurative recipient. and expression. and self. as if a certain type of person or audience were being addressed. The facets to the right – personality . The final two facets – relationship and culture – are the bridging points between sender and recipient.image – are those incorporated within the brand itself within its spirit. The facets to its left – physique. All three are visible facets. The identity prism also incorporates a vertical division. relationship. 46 . culture.

In choosing brand elements. logo. If not articulated correctly. jingles. 3. and likability – can be characterized as “brand building” in nature and concern how brand equity can be built through the judicious choice of a brand element. are more “defensive” in nature and are concerned with how the 47 . slogan etc. The latter three. you could use an array of ‘brand elements’ such as name. meaningfulness. it is now essential to ‘express’ the identity appropriately. To articulate the identity. 4. 2. character. Memorability Meaningfulness Likeability Transferability Adaptability Protectability The first three criteria – memorability. 5. 1. All these try and express the brand’s inner identity.CHAPTER 5 ARTICULATING BRAND IDENTITY Consumer Insights Brand Positioning Defining the Frame of Reference Brand Identity Deriving the Core Brand Values Articulating Brand Identity Expressing through Brand Executing Brand Identity Expressing through Brand Marketing Programs Extending Brand Identity Creating Brand Extensions Reviewing Brand Identity Evaluating Brand Equity Articulating Brand Identity Having drawn out an identity for the brand. An identity otherwise is simply a set of words which are sometimes very intangible in nature. in general. however. they would risk not being understood at all. 6. packaging. there are six criteria one must adhere to.

meaningful and likeable set of brand elements offers many advantages. and in other ways? In other words. it is often desirable that brand elements be easily recognized and recalled and inherently descriptive and persuasive. Two particularly important dimensions or aspects of the meaning of a brand element are the extent to which they convey the general information about the product category and specific information about particular attributes and benefits of the brand. Toward that goal. how aesthetically appealing do consumers find the brand element? Is it inherently likeable. as well as persuasive content. visual properties. logos. Meaningfulness Besides choosing brand elements to build awareness. symbols.brand equity contained in a brand element can be leveraged and preserved in the face of different opportunities and constraints. Because consumers often do not examine much information in making product decisions. Moreover. and so on. for example. and the like – their semantic content. brand elements can be chosen that are rich in visual and verbal imagery and inherently funny and interesting. and so on reduce the burden on marketing 48 . in terms of key attributes or benefits? Does it suggest something about a product ingredient or the type of person who might use the brand? Likeability The associations suggested by a brand element may not always be related to the product. a memorable. Brand elements may take on all kinds of meaning. the intrinsic nature of certain names. how much would consumers like the brand element? In terms of these first three criteria. In other words. logos. – may make them more attention getting and easy to remember and therefore contribute to brand equity. For example. Independent of its memorability and meaningfulness. brand elements can be chosen that are inherently memorable and therefore facilitate recall or recognition in purchase or consumption settings. varying in descriptive. The following sections briefly consider each of these general criteria. Memorability A necessary condition for building brand equity is achieving a high level of brand awareness. visually. In terms of persuasive meaning. Thus. independent of the particular product or service. to what extent do the brand elements suggest something about the particular kind of product that the brand would likely be. brand elements can also be chosen whose inherent meaning enhances the formulation of brand associations. memorable or meaningful brand names. naming a brand of food “Pilsbury” and reinforcing it with a doughboy as a mascot with a distinctive kitchen hat is likely to stick in the minds of consumers. symbols. verbally.

the less specific the name. Exxon) is that they translate well into other languages since they have no inherent meaning. Transferability The fourth general criterion concerns the transferability of the brand element – in both a product category and geographic coverage. to what extent can the brand element add to the brand equity of new products sharing the brand elements introduced. For example. brand elements often must be updated over time. Adaptability The fifth consideration concerns the adaptability of the brand element over time. For example. and copyrights. First. how useful is the brand element for the line or category extensions? In general. The mistakes that even top companies have made in translating their brand names. Protectability The sixth and final general consideration concerns the extent to which the brand element is protectable – both in a legal and competitive sense. For example. Often. ‘Lifestyle’ connotes an attitude or a way of life. especially when few other product-related associations exist. Second.communications to build awareness and link brand associations. either within the product class or across product classes? In other words. the more easily it can be transferred across categories. it is important to (1) choose brand elements that can be legally protected on an international basis. the easier is to update it. one of the main advantages of non-meaningful names (e. and packages into other languages and cultures over the years have become legendary. The more adaptable and flexible the brand element. 49 .. whereas Shopper’s Stop obviously does not permit the same flexibility. and (3) vigorously defend trademarks from unauthorized competitive infringement. In terms of legal considerations. Because of changes in consumer values and opinions or simply because of a need to remain contemporary. The necessity of legally protecting the brand is dramatized by the billions of dollars in losses in the United States alone from unauthorized use of patents. logos and characters can be given a new look or a new design to make them appear more modern and relevant. trademarks.g. slogans. (2) formally register them with the appropriate legal bodies. The different associations that arise from the likeability and appeal of the brand elements also may play a critical role in the equity of a brand. to what extent does the brand element add to brand equity across geographic boundaries and market segments? To a large extent this depends on the cultural content and linguistic qualities of the brand element. the less concrete the possible product benefits are. the most important is the creative potential of the product of the brand name and other brand elements to capture intangible characteristics of a brand. and therefore as a brand can be appropriate for a variety of different types of products.

