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European History Educators’ Association

Bulletin 25: Slovenia 2007

Human Rights Education


Lessons from History

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This is a production from:
EUROCLIO, The European History Educators’ Association

HUMAN RIGHTS EDUCATION, LESSONS FROM HISTORY


Bulletin 25, Slovenia 2007

Editor: Dean Smart, Dean.Smart@uwe.ac.uk


Cover illustration: The Castle above the Lake, Bled, Slovenia

Production and Sales/Distribution: Joke van der LeeuwRoord. info@euroclio.nl


EUROCLIO Secretariat
Juliana von Stolberglaan 41 Phone: +31 70 381 7836
2595 CA Fax: +31 70 385 3669
The Hague, E-mail: info@euroclio.nl
The Netherlands Website: www.euroclio.eu

Published by:

The National Education Institute Slovenia


Representative: Gregor Mohorčič, M.Sc.
Technical editor: Irena Santoro
Printing: Littera picta, d. o. o.
Edition: 750 copies
Ljubljana, 2007

CIP - Kataložni zapis o publikaciji


Narodna in univerzitetna knjižnica, Ljubljana

342.7:37(063)(082)

HUMAN rights education : lessons from history : bulletin 25,


Slovenia 2007 / [organized by] Euroclio - the European Standing
Conference of History Teachers’ Associations, Conférence Permanente
Européenne des Associations des Professeurs d’Histoire ; [editor
Dean Smart]. - Ljubljana : The National Education Institute
Slovenia, 2007

ISBN 978-961-234-626-3
1. Smart, Dean, 1963- 2. European Standing Conference of History
Teachers’ Associations (The Hague)
236140288

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Contents
Editorial :
Dean Smart 2

The President’s Page 3


Jelka Razpotnik

Summary of Keynote Speeches 4

1. A Short Introduction to the History of Slovenia 5-9


Andreja Valič, Slovenia

2. Structural and Cultural Conditions for Teaching About Human Rights in the 21st Century 10-11
Dr. Milan Zver, Minister of Education and Sport, Republic of Slovenia

3. Human Rights in an Era of Transition: From Ideology to a 12-13


Sophisticated Understanding
Professor Danilo Türk, Slovenia

4. From Human Rights to Human Duties: Evolution of Mentalities in the 20th Century 14-16
Professor Cirila Toplak, Slovenia

5. Emancipatory Thought between the Individual and National Rights 17-21


Professor Igor Grdina, Slovenia

6. Education for Inclusive Citizenship: Identity, History and Human Rights 22-24
Notes from the presentation of Dr. Dina Kiwan, United Kingdom

7. A Briefing on Human Rights Education 25-30


Collated by Mihai Manea, Romania

8. Human Rights and Education for Democratic Citizenship in Albania: 31-35


A Short Overview
Bedri Kola, Albania

9. Active Human Rights Teaching in the Primary School 36-39


Marjeta Šifrer, Slovenia

10. Fighting Xenophobia through Drama Techniques 40-43


Katerina Brentanou, Greece

11. Teaching Women’s Rights as Human Rights 44-47


Linking Past to Present
Lyn Reese, Women in World History Curriculum, United States of America

12. Will We Ever Learn the Meaning of ‘Never Again’? 48-52


Katja Holobar and Romana Franković, Slovenia

13. Teachers’ Attitudes towards the Relationship of History and Civic Education: Initial and In 53-56
Service Training of History Teachers-Some Questions
George Kokkinos, Vassiliki Sakka, Peter Trantas, Greece

14. Yugoslavia and the Volksdeutscher Work Camps in 1945- 57-64


Should the Crimes of Individuals Determine the Fate of Groups?
Materials from the Workshop of Denis Detling, Croatia

15. The 1940s: The End of Democracy in Yugoslavia? 65-69


Workshop Materials of Emina Dautović, Serbia

16. How do high school students resolve social problems and use historical competencies all 70-72
through this cognitive process? A research project beginning in Quebec
Marc-André Éthier, Professor, Université de Montréal, with the collaboration of
David Lefrançois, Fellow, Université de Montréal

17. Human Rights Education: Lessons from History 73-75


A summary of the EUROCLIO 2007 European Survey
Dr. Chara Makriayianni, EUROCLIO Policy Officer, Cyprus

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Editorial
Dr. Dean Smart

I hope that you will agree that this edition of The Bulletin offers a stimulating range of articles. Strong contributions are
present from Central and Southern Europe, with the introductory sections providing only a small flavour of the welcome
and historic environment offered by Slovenia. There are also clear indications of the vibrant intellectual debate in Bled
with the University of Ljubljana well represented by a number of articles: Professor Türk explores how conceptualisa-
tions of Human Rights, and the rights enjoyed by much of Europe on a personal level, changed during the later twentieth
century, and presents his recommended elements for a contemporary human rights programme. Professor Toplak from the
Political Science Department in Ljubljana considers the evolution of civil and human rights as concepts in the twentieth
century and Professor Igor Grdina explores how ‘emancipatory thought’ links individual and national rights, and how con-
siderable pressure is often placed on human rights by concepts of political ‘necessity’ and pragmatism.

Dr. Dina Kiwan tracks the thinking behind the development of the contested Citizenship National Curriculum in England
and Bedri Kola recounts how reform has transformed the Albanian approach to teaching about Human Rights and Edu-
cation for Democratic Citizenship in Albania. Helpfully Mihai Manea offers a clear overview on potential elements of
Human Rights education to complete the ‘backdrop theorisation’ part of this edition.

The outgoing EUROCLIO President, herself a Slovenian teacher, writes in this Bulletin that she hopes that this Bulletin re-
flects the energy found in Bled and there is certainly a sense of human activity throughout time reflected in Andreja Valič
Zupan’s Short Introduction to the History of Slovenia, and also in the articles for teachers which follow. You may be encour-
aged to consider the use of role playing and drama techniques to engage young people by Katerina Brentanou’s article on
drama techniques as a means of fighting xenophobia and exploring the concept of ‘the other’ in contemporary Europe.

Teachers flexibility is also challenged by George Kokkinos, Vassiliki Sakka and Peter Trantas who consider professional at-
titudes towards the relationship between History and Civic Education, and who consider the implications for initial and con-
tinuing teacher professional development in a very thought provoking article. A French-Canadian paper explores thinking of a
different nature, as Professor Marc-André Éthier and research fellow David Lefrançois of the Université de Montréal consider
how high school students resolve social problems and use historical competencies. Switching to a pan-European focus Dr.
Chara Makriayianni, EUROCLIO’s Policy and Research Officer reports on EUROCLIO’s 2007 Survey of Human Rights Education
across Europe.

Equality issues are explored by Lyn Reese, of ‘Women in World History’ group, where she explores dimensions of women’s
history and role in achieving change. Equality is also explored by Marjeta Šifrer who proposes the idea that even quite
young pupils can understand the concepts of social justice and equality in her article on active learning in the Primary
School.

Abuses of Human Rights are considered in several of the articles: Katja Holobar and Romana Franković investigate how teach-
ing about 20th century History can include teaching about human rights violations and international justice. Denis Detling
considers the plight of the 170 000 Volksdeutscher citizens tragically interned in Yugoslavia before the 110 000 survivors were
deported in the years after the Second World War. A different sort of abouse is considered in Emina Dautovic’s contribution on
‘The End of Democracy in Yugoslavia’, where different competing views of the ‘best’ way to run a state and build the perfect
society are implied by a role play based on the late 1940s in Yugoslavia.

Some of the participants at the Bled Conference

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The President’s Page
Jelka Razpotnik, EUROCLIO President, March 2007

in the Field of Education,’ project. The training event


was built around an interesting range of presentations
and lectures. The official opening to our training event
was offered by Mr Janez Fajfar, the Mayor of Bled and
Andreja Valič Zupan, the President of Slovenian History
Teachers’ Association. Warm welcomes, and interest-
ing presentations were also offered by Dr Milan Zver,
the Minister of Education and Sport Dr. Lovro Šturm,
the Minister of Justice, and by Dr Igor Grdina, from the
Institute of Cultural History,in the Scientific Research
Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Science and Arts.

Dr. Cirila Toplak, of the Faculty of Social Sciences at


the University of Ljubljana, spoke about the evolution
of attitudes to human rights during the last century.
Romana Frankovič, of Amnesty International, made
a thought provoking presentation on the nature and
abuse of human rights, with Professor Dr. Danilo Türk,
of the Faculty of Law of the University of Ljubljana,
- a Former Deputy of the General Secretariat of the
It was a particular pleasure for me to see the successful United , speaking about current challenges to human
conclusion of the Slovenia Conference as the closing act rights. Dr. Dina Kiwan, of Birkbeck College, London
of my time as EUROCLIO President- and to see the way spoke about education for inclusion and the role of
that the work of so many colleagues in the Slovenian citizenship, identity, History and human rights- making
History Teachers Association, the EUROCLIO Board and a strong link to the theme of next years conference.
Secretariat was appreciated by the many teachers and
teacher educators in Bled in the Spring of 2007. The results of EUROCLIO’s Europe wide research: ‘Hu-
man Rights Education: Lessons From History were also
The topic of the Slovenia Conference- Human Rights: presented- which caused a lot of interest and raised
lessons from History, was an important one, and an some issues for discussion as well as providing useful
area which clearly resonated with educators from all data to inform our own contexts. We will, of course,
over Europe and beyond. upload a summary of the research on our recently re-
modelled- and constantly evolving website – www.eu-
This has again been a busy and successful year- with roclio.eu to widen access to the data and allow you to
what seems like an ever increasing interest in History download the main findings.
teaching in the media and in society in general, and
it was therefore no surprise to see colleagues in His- As is always the case with such events we were able to
tory Teacher’s Associations across Europe responding to see just a little of the local area- it is, after all, a busy
press interest, innovating in the face of changing cur- working week! None the less we did get a taste of Slovenia
riculum and assessment structures and creating active during the conference- spending some time at functions
and engaging materials. in Castle Brdo, the National Museum of Contemporary His-
tory in Ljubljana, and briefly calling at some of the nearby
As a Board and Secretariat team we have been work- historical towns. We were also able to enjoy presenta-
ing to develop new EUROCLIO projects- with the team tions on the history of Slovenia and on the history and
in the Hague writing submissions to funders during the architecture of Ljubljana; as well as very popular school
year – with some success. A new three year project in visits- this year to schools in Kranj and Ljubljana.
Bulgaria began this Spring, and looks very promising in
terms of outcomes and impact. Thanks to a wide range of participants there was a re-
source exhibition examining how different education
A new relationship with the United States Institute of systems present ‘human rights’ in their textbooks and
Peace began with a one year project in the Republic of there was the useful diverse range of practical and
Macedonia- the Southern part of the former Yugoslavia, lively workshops presenting examples of good practice
where approaches to diversity and multicultural educa- in teaching and learning from a variety of European
tion are being considered by the local History Teachers’ countries.
Association- who are working very hard to produce a re-
source for use by both the Albanian ethnic community, EUROLCIO continues to challenge and stimulate those
and the Macedonian ethnic community. who take part in it’s events- and I am very proud to
have been a part of both the Board and the local His-
The Slovenian programme was possible because of the tory Teachers Association during this busy but fulfilling
generous support of several sponsors- in particular the year! I hope that this Bulletin reflects the energy found
Ministry of Education in Slovenia,; the National Post in Bled and in all of EUROCLIO’s work- and challenges
Office of Slovenia; the Koerber Foundation from Ger- you to reflect on applying the ideas expressed here in
many, and the EU Project ‘European Associations Acting your own teaching.

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The Bled Conference: Human Rights Education- Keynote Speeches

During the official opening of the Conference Dr Milan In linking to recent history the professor noted that so-
Zver, The Minister of Education and Sport of the Republic cialist states were not, he felt, places where human
of Slovenia, welcomed attenders to the conference, and rights were totally abolished- but they were places where
spoke about the significance of Human Rights as a topic the ground rules were changed and the notion of ‘human
within History education. Dr Zver felt that sharing views rights’ was developed and applied in a particular way-
and experiences, promoting tolerance and enhancing an where some rights were preserved, and others abused.
awareness of each other is key to better citizenship. He Such states redefined the concept of ‘freedom’ in their
was followed by the Mayor of Bled, Mr Janez Fajfar, who own terms- and presented their actions as legal and le-
spoke to welcome participants to the conference, and gitimate by placing the needs of the state and major-
gave some information about the local area and its his- ity above the rights of the individual- which allowed the
tory- the town, the lake, and beautiful Lake Bled and it’s sense of the state to be above the human rights as above
island. The town was one of the earliest health resorts- the needs of the individual. In ‘the West’ there were also
with already more than a thousand hotel beds in 1900, interpretations of Human Rights. Michael Ignatius asserts
and a distinctive development as a place of relaxation that ‘human rights’ are a form of moral ‘trump card’ used
during the twentieth century, but also a place of conflict to suggest that some states are more ethical and legiti-
during the second world war and during the break-up of mate in their actions than others.
Yugoslavia, and a place of political importance during the
Tito years. Human Rights are not, of themselves to be worshipped-
they are present in order to be used, however they are
The EUROCLIO President, Ms Jelka Razpotnik, thanked not a ‘thing’ to have, they are instruments which need
the sponsors of the conference and explored EUROCLIO’s development, and serve no purpose if they cannot be un-
aims and objectives before handing over to Mrs Andrea derstood and accessed by the people. An understanding
Valič, the President of the History Teachers Association of of the rule of law, and the principle of accountability,
Slovenia, who spoke about the Slovenian HTAs two year need to be accessible to the masses to be managable and
partnership project with the Slovenian Ministry of Educa- convincing. In the past human rights were not always ex-
tion and Sport and EUROCLIO. Human Rights is a funda- pressed as an active concept- they were seen as some-
mental element of the policies of UN, the EU and the what organic. Today the concept is more prominent but
Council of Europe and are at the core of civic education, the specialists in the field often lack the knowledge of
civics and History education in schools. She spoke of the how might be best to educate society about the nature
sensitive and controversial nature of Human Rights edu- of Human Rights, and to achieve an appreciation that Hu-
cation and the way that it allows young people to acquire man Rights are there to help the powerless. Asked about
skills, concepts, attitudes and competencies which equip the role of the international community in securing hu-
them to take their place in society. man rights in troubled places Professor Türk expressed
concern about the lack of political energy to act swiftly
In the first lecture of the conference Dr Milan Zver seen in many states, which can allow state sponsored
pointed out that Human Rights are not just a theoretical abuses to continue without international action. Howev-
concept to be spoken about but not implemented. The er, he was also optimistic about the future, and felt that
period of industrialisation brought significant change to hopefully we no longer live in an era of conceptualising
society, but also challenges to lifestyle, political systems, socio-economic values, and therefore rights, bounded by
and cultural diversity. He raised the question of how far polarised political ideology.
it is possible to have a common concept of human rights
across different cultures- and asserted that there are Dr Lovro Šturm, the Minister of Justice of the Republic of
common standards of basic human dignity that run across Slovenia, presented a paper about Human Rights abuses
all cultures- and in this education plays a special role. in twentieth century on the territory of modern Slovenia.
In a lecture about the global need to ensure that Hu- The Minister started by discussing the nature of Slove-
man Rights are protected Romana Frankovic, from Am- nia under Fascism, National Socialism and Communism
nesty International (AI) in Slovenia, provided an overview before speaking about the how a national constitution
of the work of AI internationally, she provided a series should protect Human Rights, and how past abuses are
of powerpoint slides to contextualise the examples she addressed by the law.
mentioned,a nd had materials for the participants to In recently independent countries such as Slovenia there
take back and use with colleagues and in schools. The are often issues to resolve related to previous regimes,
audience asked a number of questions, related to how and the constitution consequently recognises the need
much positive action makes a difference, the impact of for human dignity, and the right to intellectual and spiri-
AIs work it’s campaigns. tual freedom, equality and rights.

Professor Danilo Türk, from the Faculty of Law at Lju- Dr Dina Kiwam, from Birkbeck College, of the University
bljana University, gave a lecture on the theme of Human of London, spoke about Education for Inclusive Citizen-
Rights in an era of Transition: From Ideology to a Sophisti- ship: Identity, History and Human Rights and used the situ-
cated Understanding. He identified a difference between ation in England within the UK as a case study.
historicism and historical trends, and noted the key turn-
ing point in the understanding of human rights marked by
the sequence of United Nations declarations at the end of
the 1940s and beginning of the 1950s- a significant act of
faith in the future which took place after world turmoil,
and in continuing time of conflict and division.

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1. A Short Introduction to the History of Slovenia
Andreja Valič, Slovenia

This article provides an overview of Slovenian History from early until more recent times, and illustrates how the
twentieth century led to an independent Slovenia.

The territory of the Present-day Slovenia was already set- The Hallstatt Period
tled by humans in the Paleolithic Period. One of the most The Early Iron Age lasted from the 4th to the 8th century
important archeological findings in the last few years on BC. Many new settlements were built in the Slovenian ter-
the Slovenian territory has been the finding of the flute ritory. Agriculture and casting of iron flourished. The tribal
in the cave Divje babe. It raised a lot of attention in the society was transformed into the society of the military
world of science. The flute is aproximately 55000 years aristocracy. A fine example of this culture is the bronze
old. According to the first theory it was made by the teeth situla from Vače, which was found in the central part of
of the beast, wheras the second theory proves it was made Slovenia.
by a neanderthal. Anyway, when the archeologists made
the identical flute, it produced sounds, so it was possible
to play on it.

The Flute from the Divje Babe Cave

There are many caves all over the Slovenian territory where
archeologists have found all sorts of interesting findings like
sewing needles, stone and bone arms and tools, remains of
The Vače Situla
beasts etc.

Neolithic Period
The Ljubljana Marshes were settled by lake dwellers, who Roman Times
lived in wooden dwellings, which were built on stilts driven From the end of the 2nd century BC the Roman State begun
into the marsh ground or lake bed. The lake dwellers were the military campaigns against the Noric state. In the first
mostly hunters, fishermen, stockbreeders and primitive farm- years AD the territory of present-day Slovenia was incorporat-
ers. To get around they used dugout canoes made by cutting ed into the Roman state. The area was divided into provinces
out the inside of the tree trunks. of Venetia-Histria, Noricum and Pannonia. In the provinces
the urban settlements or civitas began to spring up. The most
important Roman cities were Emona (the present-day capital
Ljubljana), Celeia (Celje) and Poetovio (Ptuj). Towns were
also important centres of Early Christianity with a flourishing
trade.

The Age of Migration


The Age of Migration started at the end of the 4th century,
when the barbarian peoples moved across the Slovenian ter-
ritory to conquer Italy. In 394 there was a well-known battle
near the Frigidus river in the western part of the Slovenian
territory, when Theodosius, the Christian Roman Emperor
from Constantinople, won the battle over his pagan oppo-
nent Eugenius from Rome. The battle has been the symbol
of the victory of christianity in the Roman Empire.
The Visigoths invaded Italy across the Slovenian territory
at the beginning of the 5th century. They were followed by
the Huns, Ostrogoths and Lombards. The sources show the
The Wheel from the Ljubljana Marshes
evidence of Slavs in the territory of Slovenia in the second
half of the 6th century. Historians offer several hypothesis
Archeologists have excavated many of these lake dwell- regarding their origin and settlement in this territory. Ac-
ings, whose remains are to be found in the National Mu- cording to the most prominent theory, the first wave of
seum in Ljubljana. In the year 2002 a wooden wheel was the Slavic people came from the territory of the Western
dug out and the scientific researches proved its origin from Slavs, while another wave of Slavs was arriving from the
approximately five thousands years BC. southeast at the end of the 6th century.

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Some amateur historians claim that Venets, who settled The Counts of Celje
the western part of our territory in the first millenium BC, The most powerful feudal dynasty in the Slovenian terri-
are the direct ancestors of the Slav ethnos. Although this tory were Habsburgs, who ruled over almost all the Slove-
theory has not been sufficiently proven, it seems in the nian territory by the second half of the 14th century. Their
last years one of the burning issues of the historiography coat of arms has three six-point stars on a blue background
in Slovenia. and is part of the Slovenian coat of arms. The rise of the
Counts of Celje began at the end of the 14th century when
Karantania the Celje dynasty was ruled by Count Herman II.
In the 7th century the Slavic state named Karantania was
established in the eastern part of the Alps beetwen the The Colonization of the Slovenian territory
rivers Drava, Danube and Mura. The settlers of Karantania The colonization started in the Middle Ages because the
fought with the neighbouring Avars, Bavarians and Lom- feudal lords wanted to obtain higher income and power on
bards. The centre of the state was the Castle Krn (Karn- their estates, which were colonized mainly by the surplus
burg) in today s Austrian Carinthia. The duke of Karantania population from their Slovenian and German feudal territo-
was elected by the military escort of the previous duke ries. In this process of agrarian colonization the ethnic bor-
and the special social class kosezi or free framers. The der between the German and the Slovenian population was
ceremony of duke inauguration took place near the duke changed as large areas were settled by German farmers.
stone at the Krn Castle and was unique in Europe of that
times. The Middle Ages is the period of two main influences: the
southern German influence and the Aquileian-Venetian
influence. All over the Slovenian territory we could trace
buildings built in Romanesque and Gothic style.

Reformation
The most important historical processes in the Slovenian ter-
ritory between the end of the 15th and the end of the 16th
century were defence against Turks, development of new
towns, peasant uprisings, the lively flow of Renaissance and
Humanist ideas and the Protestant Reformation.

The period of the Lutheran Reformation is of utmost impor-


tance for the formation of the Slovenian national identity as
one of its main elements was started. Namely the beginnings
of the Slovenian literature were born. The leading person-
ality of this period was Primož Trubar, a very bright pastor,
who worked in German and Slovenian lands. He decided to
acquaint Slovenians with the text of the Bible in their own
language, which until then was not developed as literary
language. In 1550 Trubar wrote two basic books: elementary
The Duke Stone
grammar book and a catechism, later he translated the New
Testament and wrote a number of other books necessary for
Before the new duke started his reign, he had to swear in liturgy and schools. The entire translation of the Bible in the
front of all assembled people, that he would respect and Slovenian language by Jurij Dalmatin was published in 1584.
defend the people s will and their rights. The ceremony His translation consolidated the literary standards of the Slo-
was preserved into the late Middle Ages long after Karan- venian language and proved its maturity.
tania lost its political independence in the middle of the The Slovenian Protestants were supported by many citi-
8th century. Besides Karantania the Lombard chronicles zens and noblemen. Their cultural activities are consid-
report the state of Carniola in the territory of present-day ered the cultural birth of the nation. Their concepts were
Slovenia as well, but hardly any sources of Carniola are raised again by the Enlightenment two hundred years later
preserved. after the period of political pressure and the Counter Ref-
ormation.
The Slovenian Territory in the Middle Ages
Christianity begun to spread among the setllers of Karanta- Peasant Uprisings
nia and Carniola in the second half of the 8th century. Ba- The constant attacks of the Turkish army to the Slovenian
varians helped the people form Karantania against Avars, provinces caused a lot lof damage and fear. The state de-
but they demanded the political and religious supremacy fence was poor, so people protect themselves by building
over Karantania. First missionaries were Irishmen, sent by walls around the churches and hide into these fortresses.
the bishop from Salzburg. Poor defence against the Turkish attacks was one of the
main reasons for peasant uprisings. Among them were also
Most of kosezi were turned to bondsmen, whe-reas their new taxes, living conditions were getting worse etc. More
land was given to the feudal lords and politically divided or less intensively peasant uprisings continued until the
into different marches. The ruling lords transformed the abolition of feudalism in 1848.
land into their own dynastic territories, which developed
into historical provinces within the framework of the holy The Age of Absolutism
Roman-German empire. These provinces were Styria, Car- In the 17th and the 18th century which was the Age of
niola, Carinthia and Histria. The capital of Styria was Gra- Absolutism in the Habsburg Empire some important works
dec (Graz), the capital of Carniola Ljubljana (Laibach), the were written by the authors from the Slovenian territory
capital of Carinthia Celovec (Klagenfurt ) and the capital on the history of this area and its natural, ethnographic
of Histria Gorica (Gorizia). and topographic characteristics. The main work is Glory

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of the Duchy of Carniola, written by Janez Vajkard Valva- After Napoleon was defeated near Leipzig in 1813 the
sor that was published in Nurnberg in 1689. Because of his Austrian authorities returned.
studies of the intermittent Lake of Cerknica Valvasor was
admitted to the English Royal Academy of Science. The Period before 1848
The Austrian authorities restored the old feudal and po-
The Enlightenment litical system. The Age of Absolutism opposed nationalistic
started in the Slovenian territory in the era of the Austrian political movements among the nations in the Habsburg
empress Maria Theresia. This was the period of intensive monarchy. Although the political pressures this was the pe-
economic step ahead in the Slovenian provinces. Through riod of cultural and social development in the Slovenian
state legislation Enlightened Absolutism attempted to reg- provinces. The number of people living in towns was grow-
ulate and improve the transition of bondsmen to heredi- ing, modern factories like spinning and textile mills and
tary farmers. Education was considered as one of the main sugar rafineries were built. The most important harbin-
elements in improvement of the social position of farm- ger of the new industrial era was the construction of the
ers. In 1774 a elementary school was introduced to teach Southern Railway from Vienna to Trieste in the 30ties and
the reading, writing and arithmetic. Elementary schools 40ties. The railway was finished in 1857.
supposed to be understood by children therefore in the
Slovenian territory the language in schools was Slovenian.
The use of the Slovenian language in schools was another
important element of the national formation of the Slo-
venian nation. The next step was passsing of a decree by
Emperor Josef II, which gave the bondsmen their personal
freedom and opened the door for the formation of the Slo-
venian middle class.