the name could be reinforced visually with a logo that could easily transfer across geographic and cultural boundaries. Thus. Ideally. The chapter concludes by discussing how to put all of this together to design a set of brand elements to build brand equity. Moreover. Options And Tactics For Brand Elements The value of choosing brand elements strategically to build brand equity can be seen by considering the advantages of having chosen “Apple” as the name for a personal computer. the more likely it is that the brand name will not be very transferable to other cultures due to translation problems. it is difficult to choose a brand name – or any brand element. as the Apple example illustrates. Moreover. and strongly protectable both legally and competitively. Unfortunately. the more meaningful the brand name. or any other attribute is too easily copied much of the uniqueness of the brand may disappear. highly suggestive of both the product class and the particular benefits that served as the basis of its positioning. For example. What would an ideal brand element be like? Consider brand names perhaps the most central of all brand elements. Because it is virtually impossible to find one brand element that will satisfy all the choice criteria. The following sections outlines in detail the major considerations for each type of brand element. the brand name can 50 . rich with creative potential. the judicious choice of a brand name can make an appreciable contribution to the creation of brand equity. multiple brand elements are typically employed. transferable to a wide variety of product and geographic settings. package. the name could serve as a platform for sub brands (for example. as noted earlier. Brand Names The brand name is a fundamentally important choice because it captures the central theme or key associations of a product in a very compact and economical fashion. If a name. as with the Macintosh).A closely related consideration is the extent to which the brand element is competitively protectable. Brand names can be an extremely effective shorthand means of communication. it still may be the case that competitive actions can take away much of the brand equity provided by the brand elements themselves. aiding the introduction of brand extensions. The meaning of the name also gave the company a “friendly shine” and warm brand personality. enduring in meaning and relevant over time. Finally. for that matter – that would satisfy all of these different criteria. Whereas the time it takes consumers to comprehend marketing communications can range from a half a minute (for an advertisement) to potentially hours (for a sales call). Even if a brand element can be protected legally. a brand name would be easily remembered. Apple was a simple but well–known word that was distinctive in the product category–factors facilitating the development of brand awareness. brand names are generally less adaptable over time. inherently fun or interesting.

or corporate activities. word marks) written in a distinctive form. the Cadbury’s milk canisters. Nike swooshes. Some logos are literal representations of the brand name. Characters 51 . McDonald’s golden arches) The importance of logos and symbols can be seen from the results of a study that asked 150 consumers their impressions of companies based on their names alone and also when their logos were present. Many logos fall between these two extremes. Logos have a long history as a means to indicate origin. and Apple logos). and the Olympic rings. or association. especially in terms of brand awareness. on the other hand. Like brand names. ownership. even fairly abstract logos can have different evaluations depending on the shapes involved. logos have meaning and associations that change consumer perceptions of the company. Nevertheless. that it becomes the most difficult brand element for marketers to subsequently change. Examples of abstract logos include the Mercedes star. to entirely abstract logos. These non–word mark logos are also often called symbols. As with names. Red Cross. visual brand elements often play a critical role in building brand equity. Often logos are devised as symbols to reinforce or embellish the brand meaning in some way. families and countries have used logos for centuries to visually represent their names (for example. corporate name. abstract logos can be quite distinctive and thus recognizable. on one hand. logos can acquire associations through their inherent meaning as well as through the supporting marketing program. Examples of brands with strong word marks (and no accompanying logo separates it from its name) include Coca–Cola. which may be completely unrelated to the word mark. Logos and Symbols Although the brand name typically is the central element of the brand. Reliance logo. Clearly. ranging from corporate names or trademarks (that is.be noticed and its meaning registered or activated in memory within just a few seconds. the Swastika used for the Nazis). brand names are often systematically researched before being chosen. There are many types of logos. because abstract logos may lack the inherent meaning present with a more concrete logo. The brand name becomes so closely tied to the product in the minds of consumers. SBI logo). Certain elements of the product or company can become a symbol (for example. In terms of the inherent meaning. Kit–Kat. Logos can be quite concrete or pictorial in nature (such as. one of the dangers of an abstract logo is that consumers may not understand what the logo is intended to represent without a significant marketing initiative to explain its meaning. Consequently. enhancing brand awareness (for example. For example.

Some brand characters are animated (for example. Jingles Jingles are musical messages written around the brand. Brand characters can help brands break through the marketplace clutter as well as help to communicate a key product benefit. they are an extremely efficient and quick means to build brand equity. DeBeers diamonds’ “A Diamond Is Forever“ tag line communicates the intended ad message that diamonds bring eternal love and romance and never lose value. They are an indispensable means of summarizing and translating the intent of a marketing program in a few short words or phrases. Brand characters typically are introduced through advertising and. Like other brand elements. 52 . they often have enough catchy hooks and choruses to become almost permanently registered in the minds of listeners – sometimes whether they want them to or not! For example. can play a central role in these and subsequent ad campaigns and package designs. Slogans are essentially the closest you can get to the brand identity. the distinct Titan tune or the Nirma tune. the Amul Moppet). Slogans Slogans are short phrases that communicate descriptive or persuasive information about the brand. Slogans can function as useful “hooks” or “handles” to help consumers grasp the meaning of a brand in terms of what the brand is and what makes it special. Slogans can be more expansive and more enduring. Slogans often appear in advertising but can play an important role on packaging and in other aspects of the marketing program. however. For example. Nike has used ad tag lines such as “I Can” and “What Are You Getting Ready For?” for ad campaigns instead of their well–known brand slogan. they tend to be attention getting.” Such substitutions can be a means to give the brand slogan a rest so that it remains fresh. Pillsbury’s Fresh Doughboy. For example. Consequently.Characters represent a special type of brand symbol –one that takes on human or real–life characteristics. broad characters come in many different forms. whereas others are live-action figures (like the Marlboro Cowboy or Ronald McDonald) Brand characters can provide a number of brand equity benefits. Slogans often become closely tied to advertising campaigns and can be used as tag lines to summarize the descriptive or persuasive information conveyed in the ads. Campaign–specific taglines may reinforce the message of a particular campaign instead of the brand slogan for a certain period of time. Because they are often colourful and rich in imagery. than just ad tag lines. Slogans are powerful branding devices because. like brand names. since they are a translation of the brand’s identity in some ways. Typically composed by professional songwriters. “Hungry Kya?” for Dominoes Pizza or “Thanda Matlab Coca Cola”. ”Just Do It. brand characters can be quite useful for creating brand awareness. For example.