Ljubljana in 1821

One of the most important personalities of this time is the


greatest Slovenian poet France Prešern, who was born near
Bled. Through his excellent poetic creations Slovenian cul-
ture and Slovenian language was raised to the European
level. Prešern longed for more freedom and independence
for Slovenians. He expressed that wish in his poems, es-
pecially in Zdravljica (A Toast) which became the national
anthem of the independent Slovenia in 1991.

A Programme for a United Slovenia


The first Ljubljana library The first Slovenian political programme, which became
the central national and political programme for the next
At the end of the 18th century the intelectual elite, among 150 years, was born in the March Revolution in 1848. It
whom were priests, poets, lawyers, historians, dramatists, was written by intellectuals and demanded one Slovenian
doctors and botanists, begun a cultural campaign to raise province with its parliament and government. The Slove-
the Slovenian language to the same level as German and nian language would be the official language. This United
Italian. The grammar, the new translation of the bible, the Slovenia would stay within the framework of the Habsburg
first scientific history of the Slovenian nation, the first two Empire, but would have the privilege of certain degree of
plays and the first newspaper in the Slovenian language the national autonomy. The authors of the programme re-
were published. jected the idea of the United Germany with the Slovenians
included.
The French Period and the Illyrian Provinces
The Slovenian territory was occupied by the French army Development before the Great War
led by Napoleon after he defeated Austria for the third The period before the 1st World War was the time of the
time in 1809. Napoleon cut off Austria from the Adriatic growth of the political and national awareness, the time of
Sea by creating the Illyrian provinces from Slovenian and growing literacy and industrialization and also the time of
Croatian regions. The capital of the Illyrian provinces was severe economic crises in agriculture. Austria was turning
Ljubljana. The French applied the Code Napoleon, but itself into the political democracy and within this frame
they did not carry out the final step: the total abolition Slovenians found all sort of ways to express their attitudes
of feudal rule. The social position of peasants did not im- and demands.
prove, high taxes were introduced, the rate of production
declined and provinces were affected because of the con- One of them was organizing of mass rallies under the open
tinental blocade. On the other hand the period of French sky, where all levels of the Slovenian society participated
rule strenghtened the position of the Slovenian language (tabori). They started in 1868 and ended in the beginning
in public use. of seventies.

ZRSS_Zbornik_ENG.indd 7 14.2.2008 12:19:32


Due to the burdens of farmers obligations towards their National Library, Academy of Science and Arts and the first
previous feudal lords and growing rural population, the radio station have been established.
process of emigration to the Western Europe and espe- The Slovenian national identity was enhanced through
cially to the Northern America, continued. sports as well: i.e. Leon Štukelj became the triple olympic
champion in gymnastics in Paris 1924, Milan Vidmar was
The Great War fourth in the world championship, but the most popular
In April 1915 the agreement was signed in London beetwen among the Slovenians were and still are the winter sports,
Entente and the Central Forces. According to this agree- especially skiing and ski jumpings. The world famous ski
ment in May 1915 the Isonzo front on the Western part of jump in Planica was built and Sepp Bradl jumped as the
the Slovenian territory near the river Isonzo (Soča) was first man in the history over 100 metres.
opened. Many of the Slovenians boys fought in the Austro-
Hungarian Army and also in the Italian army. The battles
on the Isonzo front were the largest war operations in the
mountain area in the history.

The University in Ljubljana

Slovenians in the Second World War


Yugoslavia was attacked on 6th April 1941 and the Slove-
nian territory was occupied by the German, Italian and
Hungarian army. The ultimate aim of all three occupiers
was to destroy the Slovenians as a nation. They differed
only in methods and the time they alotted to achieve this
Slovenian soldiers during the Great War aim. The Italian regime in the Ljubljana province acted
sympathetically towards the Slovenians, whereas the Ger-
mans in the north and east of the occupied Slovenian terri-
tory began executing their ruthless plan for ethnic cleans-
In May 1917 afer the death of the Austro-Hungarian emperor ing by deportations and mobilization of young Slovenians
Franz Joseph II the new Slovenian political programmme into the German army.
(the so called May Declaration) was presented in the Vi-
enna parliament. Slovenian politics together with their
coleagues from the South Slavic provinces suggested the Deportation
On the whole the Slovenians rejected the occupation and
reshaping of the Habsburg monarchy into three units: the
only the small minority welcomed it. The Slovenian politi-
Austrian one, the Hungarian one and the South Slavic one.
cal elite shared the belief that ‘the best way is waiting.’ In
When the 1st World War ended, the state of Slovenians,
the Ljubljana Province they accepted a functional colabora-
Croats and Serbs was established, but it lasted only one
tion with the Italian occupier, justifying this policy by belief
month. On 1st December 1918 it was included in the new
they protect the Slovenian nation.
Yugoslav state under the rule of the Karadzordzevic dy-
After the German attack on the Soviet Union the Libera-
nasty.
tion Front, consisted of the Communists, some Christian
Socialists and left orientated intelligence, appealed to the
Slovenians in the First Yugoslavia Sovenians to start immediate armed resistance. Gradually
The entrance of the Slovenians into the new state meant but surely the leadership of the partisan movement and
not only political, but social and national changes as well. the Liberation Front was taken over by the Slovenian Com-
The Slovenian political life in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia munist Party, which was a part of the Yugoslav Communist
is defined by two characteristics: a strong ideological and Party. They claimed themselves the exclusive right to rep-
political contrast, a rivalry and sometimes tense political resent the nation during the war.
battles between three main political parties: the most
popular Slovenian Peoples Party, the Liberal Party and the This lack of democratic principles frightened the old Slo-
Social Democratic Party. The other defining characteristic venian political elite whose attitude was influenced by the
was the struggle against Yugoslav national unitarism and pre-war ideological indoctrination, which was the founda-
state centralism. tion of the severe and tragic polarization among the Slo-
venians.
The twenties and thirties were also the years of economic They began to organize opposition against the Communists
and cultural development of the Slovenians, although the and the Liberation Front. The fear of the Communist revo-
emigration to Germany, USA and South America continued, lutionary excesses caused organizing of home guards and
especially in the first half of the thirties. The University in seeking help from the occupiers. More than 14 000 people,
Ljubljana, the National Museum, Theatre and Opera, the

ZRSS_Zbornik_ENG.indd 8 14.2.2008 12:19:32


This model was far more authoritarian: it was clearly na-
tionalistic, ethnocentric, accepting centralized control.
This model was characteristic of the Serbian regime,
whose leader Slobodan Milošević was convinced that Ser-
bia hasn’t got the proper status within Yugoslavia.
This idea was directly responsible for setting into motion
the historic events that made their devastating and very
bloody march across the rest of the decade.

Yugoslavia began to fragment with the Kosovo crises in


1989 and 1990.
General feelings and aspirations of the Slovenian people at
that time were the desire for greater economic efficiency,
increased democratization and integration into Europe.
Seeing the increasingly hard-line nature of the Belgrade
regime Slovenians were afraid that something terrible
Mass Deportations Begin would happen. There were fears of civil war, of military
takeover and economic chaos.
who used to be the members of the home guards, but also
children and women were killed by the partisans after the In May 1988 the military authorities arrested four Slove-
World War II without any trials. nians (among them the current president of the Slovenian
government Janez Janša who was at that time the jour-
nalist). They were accused of betraying the conspirative
Socialist Yugoslavia military document. The trial was held in Ljubljana in the
The Partisan army won the war in May 1945 together with
Serbo Croatian language and caused mass demonstrations.
the Allies and the Yugoslav army. The governing in Slovenia
The civil society in Slovenia was woken up and the commu-
was taken over by the Liberation Front which was politi-
nist authorities became aware of its power and eagerness
cally completely dominated by the Communists. Slovenia
to change the system.
became one of the six republics of the Yugoslav Federa-
tion.
The cracks in the regime were getting deeper and deeper.
The first Slovenian political parties after the 2nd World War
Yugoslavia Disintegrates, and an were established in 1989. In April 1990 free parliamentary
Independent Slovenia is formed elections were held. New political grouping DEMOS under
Yugoslavia has always been a land of diversity. The idea of the leadership of the former disident dr. Joze Pucnik won
self-management socialism in the seventies tried to cover that very clearly. They focused on issues of national sov-
over social, national and other differences. ereignty and democratization – still within the framework
of a federative or confederative Yugoslavia. But Milošević
In fact the state was torn between the north and the south, took another steps to centralize the Yugoslav state.
the north being richer and belonging to the middle Euro-
pean cultural and historical area, the south poorer and be- In a referendum at the end 93,2 % of eligible voters who
longing to the southeastern European cultural heritage. participated, 88,2 % voted for a free and independent Slo-
venia. When Slovenia and Croatia declared independence
As an important leader of the global non-aligned move- on June 25, 1991, the Yugoslav army intervened. Slovenia
ment, Yugoslavia was basically a developing country. Like had made its decision and stood firm. During the 10-day
many such countries, it was hit hard by the world debt cri- war on the Slovenian territory the old multiethnic Yugoslav
sis of the mid-1980s. the economy and the state eventually army disintegrated. In October the Yugoslav army retreated
found itself choking in debt. The deteriorating economic completely from Slovenia. At the same time, significant de-
situation was doubled by the political vacuum created by velopments were occuring elsewhere in the international
Tito’s legacy. community. It became clear that the Soviet Union was fall-
ing apart, that the new states were emerging and that the
In the attempt to solve these problems, two tendencies era of perestroika and glasnost had come to an end.
emerged:
• The decentralist and democratic vision was advocated At the end of 1991 and the beginning of 1992, the first
by the richer republics: the Slovenians and some others. international diplomatic recognitions of Slovenia came The
The main characteristic of this vision was establishing EU decided to recognize the former Yugoslav republics on
the fundamental institutions of democracy: free and fair January 15, 1992, and later that year Slovenia became a
elections, the rule of law, multiparty system, peaceful member of the UN and a member of NATO and the EU in
settling of differences. 2004. In January 2007 we entered the EURO currency zone
• The centralist option was advocated by the federal and in 2008 holds the Presidency of EU.
government (and in the beginning by some of the less History is the best teacher, but … it needs more pupils
developed republics).

ZRSS_Zbornik_ENG.indd 9 14.2.2008 12:19:33


2. Structural and Cultural Conditions for Teaching About Human Rights in the
21st Century
Dr. Milan Zver, Minister of Education and Sport, Republic of Slovenia

In this speech Dr Zver explores the importance of Human Rights Education, and explains how he sees this as a
fundamental part of education for active and progressive citizenship.

The reflection on human rights in 21st century has not much This raises numerous interesting questions. Could we agree
to do with history, but it rather refers to the future. In spite with adaptation of the human rights as universal and glob-
of that, allow me to present my standpoints on the develop- al concept to the different cultural settings? The answer
ment of human rights from the historical and sociological is probably yes! But, can we tolerate violations and en-
point of view. Discussing human rights is particularly vital dangering of human rights in some cultures where gender
for the countries, where people, in some periods, could not equality is not even adopted as a principle, where no reli-
experience freedom and democracy. Slovenia used to be one gious freedom exists, using the excuse of special cultural
of them. and traditional customs? Where are the limits of such ‘cul-
tural’ difference?
“La liberte est un absolu qui ne se choisit pas” (Sartre)
We must be aware of the fact that human rights are not In my opinion, the answer should be clear. Some core
only a theoretical concept to be understood and taught of the human rights should be reestablished all over the
about, but rather a cultural pattern to be lived upon. As world to ensure the dignity of everyone. No ideology, no
the minister responsible for education, I would say that religion could be above it! But the question remains, how
this primarily refers to young people. to carry out the above?

Sartre’s quotation that every one is convicted to freedom Education and human rights
may be interpreted in different ways. However, the truth All areas of the policy bear responsibility for the success
is that every person is essentially free, but it is also true of our countries, but education policy plays a special role.
that it is the social environment that primarily determines That is the statement in one of the papers of the Ger-
such freedom. Moreover, people should be capable of living man Presidency of EU regarding the values and EU future.
it,that means, whether their competences enable them an Education is the key to life chances of an individual, to
active social inclusion. What can a society and school do participate in cultural, economic and social life. Further-
in this respect? more, education forms identities and is crucial for social
cohesion.
Social Changes and Human Rights
The concept of human rights positions the individuals into If we add that the social inclusion means exercising the
the centre of the society. The society changes very quickly available rights, we, dear teachers, are putting very heavy
and human beings with it. Some 250 years ago, the ideas, responsibility on our shoulders. We are aware of the fact
knowledge, skills, myths, values, behavioral patterns that expectations of the society regarding schools are get-
mostly came out of agricultural concept of living. What ting higher and higher. School still has a strong impact on
followed was industrial culture. Some of the greatest in- the creation of what some people call software of mind
stitutions were established in that time, like market econ- when speaking about culture. Primary school is an institu-
omy, democracy, media, mass schools etc. Human rights tion, which is compulsory and plays a special role in the
were an inseparable part of them. All equal was the most society.
famous leading notion of the industrial times. Difference
was mostly regarded as a deviation. The main task of the education policy is to form the new
curricula of tomorrow. How to establish a school as a space
Today we live in quite different structural and cultural that contributes to the culture of respect? Respect of oth-
circumstances. We are faced with a new concept of un- er people who are and have the right to be equal and dif-
derstanding space, time, ourselves, others, environment. ferent at the same time. Since experts are anticipating an
Under such conditions, collisions occur in terms of values, increasing number of children with special needs, this will
paradigms and culture between individuals, social and certainly constitute an important issue in terms of human
political groups and generations, cohabiting in time and rights. It is crucial that we enable each child to become
space. Post-modern society is pluralistic and decentral- an equal member of society according to their capacities
ized; it stimulates our feeling and ability to tolerate the and abilities.
differences. Moreover, it requires an inclusion of differ-
ences. Freedom, equality and tolerance are becoming the What is the role of historical science?
key values, providing a basis for the exercising of human This question will be answered by your conference and fu-
rights. ture work! The development of human rights in the past
few centuries has been evident and easily recognized.
Human dignity – a common base of all differences What we have to present to young people are the pro-
Human rights are increasingly become a global phenom- cesses, events and political systems, which have endan-
enon. Even more, a global society and global culture are gered the dignity of individuals. We should firmly state the
being created. It is known, that some of the processes of differen-ce between these systems and democracy. On the
standardization and uniformity may jeopardize cultural di- other hand, teaching only historical violations of human
versity in the world. In order to emphasize the importance rights is not a good way. It is of vital importance to transfer
of cultural diversity, a notion of glocality has been coined to the students the fact that the history of human rights is
to express a certain compromise between locality and glo- not only a ‘dark side of the moon’. The history of human
balization. rights is also the history of humanity.

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What is the Slovenian education system striving to didactic materials issued (My rights project is a didactic ma-
achieve? terial used during Slovenian’s presidency of OSCE (Organiza-
Young people in schools deal with human rights in two tion for Security and Cooperation in Europe)).
ways. The first is to learn human rights as a subject in
the educational process and training, the next one is the The year 2005 was the year of citizenship also in Slovenia
way of life. Learning human rights is ensured in the first – an action plan was drafted and more than 100 different
three year primary education cycle as a part of the sub- activities and actions were carried out. At the same time,
ject called Environmental Studies whereas in the second various activities are being conducted at schools related to
three-year cycle it is carried out in the scope of the sub- exercising rights. One of the activities attracting a lot of
ject called Society. Later, they learn about them during media attention is the so-called children’s and students’
history lessons, and in the last three-year cycle as a part parliament, which has become a true movement in Slove-
of Civic education and ethics. nia. Although the rights of students in Slovenian schools are
protected with various laws and other acts we wish to de-
At the secondary level, students are taught about human velop a deeper sense of solidarity among young people as
rights in general secondary school within history, sociology well as their concrete responsibilities and duties, which are
and geography lessons, whereas in the vocational secondary in the socialization process equally important as rights.
schools, the history, civic education and geography lesson
are interlinked. These topics are also taught within optional Finally, I firmly believe, it is not enough to establish demo-
subjects. Over the past few years the Ministry has encour- cratic institutions or structures to exercise human rights.
aged schools under the special Hidden Treasure project to That is necessary, but not a sufficient condition. What we all
develop and implement projects covering this topic.The need is a new civic culture. And the school is the main ele-
Ministry has also supported the publication of a number of ment in the process of raising the level of such culture.

Dr. Zver speaking at the Conference in Bled

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3. Human Rights in an Era of Transition: From Ideology to a Sophisticated Under-
standing
Professor Danilo Türk, Slovenia

In this paper Professor Türk explores how conceptualisations of Human Rights, and the rights enjoyed by much of
Europe on a personal level, changed during the later twentieth century, and presents his recommended elements
for a contemporary human rights programme.

There is hardly any doubt that the advent of human rights included in the legal order. In other places repressive prac-
after World War II represents revolutionary change. At the tices were used without much hesitation. The former SFR
international level this was marked by three seminal inter- (Socialist Federal Republic) of Yugoslavia was an example
national documents: The Universal Declaration of Human of both types of situation, parts of the country, in particu-
Rights (1948); the Convention on Prevention and Punish- lar Slovenia were quite sophisticated and found ways of
ment of the Crime of Genocide (1948); and the Convention integrating large aspects of human rights into a socialist
on the Status of Refugees (1951). ideological framework. In other places, such as in Kosovo,
state repression was brutal.
Change at the level of international law also reflected a
cultural change: human rights have become indispensable. The Democratic world, on the other hand, was different
They are no longer an internal affair of states. In fact, but not altogether free from ideological interpretation
the international debate on human rights has become one of human rights: Human rights were taken seriously but
of the most typical features of the international scene of also with an ideological note. Michael Ignatieff, (Ignatieff,
the past decades. New norms and institutions have been Michael (2001) Human Rights, Politics and Idolatry. Prin-
developed. ceton: Princeton University Press,) defined two types of
ideological interpretation of human rights in the West:
But has there been a single, unified culture of human
rights? Has there been genuine acceptance of the univer- − Human rights as politics and
sality of human rights? − Human rights as idolatry.

These are important questions with a profound implica- There has been a degree of ‘rights narcissism’ and belief
tion for the practice of human rights and for human rights that the West has resolved its problems. Human Rights
education. were used in a seemingly a-political manner: like a set of
‘moral trump cards’ whose function is to provide definitive
For the larger part of the era of human rights (i.e. from judgment of others, i.e. the people outside the realm of
the end of WWII up to the end of the Cold War) there have the ‘free world’. As a result, the bearers of this approach
been two cultures of human rights, one associated with the were disabled to understand the political and social com-
ideology and practice of the socialist camp and the other plexity of the issues at hand. Human Rights were then used
with the democratic world. as an instrument of policy of civilising others and conse-
quently became the most controversial part of politics in
Let us start with the socialist camp: There was no outright places such as the United Nations.
denial of human rights, in fact socialist states were among
the ones which ratified most of international human rights The other ideological interpretation of human rights views
treaties. But the interpretation of these treaties, and the human rights as a form of ‘secular religion’. Human rights
whole concept of human rights, was intensely ideological. become a matter of idolatry, humanism worshipping itself.
The distance between the normative and the real situation This approach overlooks the fact that human rights are in-
was very serious. struments of empowerment of people, and will be useful
to the extent that they serve the people and that it is
A good example of this technique is the priority accorded for the powerless people themselves to decide how to use
to economic, social and cultural rights, an ideological con- human rights. This simple precept is often forgotten by
cept motivated to provide a basis for avoidance of obliga- people in power in democratic countries.
tions in the field of civil and political rights. Economic,
social and cultural rights, to the extent they were imple- Not so in the case of the powerless. The Afro-American
mented, provided popular support and legitimacy, as well movement of 1960s was intensely religious and the distinc-
as a temporary social peace. They also offered a redefi- tion between religion and human rights was clear. Christi-
nition of the concept of freedom, essentially in terms of anity proper was the mobilizing factor, while human rights
freedom from want. This created an illusion of ‘democracy were, correctly, the objective, and after that objective
of a higher order’. was achieved, the means to protect human dignity. At no
point was the human rights cause turned into idolatry,
In addition to these techniques, the principle of legality there was simply no space for that.
was often used as superior to international definition of
human rights, in particular in such areas as freedom of But turning human rights themselves into a religion is idolatry
expression, freedom of association and the right to take and is insensitive to the people human rights are supposed to
part in government. serve. This lack of sensitivity transforms the language of hu-
man rights into the language of power and authority. It is here
There were significant differences from one socialist coun- that the inherent universality of human rights gets blurred
try to another. Where the ruling regimes were shrewd and universality starts to look like an exercise of western im-
enough and have accumulated enough wealth they were perialism. This contributed to the opposition to the univer-
able to bribe a large part of the population and rule with- sality of human rights and to the worshipping of alternative
out direct repression. Human rights were redefined and ideologies, such as the ideology of ‘Asian values’.

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The ideological interpretations of human rights such as those a. Cultivate the sensitivity for the downtrodden without
outlined above, are particularly important to educators. They reducing it to charity: the modern poor and excluded
have to avoid the traps of ideology and figure out how to are less visible than in the past and they will not be
bring human rights to the people who need human rights. easy to empower.

There are two principles which can serve as the firewall b. Cultivate tolerance without cultural relativism: the
against ideology: first, the understanding that human rights West now includes a larger area than ever before but it
as essentially legal concepts which are fundamental to the faces a greater problem of interaction with other civi-
organisation of society. Therefore their legal aspects have lizations, in particular with Islam. Dialogue is vital and
to be treated seriously. An intelligent sample of case law is must be tolerant but should not concede to the fashion
necessary in any serious programme of human rights edu- of relativism. Human rights are a secular and pragmatic
cation (it being understood that unnecessary detail should platform which should be handled in a manner which
be avoided). makes agreement possible across divergent cultural
viewpoints. In case of conflict of norms, human rights
Second, and even more important, understanding that hu- norms prevail over the norms of religious tradition.
man rights are there to help the powerless, irrespective of c. Cultivate the importance of the rule of law and the
how little sympathy the powerless enjoy in the eyes of the principle of legality but don’t reduce it to bureaucratic
general public or the holders of power. Therefore, dealing formalism.
with different kinds of minorities and excluded groups in
the society is likely to be the priority. These elements are among the essentials of a much need-
ed human rights agenda. There are many others and the
The first of the two mentioned principles requires careful prioritisation depends on the social context. The key to
presentation of the legal nature of human rights, without success is in the ability to demonstrate that human rights
creating the illusion that law automatically ensures human are of practical use.
rights.
There are big issues out there as well. The global debate
The second requires the necessary sensitivity for the dis- on human rights is right now in a lull but this situation will
advantaged groups of today, with the ability to translate not last. Sooner or later the discussion on human rights
human rights principles into meaningful and specific de- impact of globalisation will start again and the question
mands. Obviously, prejudice against the disadvantaged will be how can human rights help the victims of globalisa-
must be avoided. tion.
The UN should be directed towards these issues and should
Educators must be aware that without these qualities their play a role. The EU will have to define its approach to this
educational effort will remain idle and academic, without issue in the future. And, as before, the real change will
much influence on the real world. happen only insofar as human rights will prove to be of
practical relevance to the needed change.
Here are some elements for a contemporary human rights
agenda, which is as much an agenda of action as an agenda
of education:

Professor Türk speaking at the Conference

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4. From Human Rights to Human Duties:
The Evolution of Human Rights Mentalities in the 20th Century
Professor Cirila Toplak

In this paper, Dr Cirila Toplak, from the Political Science Department in the Faculty of Social Sciences of the
University of Ljubljana, explores how attitudes to Human Rights have evolved and developed, creating a more
inclusive approach- but also presenting challenges.

Human Rights as a ‘New’ Concept the ages. It was in ancient Greece where the concept of
The expression “human rights” is relatively new, having human rights began to take a greater meaning than the
come into use only after World War II, with the founding of prevention of arbitrary persecution. Human rights became
the United Nations in 1945 and the adoption by the UN Gen- synonymous with natural rights, rights that spring from
eral Assembly of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights natural law. According to the Greek tradition of Socrates
in 1948. It replaced the phrase “natural rights,” which was and Plato, natural law is law that reflects the natural order
no longer correct in part because the concept of natural law of the universe, essentially the will of the gods who con-
(to which it was related) had become controversial; and be- trol nature. This idea of natural rights continued in ancient
cause the phrase “the rights of Man” did not apply explicitly Rome; natural rights belonged to every person, whether
to the rights of women as well. they were a Roman citizen or not.

For the last part of the nineteenth and first half of the Despite this principle, there are fundamental differenc-
twentieth century human rights activism remained largely es between human rights today and natural rights of the
tied to political and religious groups and movements. Many past. For example, it used to be considered natural to keep
specific civil rights and human rights movements managed slaves. In the Middle Ages and later the Renaissance, the
to affect profound social changes during this time. Labour decline in power of the Church led society to place more of
unions brought about laws granting workers the right to an emphasis on the individual, which in turn caused the shift
strike, establishing minimum work conditions, forbidding or away from feudal and monarchist societies.
regulating child labour, establishing a forty-hour work week The next fundamental philosophy of human rights arose from
in the United States and many European countries, etc. The the idea of positive law. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) saw
women’s rights movement succeeded in gaining for many natural law as very vague and hollow and too open to vast
women the right to vote. National liberation movements in differences of interpretation. Jeremy Bentham, another legal
many countries succeeded in driving out colonial powers. positivist sums up the essence of the positivist view: “Right
is a child of law; from real laws come real rights, but from
Movements by long-oppressed racial and religious minori- imaginary law, from “laws of nature,” come imaginary rights.
ties succeeded in many parts of the world, among them … “Natural rights” is simple nonsense.” (J.Bentham, Anarchi-
the U.S. Civil Rights movement. chical Follies. In: N. Kinsella, “Tomorrow’s Rights in the Mirror
In the course of the 20th century there has been a dra- of History” in G. Gall, ed., Civil Liberties in Canada. Toronto:
matic growth in scientific advances and technological Butterworths, 1982, p.17.)
development. Advances in biotechnology, the use of new
information and communications technologies and the so- This transfer of abstract ideas regarding human rights and their
phistication of nuclear and conventional weapons of war, relation to the will of nature into concrete laws is exemplified
the power of transnational corporations and the reach of best by various legal documents that specifically described
international criminal activities make a renewed effort to these rights in detail: English Magna Carta adopted in 1215,
protect fundamental human rights more urgent than ever French Declaration of the Rights of Manin 1789, American Bill
before. of Rightsin 1789, the Geneva Convention in 1864 etc.

Nowadays, there are numerous human rights issues, from Human Rights Issues Today: Universalism vs.
arbitrary imprisonment, torture, and outright discrimina- Cultural Relativism
tion, to cases where the distinction between two sides is One of the most pertinent issues of the past twenty years
more subjective, such as female genital mutilation (FGM), has been the conflict between two different ideologies of
child labour, political asylum and cases relating to the AIDS human rights on a national scale, universalism, and cul-
crisis in Africa. tural relativism. Universalism holds that more “primitive”
Also increasingly pertinent issues are the right to the pre- cultures will eventually evolve to have the same system
serve the genetic heritage, the right personal and collec- of law and rights as Western cultures. Cultural relativists
tive fulfillment, together with the right to live in a balanced hold an opposite, but similarly rigid viewpoint, that a tra-
ecological environment, exoneration of future generations ditional culture is unchangeable.
from blame for any crime committed by their ancestors In universalism, an individual is a social unit, possessing inalien-
and the right of future generations to peace. able rights. In the cultural relativist model, a community is the
The rights of future generations are the duties of present basic social unit and concepts such as individualism, freedom of
generations. This was also recognized by the UNESCO Gen- choice, and equality are absent. It is recognized that the com-
eral Conference, when in 1997 it adopted the telling Dec- munity always comes first. This doctrine has been exploited by
laration on the Responsibilities of the Present Generations many states, which decry any impositions of Western rights as
towards Future Generations. cultural imperialism. These states ignore that they have adopt-
ed the Western nation state, and the goal of modernization and
Historical Development economic prosperity.
Although “human rights” is a recent term, it is an ancient
concept. It is a concept that has been constantly evolving Cultural relativism is in itself a very arbitrary idea and
throughout human history. Human rights have been intri- cultures are rarely unified in their viewpoints on differ-
cately tied to the laws, customs and religions throughout ent issues. Whenever one group denies rights to another

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group within a culture, it is usually for their own benefit. The State of Political Asylum
Therefore human rights cannot be truly universal unless Article Four of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
they are not bound to cultural decisions that are not made states “Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in
unanimously, or do not apply to every individual. Cultural other countries asylum from persecution”. Political asylum
relativism has great potential for abuse however modern has become an increasingly important issue surrounding
universalism is not the ideal solution either. Universalism is human rights. There has been an increase in the number
used by many Western states to negate the validity of more of refugees seeking asylum in the past decade due to the
‘traditional’ systems of law. It is not possible to impose a high number of instances of civil wars. However, many of
universal system of human rights if the effects of social the richer nations deny refugees asylum on the basis of
change stemming from modernization are not understood population control.
or worse yet, ignored. In non-Western societies, industri- Despite being clearly stated in the Universal Declaration of Hu-
alization, capitalism, and democracy might not have been man Rights, political asylum is definitely not fully guaranteed.
the eventual outcome of the process of cultural evolution. Though many states ratified the UN Refugee Convention and
These ideologies have been shaped and created by West- its 1967 protocol, refugees often find that there is insufficient
ern imperialism, the slave trade, colonialism, moderniza- protection from the more powerful nations. In a report on po-
tion, and consumerism. litical asylum, Refugees Face Barriers to Political Asylum, by
Amnesty International, ‘countries which proclaim the impor-
Today’s world shows signs of positive progress towards the tance they attach to human rights simultaneously force men,
universal system of human rights. The declaration of human women and children back into the arms of the persecutors by
rights occurred immediately after the atrocities commit- obstructing access to political asylum procedures, misinter-
ted during WWII. Through a forum such as the United Na- preting the UN Refugee Convention definition of who is a refu-
tions, cultural differences are better able to be resolved, gee and forcibly returning those who are in need of protection’
thereby paving the way for universalism while at the same (Amnesty, 1997, & 1998).
time compromising on the needs of certain cultures. As the
world becomes a smaller place with the advent of globali- Many richer nations utilize a variety of ways to prevent ref-
sation, universalism makes more sense as a philosophy of ugees from seeking asylum, such as by portraying refugees
human rights. In a world where many people might not be as people who really do not need help. Others are denied
governed by national borders, having fundamental human asylum because of visa requirements and carrier sanctions.
rights instead of ones bound to certain cultures provides Carrier sanctions essentially impose large fines on airlines
the best solution. or ship-owners that allow people to board their craft with-
out required documents. Detention is also used as a way
Collective Rights versus Individual Rights to discourage refugees from seeking asylum in a particular
Another prominent issue in human rights is the one be- country. During their detention, the asylum seekers could
tween collective rights and individual rights. Collective live in harsh conditions without knowing when they will
rights protect a group of people, while individual rights be set free.
protect the individual. It is especially important to take
into account both collective and individual rights when Female Genital Mutilation
condemning certain “violations” of human rights. Female Genital Mutilation is the practice of removing the clit-
oris, labia minora and labia majora, and then in some cases,
The case of child labour effectively demonstrates the clash stitching together the vaginal walls to insure fidelity to the
between the two concepts. It is possible for one to vehe- husband. It is practiced in some nations in Africa, and is es-
mently advocate higher pay and safer work conditions for the timated to affect up to 100 million women. It is performed
children in a third world country as a group, yet how can one on little girls, and is considered to be a coming of age cer-
argue that the single option represents a solution for each emony, when girls differentiate themselves from boys by re-
individual? Child labour is a very serious problem in many moving their ‘male parts’. (http://www.amnesty.org/ailib/
third world countries. In general, children are used for low intcam/femgen/fgm1.htm) Aside from the immediate physical
skill and labour intensive jobs, such as agriculture, mining, dangers, there is a psychological shock, as well as greatly in-
food processing, and manufacturing goods such as carpets, creased chance of infection and death in the future.
garments and furniture. Employers prefer children as they are Article 5 of the UN Convention on the Elimination of All
more obedient than their adult counterparts, and less likely Forms of Discrimination states that governments must
to complain about their poor treatment. There have been re- strive for ‘the elimination of prejudices and customary
ports of children not receiving their promised pay. As the chil- and all other practices which are based on the idea of the
dren are unable to receive a proper education, it is difficult inferiority or the superiority of either of the sexes’.
for them to rectify their situation.
There is a wide range of opinions from the condemn- However, defendants of the practice believe that it is a
ers of child labour; some support putting a halt to fundamental part of the culture. Surprisingly, it is usu-
the more unfair forms of child labour, such as pros- ally the women are the most ardent defenders, as it is a
titution and working in hazardous conditions, while woman that performs the procedure, and later on there
others call for immediately abolishing child labour. is a feeling of sisterhood between those that have under-
The Western world is becoming more involved with hu- gone the operation. Religion also plays a role. It is an issue
man rights violations in poorer countries. As a result, the that cannot be solved by force and immediate outlawing
decisions and actions of the powerful nations have a large because it is so ingrained in the culture in many parts of
impact on the affected people. To the individual, protect- Africa. The people affected should first be thoroughly edu-
ing the rights of a group may very well lead to short-term cated on its dangers.
hardships. At the same time however, such radical action
may be required to truly ameliorate the collective situation. AIDS Drugs
Regardless, it remains important to consider both individual Money, as a driving force behind many human rights cases,
and collective rights. Only then can one fairly pass judg- can be demonstrated by the conflict over the price of AIDS
ment on an issue without jeopardizing the wellbeing of an drugs in Africa. AIDS has become an epidemic that has devas-
individual or an entire group. tated the continent. AIDS is a terminal illness; most children

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that receive it from their parents will die before they reach The rights of these future generations are
their teens. Treatments that slow the onset of AIDS, or drugs the duties of present generations.
that cure the various diseases that kill AIDS patients are much Their existence requires an effort on our part and their ef-
too expensive for the vast majority of Africans. Many coun- fective implementation will depend on the degree of concern
tries have called on these countries to reduce their prices, and commitment that we now display towards them. Only
even sell their drugs at a loss based on humanitarian grounds. broadness of vision and generosity towards our descendants
Some companies even illegally copy popular drugs and treat- will enable them to develop all their material and intellec-
ments and sell them at a more affordable price. The clash tual potential for the benefit of the whole world. This was
between the suffering and the multinational drug companies recognized by the UNESCO General Conference at its 29th
that enforce intellectual property rights will shape the future session last autumn, when it adopted the Declaration on the
of an entire continent. Responsibilities of the Present Generations towards Future
Generations that deserves to be quoted entirely at this point
Human Rights in the 21st Century as there is hardly any comment necessary with regard to its
The right to life and the preservation of the genetic heritage, pressing and justified contents and yet, this declaration is
the right to development and personal and collective fulfill- never mentioned in political or public discourse and remains
ment, together with the right to live in a balanced ecological practically unknown.
environment, are only some of the basic principles that need
to be recognized and guaranteed henceforth, as far as pos-
sible, to the men and women of tomorrow. However, in addi-
References:
Amnesty International (1997). Refugees: Human Rights Have
tion to preserving and increasing these lasting human values,
No Borders London: Amnesty Internati-onal Report
such as life, culture, health, the environment, equality, and
Gall, G. ed. (1982) Civil Liberties in Canada. Toronto: But-
so forth, we also need to raise to the category of a human
terworths.
right another two concepts, whose importance is becoming
Sruk, V. (1995) Leksikon politike. Maribor: Obzorja.
increasingly apparent.
Williams, Mary E., ed. Human Rights: Opposing Viewpoints.
The first is to exonerate the members of future generations
USA: Greenhaven Press, Inc., 1998.
from blame for any crime committed by their ancestors.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights: www.un.org/Over-
The legal responsibility for such acts, with their criminal
view/rights.html
and civil consequences, should not lie with those that were
Declaration on the Responsibilities of the Present Genera-
not even born when such crimes were committed.
tions Towards Future Generations: http://portal.unesco.
In similar fashion, the ‘right to peace’ needs to be recog-
org/en/ev.php
nized. We all know that wars do not end with truce, but
http://library.thinkquest.org/C0126065/hrhistory.html
continue afterwards to the detriment of those who had no
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_rights_violations
responsibility whatever for the outbreak of hostilities. This
http://www.hrweb.org/
right of future generations to peace is, in fact, a precondi-
http://www.aasianst.org/Viewpoints/Nathan.htm
tion of the culture of peace, which we need to bring about
http://www.amnesty.org/ailib/intcam/femgen/fgm1.htm.
through our daily behaviour.

The View from the Conference Centre in Bled

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5. Emancipatory Thought between the Individual and National Rights
Professor Igor Grdina, Slovenia

In this paper, Professor Grdina of the Science and Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Arts and Sciences
(SAZU) explores the nature of pressures on human rights, and asks how far we can and should confront both the
past and the prejudices it has generated and sustained

Human diversity, which is an expression of the uniqueness notes all that follows .... In that way Rousseau managed
of each individual, was for a long time understood not only to create the opportunity for a multitude of strategies of
as a self-evident excuse, but also as a natural cause of the emancipatory thinking which led towards the equality of
inequality of human rights in the parade of years and ep- diversity. The idea that all which is attainable to someone,
ochs. Even religions founded on unprivileged and non-ex- is also attainable to someone else, is logical in a world of
clusive relations between the individual and the deity (or creatures striving towards goodness. The equality of rights
religious tenets), emerged relatively late in the processes cannot be questionable as a result. The authentic inten-
of cultural growth and civilisational advancement. Those tions of those who are good must be given free reign, as
based on principles of choice, or even eliminationism, are they are not capable of creating wrongness or evil. Faith-
certifiably much older. fulness to the starting-point actually offers the assurance
of ethical positivity.
Although we mustn’t overlook the fact that states were
formed on the basis of the hierarchic order, which basically In spite of the fact that it is relatively simple to convinc-
represents systemized inequality. The most that they were ingly establish the reasonability of the struggle for equal
able to achieve up until now, regarding under privileging rights, as well as for the principle of emancipation on the
and non-exclusivism, is the fundamental accessibility of all basis of the axiom about human goodness, their exercis-
functions to everyman and peaceful interchangeability of ing in everyday practice often met with all kinds of short
their bearers. It is not surprising that states enjoy such a circuits and commotions. The Russian empress Catherine
bad reputation with a great deal of defenders of universalis- II, a Platonic republican, certainly didn’t write for no(?)
tic principles, whose thought is based on non-exceptionality purpose that philosophers are fortunate people because
and non-particularity. In the second half of the 19th century, they put their wonderful ideas only on soft paper, while
Maximilian Gumplowicz even vividly defined the state as le- poor rulers are forced to inscribe them on human backs,
gally organized gang of robbers (as he couldn’t, at least in which are much harder material....The well-hardened cul-
his vocabulary, do without his famous father’s socio-Darwin- ture of seigniorage and exclusivity only slowly retired be-
istic theories); Marxists and anarchists were convinced that fore new ideas. After all: the world already functioned in
its end was near. Hierarchy which is creator of the diversity the time of the validity of ancient rules, but if it were to
can be in practice hardly harmonized with the universal be changed at least to some extent, it is not certain that it
valid principles. will stay that way in the future! Besides we mustn’t forget
that people are in origin nothing but human - and not good
Awareness about the mutual similarity of people, which or evil (or god knows what else).
gradually evolved into the idea about their equality, had a
much harder time gaining acceptance. In the course of the After that, the French revolution put on the agenda many
centuries even the thought about the connection between other questions, which were before their eruption deemed
races couldn’t take root for very long time. It seems that unthinkable. Violence, which the »new regime« employed
the wild arms race after the Second World War and contem- to survive, even led to such excesses of freedom, that con-
poraneous planetary climate changes were the ones who servatism as its counterpart was able in many aspects to
really set the state on the daily schedule of everybody and define, or better to constitutionalise itself, as the protec-
everyone. In the European cultural space it was Christianity, tor of humanism. Equality, only before the divine or the
which equalized people in regard to their characterization heavenly Trinity, was from the viewpoint of cohabitation in
with the consequences of the original sin, and its opponent many elements – especially on the individual level – more
enlightenment, which unified the masses in its noble aspira- bearable than the aspirations for the full implementation
tions toward happiness in spite of all, that managed to create of its purely earthly namesake fraternité–egalité–liberté,
a solid basis for at least fundamental problematisation of the which strove to present itself as a legitimate heiress of the
inequality of rights. Deep affinity was forced to stay hidden ideas of Jean Jacques Rousseau.
behind visible variety.
Revolutionary responsibility for progression towards the
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who was the most preoccupied with chosen ideals, which became a rival of the conservative
ethical dimension of human destiny among all the thinkers care for existing life (whose very existence, not just form,
of the 18th century, and who wasn’t satisfied merely with was in restless times put under question for several times),
moralistic remarks on actuality and with the philosophical firstly led to an uncompromising conflict, and subsequently
commentaries on reality, strove with all his might to find a ended in a more or less felicitous synthesis of both original
principle of both – while failing to imagine that evil could positions. After all it is humanly logical – not only psycho-
(although only in the form of the after-effect of Adam’s logical understandable – that the »new regime« would, after
fall) represent a common denominator for all people. On its enforcement, begin to aspire toward the preservation of
the background of »competition« with the Christian vision its results, which its protagonists saw as accomplishments
of the world – which philosophers considered a system of of civilization. It seems typical that Robespierre’s cult of
prejudice- he managed to come by the axiom on human the highest being represented an attempt to create a tran-
natural goodness, which, in spite of its orientation towards scendental guarantee of the order which had been consti-
an ideal pre-civilisation state, opened conceptual space tuted by the French revolution. The concept of permanent
for an optimistic view on and in (especially future) his- systematical change suited only the most restless of spir-
tory. The initial position in life indeed always indelibly de- its, and had no chance at all to prevail in practice. During

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confrontation with reality was shaken also many axiomatic cal level related by blood – and all others to be mutually tied
principles of »new order« which was at its appearance in solely with force, or on the basis of interests. Besides, we
public proclaimed as universal valid. When revolution finally mustn’t overlook that in the second half of 18th century John
reached the Slovenian living space and the Illyrian provinces Gottfried Herder discovered “the spirit of the nation”. In that
between 1809−1813, through of its imperial heir Napoleon, way a horizontal (spatial) “parcelation” of the world was also
it was already so resigned over its original ideals to allow revealed to exist in the old continent, aside from the ver-
even the abolition of feudal relationships to remain in the tical (in layers) one. From now on, provinces and countries
form of concepts on dusty paper. weren’t only geographically defined dwelling places, but also
homelands. Each of them became the centre of a people with
A rather unusual situation came into existence on the east- certain dominant characteristics.
ern Adriatic coast, when on one side the modern citizen
code was coming into existence, but on other side many At least in the beginning, there wasn’t any determined val-
people were still caught in the grip of serfdom ties. Mod- ue of inferiority or superiority between them. For Herder,
ern-minded communities came into conflict with the privi- the Slavs were at least equally gifted with virtues as their
leges of landlords in this two-fold reality. The rulers from compatriots the Germans; wars with the French first trig-
Paris made modern citizens out of the inhabitants of Illyria gered attempts which led to the classification of nations
only in such a measure as to have been able to summon according to value – that is the reason that the Napoleonic
to arms as many of them as possible. Napoleon made very conquerors unscrupulously claimed the fruits of the spirits
clear to the first governor of the provinces situated be- of other nations as their own, and sent books and work
tween Turkey, Austria and Italy, marshal Mormont, that he of arts from conquered countries to Paris. Different view-
would only play the role of margrave, before his departure points of the world, which were expressed through dif-
to Ljubljana where lay the seat of the new »province-ac- ferent languages created over the centuries, became the
cessory« of the French empire. foundations for many communities.
Johann Gottlieb Fichte, writing in the time of the Napoleonic
The establishment of the »new regime« on such a small wars, who thought that different idioms define their speak-
part of the globe, even of the European continent, also ers in a greater measure than the speakers define them,
opened wide the problem of relationships between indi- was probably more correct than not. After all, completely
vidual communities and their rights. Some of them were at adequate translations, which would invoke the same asso-
least formally sovereign, although others remained either ciations as the original, are an imaginable, but theoretically
a mass of serfs or crowd of subjects of this or that crown. unachievable ideal. The rapid rise of the educational level
But we mustn’t overlook that, even according to the theory of Europeans in the 19th century was unmistakably con-
on which the revolution leant, the bearers of sovereignty nected with a changed attitude towards the first language
could only be citizens as an entirety. Supreme power and learnt by an individual. The latter became an Archimedes’
authority was connected to the collective, which replaced lever of emancipation. The emergence of numerous hither-
the former semi-ecclesiastic unctuous or ruler by the grace to neglected mother tongues as instruments of the advanc-
of God. Gabriele d’Annunzio as Comandante of self-de- ing culture and rapidly spreading modern civilisation, saved
clared Italian Quarnero regency between 1919–1921 first millions of “everymen” from fated submission.
began to connect sovereignty with the individual, although
the state which was created on the basis of his self-will That is why the words of those who advocated a privileged
was a monstrous caricature from the start. As a matter of status for certain nations and languages at the cost of others
fact it transformed into the prototype of the subsequent in the name of the “raison d’ etat”, increasingly appeared
new empire of Mussolini. It was reigned by a fascist regime to be hollow and anachronistic. Usually, these activists
based on characteristic anti-Slavic racism (which had al- belonged to communities which wanted to keep the privi-
ready emerged with the efflorescence of Giolittism, that leges that they had amassed in the past. Even some of the
is to say in the period when liberalism was at its peak in “patented” advocates of progress were seized with fear of
the Apennine peninsula), and an early form of corporativ- wholesome emancipation, as it threatened to overturn the
ism, which was to be bombastically propagandised later. Orwellian position of being “more (than) equal”, which was
The sovereignty of the individual, which the vate estetiz- claimed by their own nations and political options. Ernst,
zante of the Italian fin de siècle and the radical intellectu- the Baron of Plener, who was one of the strongest propo-
als around him promoted, was only poetic a fiction. It is nents of German liberalism in the Hapsburg monarchy (and
not surprising, though, that their “heroic deeds” in Fiume, who derived his conception of the mass caught in the tides
which triggered an exodus of the Slavs living there (espe- and waves of democratisation from nationalism, said the
cially the Croatians), attracted the attention of V.I. Lenin following before the parliament in Vienna on the 29th of
and the Russian revolutionaries (which otherwise used class April 1881:
relations, that is to say a collectivistic strategy, to interpret
historical movements). “The demand for absolute equality is erroneous, for there
is no such equality in the life of an individual, nor in the
Problems related to the arrangement of rights and mutual re- lives of nations, and non-German nationalities in Austria
lationships of groups, were for a long time and for the greater must accept a certain level of, I shan’t say submission, but
part of Europe more pressing than those, which arose in the rather observance of established national facts, as is in the
relationships between individuals. Inhabitants of all counties best interests of the Austrian state.”
weren’t by far in the same position nor in a comparable or The persistent and demanding work of national vanguards - at
similar relation to the highest authority. People who lived in first composed mostly of intellectuals - eventually made such
the framework of the “new regime” were more than obvi- pontification a thing of the (lingering) past (albeit more on a
ously different as a collective than those who stayed under physical than psychological level). Josip Sernec, who stood in
the sceptres and burdens of old ones. The French, which, the last quarter of the 19th and beginning of 20th century in
owing to the triumph of revolution, found themselves in a the first ranks of the fighters for the rights of Slovene Styr-
confrontation with the European crowns (and in Britain also ians, addressed the county parliament in Graz, whose mem-
with the parliament), self-confidently proclaimed themselves bers were convinced that civilisation in middle Europe was
to be “a nation of brothers” – that is to say on a metaphori- inevitably linked to the language of Goethe, Bismarck, and

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Daimler on the 17th of January 1888, stating the following 19th century. Its proponents could not afford to be con-
with the stoical calm of the righteous: juncturists, at least early on, as the national constitutional
process necessitated going against the societal mainstream
“I shall use the [clerically affiliated] Company of St. Mohor culturally, then politically, and eventually economically.
in Klagenfurth as an example; this company provides seven Styrian Slovenes were denied even hypothecary credit as
or eight books per year to its’ subscribers, which currently late as the majority of the latter 19th century, if their en-
amount to over 36.000 [members]. They are not all highly cul- tries in the land register were in their mother tongue (they
tivated Slovenes, as most of them are peasants, which clearly were entitled to do so by certain laws passed for the west-
shows that our peasants understand religion, as well as books ern part of the Hapsburg monarchy in December 1867). The
/.../ A great portion of our people are readers, and are able to reasons for the mass appearance of intellectuals engaged
further educate themselves once they leave school. And that in the national problematic, cannot be summed up by Gell-
is most important in this age of the telegraph and the rail- ner’s slogan Jobs, and very good jobs! Their incentives were
road- even in the most forsaken backwoods cabin - for people varying - a notable one was emancipatory idealism.
to read and continue to educate themselves. Our only goal,
we are trying to accomplish, and we are already observing, The Slovene dwelling space, which had long been a hope-
is the continued cultural advancement of our peasants ever less province located between the Danubian centrepoint
since we’ve started stocking them with reading materials in of the Hapsburg monarchy and the sea, became the long-
the mother tongue. awaited homeland in the short period between the late
enlightenment and the final establishment of the Austrian
I will tell you this, and I am not speaking for myself, but constitutional order. It became the centre of a distinctive
in the name of roughly 400.000 Styrian Slovenes, when I culture, which gave birth to notable achievements. These
say that our position is completely different than it was were all the more important because the Viennese govern-
in the 60’s, and that no majority in this parliament can ment could take no credit for them (except the general
change the Slovenes. You cannot convince us that you are regulation of compulsory schooling). The Hapsburg mon-
striving for our advancement while simultaneously trying archy only founded the first entirely Slovene gymnasium
to suppress our language in schools and in administration! in 1913, although the charter of December 1867 gave all
You can wound us, insult us and try to block our efforts, nationalities inhabiting the lands of the crown equal op-
but you will never again be able to suppress our nation, nor portunities to conduct schooling in their own languages.
halt its visible and continuous advancement.” Prior to World War I, the million or so Slovenes were able
to achieve equality with their German and Italian neigh-
The poet Anton Aškerc, who was able to form a completely bours only in the area of taxation.
unsentimental view upon the peoples, temperaments, and
landscapes of Middle and Eastern Europe and the Medi- The situation of higher education was even worse than of
terranean during the course of his numerous travels, self- gymnasia. Slovenes did not get their own university until
confidently put down the following lines at a slightly later after the dissolution of Austria-Hungary, even thought Slov-
date, in 1903: ene students outnumbered the attendees of the university
in Černovice or Zagreb (in 1919 the chairs on the philosophi-
“We Slovenes are dwarfed by the Russians, but our people cal, legal, technical, theological and medicinal universities
are at least three hundred years ahead of theirs in cul- of Ljubljana could be filled exclusively from pre-habilitated
ture. The most educated amongst the Slavs is the Czech domestic professors). After all, Franz Josef did not empha-
peasant; then the Slovene one; then there is a great gap size that he was a German duke without good reason. It is
separating them from the rest.....” symptomatic of his travels in the south-west of the monar-
chy that he constantly asked people whether they spoke his
The great raise of nations in 19th century Europe cannot mother tongue...in spite of such discouraging circumstanc-
be explained by the sheer suggestiveness of national ideas, es, the Slovenes’ level of analphabetism was higher only
or rather visions - and even less by the small-mindedness - and not significantly - than that of their German, Czech
of those who supported them. The actual advantages that and Italian speaking fellow citizens in the entire Hapsburg
the (partial) realisation of national awakening programmes monarchy.
brought to the “people without distinctiveness” were tangibly In absolute numbers, they had more literate people than the
beneficial. Even thought national activists often formulated roughly twice and a half more numerous Croats. That is why
the model of the “ideal patriot”, which was meant to serve the plans to adopt Serbo-Croatian as an unified literary lan-
as an ideal for all members of a certain ethnic or linguis- guage for all south Slavs were completely Utopian even before
tic group, people were generally left with enough breathing the end of the 19th century. The paradox in the concepts of
space to develop individually. The very logic of modern life, ethnically and linguistically similar groups in the Balkans and
which differentiated situations, vocations and status, greatly Central Europe can be found mostly in the anti-emancipation
disparaged uniformity (which was ultimately to emerge as a oriented expectation that the peoples with the highest lit-
creature of totalitarian ideologies and authoritarian practices eracy rates (the Slovenes with 80% and the Bulgarians with
of the Hobsbawniam ‘age of extremes’). 30%) would adapt to those with lower ones (in 1900 the level
The Slovenes, who were considered to be an example of of illiteracy was recorded to be 74% in Croatia, 76% in Serbia,
a small and rapidly culturally developed nation by a so- and 96% in Montenegro). It must be observed that integral Yu-
cial Darwinist Ludwik/Ludwig Gumplowicz, could boast of goslavism - the attempt to create a completely unified nation
a structured political life on the level of their historically on the territory of the mutual nation state of Slovenes, Croats
famous and militarily renowned neighbours as early as the and Serbs (which were expected to be joined by the Bulgar-
fin de siecle. Aside from a small number of nobles, they ians in due time) - was dead even before it had the chance
also had their socialists (which unlike as their brethren to emerge as a tangible political option with the founding of
from neighbouring nations took class-based international- the kingdom of SHS in 1918, due to the linguistic and cul-
ism very seriously till the First World War). tural reality. But in spite of the overriding preoccupation of
the time of the bourgeoisie with the rights of nations (the
Emancipation, which was emerging through education and fact that the roughly reconstructed “ancient regime” of the
the spread of political liberties, was no hollow word in the post-Napoleonic era, which was protected by the Holy alli-