Facilitate product transportation and protection Assist at – home storage Aid product consumption To achieve the marketing objectives for the brand and satisfy the desires of consumers.” The package appearance can become an important means of brand recognition at the shop display. one of the strongest associations that consumers have with a brand relates to the look of the packaging. the information conveyed or inferred from the package can build or reinforce valuable brand associations. color. A classical example of the power of the jingle was in the Pepsodent toothpaste’s jingle of late 1960. the aesthetic and functional components of packaging must be chosen correctly. a common response is its “blue bottle. Packaging Packaging involves the activities of designing and producing containers or wrappers for a product. packaging must achieve a number of objectives: o o o o o Identify the brand Convey descriptive and persuasive information. Jingles are perhaps most valuable on terms of enhancing brand awareness. but they often convey product meaning in a nondirect and fairly abstract fashion given their musical foundation. For example. Because of their musical nature.s “You will wonder where the yellow went?” referring to the yellow stains removing property of the toothpaste. jingles are not nearly as transferable as other brand elements. From the perspective of both the firm and consumers. Innovations in printing processes now permit eye–catching and appealing graphics that convey elaborate and colorful messages on the package at the ”moment of truth “ at the point of purchase. However the reason why Pepsodent toothpaste lost was because the consumers who were loyal to sweet taste of Colgate toothpaste did not like Pepsodent’s taste. 53 . Jingles can communicate brand benefits. however. Moreover. Packaging can have important brand equity benefits for a company. Often. The potential associations that might occur for the brand from jingles are probably most likely to relate to feelings and personality and other such intangibles. Often. Aesthetic considerations relate to a package’s size and shape. providing even additional encoding opportunities and increasing memorability. the jingle will repeat the brand name in clever and amusing ways that allow consumers multiple encoding opportunities. consumers are also likely to mentally rehearse or repeat the jingle even after seeing or hearing the ad. material. if you ask the average consumer what comes to mind when they think of Parachute coconut oil. Because of their catchy nature. text and graphics.Jingles can be thought of as extended musical slogans and in that sense can be classified as a brand element.

CHAPTER 6 EXECUTING BRAND IDENTITY Consumer Insights Brand Positioning Defining the Frame of Reference Brand Identity Deriving the Core Brand Values Articulating Brand Identity Expressing through Brand Executing Brand Identity Expressing through Brand Marketing Programs Extending Brand Identity Creating Brand Extensions Reviewing Brand Identity Evaluating Brand Equity 54 .

if not actually surpass. regardless of whether the product is a tangible good. or organization. their expectations. However. Thus. consumers’ experiences with the product must at least meet. at the heart of a great brand is invariably a great product. Designing and delivering a product or service that fully satisfies consumer needs and wants is a prerequisite for successful marketing. To create brand loyalty. Consider the diagram below: Scanning the Environment Market Segmentation and TG Selection Positioning Marketing Strategy Product Price Place Promotion Brand Building Strategy Product Strategy The product itself is at the heart of brand building because it is the primary influence on what consumers experience with a brand. while positioning is done. the brand building efforts are most often made before an advertisement is to be released or at the product manager’s level. But in reality. the brand building strategy generally follows from the marketing strategy. though it may often be relegated to a lower status.Brand Building Strategy In principle. In other words. perceived quality is a global assessment based on customer perceptions of what constitutes a quality product and how well the brand rates on those dimensions. brand building. does provide as an umbrella or binder between the other P’s of the marketing strategy. service. and what the firm can tell customers about the brand in their communications. what they hear about a brand from others. Achieving a 55 . Perceived Product Quality and Value Perceived quality has been defined as customers’ perception of the overall quality of superiority of a product or a service relative to relevant alternatives and with respect to its intended purpose.

or very high) o Features: Secondary elements of a product that complement the primary characteristics o Conformance quality: Degree to which the product meets specifications and is absent of defects.generating element of the traditional marketing mix. consumers may combine their perceptions of the quality of the product with their perceptions of the price of the product to arrive at an assessment of its perceived value. Consumers often rank brands according to price tiers in a category. Consumer Price Perceptions The pricing policy for the brand can create associations in consumers’ minds to relevant price tier or level for the brand in the category. consumers may infer the quality of a product on the basis of its price.based pricing 56 . the pricing strategy can dictate how consumers categorize the price of the brand (for example. In particular. favorable. consumers may have price perceptions that have more inherent product meaning. Arrow is perceived as a premium brand followed by Allen Solly and Van Heusen. can influence attitudes and behavior toward a brand. in the Shirts market. Accordingly. many marketers have adapted value. medium. in turn.). or infrequently discounted). as low. Pricing Strategy Price is the one revenue. low. For example. etc. or high priced) and how firm or flexible consumers see that price (as frequently. Consumer associations of perceived value are often an important factor in their decisions. and price premiums are one of the most important brand equity benefits of creating brand awareness and strong.satisfactory level of perceived quality has become more difficult as continual product improvements over the years have led to heightened consumer expectations regarding the quality of products. Peter England is clearly perceived as an affordable value for money brand. as well as to its correspondence price volatility or variance (in terms of the frequency or magnitude of discounts. As noted earlier. high.. medium. o Performance: Levels at which the primary characteristics of the product operate (e.g. o Reliability: Consistency of performance over time and from purchase to purchase o Durability: Expected economic life of the product o Serviceability: Ease of servicing the product o Style and design: appearance or feel of quality Consumer beliefs along these dimensions often underlie perceptions of the quality of the product that. in many categories. Besides these descriptive “mean and variance” price perceptions. and unique brand associations. In other words.