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ance, faltered exactly when faced with this dilemma - the his salto mortale with numerous high positions, but died
Greek wars of liberation against the Turkish sultan, must not in the bitter conviction that he had completely wasted his
be overlooked), the problem of their relation to personal lib- life in spite of the prestigious career). The like-minded
erties was not completely ignored. In an age shaped by the count Anton Alexander Auersperg, who was deemed to be
initiatives of liberal individualism, the thought of a collective the most important poet of Viennese freethinking, even
of any sort could not emerge as wholly dominant. It appears to brought a bundle before the Carniolan state assembly - as
be the characteristic of the time that in the legacy of France his admirers were fond of telling - into which he gathered
Prešeren, who had urged nations and good people to embrace the entire Slovene literature. He was known to occasionally
global brotherhood in his Zdravljica (the penultimate line of explicitly lash out against the equality of languages. In the
which is now the national anthem of the Republic of Slovenia), name of the Germans, who enjoyed the privilege of Schmer-
was in 1849 found the first edition of “the citizen” Thomas ling’s “electoral geometry”, he cynically said to the Slavic
Paine’s book The Rights of Man. champions in the state assembly that they would achieve
The poet who had - like most of his intellectually awakened the same results, if they followed the Germans’ example.
countrymen - enthused over the liberation of Greece from
Ottoman oppression, was also susceptible to the “defence At this point it must be emphasised that the lingual prob-
of liberties” against “the aristocrats’ tyranny”. His contem- lematic in the Hapsburg monarchy was far from being ex-
poraries noted that he was loathe to wear even a watch on a clusively communicational; the use of a certain idiom was
chain, as it reminded him of shackles too much. automatically considered a gesture with a deeper meaning.
Languages and letters were not just a means of communica-
Later, when a stable legal regime was established in the tion, they were symbols of belonging. The harsh imposition
Hapsburg monarchy (1860/61), the Slovenes were faced of German language conducted by the state apparatus since
with the question of priorities in their struggles for na- the of Maria Theresia times, which should have ended in the
tional and individual rights. They could simply not afford western half of Franz Josef (half-) empire with the charter
an un-hierarchical attitude towards liberties, as the vot- of 1867 at the utmost, transform the lingual problematic not
ing system put forward by “the state minister” Anton Sch- only into a first-rate politicum, but also human destiny. It
merling was markedly elitist: it favoured the aristocracy defined the fates of micro- and macro collectives. This can
and the bourgeoisie, and among these the Germans were be understood from the following information: in 1900, there
represented to a far greater extent than the rest of the were 908 people using the Slovene and 179 people using the
inhabitants of Franz Josef’s (half-) empire. That is why the German vernacular language in the hamlet of Šoštanj, but
writer Josip Jurčič, who was not only the author of the there were supposedly only 368 of the former, and 874 of the
first Slovene novel, but also the leading journalist of the latter in 1910. Such statistical changes are possible only in
Slovene liberals up until his death in 1881, instructed the countries which are prone to a harsh assimilationist policy in
following to his compatriots: public life, or allow various pressure to be put on the identity
of their inhabitants (the reason for this drastic change lies
“Let us first save our nationality and then fight for liber- in the decline of the Slovene tannery and the rise of a Ger-
ties, because the latter can be regained if lost, however, man one; both were run by politically outspoken owners, who
the lost nationality is lost for ever and ever”. were, to complicate matters further, related by blood).

Writer Fran Erjavec shared his opinion when he wrote: It can be said of Austro-Hungary that its eastern half be-
“I deem the nation’s most sacred thing, its greatest asset, to longed to the first, and its western one to the second group.
be that which is, when lost, lost for ever. This asset is lan- Nicely sounding fundamental laws were thus confined to
guage.” paper only; they were only suitable for quarrels and rows
amongst representatives in the state and provincial parlia-
The troublesome revitalisation of once neglected languages that ments. German liberal politics in 1895 would rather caused
were all but extinct in everyday communication is an unique a constitutional crisis than to permit the constitution of
- albeit very late - affirmation that the nationalists of Jurčič’s bilingual classes in the lower gymnasium in south-Styrian
and Erjavec’s type had their eyes set for the future. Contem- Celje (in which the county council eventually forbade even
porary accusations based on everyday politics that they are in the display of Slovene signs above the pavement!). In No-
fact backward looking, were the result of misunderstanding of vember 1897 Karl Hermann Wolf - perhaps motivated by the
reality in the midst of emancipatory processes; such criticism famous “backsider” administered by Josip Gržanič to ban
overlooked the positioning of those ideas within the current Khuen-Hedervary in the Croatian Sabor in October 1895 -
of modernisation. Lingual rights are collective par excellence, threw fisticuffs at Fran Šuklje following a heated debate on
due to them being inextricably linked to communication (only the imposition of lingual equality in Czechia and Moravia.
Franz-Josephian statistics could take note of the absurd of a
place - such as the south Styrian hamlet of St. Jurij by Southern After the squarely hundred-kilogramme Slovene M.P. was
Railway - being inhabited by a single person speaking a certain able to ward off his considerably lighter German colleague,
vernacular language!) As every translation is something of a a full-blown fight erupted in Vienna national council, after
betrayal of the original meaning, and often of the context, it which the Reichsrat was to experience only individual periods
is clear that individual idioms are not completely interchange- of lucidity, but was otherwise incapable of constructive ac-
able, or replaceable. Languages certainly do not reflect real- tion. The representatives of the people literally competed in
ity, but are rather speaking actuality. Each of them contains a inventing innovative ways of obstruction (Slovene M.P. Josip
slightly different totality of the world. Dragotin Dežman, who Gostinčar spoke for 14 hours straight before the fiscal depart-
was in revolutionary year 1848 a devoted Slovene nationalist, ment of parliament in December 1912!).
but later came to advocate the primacy of German language in
the south western counties of the Hapsburg monarchy, came to In 1911 the first gunshots erupted in the Viennese national
a wholly different conclusion. council and in 1912 also in the parliament in Budapest. In the
Hapsburg monarchy, which never succeeded in finding a way of
According to his judgement, the aforementioned area would stable co-habitation for the Central-European nations - which
otherwise succumb to backwardness (Dežman, who became is hardly surprising, as it was unwilling to grant them equality
Deschmann, was rewarded by the Viennese government for - collective rights presented a much greater problem than in-

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dividual ones. Not even the perspective of an economic boom, couldn’t help themselves even by the attempt to “bribe” the
which was supposed to follow the massive investment cycle of national leaders, who were to become a part of the system.
the head of Franz Josef’s government, Ernest von Koerber, at The creation of a multitude of unnecessary jobs turned the
the dawn of the 20th century, could not overshadow the con- Hapsburg monarchy into an unmanageable bureaucratic em-
flicts between individual ethnic and linguistic groups. Peter pire; the confusion was only to grow, instead of lessen. Let us
Rosseger - the herald of the Alpine Germans amongst writers not forget, that Kafka’s novels The Trial and The Castle are,
(and greatly forgotten candidate for the Nobel Prize of 1913) - among other things,satires on Franz Josef’s Kakania...finally,
felt extremely uncomfortable regardless of the economical sit- the Austro-Hungarian government employed forcible meth-
uation, if the Slovenes, Italians and Hungarians spoke their own ods: in the last years before World War I they introduced a
languages. Similar psychological barriers later spread amongst Commissarial administration in Croatia, suspended the Czech
the members of other nations (Rosseger, which brought into life constitution and stopped convening the Viennese parliament.
a giant foundation for the construction of Germanising private They organized several processes for arch treason on the basis
schools, had a notable role in their blossoming). After all, even of clearly inadequately forged evidence. The arrogant ultima-
the recognition of individual rights depended on the member- tum sent to Belgrade in the aftermath of the assassination of
ship of the individual to a specific community. the heir Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo (while no such ultima-
tum was sent to Switzerland, or the assassin’s homeland of
After the occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1878, Aus- Italy after the assassination of empress Elisabeth in Geneva),
tro-Hungary was not willing to abolish the feudal burdens, as was a completely logical move in their eyes...The avoidance
doing so would chiefly strengthen Serb peasants. Even more: of actual problems and their substitution ended in a catastro-
the German liberals would rather have seen the armies of phe, which is to serve as an eternal memento to everyone.
Franz Josef not occupying these two regions at all (which the
monarch, on the other hand, wanted as a substitution for the History, which is less a teacher than it is food for thought
territorial losses in Northern Italy in 1859 and 1866). Needless (as the latter cannot exist without memory for lack of a sub-
to say, the Slavic and particularly Slovene politicians, who also ject), does not force anyone into a specific mode of action -
enthusiastically greeted the Russian liberation of Bulgaria from although it seems, on the other hand, to serve as an excuse
the Turkish domination, held diametrically opposite views. for every form of irresponsibility by virtue of deeply rooted
behavioural patterns. Thus the First World War was followed
The failure of Koerber’s policy of calming nation-based con- by a second one, which was to “correct” its outcome. The
flicts with compensation on the economic field soon became Slovenes, to whom the great slaughter of 1914-1918 had in-
obvious. The money was - in part thanks to the insistence of flicted immeasurable human and material losses and finally
the financial minister Böhm- Bawerk on a “solid currency” - split them between 4 states, were bound for extinction at
simply not sufficient to sate the material needs of everyone the birth of the atomic age’s vying for world domination.
and anyone. In spite of this the illusion that economic (mean- Mussolini and the secretary of the Italian fascist party Aldo
ing mostly quantitatively defined) prosperity could solve - or at Vidussoni thundered that they would kill every last one of
least overshadow - the problems and tensions that appear in them, while the pro-Hitler faction wanted to either Ger-
relations between people with different identities, was later manize or deport them (and succeeded in banishing 80.000
often clinically alive. In actuality, it never succeeded in putting of their number to Serbia, Croatia and Silesia).
any truly troublesome problematic of the daily schedule.
In Vienna, the problem of national integration was hence- Collective rights were being greatly abused: German minori-
forth attempted to be solved by introducing general, equal ties to the “East of the West” created their own Henleins at
and secret voting rights for men - as voting was supposed to the time of Nazism’s rise, who disabled any debate concern-
be a matter left to the elites. This was yet another “counting ing them due to their open arch-treachery. But the reality of
of chickens before they were hatched”. Modern-age nations the problems, regardless of the prejudice that survived all
have proven themselves to be far more stable formations of the cataclysms - and in many places managed to rename
than other collectives (including the classes with their basic themselves into experience - forces their continued solution.
and insoluble antagonism of interests). Regardless of whether The question is, in what measure are we prepared to confront
they are shaped by a special spirit, culture, economy, or the them? The memory of the past can serve either as a relieving
mass media (as we are being convinced by the none-too heav- or burdening circumstance.
ily consistent interpretations of post-modern theoreticians-
who are experts in everything - but in nothing else), they have We alone decide whether it is to determine us or serve as an
survived. The captains of the Austro-Hungarian state-ship instrument of freedom - as a warning as well as an example.

Professor Grdina speaking at the Conference

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6. Education for Inclusive Citizenship:
Identity, History and Human Rights
Notes from the presentation of Dr. Dina Kiwan, United Kingdom

This is an edited account of the main ponts of Dr Kiwan’s presentation in Bled, which charted the development
of Citizenship education in the UK and its significance and conceptual origins.

There are fours areas we should consider in education to quirement to educate for ‘active citizenship. Subsequently
help create a sense of inclusive citizenship, these include the ministry responsible for schools, the Department for
the socio-political context; and understandings of diversity Education and Skills or DfES commissioned The Diversity
and inclusive citizenship; the context of Key policy docu- and Citizenship Report (Ajegbo, Kiwan and Sharma, 2007)
ments; and our practical connections with policy initiatives and the House of Commons established a Select Commit-
in other domains e.g. immigration and nationality. tee Inquiry into Citizenship Education. Interestingly this
high level inquiry took evidence not only from education
Context policy spheres, but considered the broader policy domains
In the UK, across Europe and indeed globally there is a of nationality and immigration.
heightened interest in how diversity relates to citizenship,
and governments and individuals struggle to balance the Understandings of ‘multiculturalism’
needs of unity and diversity, not only evident in discourses The UK is, after all, a ‘multinational’ and ‘polyethnic’
in England, but indeed internationally in a number of dif- state, with implicitly defined national identity, but vari-
ferent nation-state contexts (Banks 2004), including the able personal identities which change with context. There
United States (Ladson-Billings 2004), Canada (Joshee 2004; is also uncertainty and confusion: What is, and what de-
Kymlicka 1999) Denmark (Mouritsen 2006), France and fines an ‘English’ identity? Is ‘Britishness’ defined in ra-
Germany (Brubaker 1998; Kastoryano 2006; Luchtenberg cialised terms? How have attitudes to the ‘ethnic other’
2004). changed since the first Act to control Commonwealth im-
The pressure to react is increasingly shown through ex- migration in 1962; the Race Relations Act of 1976 or the
amples of policy and practice initiatives, for example: setting up of the Council for Racial Equality (CRE). Modern
in the formation of a Transatlantic Task Force on Immigrant Britain, some argue, is largely a secular state, but is it re-
Integration led by Antonio Vitorino, former European Com- ally a multicultural society, with less than eight per cent
missioner for Justice and Home Affairs and Rita Sussmuth, of the population from ethnic minorities? Politicians have
former President of the Bundestag,Germany; and also in the to debate the best way to respond, and decide whether
Council of Europe’s youth policy initiatives around human an ‘assimilation’ or ‘integrationist’ stance best serves our
rights, diversity and participation. In the United Kingdom national needs for the future. To some extent this is a false
we have faced an increase devolution for the less popu- debate. Britian has always been a multicultural state, with
lated parts of the United Kingdom, the pressures of in- waves of incomers throughout our history.
creased globalisation, a sense of increased social pluralism In recent years a liberal consensus about what is meant by
and the pressures of increased post-war migration. Great- multiculturalism has been challenged, Joppke and Lukes,
er awareness and a public debate about such challenges (1999) refer to a debate about ‘hodgepodge’ vs ‘mosaic’;
has brought some accompanying benefits, for example the Sen (2006) wrote about ‘plural monculturalism’, and Jop-
recognition of ‘institutional racism’ as a result of the Ste- pke and Lukes (1999), saw multiculturalism as a route to
phen Lawrence Inquiry; the parliamentary Amendment to critique Western liberalism. Alongside these views a view
the Race Relations Act (2000) and the passing of a Human of ‘thick’ and ‘thin’ multiculturalism has developed.
Rights Act. The Parekh Report (2000:23) suggested that-‘Multicultural-
ism is not about difference and identity per se but about
There remains a concern with social exclusion, made more those differences that are embedded in and sustained by
pressing by inter-ethnic group disturbances in some urban culture; that is a body of beliefs and practices in terms of
areas in the Summer of 2001; and in the wake of the terror- which a group of people understand themselves and the
ist attacks of September 11th 2001 in the USA and the Lon- world and organise their individual and collective lives.
don bombings July 2005. In England, which as a separate Unlike differences that spring from individual choices, cul-
education system to that of Scotland and Northern Ireland, turally derived differences carry a measure of authority
and a broadly similar system to Wales, media attention has and are gathered and structured by virtue of being embed-
surrounded the expansion of single faith specialist schools ded in a shared and historically inherited system of mean-
while a renewed Education and Inspections Act in in 2006 ing and significance.’
and National Curriculum (version 4) from September 2008 Continued media and public discourses have continued to
which places an emphasis on multiethnic understanding, challenge the notion of multiculturalism as a comfortable
have focused teachers and politicians minds on how well consensus, for example Alibhai-Brown (2000); Blunkett
fitted our system is to create well young people prepared (2001) and Philips (2004). Terminological confusion re-
for adult citizenship in a changing world. Despite a con- mains, challenged by Parekh (2000) as ‘woolly liberalism’,
cern for inclusion and ‘British values’ this elements of the with Alibhai-Brown (2000) doubting whether the current
media also promotes continuing and populist concern with concept of multiculturalism would have the capacity to
rising immigration and asylum seekers promote human rights and equality of opportunity, and
A policy review of citizenship education in England in 1998, Delanty (2003) claiming that it was not a model for soci-
with the publication of the ‘Crick Report’ lead to the cre- etal change since its anti-racist stance was ineffective and
ation of a new statutory curriculum subject for secondary over-celebratory.
schools in 2002: Citizenship. Strucutred in three strands
– ‘social and moral responsibility’, ‘community involve- Some research evidence
ment’, ‘political literacy’ the subject also includes a re- The research methodology included interviewing of 30 par-

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ticipants from three main categories: the good man is not necessarily the good citizen, good citi-
Those who had substantial influence in formulating policy zen isn’t always the good man’ (Interview with Sir Bernard
/ curriculum Crick, p.5).
Those with a stake in the field but who were not included
in the process There was some clear personal moral conceptions and dis-
Those involved in related initiatives / domains courses on religion:
The approach included an analysis of key policy documen- ‘Actually, this business with terrorism, and Islam, and you
tation, including the Crick Report (QCA, 1998),The Na- know, should we allow immigrants in here whose values
tional Curriculum for Key Stage Three (11-14 year olds): are different from ours, etc., etc., actually this is one of
the Programmes of Study (QCA, 2000) and KS3 Schemes of the major citizenship problems and its through our com-
Work (QCA, 2001) mon values that we can deal with that’ (Interview with
The research revealed significant agency of key individuals ’N’, p.3). and personal views related to the significance
in determining policy outcomes, with individual empha- of law and discourses around fundamental human rights,
sised relative to societal influences: where Roman conceptions of law were expressed as being
‘Yes, but then I’m a politician if you like, or political sci- relatively more inclusive, with a notion of multiple lev-
ence is my background. I see the outcome of politics be- els of law. Mention was made of ‘Liberalism’, which some
ing the result of inputs, and inputs being the people doing traced back to the philosophers Hobbes and Locke; and
things behind the scenes. I don’t see…a kind of sociologi- Rawls (1971) Theory of Justice was also explored. It be-
cally cultural climate that brought that about…. because came evident that contemporary human rights discourses
I know more about what conversations took place in the have their philosophical roots in 18th century Western Eu-
corridors of power’ (Interview with ‘B’, member of Crick ropean theory framed legally in terms of rights of indi-
Advisory Group, p.3). vidual against state, and that a
Indeed the then Secretary of State for Education, David conflation of human rights and citizenship takes place as I
Blunkett, and Professor Sir Bernard Crick were named by have noted before (Kiwan (2005).
the majority of respondents as having central importance
in the development of policy, motivated by concerns over In developing the Citizenship curriculum a conscious choice
a series of ‘societal influences’: was made not to enter into discourses about nationality:
1. Political apathy of young people ‘We didn’t deal with national identity and that was quite
2. Society in moral crisis deliberate. I said we’re not dealing with nationality, we’re
3. Democratic crisis / low voter turnout dealing with a skill, a knowledge, an attitude for citizen-
4. Legal changes (e.g. Europe / HR Act) ship’ (Interview with Sir Bernard Crick).
5. Diversity / Immigration issues The Life in the UK Advisory Group do suggest an inclusive
6. Education – move away from ‘standards’ emphasis approach to conceptions of nationality and identity, via ‘a
7. Renegotiation between ‘citizen’ and ‘state’ wider citizenship agenda’ and ‘encouraging community co-
hesion’ and ‘valuing diversity’.
The important ‘dominant’ conceptions of citizenship are
strongly mlinked to ‘Moral’concerns: The ‘dominant’ conceptions of Citizenship in the curricu-
1. Shaped by an intellectual discourse around ‘values’: lum have become the notion that effective citizenship is
Plato and Aristotle’s philosophy that we are political ‘Participatory’, that ‘Active citizenship’ as most central
beings and are only fulfilled by active participation conception; theoretical reference to Greek and Roman
in ‘polis’ or the political community. In this approa- conceptions and John Stuart Mill. These raise interesting
ch education is seen to play a key role in preparing debates about democracy, the potentially politicised’ na-
citizens (and developing their ‘virtuous’ character) ture of participation or community volunteering, and how
for their role in the state best to secure the motivation to participate.
2. A belief in ‘Communitarianism’: the view that parti- ‘One school told with innocent pride that their kids had
cipation in the community acts as a moral force (as organised a party in an old people’s home, they bought all
espoused for example by Etizioni (1995). the food themselves, they had arranged the entertainment
3. A perceived link between moral education and citi- and negotiated with the delightful matron and held the
zenship education; party…if they had set themselves to learn why the old peo-
4. Belief in conceptions of values and ‘shared values’ ple were there not being looked after at home, what the
often used to challenge the endorsement of diversity; borderlines are between the person at the social services
e.g. in the Netherlands recently; and explored in the and the health service….If they had gone into that territory
DfES Diversity and Citizenship then the party would have been splendid… all citizenship
Some interesting viewpoints emerged from this research- involves volunteering, but not all volunteering involves
expressions of moral conceptions included the view ex- citizenship’ (Interview with Sir Bernard Crick, p.6).
pressed in official policy, that ‘Finally, we believe that it
is important to set out areas that the [citizenship] cur- Some aspects of the Citizenship curriculum remain ‘Under-
riculum should not cover, or at least not be dominated or played’: ‘Identity-based’ conceptions (national, European,
distracted by. It would be tempting to allow citizenship global); explorations of national identity, of global or Euro-
education to become simply issues based on moral educa- pean citizenship; the area of anti-racism and citizenship;
tion, revolving around key concepts such as drugs, health and ‘multicultural’ citizenship. Whereas others are tacitly
education, housing and homelessness, careers develop- accepted without significant vocal challenge, such as the
ment and employability etc’ (QCA 1998: 20). desirability of integration into a shared political culture:
‘minorities must learn and respect the laws, codes and
However the Chair of the working roup for the Citizenship conventions as much as the majority…because this process
curriculum drew a clear distinction between education helps foster common citizenship’ (QCA 1998:17-18), and
for Citizenship and Personal, Social and Health Education ‘multicultural citizenship needs to be formulated for Bri-
(PSHE): tain’ (Modood 1997 cited in QCA 1998:17).
‘I draw a sharp distinction between ..[Personal Social and
Health Education] PSHE and Citizenship. Old Aristotle said

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Tensions and Purposes: Citizenship and and this links to broader policy discourses in nationality
and immigration, and debate in one area impacts upon
Nationality
another.
Some tension has emerged between citizenship as ‘partici-
pation’ and citizenship as legal status: ‘I think the citizen-
Teaching History is not easy- but it is also part of develop-
ship brand, if you will, has been done considerable harm
ing citizens.
in recent months with the way it’s been associated with
the asylum refugee agenda and with the notion that..you
know, of citizenship tests for “foreigners”’
(Interview with ‘U’, p.6).
Inside the Conference…
In contrast, Sir Bernard Crick argues explicitly for bringing
Heated Debate and Energy.
the two together: ‘Since the children of immigrants now
have learning for active citizenship in school, it would be
anomalous and unhelpful if their parents and new arrivals
did not have the same requirement and entitlement. So
the two senses of citizenship were to come together: that
of being a legal citizenship of a state and also a participa-
tive citizen.’
(ABNI / Home Office, 2006).
These positions have also linked to discourses on com-
munity cohesion, ‘shared values’ and ‘Britishness’ (Ram-
mell 2006), with the result that the government sought to
encourage diversity across the curriculum from 0-19 and
considered whether and how to incorporate ‘modern Brit-
ish social and cultural history’ into Citizenship as a ‘fourth
strand’: called ‘Identity and diversity: living in the United
Kingdom’ to include teaching
An understanding that the UK is a multinational state
About historic and modern immigration, the Common-
wealth, the legacies of Empire and the role of the Euro-
pean Union
Extending the franchise (eg the legacy of slavery, universal
suffrage and equal opportunity legislation)
This would include an emphasis on the experience of liv-
ing in UK, rather than an abstract notion of ‘Britishness’
and place an emphasis on processes of communication and
dialogue in discussions about shared values, rather than
trying to ‘inculcate’ shared values in the abstract, and us-
ing history to inform ‘citizenship thinking’

What is the Relationship of History Teaching to Citizenship Above: Recording thoughts during a session
Education? In part it may be the role of History in ‘incul- And outside...
cating’ ‘shared values’ but if so, what are these ‘shared
values’? Are they ‘minimal’ or ‘maximal’ notions, and how
far do practical issues, such as topic space and emphasis
in an overcrowded curriculum impact on what is taught
and learned?
History’s pedagogical approaches are also significant, the
basic enquiry question-oriented approach used in British
History teaching, using relevant historical examples also
helps to develop contextualised ‘citizenship thinking’
which is a skill and mind-set transferable to relevant con-
temporary issues.

However we feel about Citizenship and Human Rights they


remain firmly ‘On the agenda’ nationally, in Europe and in-
deed globally. ‘Diversity’, ‘multiculturalism’ and ‘citizen-
ship’ remain contested concepts, as do the inter-relations
between citizenship, history, identity and human rights,
Snow and ice

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7. A Briefing on Human Rights Education
Collated by Mihai Manea, Romania
with the support of the Bureau of Information of the Council of Europe in Bucharest

This article provides some outline materials about the development of Human Rights as a concept, and offers a
series of ways of structuring the subject for teaching and learning.

Why do we need to teach about Human Four Example Teaching Approaches :


Rights education ? The Case Study Approach
This
 HR as a school subject can be a framework for the stu- − is very popular in capturing the interests of teena-
dents’ understanding of fundamental human rights and gers.
of democracy, of rights in action in their own lives and − helps students understand that many legal conflicts are
the lives of others; not simple;
 HR education implies a participative learning process: − covers matters of right against wrong, but of legitimate
group work, debates, role play, project work; rights in conflict;
 HR education enables the development of cognitive skills: − helps students identify the reasons, values and legal
analysis, identification of cause and effect, clarification of principles that support their views and can give them a
fact and opinion, the skill of co-operation, communication better understanding of the views of others with whom
strategies, critical thinking, negotiation, consensus build- they disagree;
ing et al; − closure and clarification are important for students;
 HR education leads to development of values which − but be careful not to intimidate students and discourage
are inclusive and open-minded: respect for diversity, their participation by intense questioning!
for truth, fairness, justice, human dignity and free-
dom of expression; Role Play, Mock Trials and Appeals
 HR education helps create a sense of inter-connect- − students assume the role of another person and act it
edness between the students’ own communities and out;
communities in the wider world. − help students understand the issues and views of others
and can add a more realistic, experiential dimension to
Arguments for Teaching and Learning About law studies.
Human Rights in Schools
Co-operative Learning
 It impacts on, and develops ‘the humanity’ of the stu- Provides opportunities to-
dents; − work together to accomplish shared goals
 Human rights offer a value framework suitable for − work collectively to respond to/ learn the assignment-
modern society which, typically, is multi-cultural and material and make sure that all other members of their
multi-faith, and part of an interdependent world. Hu- group do likewise;
man Rights are, thus, an essential element in educa- − promote discussion skills- talking through the material
tion for modern citizenship; to be learned with each other, help and assisting each
 Human rights offer to young people something posi- other to understand it, and encourage each other to
tive to believe in and support; work hard.
 No man or woman is an island. We are all our brother's
and sister's keepers and helpers. Young people have Social Action Activities (Active Citizenship)
rights and responsibilities, and developing an aware- − The incorporation of issues in the community, school and
ness of them is a proper part of education in citizen- lives of students in the application of human rights princi-
ship; ples empowers the students to become informed community
 The facilitation of non-violent change is the most ur- participants who act upon their understanding of human
gent task today - both within societies and between rights and the responsibilities that accompany them.
societies; − It is important to ask questions, such as: What can we/I do
 Teaching and learning about human rights can contrib- about this situation? What will we/I do? and plan and carry
ute to a political education which is over and above out that activity.
party politics;
 Teaching about human rights affords students oppor-
tunities of active learning, working on non-partisan
projects- such as when they work for Amnesty Inter-
national and conduct campaigns on behalf of political
prisoners or raise funds for famine relief.

“The very ultimate goal of the history teacher is to shift to the individual the burden of learning and to act as a real
citizen of a democratic Europe”

John W. Gardner
“Teaching History”, December 2006

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A. Some Landmarks in The History of Human Rights

When the history teacher approaches human rights issues a historical perspective can be followed-.

A Possible Human Rights Time Line


 Old Testament
 c. 551 - c. 479 B.C.E. - Confucius - "Do unto others what you wish to do unto yourself."
 New Testament
 c. 644 - 656 C.E. -Koran (original text)
 1215 -Magna Charta, England
 1648 - Treaty of Westphalia, Europe
 1689 - Bill of Rights, England
 1776 - Declaration of Independence, United States
 1787 - United States Constitution
 1789 - Declaration on the Rights of Man and the Citizen, France
 1791 - Bill of Rights, United States
 1863 -Emancipation Proclamation, United States
 1864, 1949 -Geneva Conventions, International Red Cross
 1919 -League of Nations Covenant
 1926 -Slavery Convention
 1945 -United Nations Charter, San Francisco, USA
 1947 -Gandhi uses non-violent protests leading India to independence.
 1948 - Universal Declaration of Human Rights (December 10)
-Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, USA
-Genocide Convention
 1950 -European Convention
 1951 -Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees
 1959 -Declaration on the Rights of Children
 1961 - Amnesty International founded in London
 1965 -International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
 1966 -International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
-International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights
 1969 -American Convention on Human Rights
 1973 -International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid
 1979 -International Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women
 1984 -International Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhumane, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
 1986 -African Charter on Human and People's Rights
 1989 -International Convention on the Rights of the Child
 1993 -Declaration on Violence Against Women
-Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
-United Nations World Conference on Human Rights, Vienna, Austria

B. What Are Human Rights? F. Key Texts and Turning Points


A. Civil and Political Rights
B. Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights 1. Old Testament
C. Solidarity Unlike most ancient peoples, who worshiped
many gods, ancient Israelites (Jews) worshiped one uni-
C. Why are Human Rights so Important? versal God. They saw history as an interaction between
A. Roots in Natural Law God and humanity, whose course depended on obedience
B. Other Political Ideologies Added Emphasis to God’s laws. The Hebrew Scriptures-39 books by many
C. Pre-World War II authors-recorded the law the Israelites believed their God
D. World War II gave them. Christians know it as the Old Testament. The
E. After 1945 Jews regard the first five books, the Torah, as divine scrip-
ture. The Torah contains laws God is said to have given to
the Hebrew prophets, beginning with the mosaic laws-the
D. Which Laws Set the Standards for Human
Ten Commandments-given to Moses on Mount Sinai. The
Rights? mosaic laws commanded respect for life and the property
A. 1945 - Charter of the United Nations of strangers as well as neighbors by establishing rights in
B. 1948 - Universal Declaration of Human Rights terms of duties (the right to life, for example, was ex-
C. 1966 - International Covenant on Economic, Social, pressed in the commandment not to kill).
and Cultural Rights
D. 1966 - International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 2. Confucius - c. 551 - c. 479 B.C..
E. Numerous Additional Treaties Living in politically and socially turbulent times,
F. Moral Codes of Conduct Confucius was a philosopher who taught government and
social reform. His philosophical teachings collected in his
E. How Are Human Rights Enforced? Analects revolved around «jen» or benevolence, which he
A. Charter expressed in twin sayings: «Do not do to others what you
B. Treaty Based would not like yourself» and «Do unto others what you
C. Personal Moral Code of Conduct wish to do unto yourself». He believed that people should

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practice jen towards those below them in a social or spiri- again after the American Revolution had begun, they voted
tual hierarchy and that government should practice jen for independence from Britain and adopted the Declara-
rather than use force. tion of Independence, becoming the first government of
the 13 United States. The Declaration had far- reaching
3. New Testament and lasting influence on individual rights in Western civi-
Jesus’ followers, scattered around the Roman lization, inspiring rebellion against Spanish rule in South
Empire, wrote letters and accounts of his life, which were America and against monarchy in France. Because of his
circulated among early Christian churches. These became literary skill, Thomas Jefferson was chosen to write the
the New Testament, in which Jesus is reported to have Declaration. Based largely on Locke’s and Montesquieu’ s
quoted the Old Testament: «The Spirit of the Lord is in «natural rights» theories, it listed the colonists’ grievances
me...to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to against King George, accusing him of systematic tyranny;
proclaim freedom for the prisoners and recovery of sight announced the colonies’ separation from Great Britain;
to the blind, to release the oppressed, to [invite all to proclaimed the creation of the United States; and justified
God’s kingdom].» The New Testament says Jesus angered the revolution.
religious leaders by denouncing hypocrisy, healing the sick,
and treating women, foreigners, and the poor with dignity. 8. United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights
The Apostle Paul, who wrote some New Testament books in - 1787, 1791
prison, said that among Jesus’ followers, «there is neither Faced with teetering economies and armed re-
Jew nor Greek, slave nor free, male nor female.» volt, 12 of the new states sent delegates to rethink the
1781 constitution. At the convention, the delegates (in
4. Magna Charta - 1215 their 20’s or 30’s, but led by veterans James Madison and
English nobles and clergy rallied against King George Washington) centralized and strengthened the gov-
John’s abuses -heavy taxation, unsuccessful wars, and his ernment while aiming to limit its power enough to guaran-
refusal to accept papal authority, which effectively kept tee individual liberty. The 1781 Constitution replaced the
churches closed for years. They subjected the King to the almost powerless Continental Congress with three branch-
rule of law by enacting from him a «great charter» of liber- es of government and provided for checks and balances
ties. Though King John I soon violated it, the Magna Charta among them. Twenty-six amendments to the Constitution
eventually came to be cited widely, in defense of many have established specific rights (the Bill of Rights, contrib-
liberties. uted by antifederalists including Jefferson, contains the
first 10). Adaptable, as one justice remarked, «to various
5. Treaty of Westphalia - 1648 crises of human affairs» through judicial reinterpretation,
Many centuries after St. Augustine, the Roman the Constitution is now the oldest in operation and one of
Catholic Church was the unique Christian authority in Eu- the most influential documents in Western history.
rope. However, the Church became plagued by depravity
and an inability to satisfy its followers’ spiritual needs, 9. Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen – 1789
and in the 1500’s, a reform movement spread. The Ref- Since the 1730’s, economic decline and the
ormation and a Catholic Counter-Reformation, along with ideas of the Enlightenment had been spreading in France
sovereignty disputes, racked most of Western and Central simultaneously, and the success of the American Revolu-
Europe for a century. The wars were finally ended by the tion had influenced French reformers. The Estates General
Treaty of Westphalia, which led to the modern notion of (representatives of the clergy, nobility, and the common-
national sovereignty by freeing state rulers from Catholic ers) wrote the Declaration to exemplify the thoughts of
Church jurisdiction. It allowed rulers to choose their sub- Enlightenment figures such as Voltaire, Montesquieu, the
jects’ religion and specifies that rulers would forfeit their Encyclopedists, and Rousseau. Though the reform efforts
lands if they changed religions. The Treaty also took a step failed and France tumbled into revolution, the Declara-
toward religious toleration by allowing Catholic or Protes- tion legacy eventually prevailed. It attacked the political
tant minorities in some states rights to private worship, and legal systems of the monarchy and defined the natural
liberty of conscience, and emigration. rights of men as «liberty, property, security, and the right
to resist oppression.» The Declaration replaced the system
6. Bill of Rights, England - 1689 of aristocratic privileges that had existed under the mon-
King James II Stuart thought the law inconve- archy with the principle of equality before the law.
nient and often dispensed with it. That is why his subjects
overthrew him in 1688. When William and Mary took the 10. Emancipation Proclamation, USA - 1863
throne of England in 1689, Parliament passed a bill de- The Civil War started in 1861 as a Northern struggle
claring that it would no longer tolerate royal interference to keep the United States from breaking apart. Abolitionists
in its affairs. The Bill became part of the foundation of were a minority; Abraham Lincoln did not champion slaves’
the English fundamental law, and in the following century, moral claims to freedom and could never have been elected
most English took pride in the freedom its provisions gave president on a platform of abolishing slavery. But once the
them from arbitrary government. The bill forbade royalty Southern states seceded, the political purpose of accom-
to suspend law without Parliament’s consent, specified modating slavery disappeared, and as deaths mounted and
free elections for members of Parliament, and declared volunteering declined, pressure grew to enlist blacks. Just
that freedom of speech in Parliament was not to be ques- two years later, when Lincoln issued the Emancipation Procla-
tioned, in the courts or elsewhere. The bill also prohibited mation, the North had transformed the war into a crusade to
taxation or maintenance of an army in peacetime without free Southern slaves. Because it applied only to territories in
Parliament’s consent, excessive bail or fines, and cruel and Confederate possession-taking effect only as Northern lines
unusual punishment. advanced--the Proclamation at first freed no slaves at all.
Its importance lay in opening the door to black army enlist-
7. United States Declaration of Independence - 1776 ment-which shocked many and aided the North’s victory-and
Calling themselves the Continental Congress, to passage of the thirteenth amendment, which outlawed
representatives of Britain’s 13 colonies first convened slavery nationwide in 1865.
in 1774 to protest British policies. When they convened

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11.Geneva Conventions - 1864, 1949 work, and promotion against women and those of specific
Brought into being by the newly created Inter- races, ethnic groups, religions, or disabilities.
national Red Cross, the Geneva Convention of 1864 was
the first international law treaty governing the conduct of -Arbitration-A process by which, instead of going to court,
nations in wartime, and so marks the origin of modern hu- disputing parties ask a third person to listen to their argu-
manitarian and human rights law. The Convention created ments and then to make a decision which they agree to
provisions for the treatment of sick and wounded soldiers. follow.
The Convention was revised and amended several times,
and the current version, approved in 1949 after World War -Bill of rights -A statement in a constitution of human or
II, comprises four separate conventions. The first and sec- civil rights that lists protections against interference by
ond deal with the care of the sick and wounded in land and governments.
maritime warfare; the third deals with the treatment of
prisoners of war; and the fourth deals with the protection -Civil rights -The rights of citizens to liberty and equality
of civilians and noncombatants. Together, the four Geneva (for example, the freedom to access information or the
Conventions aim to ensure that human dignity is respected freedom to vote).
even during hostilities. Their provisions continue to be
monitored and enforced by the International Committee -Collective rights -The rights of groups to protect their in-
of the Red Cross. terests and identities.

12. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi - 1869 - 1948 -Constitution -A set of laws by which a country or organiza-
Gandhi began his career in South Africa, where tion is governed.
he practiced law and agitated against racism directed at
Indians. There he developed his tactics of non-violent con- -Covenant -A formal legal agreement such as the Interna-
frontation based on the principle of respect for life; he tional Covenant on Civil and Political Rights or the Interna-
called his strategy «satyagraha» (truth force). Later, in In- tional Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights.
dia, after a massacre by the British, Gandhi led a series of
satyagraha campaigns until India achieved independence -Conventions -International agreements dealing with spe-
in 1947. Gandhi’s campaigns alternated with imprison- cific subjects.
ment. His «constructive program» consisted of movements
against class discrimination and for Muslim-Hindu unity, -Cultural Rights -The right to preserve one’s cultural iden-
women’s rights, and basic education. tity and development.

13. The United Nations Charter - 1945 -Death penalty -The sanctioned taking of life by the state
The U.N. Charter was signed by 51 nations in the as a punishment for a crime.
postwar climate of 1945. It established an international
organization dedicated to maintaining peace and security -Declaration -A formal statement or announcement of in-
and to cooperation in solving economic, social, cultural, tent.
and humanitarian problems. Although it affirmed «faith in
fundamental human rights,» its signatories disagreed on -Democracy -Government by all people in the country--di-
the nature of these human rights. The first U.N. conference rectly or by representation.
therefore rejected a proposal to include protection of hu-
man rights as an article of the Charter. The Charter gives -Discrimination -Distinguishing between people on the ba-
the U.N. General Assembly and its Commission on Human sis of their race, culture, ethnic origin, nationality, sexual
Rights primary responsibility for promoting human rights. orientation, religion, physical handicap, or characteristics
The Commission was instrumental in creating declarations other than individual merit.
and covenants on human rights, including civil, political,
economic, social, and cultural rights. Although not legally -Economic rights -Rights that concern the production, de-
enforceable, these documents are used to interpret the velopment, and management of materials for the necessi-
human rights provisions of the U.N. Charter. ties of life.

14. Universal Declaration of Human Rights – 1948. -Freedom of expression -The freedom to express views in
Because representatives at the U.N. conference in 1945 print and other media, and to receive as well as commu-
wrestled with reconciling their various conceptions of hu- nicate ideas.
man rights, the clauses relating to human rights that were
finally included in the U.N. Charter were very ambiguous. -Genocide -The systematic killing of people based on race
The U.N. assigned an International Commission, with El- or ethnicity.
eanor Roosevelt as chairperson, to clarify the Charter’s
references to human rights. The result was a statement -Human rights -Rights that universally belong to people re-
of universal goals concerning human rights and freedoms, gardless of their sex, race, color, language, national origin,
which was adopted by the U.N. General Assembly in 1948. age, class, religion, or political beliefs.
The Declaration is not legally binding, but its content has
been incorporated into many national constitutions, and it -Mediation -A process whereby a third person helps disput-
has become a standard measure of human rights. ing parties to settle their disagreement by discussing the
issue until both are satisfied with the solution.
G. Human Rights Education- A Basic Glossary
History teachers should explain the basic notions / terms -Moral rights -Rights based on general principles of fair-
of human rights ness and justice.

-Affirmative Action-Action taken by government or private -Natural rights -Rights that belong to people simply be-
businesses to make up for past discrimination in education, cause they are human beings.

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-Negotiation -The process by which people in a dispute talk to 8. Human rights is about law. Respect for process and for
each other in order to arrive at a solution to their problem. the law will increase if students are involved in the
formulation of the rules and codes of conduct in their
-Ombudsman -An independent, unbiased person who inves- schools and classes.
tigates complaints.
I. Choosing Teaching Methods
-Political rights -The right of people to participate in the The history teachers can choose and use different teaching
political life of their community and society such as by vot- methods. Meeting different needs, they should create a
ing for their government. safe and secure classroom.
-Rule of law -No person, whether a governmental official,
a king, or a president, is above the law. Those who govern 1. Present any factual information in an inviting way. Try
and those who are governed are bound by the same law. to avoid lecture unless it is absolutely necessary. Keep
it simple and short.
-Separation of powers -The separation of powers into three 2. Know your subject area. Students will have very specific
separate branches of government: A legislative branch to questions especially about areas of great interest such
make laws; an executive branch to carry out the laws; and as the laws of search and seizure.
an independent judicial branch to punish law breakers and 3. Use participatory activities such as case studies, mock
settle disputes. trials, moot courts, role plays, and simulations. Stu-
dents will not become bored, and therefore potential
-Social rights -Rights that give people security as they live disciplinary problems, and they will learn much more
together and learn together, as in families, schools, and than if they simply sit and listen.
other institutions. 4. Know your audience. Avoid legal terms unless you define
them. Ask the age of the group, how many, extent of
-State sovereignty -The state government has the ultimate knowledge of the subject area so that you can adjust
legal right to determine what is done within its jurisdic- your lesson.
tion. 5. The teacher should remain in the classroom to deal with
administrative issues and discipline problems.
H. Human Rights Education- Example Courses 6. Prepare an agenda for yourself, the more detailed the
Richardson’s model in Britain (1979) better. Break it down into minutes if possible. However,
be prepared to vary from it and remember that in most
1. Establishing and valuing the knowledge and opinions cases your are limited to a specific amount of time and will
which students already have-about fairness, laws, not be able to go beyond that time. Never «wing it.»
freedom, other countries, and authority. 7. Don’t underestimate the knowledge of your audience. Eve-
2. Getting students to trust and respect others-to feel ryone watches law programs on T.V. Be prepared to address
confidence that by expressing opinions they will not some common misconceptions. Anticipate questions.
feel foolish. 8. Try to «uncover,» «discover,» instead of «cover.»
3. Giving students a sense of initial self-confidence through 9. Encourage students to ask questions when they think of
the successful completion of simple tasks-listing questions them. Asking students to wait until the end of your com-
about rights which a series of photos raise, making a poster ments results in their confusion and «dropping out.»
illustrating part of the Universal Declaration. 10. Be realistic. Present situations as they really happen.
4. Adopting a problem-centered and action-oriented ap- Students will know when you are explaining the ideal
proach to the subject by focusing on «problems to be or «the way it is supposed to happen.»
solved» rather than «problems which overwhelm us». 11. Avoid placing yourself in the middle of a controversy.
5. Giving students a measure of responsibility for designing If the information you are going to present will flag
and managing the rest of the course. questionable behavior by school administrators, prepare
for that by first talking to the teacher or administrator
SOME GENERAL PRINCIPLES if possible.
Starkey’s Principles in “Social Education” (April/May 1992) 12. Understand your power as an outside resource person.
You are an expert and you are a new face in the clas-
1. The approach is global in the sense of having a planetary sroom. The students will probably listen carefully and
perspective, but also concerning the whole curriculum repeat much of what you say. They might also adopt
and indeed the whole school. your attitudes.
2. The climate of the school encourages expression, inqui- 13. Present balanced information. This is especially impor-
ry, and dialogue, enabling time to be used flexibly for tant when teaching current events as they have unfolded
special projects. in the media.
3. Participation is encouraged both by formal structures 14. Be enthusiastic and have fun! Move around the room.
within the school and through pedagogy of active lear- Vary your voice. Your enthusiasm will be contagious.
ning.
4. Human rights is a dimension and cross-curricular the- J. Addressing Diversity Issues
me. Ideally, interdisciplinary teams of teachers will be Prejudice, discrimination and other hateful behavior must
involved. be considered when discussing human rights. While all hu-
5. Although human rights concepts are found in every area man rights violations are not a result of prejudice and dis-
of the school curriculum, it is useful to give the idea a crimination, often they play an integral part in the dynam-
high public profile within the school through a special ic. When working with students in the classroom it is very
project. important to consider their experiences and life realities
6. Special projects are an appropriate opportunity for and how this affects class expectations and their attitudes
working with the community. and feelings regarding these issues. It is very important
7. Human rights education projects are motivating to to address the fact that human rights principles and is-
students and teachers: they encourage a sense of citi- sues are not only applicable in the international setting,
zenship. that human rights education is also relevant «in our own

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backyards.» It is important that education in human rights sues and views of others and can add a more realistic, ex-
can be validating and empowering to students who feel op- periential dimension to law studies. Role-playing can vary
pressed in some way in our society and also it is important from informal in-class assignments to formal moot court
to be sensitive to the fact that this same awareness may and mock trial presentations.
possibly be quite frustrating.
In working with classrooms it is important to consider:
 All of us harbor some prejudice against others, of
which we are often unaware.
 By recalling times when we were targets of various
forms of prejudice and discrimination, and listening
to the experiences of others, we develop the empathy
and commitment that will allow us to work against
expressions of prejudice in ourselves and others.
 Given that learning is a lifelong process, and that pre-
judice is learned, we believe that it can be unlearned.
 Learning participants can recognize their biases only
in an environment that is non- judgmental and non-
threatening.
 Effective techniques for encouraging change are:
role play, experiential activities, and interactive
discussions without harmful confrontation.
 Only by empowering and developing the com-mitment
in participants can we significantly diminish hate-
ful behavior and world views in youth and adults, by
bringing people together as allies in this struggle.
 A multicultural educational environment (address-ing
experiences and perspectives from individuals with di-
verse backgrounds) is a key factor in reducing preju- 4. COOPERATIVE LEARNING: Cooperation is working to-
dice. gether to accomplish shared goals and cooperative learn-
Effective partners in human rights education use a variety ing is the instructional use of small groups so that students
of classroom teaching methods. work together to maximize their own and each other’s
1. LECTURES: Long lectures are the least effective ap- learning. Within cooperative learning groups students are
proach to helping students understand the law. Short lec- given two responsibilities: to learn the assigned material
tures may be useful to provide background or summarize a and make sure that all other members of their group do
discussion, but proceed carefully when considering lectur- likewise. Students discuss the material to be learned with
ing, and combine it with more «hands-on» methods. each other, help and assist each other to understand it,
2. THE CASE METHOD: Although the case method and and encourage each other to work hard. Learning situa-
Socratic questioning are not widely used in secondary tions are structured so that students cooperate with each
schools, they have become very popular in capturing the other to learn the material. Role-playing, research, mock
interests of teenagers. The case method is also effective trials and social action activities are very appropriate
in helping students understand that many legal conflicts methods in which to use the cooperative learning model of
are not simple matters of right against wrong, but of le- classroom participation and learning.
gitimate rights in conflict. Thoughtful questioning can help 5. SOCIAL ACTION ACTIVITIES: This is a very important
students identify the reasons, values and legal prin-ciples component to the partners in human rights education proj-
that support their views and can give them a better under- ect. The incorporation of issues in the community, school
standing of the views of others with whom they disagree. and lives of students in the application of human rights
While many law school teachers leave issues unresolved, principles empowers the students to become informed
closure and clarification are important for students. Also, community participants who act upon their understanding
be careful not to intimidate students and discourage their of human rights and the responsibilities that accompany
participation by intense questioning. them. It is important to ask the question: What can we/I
3. ROLE-PLAYING, MOCK TRIALS AND APPEALS: In these do about this situation? What will we/I do? and plan and
activities students assume the role of another person and carry out that activity.
act it out. Role-playing helps students understand the is-

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8. Human Rights and Education for Democratic Citizenship in Albania: A Short
Overview
Bedri Kola, Albania

This article explores the transition in Albania to teaching more fully about Human Rights in schools in Albania.
The first section of the article considers how the Ministry of Education has worked to encourage teachers to
consider and include Human Rights by ‘top-down’ policy initiatives and other incentives, with the second section
considering ‘bottom- up’ (teacher-led) initiatives.