and retailers. Outside the supermarket. in – person visits. payment for retailer advertising or promotion in support of the new brand. some more specific guidelines have been proposed. brokers. Even after stocking brands. Much research has considered the pros and cons of selling through various channels. Broadly. Increasingly. Because of factors such as greater competition for shelf space among what many retailers feel are increasingly undifferentiated brands. at the same time. Direct channels involve selling through personal contacts from the company to prospective customers by mail. retailers can directly affect the equity of the brands they sell. introductory deals (such as. Channel Strategy The manner by which a product is sold or distributed can have a profound impact on the resulting brand equity and ultimate sales success of the brand. as described in the next section. department stores are requiring that suppliers guarantee their stores ’profit margin’ and insist on cash rebates if the guarantee is not met. and so forth. Marketing channels are defined as “sets of interdependent organizations involved in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption. distributors. a battle has emerged in recent years between manufacturers and retailers making up their channels of distribution. supermarket retailers are demanding compensation to stock a new brand in the form of cash payments for the shelf space itself (slotting allowances). suggesting that manufacturers must take an active role in helping retailers add value to their brands. 57 . For all such reasons. The actions retailers take in stocking. displaying. Yet. postponed billing or extended credit (dating). retailers can later require generous trade promotions to keep them on the shelf. Indirect channels involve selling through third party intermediaries such as agents or broker representatives. wholesalers or distributors. they can be classified into direct and indirect channels. This section considers how channel strategy can contribute to brand building. Increased power means that retailers can command more frequent and lucrative trade promotions. and so on.strategies . Although the decision ultimately depends on the relative profitability of the different options. and retailers or dealers. phone.” Channel strategy involves the design and management of intermediaries such as wholesalers. manufacturers are vulnerable to retailers’ actions.attempting to sell the right product at the right price – to better meet consumer wishes. electronic means. and selling products can enhance or detract from brand equity. retailers have gained in power and are now in a better position to set the terms of trade to the manufacturers. Pull and Push Strategies Beside indirect means of image transfer. Channel Design A number of possible channel types and arrangements exist. one free with three).

in general). and pull strategies with broader. since consumers use their buying power and influence on retailers to “pull” the products through the channel. a manufacturer is said to employ a pull strategy. By devoting marketing efforts to the end consumer. Alternatively. providing direct incentives for them to stock and sell products to the end consumer. the most successful branding programs often skilfully blend push and pull strategies.Retailers have thus increased their power over manufacturers. marketers can devote their selling efforts to the channel members themselves. consumers may ask or even pressure retailers to stock and promote manufacturer’s products. more intensive distribution. for example. This approach is called a push strategy. by selling innovative and unique products-properly priced and advertised –that consumers demand. In this way. Although certain brands seem to emphasize one strategy more than another (like. 58 . One way for manufacturers to regain some of their lost power is by creating strong brands through some of the brand building tactics described in this book. push strategies are usually associated with more selective distribution. since the manufacturer is attempting to reach the consumer by “pushing” the product through each step of the distribution chain.

and have evolved over the years to a great extent. one of its existing brands It can use a combination of a new brand with an existing brand. This example illustrates a typical growth plan that a brand follows in the present day market conditions. 3. 59 . Lifebuoy.CHAPTER 7 EXTENDING BRAND IDENTITY Consumer Insights Brand Positioning Defining the Frame of Reference Brand Identity Deriving the Core Brand Values Articulating Brand Identity Expressing through Brand Executing Brand Identity Expressing through Brand Marketing Programs Extending Brand Identity Creating Brand Extensions Reviewing Brand Identity Evaluating Brand Equity Brand Extensions HLL markets a large number of brands. individually chosen for the new product It can apply. more and more companies are launching new products and getting into newer markets. in some way. It has various products under its brand name today. Most of its brands have been around for a long period of time. it has three main choices as to how to brand it: 1. It can develop a new brand. Today. which is marketed on the ‘health’ platform instead. 2. When a firm introduces a new product. which was earlier launched as a low-end carbolic soap has today evolved into a brand.