The new Albanian reality, which is a testimony to the dy- on the 10th of December- to coincide with Tolerance and
namic economic, social and cultural transformation under- Peace Day
way in the country, has put the individual and education
in new relationship. Society is not only generating new New Guidelines of the Ministry of Education for the school
options for the individual to develop but is also charging year 2000-2001 to emphasise the importance of Education
everyone with more responsibilities. for democratic citizenship, with consideration of educa-
tion for patriotism, peace, human rights, a European di-
Education is facing new perspectives, its old mission to train mension, and environmental and health education:
future citizen is presently considered as multiple folded.
Democratic citizenship education is expected to play a cru- From 2000 to develop a new curricula for health education,
cial role. The new civics curriculum is in line with the philoso- and from 2001 to launch Intercultural and Human Rights edu-
phy of the present situation and challenges of the future. cation- as a joint project of MoE, Institute of Pedagogical Re-
Schools are adopting a strategy of training citizens capable search and UNESCO, to develop the civic education curricula
of exerting their civil responsibilities and freedoms, capable
of making their contribution to further spiritual emancipa- In Patriotic education the aim is to make student aware
tion, social and material development of society. and conscious of their national identity and in the same
The already changed Albanian society and the perspective time respect other’s culture and national heritage
of living together, lays down the necessity for new know-
ledge, values and skills. In Peace education the aim is to make young people aware of
their role as real partners in the peace building process and
I. Education for Democratic Citizenship as a enable them to be active citizen in solving and preventing
conflicts, to help them learn to accept and respect differ-
‘Top-Down’ (Ministry led) activity
ences etc.
On June 1995, the Albanian Parliament passed a law relat-
Human Rights Education
ed to Pre-university Education in Albania. It broadened the
In 1995, the IPR in cooperation with national and interna-
legal basis for social development and citizen education of
tional agencies took the initiative to develop curriculum
the younger generation.
guidelines that were introduced as cross-curricular and ex-
tracurricular activities for pupils in grades 1-8.
Explicitly, Article 2 of this law writes:
‘The mission of education is the spiritual emancipation,
These collaborative efforts led to the publication of about
material progress and social development of individual.’
500 000 pupils activities textbooks for all pupils of grade
Compulsory public education aims at developing students
1-8. In these Human and Children Rights are addressed in
intellectual, creative, practical and physical capacities
Civic Education themes in the 6th grade
and developing basic cultural values and citizenship skills.
Human Rights are part of curricula of high profiled (orient-
ed) education. They take 30 % of the programme "Citizen-
The policy of the Ministry of Education and Sciences
ship 1" of the 10th grade.
Based on these goals, the Ministry of Education and Sci-
Teachers are recommended to mention Human Rights in
ences and all the education system in Albania have been
their teaching every time aspects of their teaching could
committed to:
accommodate the theme in civic education, and are also
1. Enable young people to understand, analyse and influen-
part of the new standards for civic education.
ce social policy
2. Help young people to develop participatory problem
Environment and health issues are currently a priority
solving and decision making skills
within the biology and chemistry curriculum, even though
3. Help young people to develop commitment skills, demo-
the social and citizenship dimension of these areas is not
cratic values and attitudes necessary for a peaceful and
taught in these subjects.
democratic coexistence in Albania and in the region.

Coverage of a European dimension became an important


During the last decade the Ministry of Education and Sci-
component of education after 1995- when Albania became
ences has supported the all the effort to reach the above
a member of the Council of Europe.
goals.
In this framework, the aim is
 to strengthen the European identity of the Albanian
Key Decisions students
Certain Ministry of Education key policy decisions have  to avoid chauvinistic interpretations
been important in this process  to contribute to education for tolerance and to pro-
From 1998 to pilot environmental education as an optional mote a respect for diversity
(elective) subject in the general high school, and to organ-  to educate students to accept living in peace and
ise activities for peace education that were to be finalised harmony alongside others

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Curriculum Development Conferences  Improve communication, administration and infor-
In the reforms Education for a Democratic Citizenship mation sharing- and particpation of all partners in
was considered a priority. The Ministry of Education, and decision making;
the Council of Europe ran a conference on Environmental  Train key individuals in a variety of project and ‘par-
Education in School (1994); and Education for Democratic ticipatory’ skills such as: needs analysis, ref-lective
Citizenship-a priority and a challenge for the reform in and planning skills; discussion, conflict management
education (2000). and decision making skills; training in evaluation and
The Ministry also ran a conferences on Citizenship educa- school improvement, and community involvement.
tion and on Human Rights with the Albanian Centre for
Human Rights. The project had to overcome a number of challenges:
 Lack of practical experience of school development
Curriculum Approaches and citizenship education;
Approaches in the curriculum for primary, secondary and  Difficulties related to transportation, organisation
high school are different They go from simply involving pu- and communication within the country;
pils in activities that help them to better know, understand  The traditional authoritarian attitude and, in particu-
and respect themselves (in primary) to a more complex in- lar in the north part of Albania, patriarchalism (school
volvement of pupils/students in activities that help them director-teacher, teacher-parent, parent-child)
understand the complexity of the relationships between  The tendency to adopt ‘easy’ (but not best) solu-
people and environment and, as a result, act and behave as tions (e.g. pyramidal schemes)
responsible citizens in a global and interdependent world.  The attitude that ‘Running the School is a someone
else’s affair’ etc
In the high school curriculum human rights issues, environ-
mental issues are part of the curriculum content and in the Despite this the project offered a number of gains.
same time are suggested to be addressed as cross-themat- In addition to the touchable results such as new school
ic and inter-disciplinary issues. In this regard, topics like libraries, youth clubs, multifunctional rooms, newslet-
human rights, the environment, the future, democracy, ters, summer camps and exchange visits of teachers and
citizenship, peace and peaceful coexistence and so on are students from different districts of Albania I would like to
been addressing more often in the school environment. highlight the following:
 A raised awareness that the solution of the school
In all these cases, interactive methods and participatory problems should, be first of all, a concern and an
strategies are suggested, in order to reinforce basic skills obligation of the people that are most interested in
and higher order thinking skills, conflict resolution, con- the quality of its products- the community;
sensus building and problem solving skills.  The benefits of the enhanced involvement of stu-
dents, teachers, parents, local business people,
II. Education for Democratic Citizenship as a local authorities as real partners in the process of
‘bottom- up’ (teacher-led) initiative identification, analysis, decision making and solu-
tions to school needs and problems
Teachers are often keen to be innovative, and this can be  New and more highly developed skills for all part-
seen in a number of areas, of which this is an example- ners for a sustainable involvement in school decision
This ‘bottom-up’ initiative aimed to implement changes making and problem solving
in a democratic way, where the entire school communi-  Young people showed a great potential and inter-
ty: teachers, students and parents would be actively in- est in democratic decision making. They are ready
volved. to take responsibility for designing the future of a
democratic society.
 Teachers demonstrated great professionality in
Democratic changes: a school and community based
leading and monitoring the democratic processes at
initiative.
their schools- and in sharing their experience and
disseminating this with partner-schools.
The philosophy behind this project, started in December
 The creation of a group of trained teachers, who
1997, is the idea that school is no longer an informa-
have been able to act as trainers and consultants
tion transmitter, but a very important social hub to bring
for others, and are competent to initiate and acco-
about democratic changes in the community it serves.
mpany democratic processes in schools in the neigh-
Part of the way this ia acheiveed is through the quality of
bourhood.
the teaching and learning process, and the fostering skills
 The impact on many head-teachers- and their grow-
and attitudes that lead to responsible and well-qualified
ing belief that schools have to be managed in a
participation in society. The project was implemented in
‘modern way’. They are ready to share power and
13 high schools in 13 districts across Albania with schools
responsibility to improve the quality of their school
selected by the Local Education Authorities.
and make it a place for learning and living.

The project started as a pilot one and aimed to: III. The Role of NGOs
 Create a co-operative climate in the participating
schools; A large number of NGOs are operational in Albania- and
 Develop models of pupil, teacher and parent partici- even though the efforts of NGOs have not been well coor-
pation and to support the creation of the necessary dinated to compliment each other it’s worth saying that
structures and working methods for co-operative there are a lot of them that have given a significant contri-
working; bution in the field of citizenship education. The following
 Enhance the role of schools as social centres in the are some of the initiatives that were partnered with NGOs
local communities and to allow the population to in particular during the last 5 years:
feel ownership of ‘their’ schools; In view of the present situation in Albania the training of
 Encourage co-operation between schools; serving teachers was made one of the priorities of Educa-

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Research and were attended by about 1000 teacher train-
1. Development of Environmental Education – A co-
ers of all subjects.
operation between specialists of the Ministry of Educa-
tion and Institute of Pedagogical Research. As a result
Currently Human Rights education is part of the teacher
a teacher manual has been produced and teacher train-
training programme for 15 high school teachers who teach
ing sessions were held during 1994-1996
the human rights section of the framework of the new (re-
2. Debating Skills Project - Specialists from IPR, the
formed/profiled) high school curriculum. Additionally an
Inspectors of Tirana Educational Authority, teachers
in-service human rights module was designed by The Insti-
and students, worked together between 1995-1997 to
tute of Pedagogical Research during 2000-2001 for teach-
strengthen debating skills in schools.
ers of civic education that have completed 5, 10 and 20
3. Conflict Resolution Project: This SOROS and IPR co-
years in the teaching profession.
operation started in 1996, and during the last 3 years
has been led by The Foundation For mediation and Rec- Environmental education
onciliation. In this field teacher training reforms started in 1994,
4. Human Rights Education: A lot of work has taken with former teacher trainers of chemistry and biol-
place in this field between 1993-2001, for example: ogy participating. From 2000-2001 teacher training pro-
gramme have been offered for 15 teachers of biology,
The Albanian Human Rights Centre (AHRC) is the lead- chemistry and the high school elective unit on environ-
ing organisation among the NGOs in this area develop- mental education. A teachers’ manual is also written to
ing projects which- support this work.
• Piloted pupil activities textbooks on children
rights (1995-1996);
• Reprinting a human rights textbook manual for Pre-service Teacher Training on Human Rights
primary teachers; During 2000, the Faculties of Education, in cooperation
• Publishing of the Teacher Manual for Human with The Albanian Centre for Human Rights developed a
Rights Education (1997); short course about Human Rights.
• Setting up a network of HRs model schools in dif-
ferent districts in Albania;
• Organizing a National Conference on Human
The content of this includes a study of:
Rights in December 2000;
 Human Rights: Concepts and history
• Carrying out a joint project with Faculties of Ed-
 Human Rights Classification
ucation for introducing HRs modules in the cur-
 Human Rights Documents
ricula of pre-service teacher training (2000-2001)
 The UDHR
• Organizing HRs workshops with primary head
 The Convention on the Rights of the Child
teacher etc.
 International and national institutions for Human
• In service and pre-service teachers training.
Rights protection
In-service Education Developments.
 HRE texts as cross–curricular elements in school
In this Human Rights was seen as a priority. Since 1993
 The methodology of HRE
600 teachers from all over Albania have taken part in
training seminars on the idea, concepts and the peda-
Despite all of this work teacher training remains an abso-
gogy of teaching and learning about human rights.
lute priority for the future in our system.

tion for democratic citizenship. The idea behind this pri- The Place of Human Rights in the History and
ority is that any effort to effect changes in the school cur- Geography Curriculum.
riculum and school environment (whatever their quality)
would fail if there are no capable people to apply them The subject and the creative substance of History and Ge-
creatively in the classroom. ography is: first of all the study of the human beings and
human society in time and space in all its political, social,
In 1995 the publication of students books was accompanied economic, religious and cultural dimensions.
by teacher training workshops and publications for teach-
ers on the topic: This is the main reason that in comparison with the other
• ‘Human Rights for Primary Teachers’, in co-operation subjects the teaching objectives of history and geography
with the Norwegian agency ANA (later MIRA) Founda- are closely linked with the conscientiousness of the pupils
tion (1994); to defend the social justice for all, and they make a key
• ‘It’s Only the Right’ – a translated publication- in co- element in these school disciplines.
operation with UNICEF;
• ‘Human Rights Education at School– Guidelines for The inclusion of different matters, in the subject of ge-
Teachers’, in co-operation with The Netherlands Hel- ography, which are linked with instillation of the pupils
sinki Committee; with information and positive values, must be seen as part
• ‘Human Rights Education at School : A Manual for and parcel of their geographical formation. The majority
Teachers’- in co-operation with The Albanian Centre of items in geography related to Human Rights relate to
for Human Rights and the Netherlands Helsinki Com- issues around free movement and the exchange of ideas
mittee. and goods. Such a study can also be about how ‘rights’
have developed in a specific place or culture - in different
The publishing of the textbooks and other teaching ma- spaces of the world and how it would be closely linked with
terials in the field of Human Rights is accompanied with the conversations and agreements amongst states, regions
the training of a large number of teachers of Civic educa- and across the globe.
tion and other subjects. During 1995-1996 national training
sessions, of one day workshops dedicated to human rights In these subjects it is possible to consider equality and
education, were organised by The Institute of Pedagogical Human Rights regardless of race, giving different examples

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of discrimination in different countries, and look at the at- of key human rights documents and international agree-
tempts of these counties/ their people to improve the lives ments:
of different ethnic groups in order to educate your pupils − The Classical Greek Era and it’s philosophy: slave
about their Human Rights. owning, democracy in the Vth Century B.C (Greek
Philosophers were the first who spoke about the Hu-
All the human begins are equal and must enjoy their Human man Rights)
Right in the same way. But on the other hand, human be- − The Impact of Christianity: in which the rights are
ings are not the same. They are different from each other declared on moral and spiritual rather than political
according to their language, culture race etc. In this way terms.
you give to your pupils the message of non-discrimination − The Renaissance in Europe: the birth of ‘modern’
because this discrimination begins when it is thought that concepts of freedom and rights- and the evolution of
a certain group of people are more valuable than another the idea of the state.
group because of their race, colour, human kind, political − The British Constitutional Doctrine of the XVII centu-
view, national or social origins. Your task is to make your ry: the concept of constitutional monarchy and the
pupils conscious that within a place or state there are people superiority of elected decision makers over heredi-
who might be discriminated against and that this is wrong. tary ones- the principle that the monarch was under
God and the law because the monarch was created
It is normal and healthy for every society to enjoy diversity by law.
amongst it’s people and the rights of minorities must be − The Enlightenment of the XVII-XVIII century: and the
seen not only as a national right but ever in a wide plan, philosophy of the natural rights of man, developed
in that of global, international rights, so in this way pupils furthers the Human Rights, represented by Mon-
must be educated as the citizens of a world where the in- tesquieu, Rousseau etc.
terdependence is evident: besides loyalty, patriotism and − The American colonial war of the independence and
responsibility towards their own country pupils must be formation of the United States of America.
educated as citizens of the world. The study of the Human − The French Revolution of the XVIII century and its
Rights, their universal character, gives great possibilities in declaration of the Rights of Man.
their intercultural education. For example you may men-
tion the rights of native peoples and of nomadic tribes, but 2. Exploring and Explaining Key Documents
also the right of economic migrants and guest workers, and By the end of the scheme of work pupils should have en-
of political refugees, and their right to work and educa- countered and have some awareness of the following key
tion, sanctuary, education, health care and so on. historical documents:
− Magna Charter (England, 1215) - an assertion that
In the curriculum what can be studied will vary according the monarch must consult the barons and that they
to the age group of the pupils, but should include these had inalienable rights as well as responsibilities of
three concepts: service;
- Diversity − The Declaration of Rights (Britain, 1688) - the pub-
- Equality lication of key rights and an assertion of the will of
- Complexity the people (actually of the ruling class);
− The Declaration of Independence (USA July 4th,
The concept of diversity will occur repeatedly in different 1776) - The creation of a new philosophy of the
units and items, and will exist aside the explanations of phe- human rights and freedoms, declaring that all are
nomenon and social events- and, unless challenged, often equal with inalienable rights such as life, freedom
seen through an ethnocentric and traditional or stereotyped and happiness;
view of ‘reality’. − The Declaration of the Rights of Man (France, 24 Au-
gust 1789)- the assertion of basic human and civil
The concept of equality should be viewed with a multilat- rights and the freedom and equality of all.
eral optics: north, south, east, west, as well as local; na-
tional; international; global. It is also important to secure 3. The Historical Evolution of Human Rights by type:
a balance between coverage of economic, cultural, politic − Political and civil rights
and social matters, and to ensure that pupils understand − Economical, social and cultural rights.
the responsibility of the international community in pro- − The right of solidarity
tecting and enforcing equal rights.
4. The status of certain social groups such as slaves
The concept of complexity must take into consideration and serfs, workers, women etc. How their rights are en-
that interpretation of events and social processes is com- croached in their struggle to win them for example: work-
plicated by change and continuity, stagnation and progress, ers movements and the creation of trade unions.
and that change is shaped by multiple factors- making in-
terpretation a multiple perspective process. 5. Violent Struggles for Human Rights
− Liberation against colonialism, fascism, etc.
Ten Themes for Human Rights Education − For the creation of the National States.
− Against racism
− Against political oppression
History plays an important role in the civil education of − Against dictatorship.
young people – including their awareness of Human Rights
entitlements and responsibilities. The inclusion of Human 6. Peaceful Struggles for Human Rights
Rights education can be achieved by: Reforms in different countries such as:
− Creation of the parties
1. Key Moments and Turning Points Explaining to, and − The Issue of democratic laws for example their rights
discussing with, pupils the most important moments in the to vote.
struggle for Human Rights during history, and the creation − Social insurance

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7. Humanitarian and Peace Organisations 10. The study of different cultures
− The formation of the League of Nation (in which are Even in the subject of geography you may discuss with your
created special commissions on the Human Rights) 1920. pupils about the independence between the Human life
− The formation of the United Nations organization and the environment that is to say the right of the human
(OKB) 1945 beings to profit from the real estate of the world and their
This organization has created a lot of specialized agency of responsibility to defend this environment. Integration of
insurance Council with their specific programs. It has ap- the Human Rights is this subject can be achieved:
proved many documents and conversations such as:
− Human Rights Charter − By general Physical, Geography, when we speak how the
− Universal Declaration of the Human Rights environment affects on human health.
− International Pacts of the Human Rights − By the geography on the states, the connections with
− Convention against discrimination the Human Rights is realized by studying about rich and
− Convention on the defense of the emigrants poor countries (the right of solidarity)
− Convention on the defence of the children. − By economical geography, speaking about the econo-
mical development, it is stressed the fulfilment of the
Many local mechanisms are created in the sphere of the economical rights is the developed countries and their
Human Rights such as: denial is the in the countries on the process of deve-
− European Council lopment.
− European Commissions of the Human Rights − By studding about population it is treated the inequality
− European Court of the Human Rights among people in a certain country, among different
− European Convention of the Human Rights and many countries, the war against racism, the right of minority,
other European conventions the war against discrimination of certain social groups,
against discriminations of women etc.
8. Key Individuals − By studying urbanistic problems of sanctuary, the right
The study of the outstanding personalities of history, who of free movement is treated.
have fought for democracy and have taken prices for The connection among the rights and responsibilities affects
“peace” such as: directly on the formation of democratic value of the pupils
− Henry Dunant (Switzerland) and even in their position towards social matters.
− Mother Tereza (India, Albania)
− Martin Luther King (USA) In order to affect this formation you (when you are ex-
− Nelson Mandela (South Africa) plaining the lesson) can put your pupils on the role of the
− Aung San Sun Kyi (Burma) leader for the Human Rights. In different positions such as:
in the role of a leader, as a member an institution for the
9. Forms of state organisation defense of the Human Rights, in the role of an ordinary
− Monarchy person, creating imaginary situations.
− Republic
− Constitutional Democracy

The weather becomes less friendly, but from inside the Conference Centre the view become more beautiful!

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9. Active Human Rights Teaching in the Primary School
Marjeta Šifrer, Slovenia

This article present a number of practical materials for introducing the concept of Human Rights to younger
pupils

Human rights are the rights a person has simply because • obey their parents and teachers,
he or she is a human being. • cook,
• tidy their room,
Marjeta Šifrer developed this approach through an action re- • clean,
search approach in her own classroom with pupils aged 12. • go to school …
The project was called: What are Human Rights? - Making a
Human Rights Tree. Pupils are introduced to the concept of
Human Rights and work cooperatively to create an image of
a Human Rights Tree- which helps to define human rights and
human needs. They then present their work to each other.

The Active teaching of Human Rights in the primary


school: Aims, Objectives and Outcomes
This classroom activity ‘What are Human Rights? - Making
a Human Rights Tree’ was taught in my classroom as a Citi-
zenship learning and ethics topic with pupils aged 12 in the
Slovenian 7th Class, and lasted 4-5 hours of lesson time. It
involved teacher-led teaching from the front of the class-
room and more active approaches, including working in
groups. I used teacher explanation, verbal demonstration,
graphic representation, and discussion.

I work in Naklo Primary School in Slovenia, which was


established in 1997 as part of an innovative approach to
education led by the Headteacher Mr. Boris Černilec. Our Step 2. What are Human Rights?
school is also very closely connected to the local commu-
nity, and our pupils often take part in various events in In a discussion the pupils talked about the idea of ‘Human
our village. Rights’. We wrote down what we felt ‘human’ means, and
then what is meant by the term ‘rights’. The group de-
The aims of the session were that the pupils understand cided that Human Rights are the rights a person has simply
and recognise the concept of Human Rights, are aware because he or she is a human being. Human Rights are
that Human Rights are written down and defined by inter- held by all persons equally, universally, and forever and
national treaty, and that young people develop an increas- you cannot lose these rights.
ing sense of valuing Human Rights.
Next we considered The Universal Declaration of Human
I planned that by the end of the session my pupils will Rights and I explained that the Universal Declaration of
have made a poster showing what they feel are the most Human Rights defined our rights and entitlements as hu-
important Human Rights using coloured pencils and poster mans in 1948. We read and talked about the articles of the
paper, and will have had the chance to cooperate, take Declaration and pupils were asked to think about whether
counsel and express an opinion with the other pupils in some rights were more crucial than others.
the group.

Plan of Activities
I planned that my teaching would cover seven key stages:

1. What are our duties?


2. What are Human Rights?
3. Making a Human Rights Tree.
4. Reporting and making a joint list of the most important
Human Rights.
5. Writing a newspaper article about the breaking of the
Human Rights.
6. Evaluation of Human Rights – What is your opinion about
Human Rights now?

Step 1. What are our duties in everyday life?

The pupils wrote their personal ‘duties’ on pieces of pa-


per.
My pupils wrote that they have to:
• learn,
• do their homework,

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Step 3. Making a Human Rights Tree.

This activity is a group work task, where pupils co-operate


to create a poster sized image of a tree. The branches of
the tree are our fundamental human rights and the leaves,
fruits, or flowers are the rights which each group agrees as
most important. The roots are the things which will feed
good conditions for Human Rights. This activity creates a
negotiated list of key rights, and a colourful, active way of
presenting information which is then shared with the rest
of the class.

• Pupils should work in small groups of 3-4 people;


• A tree should be drawn on a large sheet of paper with
a big pen; Presenting The Tree
• Each group should discuss which are the key Human
Rights, and then add a branch, leaves, fruit, or
flowers for each of those human rights that they think
are the most important;
• Trees need roots to grow and flourish – groups should
now give the tree roots and label them with the con-
ditions that must exist to make human rights flourish
– for example a healthy economy, democratic values,
justice and the rule of law, or universal education.

Prioritising the Human Rights

Step 5. Looking at Modern Sources: Newspaper Articles


about the Breaking of Human Rights.

Each group was given one short, suitably written article


about occasions where human rights have been abused. It
is important here that the articles have been checked so
that the content and context are appropriate to the nature
of the group.

Pupils work on their Human Rights Tree

Step 4. Reporting Back, and making a class list of the


most important Human Rights.

When the trees were complete each group was asked to


come to the front and presents its tree to the class. Each
explained its choices and their reasons for the items they
had included. Each group was asked to find out which human rights were
being breached in each case, and make a list and to work
out how they knew it was an abuse, what evidence there
was of abuse and how serious the incident was so that each
group would be ready to present their findings to the rest
of the class.