are the product category. a different form or size.Pepsi 1litre-Pepsi 1. are extensions (examples: Tata Indigo car. Condensed Milk.Vim Powder Most new products are line extensions-typically 80 percent to 90 percent in any one year.Colgate Herbal o Form: Vim Bar. Ice Cream 60 . Consider the examples below: o LG . The two things. Face Wash o Amul . Refrigerators. For example.Sunsilk Yellow o Flavours: Mirinda Orange. LG Consumer Care) Category Extensions versus Brand Extensions Category extension: The parent brand is used to enter a different product category from that currently served by the parent brand (for example. A line extension often involves a different flavor or ingredient variety. Microwave Ovens.Colgate Whitening. Cheese. Nokia cell phones.Sunsilk Black. If the parent brand is already associated with multiple products through brand extensions. An existing brand that gives birth to a brand extension is referred to as the parent brand. Denim). which remain constant in a line extension strategy. When a new brand is combined with an existing brand (approach 3). size.Cold Cream. Chocolates. and the brand name.5litre o Colour: Sunsilk Pink. form etc. Line extension strategies suggest that a company is entering into an existing product category by using the same brand name.Televisions.A brand extension is when a firm uses an established brand name to introduce a new product (approaches 2 or 3). or Sunsilk launching in different colours of shampoo or Rasna launching in different flavours of soft drinks.Vim Liquid. Brand extensions can be broadly classified into two general categories: Line Extensions Line extension: The parent brand is used to brand a new product that targets a new market segment within a product category currently served by the parent brand. flavour. then it may also be called a family brand.Butter. or a different application for the brand. many of the most successful new products.Pepsi 200ml. through innovations in colour. Lotion. Moreover.Mirinda Lemon o Ingredient: Colgate CDC-Colgate Total. Bisleri launching in different sizes of bottles. as rated by various sources. the brand extension can also be called a sub-brand. Air-conditioners. Consumer Products o Ponds . Talc. What is variable are: o Product Size: Pepsi Can.

Profiling actual and desired knowledge structures help to identify possible brand extensions as well as to guide decisions concerning their likely success. One or more associations can often serve as the basis of fit. 2. Define Actual and Desired Consumer Knowledge about the Brand It is critical to fully understand the depth and breadth of awareness of the parent brand and the strength. Because this introduction of an extension potentially changes brand meaning. In evaluating an extension. before any extension decisions are contemplated. it is important that the desired knowledge structures have been fully articulated. a company must understand where it would like to take the brand in the long run. consumer response to all subsequent marketing activity may be affected as a result. favourability. Consider the diagram below: 61 . Possible category extension candidates can be generated through managerial brainstorming sessions as well as consumer research Although consumers are generally better able to react to an extension concept than to suggest one. Identify Possible Extension Candidates With respect to consumer factors when identifying potential brand extensions. 1.Several companies prefer brand extensions since there is an unambiguous shift towards leveraging the brand strategy both for seeking growth within the category and outside. Moreover. Brand extension strategies must be carefully considered by systemically following the following steps. marketers should consider parent brand associations-especially as they relate to brand positioning and core benefits-and product categories that might seem to fit with that brand image in the minds of consumers. and uniqueness of its associations. Managerial judgment and consumer research should be employed to help make each of these decisions. it still may be instructive to ask consumers what products the brand should consider offering if it were to introduce a new product. Evaluating Brand Extension Opportunities Academic research and industry experience have revealed a number of principles concerning the proper way to introduce brand extensions.

Consumers may be probed directly (like "How well does the proposed extension fit with the parent brand?" or "Would you expect such a new product from the parent brand?"). or uniqueness of parent brand associations in the proposed extension context? Similarly. consumer research is often needed. corporate.Fast Ready To Eat food Fast food restaurant Toys Kids Maggi Amusement Park/Club 2 min Instant Food Games Instant Rice Dishes Soups Chinese 3. and uniqueness of all associations to the brand extension. As with any new product. favourability. what will be the strength. it is necessary to assess through judgement and research – the likelihood that the extension would realize the advantages and avoid the disadvantages of brand extensions. analysis of consumer. what will be the salience. favourability. and competitive factors can be useful. and uniqueness of any other inferred associations? To narrow down the list of possible extensions. Consumers may even be asked what products they believe are currently attached to the brand: If a majority of 62 . as well as the likelihood of it affecting the existing brand equity of the parent brand. marketers must forecast the strength. First. Evaluate the Potential of the Extension Candidate In forecasting the success of a proposed brand extension. favourability. In other words. Consumer Factors Evaluating the potential success of a proposed brand extension requires an assessment of its ability to achieve its own brand equity.

4. the brand failed. at least in terms of initial consumer reaction. Another major mistake in evaluating brand extensions is overlooking how literal consumers can be in evaluating brand extensions. For example. As in the case with a new brand. Corporate and Competitive Factors Marketers must not only take a consumer perspective in evaluating a proposed brand extension but must also take a broader corporate and competitive perspective. tend to focus on perceived benefits in predicting consumer reactions and. How effectively are the corporate assets leveraged in the extension setting? How relevant are existing marketing programs. though. brand associations in the process. Often marketers mistakenly focus on one or perhaps a few brand associations as a potential basis of fit and ignore other. "What comes into your mind when you think of the brand extension?" or "What are your first impressions on hearing that the parent brand is introducing the extension?") as well as ratings scales based on reactions to concept statements. then there would seem to be little risk involved in introducing it. Design Marketing Programs to Launch Extension Often extensions are used as a shortcut means of introducing a new product. 63 . a branding and marketing strategy that will maximize the equity of the brand extensions as well as enhance the equity of the parent brand. may overlook some potentially damaging attribute associations. One major mistake in evaluating extension opportunities is failing to take all of consumers' brand knowledge structures into account. invariably because other more overpowering associations were that of ‘floral’. brand extension potential. they often notice and evaluate attributes especially concrete ones -in reacting to an extension. Brand managers. Although consumers ultimately care about benefits. possibly more important. as a result. when Ponds introduced their toothpaste on the association of ‘freshness’. ‘talc’ and ‘feminine’ which made a toothpaste seem inappropriate. consumer research is often employed using open-ended associations (for example. To better understand consumers' perceptions of a proposed extension. Several common pitfalls must be avoided when evaluating. and insufficient attentions paid to developing. and target customers in the extension context? What are the competitive advantages to the extension as perceived by consumers and possible reactions initiated by competitors as a result? Too many extension products and strongly entrenched competition can put a strain on company resources.consumers believe a proposed extension product is already being sold under the brand. perceived benefits.