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Step 6. Plenary: What is your opinion about Human 2. Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set
Rights now? forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind,
such as race, colour, sex, language, religion
Each pupil was asked to writes down their personal opin- 3. No one shall be held in slavery or servitude …
ion about human rights anonymously, then I read out these 4. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with
opinions and the class and I discussed them. his privacy, family, home

My class felt that for Human Rights to flourish these


conditions are necessary-
− peace
− equality of rights
− equal status of the people
− democracy
− education the people about their human rights
− a written record of the rights must be recorded
− there needs to be a guardian of the human rights
− the constitution of the country should list the rights

Pupils’ opinions about Human Rights:


At the end of the project my class felt that Human Rights
are important, and that it was good to learn about them.
They began to take a greater interest in the news and in
The Results of the Project
particular were able to say when and where they felt that
Human Rights were being broken. The project had man-
My pupils decided that the most important Human Rights aged to reinforce their skills at working together, making a
are: case and presenting a viewpoint, prioritising and selecting
1. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and and in critical awareness and media analysis.
rights.

Pupils work The Results of the Project

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Statements from
The Universal Declaration of The Rights of the Child

1 All children have the rights in this set of tens statements, no matter what their race,
colour sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, or where they were born or to
who they were born.

2 You have the special right to grow up and to develop physically and spiritually in a
healthy and normal way, free and with dignity.

3 You have a right to a name and to be a member of a country.

4 You have a right to special care and protection and to good food, housing and medical
services.

5 You have the right to special care if handicapped in any way.

6 You have the right to love and understanding, preferably from parents and family, but
from the government where these cannot help.

7 You have the right to go to school for free, to play, and to have an equal chance to de-
velop yourself and to learn to be responsible and useful.

Your parents have special responsibilities for your education and guidance.

8 You have the right always to be among the first to get help.

9 You have the right to be protected against cruel acts or exploitation, e.g. you shall not
be obliged to do work which hinders your development both physically and mentally.

You should not work before a minimum age and never when that would hinder your
health, and your moral and physical development.

10 You should be taught peace, understanding, tolerance and friendship among all people.

This set of statements is taken from the United Nations teaching resources webpages, with slight adaptations of language
For more resources visit: http://www.un.org/cyberschoolbus/humanrights/resources.asp

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10. Fighting Xenophobia through Drama Techniques
Katerina Brentanou, Greece

In this article Katrina Bentanou explores ‘the other’ in contemporary Europe, images of xenophobia, and high-
lights the importance of using active techniques in making learning memorable and engaging, and considers how
this challenging classroom technique can be best used to challenge prejudice and racism.

Introduction “crisis”; or, at an older age, invited to challenge or advise


Education promises Knowledge. Acquisition of Knowledge is characters from a play they have just witnessed.” (Jackson
only one of education’s aims. Teaching is not only the way 1993)
to give knowledge but also to accomplish changes through  Drama can be used as a model of a serious and sig-
learning. “To learn means to change” and this change (of nificant life situation.
thinking, facing, demanding, living) is the main purpose of  Using Drama techniques helps in developing aware-
every educational system and every teaching method. ness and empathy.
According to current research (Mucchielli 2000:28)  “Entering fictional worlds has a generally therapeu-
tic effect on participants” (Sommers)
“if we pay attention we learn 10 % of what we hear, 20 %  The sense of familiarity, trust and openness and the
of what we read, 30 % of what we see, 50 % of what we sense of comfort help the creation of a better rela-
see and hear at the same time, 80 % of what we say and tionship among participants.
90 % of what we say while at the same time we are getting  The freedom of expressing ourselves helps the de-
involved in actions which demand thinking and in which we velopment of self -confidence and self -esteem.
are actively participating”.
The most appropriate teaching method which helps stu- Model lesson
dents of every age get involved in actions is Theatre in 1. Class description
Education (TIE). “TIE seeks to harness the techniques and Secondary school students aged 15-18
imaginative potency of theatre in the service of educa-
tion”. (Jackson 1996:1) 2. Recent work
Any kind of conflict throughout History (i.e. Wars, Slavery,
This method is based on the premise that we can learn and Fall of Regimes, Emigrants and Refugees…)
change through entering fictional worlds, through “living” This particular lesson is a part of a larger unit of Contem-
in other people’s worlds. (Sommers) porary History concerning Population’s Movements in the
late 20th century. It is a follow- up to a lesson on the politi-
These worlds include all human experiences which are not cal changes that took place in Eastern Europe after 1989.
only valid theatrical material but also valid educational
material. 3. Historical frame
Certain teaching subjects as racism, relationship between The political changes that took place in Eastern Europe
the two sexes, alcoholism, drug addiction etc, which con- after 1989 provoked a sudden wave of emigration. People
cern not only the History teachers but also the teachers of moved to countries where the social and economic condi-
Civic Education, Philosophy, Essay writing, Sociology… are tions were promising a better life.
impossible or rather difficult to be taught in any other way Host countries faced problems concerning assimilation of
than through drama techniques. these peoples and emigrants faced problems concerning
Contemporary History, in particular, is one of these subjects. their incorporation into them. Particularly Greece, which
As it is alive it can not be written and so there are no school is not used to accepting but rather to sending emigrants
books describing and analyzing it. Through drama techniques abroad and does not have either the legislative or the fi-
teachers can effectively accomplish their aims because this nancial framework, handles this situation with difficulty.
method provides them with a way to get students to face a Thus, xenophobia is a kind of racism, extremely dangerous
historical fact through make-believe (as if it is a moment of in our days. Unfortunately, in our multinational societies
their own lives), to deal with “real” persons in “real” circum- xenophobia has increased. So teaching how to fight this
stances and to get involved in a conflict (Boal 1992). Of-course phenomenon in everyday life is of vital importance. His-
teachers assume that students will accept this theatrical pact tory and Civic Education Teachers should, therefore, help
and will cooperate. If students are able to handle this situa- students not only to be aware of related historical events
tion, to feel the strength of the conflict, to negotiate or even that caused these people to move away from their country
to understand why and how someone acted the way he did in and into their own, but also to accept “otherness” in a
a certain historical time…they will be able to empathize with modern multicultural society.
the people who faced similar situations throughout History. This model lesson concerns the relationship between a
So if we want to prepare our students for what they may Greek employer and an Albanian worker.
come up against in their life, if we want to establish a
new meaning in their view of what life is and to develop 4. Method
awareness and understanding… we have to find a method We will examine through practice the ways in which we
which talks straight to their hearts and gets them involved can use drama to teach our students to fight xenophobia.
through experience. This method is effective in actively involving students in
the process of teaching. Students have a hands-on experi-
Aims ence of the subject. Through drama techniques students
“One of the major and most effective features of TIE is the are transported in real life conditions and develop empa-
structured active participation of the children in the drama- thy, as they identify with different characters in particular
frequently placed within a dramatic fiction in which they situations.
become caught up in each events, interact with the range The teacher (T) directs the dramatization in this particular
of characters and have to make decisions in the midst of way of life by creating a model of life in the same way in

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which a painter sketches a first draft on which he will base First walk normally, now in a hurry, now as if you were
his final product. T can change the variables of the model children, old people, drunks, as the blind, as if you
according to his aims and can create alternative condi- were skidding on ice, as if you were stepping in the
tions. mud, walking on the sand, in the snow, above the sea,
Students (Ss) are called to reproduce this model, to per- as if the floor is burning….”
form only by improvisation. T is the director but this model
is neither a theatrical play, nor a written text. It is just a A.5. Signal transfer – 5 minutes
moment of life (a snapshot) with ever-changing roles and Objective: If we are to do drama we must forget who
meanings. As the improvisation takes place we stay open we are and concentrate on what we are going to be.
to all versions that may come up. So:
The main presupposition for this model is familiarization “Form a full circle. Hold each other’s hands. Close
with drama techniques, with the theatrical context in gen- your eyes and try to pass the movement you take
eral. This means that we have to feel free to use body from one hand to the other as soon as possible.” T
language, to express our feelings, to explore variability of can repeat this exercise as many times as s/he finds
voice, to cooperate, to discipline ourselves and to develop appropriate. Every time the movement travels fast-
our abilities and talents. er and faster. “You were a little late. Try faster this
time.”
5. Stages:
A. Theatrical games – Warming up exercises (time esti- Now the group is ready to jump into the characters.
mated: 30 minutes)
B. Improvisation (time estimated: 45 minutes)
A.1. Introduction – 10 minutes The improvisation is based on role cards on which
Objective: If we are to do drama we must know with Teacher describes the characters involved in the sto-
whom we have to share our feelings and thoughts. ry. The characters are drawn on well- known stere-
So: otypes.
“You have a minute to fill out this page. The given Important: we have to create a conflict. This happens
page is separated into 4 parts. The first one asks if we give each role some information unknown to the
you to write your name, your country and something other. Students become the people in the story.
about yourself (whatever… perhaps you can draw a
heart or a flower…). In the second part, you describe B.1.Forming pairs (this must guarantee randomness)
your studies, your work, your students’ school level… “I have here pairs of straws of different colors and
In the third, note whatever you really like to have in length. Choose one and find your partner”. –1 minute
your life (e.g., “sea, food and being in love are my B.2.Defining A and B role characters within each pair (in
favourites”). In the fourth part state what you dislike random order too)
(e.g., “misery or frustration”). Then, you have two “Ask your partner what time s/he woke up this morn-
minutes to discuss all the above with the person sit- ing. The one who woke up earlier is A (“Mary”), the
ting on your right. Then, your partner introduces you other is B (“Ann”).” -1 minute
to the group and you introduce him/her in turn.”
B.3.Role cards -3 minutes
A.2. Chairs of truth – 5 minutes The role cards are given to the participants. All As
Objective: If we are to do drama we must create a gather together and all Bs go out of the classroom.
sense of familiarity and trust. So: Each one has to read the card in silence. When they
Ss sit in a circle and T stands in the centre of the are ready, all As, “Mary”, find a “stage”, a setting
circle. “I’ll tell you something that is true about me. where the improvisation will take place. All Bs,
If it is also true about you, please stand up and find “Ann”, enter the classroom; find their partner and
another place to sit as fast as you can.” T finds a chair the improvisation starts.
for him/herself. As you can realize some other person
is now standing at the centre of the circle (s/he who B.4. Acting out the Improvisation
could not find a place). S/he confides to the group a Every pair plays for 4 minutes.
truth about his/her life. And the game goes on. When T stops them, s/he asks them to stay in char-
acter.
A.3. Map of Europe – 5 minutes
Objective: If we are to do drama we must have the B.5.Presentation of the Improvisation – 20 minutes
ability to manipulate space and time. So: The whole group forms two rings of chairs. Maries (all
“Pull away your chairs and meet me back here in the As) form a ring of chairs with Anns (all Bs) behind them
empty space”. in another ring of chairs. The stage is now at the centre.
a. “We suppose that a map of Europe is drawn on Every pair presents a part of its improvisation to the
the floor. If I am standing now where Greece is, group. There is no particular order for this.
please stand where your country is.”
b. “Close your eyes and make a full circle around your- B.6.Improvisation’s extensions – 15 minutes
self in one minute. When you think that the minute Important: Preserve the atmosphere that has been
passed, please stop where you are in silence until I created.
give you the signal to open your eyes”.
B.6.1. Representing the collective consciousness
A.4. Let’s walk in different ways – 5 minutes. • Maries, who are sitting in the inner ring of chairs
Objective: If we are to do drama we must feel free are called to close their eyes and to express
enough to use our body language (to energize our their thoughts and feelings at this time. “When
bodies) and to capture a spirit of playfulness. So: you are ready, please speak into the air what
“Walk up and down, using all directions, following my you are feeling now after talking with Ann” – 3
orders. minutes

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• After a while, Anns change places to come to the write in it. This task is rather a direct expres-
middle circle. They also close their eyes and ex- sion of consciousness rather than a systematic
press their feelings and thoughts. intellectual piece of work.
“Please, now, without interrupting or talking to Around 4 minutes are given for this.
each other, change places so that Anns are inside. • Again in silence, the participants are brought
Close your eyes and loudly express what you are to sit in one big circle. They are asked to read
feeling now after talking with Mary” – 3 minutes their diary entry. There is no particular order
for this either. – 5 minutes.
B.6.2.Changing roles
• The people playing Mary are called now to B.7.De-roleing – 1 minute
change role to become Ann and the people Participants are de rolled by holding on to each
playing Ann are now Mary. In their new roles other, breathing in and out together and stretch-
they are given a piece of paper –we suppose ing up and shaking off the role.
it is their diary -and are asked to go away and

Teaching Materials

Role Cards
Card A

Mary, 40 years old, business executive


You are successful in your work and happily married. You have a kind husband, two children in high school and a nice
big house.
Over the last three years you are having a maid (house keeper) working in your house, Anna, who is an unmarried,
30-year-old woman, comes from Albania and has a five-year-old son. Anna is always on time, honest and hard working, and
over these 3 years has been coming every day in the house from 7.30 to 15.00. You are very satisfied with her behavior and
work, and that’s why you are frequently generous to her.
Yesterday at midday, when you returned home, you found the front door open. Anna was not there and the box with the
expensive jewelery was also missing from the cupboard. The Police told you that the culprit was probably a person known
to the family or the maid, who knows every nook and cranny of the house. All the afternoon you were desperately trying to
find Anna. She was not answering her mobile phone and you did not know her exact address.
Now it’s 8.00 in the morning and you have lost every hope of her arrival because she always comes at 7.30. You are
sitting in the kitchen drinking coffee, holding your head in your hands.
The improvisation begins from the moment that Ann enters the kitchen.

Card B

Ann, 30 years old, maid (house keeper)


You are Albanian, single mother of a five –year- old son. You came from Albania 3 and-a-half years ago because you had
a very difficult life there, both economically and socially.
In Greece everything is better. You have a steady job and your boy is happy in his nursery school. You have been work-
ing in Maria’s house for 3 years, every morning from 7.30 to 15.00. Mrs. Maria and all her family have been very helpful
towards you.
Yesterday, around 13.30, you were called by the nursery school and you were informed that your son fell down the
stairs and was taken to hospital. You ran out like crazy without informing anyone. Fortunately, the little boy had only a
concussion but he spent all night in hospital to get all the necessary medical exams.
This morning you took a taxi from the hospital to go to your workplace, but there was a lot of traffic and you were
late. You arrived at 8.00, instead of 7.30.
The improvisation starts from the moment you enter the kitchen of the house and find Mrs. Mary drinking her coffee
and holding her head in her hands.

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References:
Boal August: Games for Actors and Non-actors, Routledge, London and New York, 1993.
Boldon Gavin: Towards a Theory of Drama in Education, Longman, London, 1980.
Boldon Gavin: New Perspectives on Classroom Drama, Simon and Schuster, London, 1992.
Boldon Gavin: Acting in Classroom Drama, Trentham Books, London, 2000.
Govas Nicolaos, Towards a Youth Creative Theatre, METAICHMIO, Athens, 2002.
Γκόβας Νικόλαος: Για ένα Δημιουργικό Νεανικό Θέατρο, Μεταίχμιο, Αθήνα , 2002.
Jackson Tony (1993) : Learning through Theatre – new perspectives on Theatre in Education, London: Routledge
Mucchielli, P (2000:28) in: S. Courau, (2000) “Les methods actives de la pedagogie des adultes”,
Somers John (1996) : Drama and Theatre in Education: Contemporary Research, North York: Captus Press
Specifying Theatre’s role in Secondary Education, Conference Proceedings, Athens, 2000.
Αναζητώντας τη Θέση του Θεάτρου στη Δευτεροβάθμια Εκπαίδευση, Πρακτικά Συνδιάσκεψης, Αθήνα 2000, Διεύθυνση
Δευτεροβάθμιας Εκπαίδευσης Ανατολικής Αττικής, Αθήνα, 2001.
Theatre in Education: “Art Form and Learning Tool”, Conference Proceedings, Athens, December 2001, METAICHMIO, Athens, 2002.
Theatre in Education: “Building Bridges”, Conference Proceedings, Athens, January 2003, METAICHMIO, Athens, 2003.

Educational and Cultural Exchange taking place


in Bled-

Right- The EUROCLIO Communications Officer gains an Albanian fashion


accessory at the official closing dinner

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11. Teaching Women’s Rights as Human Rights
Linking Past to Present
Lyn Reese, Women in World History Curriculum, United States of America

Lyn Reese’s article represents a feminist approach to human rights, and an attempt to address too frequently ne-
glected areas of history- human rights and women’s history and role in achieving change. She convincingly argues
that greater attention to these areas is key in changing young peoples attitudes and society in general.

Alarming accounts of abuses of women’s human rights ap- progress toward parity with men is to continue. For his-
pear regularly in today’s media. News items describe dis- tory teachers, first steps can be taken by having students
turbing events. Young girls sold for sex or servitude, honor explore past examples of ways societies have institutional-
killings, forced or prevented abortions, the growing problem ized gender divisions, and the struggles of some women as
of aids among women, worldwide incidences of domestic well as men to overcome those which they deemed to be
violence - these are only a few issues of concern. However repressive and harmful.
distressful, the prevalence such sensational reports offer
unique opportunities to link contemporary problems to his- Find links to women’s rights organizations, and excerpts from
torical attitudes about women and their position in society. the treaties mentioned above at:
Integrating primary source readings and student awareness http://womeninworldhistory.com/bled-webLinks.html
activities into commonly taught topics are two ways to do
so. In this article I model these approaches by discussing Primary Source Readings:
two short internet available source readings, and provide I encourage using primary source readings when they cor-
follow-up discussion questions. I also describe a class activ- respond to a topic or period that is commonly taught.
ity which illustrates the effects on society of the denial of Introducing at least one early in the course gives a base
women’s rights. I further direct teachers to links to internet with which to compare to others from later times or cul-
sources on this topic, and a list of suggestions for their use. tures. Those that allow a woman (or women) to speak for
themselves are naturally the most engaging. Students con-
Women’s human rights - a new concept: nect easily to readings which provide intimate examples
Only relatively recently has the fact that women’s rights of women’s agency and actual life experiences. Others,
need to be spelled out as a separate category been ac- however, can be used to demonstrate the deep and almost
cepted and incorporated into the modern, expanding ide- universal belief in gender difference. Early laws, codes, or
as about human rights. The effort to do so emerged as a influential teachings describe where males had rights and
distinct aspect of human rights during the international where women’s rights might have been restricted. They
women’s movements of the 1980s. Now, after immense ef- also demonstrate the extent to which social structure and
forts on the part of millions of women and men, there is gender attributes were culturally specific. Assumptions
recognition that beyond political and civic rights, there are that men and women were essentially different creatures,
social and economic arenas where women’s’ rights have not only biologically, but in their needs, capacities and
been ignored. functions, usually was felt to be a natural state, accepted
without question. Learning of the existence of dualistic
Two important international women’s rights documents are gender systems, which sometimes resulted in the subordi-
now used as tools by women’s rights groups around the world. nation of women, helps explain the extent to which laws,
One is the Convention for the Elimination of Discrimination work patterns, expectations, and societal attitudes shaped
Against Women (CEDAW, entered into force in 1981). The women’s lives. This is of key importance. Student aware-
Convention provides the basis for realizing equality between ness of the historical reality that gender mattered is essen-
women and men through ensuring women’s equal access to, tial to their understanding of the contemporary struggles
and equal opportunities in, political and public life. It also is for women’s human rights.
the only human rights treaty which affirms the reproductive
rights of women and targets culture and tradition as influen- A list of suggested primary sources and their internet links
tial forces shaping gender roles and family relations. As of may be found on my website:
November, 2006, 185 countries - over ninety percent of the http://womeninworldhistory.com/bled-webLinks.html,
members of the United Nations - are party to the Conven- with suggestions for their use at:
tion, making it the second most widely ratified international http://womeninworldhistory.com/ActivitySuggestions.html
human rights treaty.
Two Examples: Caroline Norton (1808-1877 England)
The second treaty is the Declaration on the Elimination of and Kishida Toshiko (1863-1891, Japan): Both Caroline
Violence Against Women (UN Resolution, 1993). It spells Norton and Kishida Toshiko broke social norms by publicly
out wide forms of violence against women. Its wording advocating change not only in the legal status of women,
includes the phrase, “Recognizing that violence against but in the way society viewed their roles. Their concerns
women is a manifestation of historically unequal power re- illustrate issues from reform periods in the nineteenth
lations between men and women, which have led to domi- century where maneuvering for women’s rights within the
nation over and discrimination against women by men.” context of marriage often took precedent over others, in-
cluding female suffrage. Debates about women’s expanded
International recognition of women’s human rights does rights within marriage and women’s access to education
not mean implementation. An essential step toward re- were voiced in many nations which were dealing with new
specting, promoting and defending those rights is learning ideas about societal change.
about them. Projects that introduce students to not only
these treaties, but to the wide range of international and Caroline Norton’s emotional account describes her disas-
local women’s rights organizations are needed if women’s trous marriage. Another reading, her “Letter to the Queen”

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describes many of the restrictions on women’s rights in nese Civil Code of 1898 at:
mid-century England. In 1824, at age sixteen, Caroline http://womeninworldhistory.com/KishidaToshiko.html
was pressured to marry an older politician. Her husband
physically abused her; yet, given the laws of the time she Suggested Questions following the Readings:
was unable to secure neither a divorce nor access to her The following questions move from information gathering
children when she fled from the marriage. Her husband, ideas to those asking students to draw conclusions sup-
instead, had the legal right to desert his wife and hand ported by primary evidence.
over the children to his mistress. Caroline, a writer, went
public, achieving immense notoriety. In her confessional 1) First read for information. Then, list problems that
first person accounts, she wrote dramatic descriptions of Caroline and Toshiba mention. (Or, the main points they
her abusive marriage and attempts to get custody of her are trying to get across).
children. In 1855 she also wrote a letter to Queen Victoria
in which she detailed not only the denial of her rights but 2) What are some of arguments, or actions, which the
those denied all English women. reading suggests as ways to solve some of these pro-
blems?
Partly as a result of Caroline’s lobbying efforts, Parliament
passed the Custody of Children Act in 1839, which gave wom- 3) Think about this woman. Who was she? Does the reading
en some visitation rights, and in 1857 Parliament passed the tell us anything about her personality? What circumstan-
Marriage and Divorce Act. Since domestic violence remains ces might have encouraged her to go public with her
one of the most pervasive human rights abuses, Caroline’s complaints?
experiences can be expanded by student research into the
extent of such abuse in their own country. As the new U.N. 4) To whom is the woman directing her concerns? What
Secretary-General, Ban Ki-Moon, recently said, “Violence institutions are being taking to task?
against women is a pandemic...[i]t makes its hideous im-
print on every continent, country and culture.” 5) Discuss the social and political climate in England and
Japan that offered these women the opportunity to
Caroline’s powerful accounts can be found at: express their concerns.
http://womeninworldhistory.com/Caroline-Norton.html
6) Research the historic context of either Norton or
During Japan’s Meiji Restoration (1868-1912), male re- Toshika’s complaints. What in your mind were two of
formers and nationalists argued that improving the status the most restrictive ideas about women’s roles in this
of women was essential if other technologically advanced period. (Or, what were some of the major attitudes
nations were accept Japan on an equal status. The phrase about women that led to the restrictions the reading
“good wife, wise mother” was coined, meaning that in or- described?)
der to be good citizens, women had to become educated
and take part in public affairs. This opened the door for a 7) Both Toshiko and Norton were women whose position in
small group of women to try to raise women’s conscious- society gave them a platform for making their opinions
ness. In the 1880s, Kishida (Toshiko) was the first woman public. Explain this. Do you think they spoke for all
to travel throughout Japan making public speeches. She women? ( Or, did such restrictions affected all women
was a dynamic spokesperson on behalf of women and their in their society?) If not, give one reason why this was
rights, and attracted large audiences. so.