the less similar the extension is to the parent brand. and marketing communications must be integrated by mixing and matching communication options. Brands in such cases are in a real dilemma because if they choose to use the same type of packaging. With line extensions. the more important it typically is to establish necessary and competitive points of parity. a key source of brand equity may be left behind. packaging is such a critical component of equity for the brand that it is hard to imagine an extension without the same package design elements. designing the optimal marketing program to launch the extension. Designing Optimal Marketing Program The marketing program for a brand extension must consider the same guidelines in building brand equity. Thus. if they choose to use a different type of packaging. points of parity are often critical. Marketers should realize that brand extensions do not necessarily have to leverage only a brand name but can use other brand elements too. Thus. with category extensions. consumer perceptions of value must guide pricing decisions. In terms of designing the supporting marketing program. It would seem that the bigger challenge would have been to reach parity in the minds of consumers with category considerations related to glamour and how the shampoo made one look and feel. Leveraging Secondary Brand Associations 64 . and leveraging secondary associations. In terms of properly positioning a brand extension. On the other hand. The points of difference for a category extension in many cases directly follow from the points of difference for the parent brand and are easily perceived by consumers. Thus. a brand extension can retain or modify one or more brand elements from the parent brand as well as adopt its own brand elements. they run the risk that the extension will not be well distinguished. distribution strategies must blend push and pull considerations. the brand extension retains one or more elements from an existing brand. product – related associations often must be created. For line extensions. it is often the case that a new association has to be created that can serve as an additional point of difference and help to distinguish the extension from the parent brand too. on the other hand. Choosing Brand Elements By definition. when Ivory extended into shampoo and conditioners. it is important that consumers understand how the new product relates to existing products in order to minimize possible cannibalisation or confusion.building brand equity for a brand extension requires choosing brand elements. its key “gentleness’ points of difference presumably transferred easily. In some cases.

by definition. companies such as P&G or HLL follow this kind of strategy. brand tracking based on the customer-based brand equity model or other key measures of consumer response can be employed. The company brand name is not emphasized upon and the brand gains no benefits from the company name. The thrust is on making the brand acquire its own set of associations and stand on its own. For example. however. depends on the branding strategy that is adopted and how the extension is branded. P&G Ariel Tide Vicks Pantene Whisper 65 . Consumers have no idea that the brand is owned by a P&G or an HLL. To help interpret that success. In this type of a strategy. although there may be instances in which competing in the extension category requires some additional fortification such that linking to other entities may be desirable. there is always some leveraging of another brand or company. the more common the brand elements and the more prominence they receive. and a number of factors will affect the brand's success.In general. the more likely it is that parent brand associations will transfer. As noted earlier. Product Branding Product Branding is one extreme of the branding continuum. A brand extension differs in that. A number of decisions have to be made concerning the introduction of a brand extension. Evaluate Extension Success and Effects on Parent Brand Equity The final step in evaluating brand extension opportunities involves assessing the extent to which an extension is able to achieve its own equity as well as contribute to the equity of the parent brand. The concept of singularity applies in this case. centered on both the extension and the parent brand as a whole. the brand is promoted exclusively so that it acquires its own identity and image. brand extensions will often leverage the same secondary associations as the parent brand. Types of Brand Extension Strategies 1. The extent to which these other associations become linked to the extension.

One of the benefits of a range brand strategy is the formation of brand equity Himalaya Drug on a common competence. so the brand now encompasses lotions. face make up. Marketing products as a line under a common brand improves the brands marketing power rather than selling them as individual brands. Complementary products eventually combine to form a complete whole. The products in the line draw their identity from the main brand. Range Branding Line branding is restrictive since it restricts the brands extension into nearby territories of complementary products. emanate out of some common competence or expertise. which stems from the firm’s or range brand’s area of competence. and later extends on to other products to cater to the needs of the same customer group. Lakme consumers felt the need to have other beauty related products other than lipsticks. Products however.2. All the products share a common promise. Ayurveda Health Care Body Care Ayurveda Skin Care 66 . nail polishes etc. For example. eye make up. where the brand can move beyond product complementarities. Range branding is not restrictive. Line Branding Line branding essentially starts with one product to cater to a consumer group. LAKME Lakme Lipsticks Lakme Moisturisers Lakme Beauty Salons Lakme Cleansers “Source of Radiant Beauty” 3.

Hence Bajaj Pulsar is the final brand name. and Pulsar is the name of the motorcycle. The product is given a brand name and it is combined with the name of the firm. Maruti Maruti 800 Maruti Alto Maruti Zen Maruti Wagon R Maruti Baleno 67 .4. Investing in a single brand is less costly than trying to build a number of brands. By leveraging a common name across a variety of products. Both the names enjoy equal status. Companies such as LG. Bajaj is the name of the firm. It is a hybrid of umbrella brand and product brand strategy. and secondly. the firms name is also gaining equity. By doing this. Source/Double Branding Source branding combines the firm’s name with the product brand name. the brand distributes its investment. the product also stands to benefit from the parent brand.Umbrella Branding Umbrella branding is on the other end of the continuum. where a single brand name is used on all products. LG Televisions Microwaves Refrigerators Washing Machines Consumer Products 5. Mitsubishi all follow this strategy. Philips.

Cadbury’s Cadbury’s Eclairs Cadbury’s Perk Cadbury’s Dairy Milk Cadbury’s Five Star Cadbury’s Crackle 68 .6. Endorsement Branding Endorsement branding is a modified version of double branding. The umbrella brand is made to play an indirect role of passing on certain common generic associations. It is only mentioned as an endorsement to the product brand. where the product brand name becomes more significant. and the company brand name becomes less significant.

For example: Brand Equity is a set of brand assets and liabilities linked to a brand. 1991) Brand equity can be thought of as the additional cash flow achieved by associating a brand with the underlying product or service (Biel. that add to or subtract from the value provided by a product or service to a firm and/or to the firm’s customers (Aaker. when certain outcomes result from the marketing of a product or service because of its brand name that would not occur if the same product or service did not have a name (Keller. Different authors have defined brand equity differently. its name and symbol. it is essential now to understand the concept of brand equity and its importance in keeping a brand strong over longer period of time.CHAPTER 8 REVIEWING BRAND IDENTITY Consumer Insights Brand Positioning Defining the Frame of Reference Brand Identity Deriving the Core Brand Values Articulating Brand Identity Expressing through Brand Executing Brand Identity Expressing through Brand Marketing Programs Extending Brand Identity Creating Brand Extensions Reviewing Brand Identity Evaluating Brand Equity Brand Equity Having built the brand.for example. 1992) Brand equity is defined in terms of marketing effects uniquely attributable to the brands. 1993) 69 .

4. Establish finally the totality of brand meaning in the minds of customers by strategically linking a host of tangible and intangible brand associations with certain properties. active loyalty relationship between customers and the brand The four steps can be represented in the form of a model as follows: 70 . the power of a brand lies in what resides in the minds of customers. in which each step is contingent on successfully achieving the previous step. perceptions. In other words. All the steps involve accomplishing certain objectives with customers. 3. Convert brand response to create an intense. feelings.both existing and potential. one must essentially understand what the consumer thinks of your brand and what kind of knowledge structure exists in the consumer’s mind. The challenge for marketers in building a strong brand is ensuring that customers have the right type of experiences with products and services and their accompanying marketing programs so that the desired thoughts. opinions. seen. and so on become linked to the brand. Understanding the needs and wants of consumers and devising products and programs to satisfy them are at the heart of successful marketing.In general. two fundamentally important questions faced by marketers are: ‘what do different brands mean to consumers?’ and ‘How does the brand knowledge of consumers affect their response to marketing activity?’ The basic premise of the CBBE model is that the power of the brand lies in what customers have learned. to understand brand equity. In particular. The steps are as follows: 1. images. Ensure identification of the brand with customers and association of the brand in customers’ minds with a specific product class or customer need. Building and evaluating a strong brand. according to the CBBE model. felt. can be thought of in terms of a sequence of steps. 2. beliefs. Keller proposed the Customer Based Brand Equity Model (CBBE Model) to try and understand brand equity from the perspectives of the consumerwhether it is an individual or an organization. and heard about the brand as a result of their experiences over time. Elicit the proper customer response to this brand identification and brand meaning.

brand meaning cannot be established unless brand identity has been created. An example of the type of questions that can be asked are as follows: Salience What brands of product or service category you can think of? (using increasingly specific category cues) Have you ever heard of these brands? Which brands might you be likely to sue under the following situations…? How frequently do you think of this brand? Performance Compared with other brandies in the category. That is. how well does this brand provide the basic functions of the product or service category? Compared with other brand sin the category.as follows (with corresponding brand steps in parentheses).at least implicitly if not even explicitly. Who are you? (brand identity) 2. 1. What about you? What do I think or feel about you? (brand response) 4. how well does this brand satisfy the basic needs of the product or service category? 71 .” from brand identity to brand meaning to brand responses to brand relationships. brand responses cannot occur unless the right brand meaning has been developed. What are you? (brand meaning) 3. What about you and me? What kind of association and how much of a connection would I like to have with you? (brand relationship) There is an obvious ordering of the steps in this “branding ladder. and a brand relationship cannot be forged unless the proper brand responses have been elicited.Relationship Judgement Feeling Performance Imagery Salience These four steps represent a set of fundamental questions that customers invariably ask about brands.

successful. outdoorsy? What places are appropriate to buy this brand? How appropriate are the following situations to use this brand? Can you buy this brand in a lot of places? Is this a brand that you can use in a lot of different situations? To what extent does thinking of the brand bring back pleasant memories? To what extent do you feel you grew up with the brand? Judgements Quality What is your overall opinion of this brand? What is your assessment of the product quality of this brand? To what extent does this brand fully satisfy your product needs? How good a value is this brand? Credibility How knowledgeable are the makers of this brand? How innovative are the makers of this brands? How much do you trust the makers of this brand? To what extent do the makers of this Brandi understand your needs? To what extent do the makers of this Brandi care about your opinions? To what extent do the makers of this Brandi have your interests in mind? How much do you like this brand? How much do you admire this brand? How much do you respect this brand? 72 . and other design aspects of this brand? Compared with other brands in the category with which it competes. are this brand’s prices generally higher. charming. or about the same? Compared with other brandies in the category with which it competes. up. daring. do this brand’s prices change more frequently.to. responsiveness. or about the same amount? Imagery To what extent do people you admire and respect use this brand? How much do you like people who use this brand? How well do the following words describe the brand: down – to. upper class. lower.date. and so forth? How courteous and helpful are the providers of this brand’s service? How stylish do you find this brand? How much do you like the look. reliable. feel.Tow hat extent does this brand have special features? How reliable us this brand? How durable is this brand? How easily serviced is this brand? How effective is this brand’s service? Does it completely satisfy your requirements? How efficient is this brand’s service in terms of speed. less frequently. honest.earth.

it would make little difference to me if I had to use another brand. I would really miss this brand if it went away. Engagement I really like to talk about this brand to others. I buy this brand whenever I can. I feel this is the only brand of the product I need. This brand is more than a product to me. I would be interested in merchandise with this brand’s name on it. Attachment I really love this brand. This is the one brand I would like to buy/see If this brand were not available. This is a brand used by people like me. I follow news about this brand closely. I feel like I almost belong to a club with other users of this brand. I am proud to have others know I use this brand.Consideration How likely would you be to recommend this brand to others? Which are your favorite products in this brand category? How personally relevant is this brand to you? Superiority How unique is this brand”? Top what extent does this brand offer advantages that other brands cannot? How superior is this brand to others in the category? Feelings Does this brand give you a feeling of warmth? Does this brand give you a feeling of fun? Does this brand give you a feeling of excitement? Does this brand give you a feeling of security? Does this brand give you a feeling of social approval? Does this brand give you a feeling of self.respect? Resonance Loyalty I consider myself loyal to this brand. Compared with other people. Community I really identify with people who use this brand. I feel a deep connection with other’s who sue this brand. I buy as much of this brand as I can. I like to visit the Web site for this brand. 73 . I would go out of my way to use this brand. I am always interested in learning more about this brand. This brand is special to me.

74 .

75 . evoke product-related associations of appearance. 10. or feel).). let consumers sample products or be exposed to a broad set of brand elements). Assure confidential treatment of responses... moodboard technique of selecting pictures from magazines or newspapers).. 6.g.g. such as “what do you associate with quality?”).. Include at least one object-projective technique (e. Use established scales for emotional and personality associations. 12. fabric. 8.e. 9.e. 14... Adapt to individual diff erences in response styles and response attitudes (i. Include at least one visual technique (e.g.g. to mitigate censoring effects. 5. Instruct respondents to take their time and create acceptance for pauses.. celebrity. heavy users. Probe for secondary associations (e. Address sensory associations directly (e. Divide the sample into two and include both users and nonusers (i. Use a follow-up survey or other methods to determine relationships between strength. taste. vegetable.g.g. Probe for relevant situations in which individuals have experienced the brand or drawn on knowledge about the brand. 4. make sure that the measures fit the sample appropriately). 2. 15. Elicit associations from different types of customers and from the advertising people (e. Use real stimuli when practically possible (e. and uniqueness of associations).. Criteria of salience and frequency should not be used uncritically (recognize that some words or phrases are easier to report and come to mind more quickly and that this may not always reflect the strength of brand associations). smell. 7.. avoid respondent fatigue and potential “halo” effects). 18. Start with thorough instructions and visual techniques (verbalizations may disrupt visualizations). sound. etc. Validate minority associations on a subset of the majority (ensure that responses from verbal respondents are also valid for less verbal respondents by follow-up interview).Guidelines for In-Depth Elicitation of Brand Associations 1. have respondents report associations on behalf of some person or figure belonging to the same group as the respondent). average users. animal. and nonusers). use primary associations as stimulus words for subsequent probing. favorability. Use person-projective techniques (e. 16. light users. 11. 3.g. 13. 17. describing brand as a car.

one must look at the following: 1. Brands that have reached the ‘relationship’ stage in the consumer’s mind have continually evolved. product development. motivations. Brands are not built overnight. needs and aspirations 2. Provide a superior delivery of desired benefits through a crisp and sound brand identity 4. and brand equity cannot be achieved through a single advertising campaign. including pricing. and have proactively built their strategy through meaningful consumer insights. to create a strong brand. Employ a full range of complementary brand elements to provide totality to the brand identity 5. With the previous discussion as a background. Incorporate the changes in consumer trends into the brand identity to keep the brand relevant at all points of time 76 . Understand consumer behaviour. Maintain consistency in communication and each and every consumer touch-point or interface 7. Integrate the brand identity effectively with the marketing activities. trends.CONCLUSION All successful brands have followed a well-defined strategy. distribution and promotion 6. Properly position the brand 3. Maintain the brand image over time through extending brand identity to related products 8. Implement a brand equity measurement system to track the brand over a period of time 9.

“Positioning. (1988) 77 .LIST OF REFERENCES 1. Philip Kotler. “Strategic Brand Management.The Battle for your Mind”. the Ugly”. “Strategic Brand Management. “The 22 Immutable Laws of Branding”. David Aaker. Implementation and Control. Harsh Verma. Measuring and Managing Brand Equity”. Prentice Hall. Al Ries. Excel Books. Al Ries. Aaker and Erich Joachimsthaler. Aaker. (1986) 3. “Marketing Management: Analysis. Harper Collins.New Approaches to Creating and Evaluating Brand Equity”. Free Press (1992) 6. India (1996) 5. Pearson Education. Kevin Lane Keller. (2002) 4. “Advertising Management”. Schiffman and Leslie Lazer Kanuk. Jack Trout. (1990) 10. the Bad.Myers. Free Press (2000) 7. Leon G. Warner Books. Prentice Hall. David A. Jean Noel Kapferrer. Prentice Hall 8. Laura Ries. (2004) 2. Fifth Edition. Rajeev Batra. “Consumer Behaviour. “Brand Management”. John G. Sloan Management Review. (1997) 9. “Brand Leadership”. “Brand Extensions: The Good.Building. Planning. David A.

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