Kishida and other champions of social change for women 8) Select a quote, or quotes, from the read-ing(s) which
faced harsh resistance. Kishida was often harassed by the might have relevance for women in the world today. (Are
police, and once was jailed. By the end of the century, there any similarities between the historic issues they
the government reinstated the most conservative and op- raised and ones facing women in your country today? If
pressive model of the family in the Civil Codes of 1898. so, what?).
Japanese women were lumped together with mental in-
competents and minors. Among other restrictions, a wife 9) How have ideas of gender changed since then? Which
could not enter into a legal contract without her husband’s ones?
permission, nor share in his estate after his death. Adul-
tery was a crime for a wife but not for a husband. In the 10) What do you think might be the effects the denial of
event of a divorce, the wife had no custody rights over the women’s human rights issues had on the society in which
children. Gender-specific curriculum and sex segregation these women lived? On the future of their society?
also was instituted in the schools. Two years later, under
Article 5 of the Police Security Regulations, women were Posing this last question could led into a whole class
prohibited from joining political organizations and holding awareness activity called the Effects Wheel. The following
or attending political meetings. Effects Wheel description focuses on the question, “How
Toshiko’s clarion call for “equality and equal rights,” plus does a lack of women’s rights negatively impact societies
excerpts from the Japanese Civil Codes of 1898, can be read as a whole?” It also can be used as way to illustrate the
as an example of the type of reaction women rights activ- effects on society of any historic or contemporary situa-
ists have had to face. Students can find out the situation tion or event.
for women in Japan today, discover other periods when the
struggle for women’s rights suffered repression, or try to The Effects Wheel
determine the situation of the global women’s movements Objective: To raise awareness, clarify thinking, and gen-
today. What successes have been made? What, in their opin- erate discussion about the inter-relatedness and conse-
ion, are the greatest problems women still face? quences of women’s human rights abuses.
Time: 30 minutes.
Find an easy to read excerpt from one Kishida Toshiko’s
speeches plus pertinent sections of the reactionary Japa- Materials: Chart paper and markers. Copies of “Effects

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Wheel” to use as small group activity. Or draw it on board • “She would never be able to make money on her own”
to do as whole class exercise. • “She would not have power to make family deci-
sions”
1. Illustrate: Demonstrate how the “Effects Wheel“ works • “Her sons would be held in more prestige than her
by starting with a general statement related to a contem- daughters”
porary or an historic women’s human rights issue - phrased • “She might not have a career of her own”
as “then what are the effects?” Either negative or positive 3) Take one or more of the First Order of Effects responses
issues may be posed. and follow it out to the second ring, the Second Order
of Effects, and then those responses to the Third Order
[Example from reading: In her 1855 letter to Queen Victo- of Effects ring. For example, in response to the effect
ria, Caroline Norton wrote, “A married woman in England “She would always be dependent on her husband,” state
has no legal existence...She has no possessions; her prop- this as an “if” question. “If she was always dependent
erty is his property.” To evaluate the effects of this situa- on her husband then.....”, and get Second Order Ef-
tion not only on Norton but women elsewhere, you might fects. For example, one might be: “She would never
use this issue as your core statement.] have enough income to leave her husband.”
4) Posing that response as an “if...then,” you ask, “If she
II. Exercise: couldn’t ever leave her husband, then...” A response on
1) Write the core statement you choose in the center, or the next ring, or the Third Order of Effects ring, might
the spoke, of the “Effects Wheel.“ Start it with “if”, be, “She would be able to do nothing if he abused her.”
and end with, “then....” And so forth.
Some examples: 5) You can fill in each section of the WHEEL using this
• “If married women could never own property, then...” process, or limit it to one or two sections.
• “If women shared equally in decision-making in the
family, then...” III. Class Discusses at End:
• “If women held as many elected positions as men in • Are you surprised by some of the effects?
our government, then...” • How might (or does) this belief effect the society in
• “If woman’s greatest duty is to produce a son, then...” which women lived (or live)?
• “If women could not learn to read or write, then...” • How would men fit into this picture? How might they
2) Ask participants to call out responses to the core be expected to behave, if...?
statement and record them in the first, the inner, ring • Do you think that beliefs about males or females can
on the wheel. This will be the First Order of Effects. influence how people act, and how they feel about
For example, in response to “if married women could themselves?
never own property, then....,” some responses might
be:
• “She would always be dependent on her husband”

A visit to Ljubljana

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Teaching Materials

THE EFFECTS WHEEL

[Adapted from Sue Lewis and Anne Davies, Gender Equity in Mathematics
and Science, Canberra, Australia: Curriculum Development Centre, 1988]

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12. Will We Ever Learn the Meaning of ‘Never Again’?
Katja Holobar and Romana Franković, Slovenia

In this article Katja Holobar and Romana Franković investigate how teaching about 20th century History can in-
clude teaching about human rights violations and international justice.

The teaching of Human Rights can easily be integrated into Role Play Activity
the standard school curriculum, and this is especially true In the activity STEP FORWARD, different history moments
in history lessons where a number of documents, major in the Second World War were investigated from the as-
events and historical figures can be used to illuminate both pect of the human rights violation. In particular, the ways
the violation and growth of human rights throughout his- of introducing this activity into daily school practice were
tory. outlined.

The 20th century was perhaps the bloodiest in history. Mil- Firstly distribute the role cards and ask the participants to
lions of people were victims of genocide, crimes against hu- quietly read the role card, without showing it to anyone else.
manity, war crimes, torture, extra-judicial execution and Participants should think about the nature of the character
‘disappearances’. These crimes were committed through- shown. School age pupils would need some help, and contex-
out the world during international and civil wars as well as tual knowledge to do this in a meaningful way.
during peace time.
Ask each participant in turn the questions shown below.
A range of methodologies and strategies can be used in We suggest that you start with someone you feel will ‘get
everyday school practice in order to foster an understand- into role’ and ‘perform’ effectively so as so model the sort
ing of the meaning of ‘Never Again’, to promote empathy of response you would like.
with the victims of human rights violation and raise aware-
ness about the inequality of opportunities in our society. Stimulus questions:
What are your family like?
Here we present some materials about the Internation- Where did you live?
al Criminal Court which plays an important role in fight What is your everyday life like now?
against impunity for some of the gravest crimes. Are you rich?
Are you happy? Why?
The aims of using these materials include- What frightens you?
• investigating different aspects of the 20th century to
consider human rights violations and international ‘One Step Forward’ Activity
justice; The participants should then individually line up, beside
• learning about the International Criminal Court (ICC), each other like on a starting line with plenty of space in
which was established in July 2002, and its role in front of themselves.
bringing justice for victims who might otherwise be
ignored- a big step forward in fighting against the When you read out scenarios if their character would be
impunity of systematic mass crimes; able to answer “Yes” to the question, they should take one
The activity was designed to use with adults/teachers to forward. If they answer “No” they do not move.
raise their awareness of Human Rights issues, but could
easily be adapted for young people. • Do you feel that you are a respected member of
society?
Teaching Activity 1: Living During The Second World • Can you invite friends to your home for dinner?
• Can you go to the cinema or the theatre at least once
War
a week?
• Do you feel that your opinions on social and political
issues matters and your views are listened to by your
Starter Activity government?
Begin by explaining the connection between the teaching of • Is it likely that the newspapers will say positive things
human rights and teaching of history. about your group?
• Can you openly fall in love with the person of your
Divide the participants into the groups of four persons. choice?
• Is your language, religion and culture are respected
If they do not know each other, ask the participants to intro- in the society where you live?
duce themselves to each other with one local/national his- • Do you feel you get picked on or bullied due to your
torical event or a person which/who has contributed to the beliefs?
world-wide respect of the human rights and democracy. • Are you frightened of the police?
• Can you celebrate religious events and festivals with
Ask each group to then discuss how these events/persons your relatives and friends?
made a contribution to greater respect for human rights. • Are you positive about your future?

Some of the examples will be negative aspect of human This should make the characters spread out, and physically
history- but which led to better thigns as a reaction. There show the amount of freedom or rights that some groups had,
are certainly several dark periods in our history, which and which groups were denied rights.
could and should not be forgotten. One of the darkest pe-
riods of which is the Second World War, and massive viola- Ask the participants to look and see where other charac-
tions of human rights. ters are standing- if this fair? Is this what they expected?

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How did you feel stepping forward/staying behind? For Now focus on a specific case study of the work of the ICC,
those who frequently stepped forward, at what point did for example in Uganda or Sudan.
they begin to notice that the others were not moving as
fast as them? References:
Kompas (2005), Priročnik za učenje mladih o človekovih
After the end of Step Forward the participants should be pravicah, Ljubljana: DZS.
asked what they have learnt from the activity asked to Jackson, Judy (Editor) (2005), In search of International
reflect on their impressions. Ask: Was it difficult to play Justice DVD, Slovenia: Amnesty International
your role? What does this activities tell us about our soci- Zagorac, Dean (Editor), (2003, 2nd Edn) Rimski statut
ety? Can you tell how the different characters would feel? Mednarodnega kazenskega sodišča in drugi dokumenti z
Did anyone feel that there were moments (in role that you uvodnimi pojasnili Ljubljana: Amnesty International
played) when the basic human rights were being ignored
or violated? What were the most severely violated human
rights in your case/role? What steps could be taken to ad-
dress/prevent the inequalities, impunity and injustice in
the society (personal, national, international)?

Does this exercise mirror society in some way? How? What


can we do to help prevent or/and reduce inequality in our
society?

Teaching Activity 2: The International Criminal Court

Starter Activity
The second part of the workshop focused on the role of
the International Criminal Court (ICC) in Hague. We recom-
mend a visual source to act as a starter and ourselves play
a short section of the Amnesty International DVD on the
Debate during a workshop session
organization of the ICC from ‘In Search of International
Justice’.

If you cannot get a copy, or a substitute, you could ex-


plain that The International Criminal Court (ICC) is a per-
manent independent judicial body created by the inter-
national community of states to prosecute the gravest
possible crimes under international law: genocide, other
crimes against humanity and war crimes. In July 1998, a
diplomatic conference adopted the Rome Statute of the
ICC. The Rome Statute defines the crimes, how the court
works and what the states must do to cooperate with it.
The court came into existence in July 2002 when more
than 60 states ratified it. The national courts will always
have jurisdiction over such crimes. Under the principle of
»complementarity«, the ICC only acts when the national
courts are unable or unwilling to do so.

The ICC Alphabet (see materials) can also be used to ex-


plain about what the ICC does. Active participants during the workshop session

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Teaching Materials
Role Cards: Europe Under the Nazis

A. B.
You are a 14-year-old Jewish girl, living in the Nether- You are a 22-year-old gay person (homosexual) in Ger-
lands in 1942. many during the Second World War.

What are your family like? What are your family like?
Where did you live? Where did you live?
What is your everyday life like now? What is your everyday life like now?
Are you rich? Are you rich?
Are you happy? Why? Are you happy? Why?
What frightens you? What frightens you?

C. You are a 17-year-old Rom (gypsy) girl living in Slov- D. You are a 50-year-old Jewish salesman from Poland in
enia (Gipsy) in 1942. 1942.

What are your family like? What are your family like?
Where did you live? Where did you live?
What is your everyday life like now? What is your everyday life like now?
Are you rich? Are you rich?
Are you happy? Why? Are you happy? Why?
What frightens you? What frightens you?

E. It is 1942, you are a 12-year-old boy from Germany, a F. it is 1942, you are a 40-year-old member of the SS
member of the organisation Hitlerjugend. troops.

What are your family like? What are your family like?
Where did you live? Where did you live?
What is your everyday life like now? What is your everyday life like now?
Are you rich? Are you rich?
Are you happy? Why? Are you happy? Why?
What frightens you? What frightens you?

G. It is 1942, you are a 45-year-old worker in a factory H. It is 1942, you are the wife of German General.
where weapons are produced.
What are your family like?
What are your family like? Where did you live?
Where did you live? What is your everyday life like now?
What is your everyday life like now? Are you rich?
Are you rich? Are you happy? Why?
Are you happy? Why? What frightens you?
What frightens you?

I. It is 1942, you are a member of the resistance move- J. You are a solider in the Russian army in 1942.
ment.
What are your family like?
What are your family like? Where did you live?
Where did you live? What is your everyday life like now?
What is your everyday life like now? Are you rich?
Are you rich? Are you happy? Why?
Are you happy? Why? What frightens you?
What frightens you?

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A Slovenian ABC for the International Criminal Court

A _ _ _ _ _ _ International and The use of


other NGOs (non-government
organizations) actively sup- B _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ weapons in
port the establishment and war is war crime that is pros-
functioning of the International ecuted by the International
Criminal Court. Criminal Court.

C________ D__________

must not be victims of geno- of all, or part, of certain


cide, crimes against humanity groups of people is an aim of
and war crimes. We have to any one of a number of acts
seek to end impunity for the named genocide.
worst crimes known to human-
ity.

E_______ F______
caused many grave crimes. ICC
is a principle in law. ICC doesn’t have jurisdiction over
guarantees that all are equal crimes committed before the
before the law. Court’s establishment.

G_______ The H _ _ _ _

is one of the crimes over in the Netherlands is the Head-


which ICC has jurisdiction. The quarters for the ICC.
Holocaust is an example of
genocide.

I__ The J _ _ _ _
Stands for the International
Criminal Court which inves- has a right to adjudicate and
tigates and prosecutes indi- decide on legal matters.
viduals accused of very serious
crimes.

ICC trials are never _ _ _ _ K L _ _ _ Imprisonment:


or cheap because they are
complicated and everything Is the most severe sentence
must be done carefully and the ICC can pass.
correctly so tat justice is done
and is seen to be done.

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M____ N________
(press, television and radio)
coverage of ICC trials makes in Germany was the home of
world news and helps to act as the first International Criminal
a deterrent to prevent other Court which prosecuted people
crimes against humanity. for crimes against humanity
committed in the World War
Two.

Prosecution evidence must be P________


clear and imposed by the ICC can range
from fines to imprisonment for
O___ a certain number of years and
To allow those who are accused life imprisonment.
to defend themselves fairly.

Some legal exerts spend most R___


of their careers on a is the capital of Italy where
the Rome Statute was adopt-
Q _ _ _ _ for the truth and spe- ed. This defines the crimes,
cialise in prosecuting crimes how the court works and what
against humanity. states must do to cooperate
with it.

S_______ T________

was the 48th state which is a crime that still isn’t includ-
signed and ratified the Rome ed among the crimes within
Statute. the jurisdiction of the ICC.

The U _ _ V______
is one of very small number of should be treated with com-
states that oppose the ICC passion and respect for their
dignity.

W__ _X___
interest is shown in some trials
crimes are one of the gravest because of the coverage they
crimes prosecuted by the ICC. have been given in the news
or the horrifying nature of the
crimes.

In the fighting in The international community


wants to show that they will
Y _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ many ter- have Z _ _ _
rible crimes were committed.
The Security Council of the UN tolerance of crimes against
established a special Interna- humanity.
tional Criminal tribunal for the
former Yugoslavia.

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13. Teachers’ Attitudes towards the Relationship of History and Civic Education:
Initial and In Service Training of History Teachers- Some Questions
George Kokkinos, Vassiliki Sakka, Peter Trantas, Greece

In this article the level of teachers’ engagement, subject knowledge and theorising about civic education as an
element of the history curriculum is considered by a team of researchers, with some interesting conclusions, and
possible implications for both initial and in-service teacher education.

The gradual shift of interest in the research of History Di- his role, he is forced to comply with certain didactic prac-
dactics (History Didactics, Teaching and Learning History) tices: a) selectiveness and fragmentation in the approach
from the cognitive and value content of the history lesson, of historical phenomena, b) suppression of controversial or
i.e. from the discourse analysis and the ideological func- traumatic historical events or conversely, analysis of these
tions of schoolbooks in conjunction with the mapping of cur- events based on personal beliefs, c) naive, superficial or
ricula cores to a) the investigation of the learning process, even idolized presentation of the cognitive content of cru-
namely the methods of configuring historical thought and cial teaching material [5].
accumulating historical knowledge and b) the identification
of the perceptive horizon and the understanding of percep- In general, the research data available, lead to the de-
tive mechanisms, their shaping and functional methods, duction that, despite the introduction of innovations in
and cognitive structures of students and educators, can be the framework of educational policy, esp. in the past two
considered a paradigm shift. During the last decade inter- decades, in the cognitive and value content of the his-
national research has proven the significance of especially tory lesson as well as in the teaching methodology and the
educators’ mediative function in the learning process. On evaluation-performance, historical education continues to
the one hand, this mediative function refers to the educa- depend mainly on the educators’ mentality, scientific con-
tors’ scientific knowledge of the science in question, History figuration, didactic training, preferences and motives [6].
and History Didactics, in combination to their more general
pedagogic training and on the other hand, with their so- George Kokkinos’ (et al) research entitled Historical cul-
cial and cultural background, their political and ideological ture and consciousness. Students’ and educators’ view-
viewpoints and their personal experiences. points and attitudes on History in Primary Education
(Noogramma, Athens, 2005), was conducted during 2002
According to the classification provided by Hauessler-Bohan – 2003. What is more interesting is that this research was
and Davis, history educators can be divided in the follow- conducted, contrary to almost all other such researches,
ing three groups: a) those who deal with the history lesson in geographical areas far from both the capital and the
as a soul contributing narrative, its primary goal being the second largest city. In particular, it took place in two towns
shaping of a collective identity and the internalization of in diametrically opposed locations (Rhodes, Ioannina), in
dominant models, b) those who emphasize on the scientific the southeastern and northwestern boundaries of Greece
nature of the history lesson without, however, questioning respectively. Due to their particular history, these towns
so much the epistemological and evaluative assumptions have strong multi-cultural elements, but also experience
of historical knowledge or its socio-political significance the strong pressure of immigration fluxes after the col-
and finally c) those, who having realised the socio-political lapse of communist regimes.
significance of history lesson and historiography in general,
as well as the historicity of the history science itself, at- This research consisted of questionnaires filled in by a sam-
tempt to direct the learning process to the understanding ple of 275 educators and 651 students in these areas. Its
of historical method, aiming to shape historical skills that results were analyzed in combination, with reference to
will allow students to voice a well-founded, reliable his- both statistical and qualitative characteristics. The qualita-
torical view [1]. tive characteristics relate to the purely historical thought
and the aspects of historical consciousness that are mapped
It is known however that neither the scientific background with educators and students. Both the historical thought
educators gained at graduate and post-graduate level, or and the historical consciousness of students and educators
while in training, nor their pedagogic or didactic educa- were classified based on the analytical tools contributed to
tion, or even an adequate combination of the above, can international debate by Jőrn Rűsen and Jerzy Topolski [7],
automatically re-direct the learning process to the sub- among others, as well as by the British supporters of the
stantial reception of the necessary innovations that will empathy approach to the history lesson.
enable the improvement of teaching history in schools [2]. In this article we will focus on identifying educators’ at-
Furthermore, the interceptive role of various factors has titudes, perceptions, and viewpoints.
been noted: educators’ idiosyncrasies and their social or
ideological obsessions [3], the power of pedagogic and di- The questionnaire given to educators contains 56 ques-
dactic conventions, the attitude of co-workers and school tions. The aim is to depict a) educators’ social and scienti-
environment in general, the duty of any employee, which fic profile (sex, age, studies, marital status, place of birth
compels educators to organize their didactic strategy with and residency, process that lead to choosing the teaching
the sole purpose to run through the lesson’s cognitive con- profession, b) their general educational and family back-
tent, to safeguard control and a misconceived discipline grounds, as well as the way these factors influence family
in the classroom. This last element, found in educators’ strategies during the choice of professional career, profes-
well documented disinclination, to demonstrate initiative sional practices and scientific culture, c) their scientific
in their teaching, which by nature requires availability and social activities, as well as d) their epistemological
of adequate teaching time and may risk the well estab- assumptions, their agony to evaluate and set the various
lished, by the dominant conventional model of teaching, historical periods of Greek, European and World history
role of the educator [4]. When an educator, esp. a History in order of precedence according to their importance –
teacher, chooses to remain prisoner of the conventions of whether these periods are part of the teaching programme

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ZRSS_Zbornik_ENG.indd 53 14.2.2008 12:19:50


or not – their historiographical and pedagogic perceptions, positivistic mantle of their answers indicates precisely the
their didactic choices and preferences, the room for in- dominance of the so called ¡epistemology of daily routine’
dependency from the existing, converging and inflexible [8], or of a ¡spontaneous philosophy’ (¡philosophie spon-
frameworks that define the teaching of school subjects in tanée’) [9]. Within the frame of such a perspective, history
Greece, their communication with History, the science in has a meaning only if it produces unmistakable knowledge,
question here, as well as their training on the Didactics of according to the model of practical sciences. [10]
History, and finally, the classification of the importance of
the history lesson and its relation to the other subjects of The practices mentioned above constitute the framework
the curriculum. Also, e) attempt was made to record their in which the continuous dominance of an antiquated teach-
perceptions and attitudes in identity and variation issues, ing paradigm is recorded. This paradigm is defined by the
their approach to national, cultural or ethnical “others” model of passive cultural transference, the dedication to
in a scale with opposing grades: proximity and radical di- an ethnocentric historical narrative and historical creed.
fference. In other words their approach to dealing with a This model is realized with the conventional teacher-cen-
multi-cultural convention that exists in their classroom. tered selections, such as the obsession with the cognitive
content of the lesson, the prevalence and normativeness
The general conclusion based on the results of the research – if not exclusivity – seen in the schoolbook (given the fact
is that all educators’ viewpoints, perceptions and attitudes that in Greece there is still one, approved and distributed
that were part of the research sample are characterised by by the state, book) - and directed debate, always com-
fluidity, which in our opinion has to be seen in correlation pared to alternatively innovative educational practices
with today’s intensively transitional phase, due to the dis- such as the approach of sources, teamwork, coordinated
orientation of the nation-government, the school as well effort to shape historical skills.
as the historical science and the history lesson itself.
Despite the selective introduction of innovations and the
In particular, regarding their social profile and educational high preference shown by educators in the subject of His-
level, we find that there is an over-representation of the tory, or even despite the knowledge that it is essential for
female sex in the educational sector, as is the case with Greek history to become incorporated in a wider histori-
the rest of the western world. We also see the dominance cal environment, the dominance of an antiquated teach-
of educational subjects as History of Education, Greek His- ing paradigm is defined in a) the devaluation of the impor-
tory and History Didactics in the schools they graduated tance of the modern Greek history and cultural identity in
from, the limited willingness of educators to read and the the Balkans and the Mediterranean, in conjunction with the
mediocre consumption of high culture products, the de- compensatory overexposure to the European history, and b)
terminative role of humanistic education, the tendency of the inadequate representation of teaching methods such as
increased foreign languages learning by the younger gener- researching and critical learning, use of new technologies
ations of educators, the inadequate or desultory attempt or organizing project work, which is in fact required in the
to keep up with scientific developments relative to their curricula and in the new schoolbooks of history.
profession, the poor – but with intense tendency increasing
percentage – post graduate studies, esp. of the first cycle. Despite all, educators prevalent perceptions, viewpoints
and attitudes collide with their strong belief that students
On the other hand, regarding the meaning of history in need to communicate interculturally. This belief leads
its dual dimension – historiography is an historical science them to think that it is ethically imperative to incorporate
and the past itself – the research supplies evidence that, foreign students to the existing structures of the Greek
in general, educators’ epistemological perceptions, histo- educational system. Perhaps, behind this hides the strat-
riographical preferences and the significance they ascribe egy of assimilating national and cultural differences – i.e.
to the past reveal conservative characteristics. These find the denial to create structures based on the cultural and
root in naive empiricism, acceptance of reflective theory racial segregation of students, is not imprinted in this be-
of Knowledge and lack of understanding the elemental lief by definition.
consistency existing in the epistemology of history, histo-
riography and History Didactics. At the same time they are At the Bled Conference, during the workshop: “Teachers’
filled with the limited understanding of both the historicity Attitudes towards the Relationship of History and Civic
of historical science and the inherent socio-political inter- Education: Initial and In service Training” we presented
vention of each reference, recreation or interpretation of part of the results of the above mentioned research, com-
the past. Specifically, educators’ perceptions, views and mended upon Rűsen’s analytical tools [11] and Topolski’s
attitudes a) are based on the ethnocentrism and local- typologies [12] and discussed teachers’ attitudes, view-
ism b) lead to a mixed form of historical consciousness, points and perceptions along with the problems connected
a derivative of the coalescence of the traditional type of to Initial and In Service History Teachers’ Training. Accord-
historical consciousness and the exemplary type of ascrib- ing to Bodo van Borris “Requirements of Initial Training
ing significance to the past, according to the relative ty- of History Teachers” (2006) [13], based on the results of
pology by Rűsen, and c) are presented divided between a Council of Europe’s research (2003-2005): The Structures
progressively centered theorization of History and an ap- and Standards of Initial Training for History Teachers in Eu-
proach to historical development that uses rules ethically rope: A Comparative Study’ [14] in 24 European countries,
normative that transcend time and history. In particular, it is of most importance that any history teacher has to be
the normative character of the Hellenic antiquity, seen in introduced to three interdependent fields on two levels,
the framework of the western civilization, is interlaced as presented in the next figure (see page 55).
with the myth of national grandeur and the fabrication of
a continuous ethnological and cultural history of a substan- As B.van Borris explains, “universities have to transport
tively-ontologically defined Hellenism. practical knowledge and abilities as well” and should pro-
vide a certain field of mixture between theory and practice.
Teachers unconscious dispute of the scientific character of Also, when referring to Methodology, it means more than
history as a social science, of its epistemological status and “methods of history teaching”; it includes a lot of “epis-
its historical route, a dispute that is hidden under the naïve temological theory of historical thinking and research”,

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ZRSS_Zbornik_ENG.indd 54 14.2.2008 12:19:50


Fields/ Historical Science (Research History Didactics or Methodology Educational Science,
Levels and Presentation) of History Teaching and Learning Pedagogics
Theory e.g.: the process of nation e.g.: theory of historical con- e.g.: psychology of learning,
building in Southeast-Europe, sciousness and identity, national theory and laws of schools,
the First World War, gender his- cultures of history, curriculum punishment as a problem of
tory, pictures as primary sources study, textbook analysis, produc- education, class-room manage-
tion of teaching units ment

Practice e.g.: work in an archive, visiting e.g.: observing teaching, inter- e.g.: travel with a class,
a museum, writing a newspaper viewing children, preparing and project week against rac-
article, preparing a documentary administrating history lessons ism, work with handicapped
film children

of “culture of history” and “politics of history” (i.e. mass Though the sample is rather small (not representative) and
media, public, semi-official, and official use - sometimes no solid conclusions can be drawn, we can by all means get
even abuse - of history) and of “theoretical concepts and an idea, as we can detect general trends and features in
empirical studies of historical consciousness”. history teachers’ attitudes resembling to those of the pre-
viously mentioned research on the subject. One can agree
As part of the problems of teachers’ attitudes towards un- on the interest, especially of younger teachers to get more
derstanding and implementing/applying innovative meth- and efficient education on practical fields, mostly provid-
odology in History Teaching and the core meaning and aims ing help in daily teaching routine; they accept the core
of History teaching arises mostly from inefficient initial aims of Teaching History in a theoretical level but, again,
training in University and College respective departments, there is a kind of confusion when asked to support this ac-
this Council of Europe research aims to form a kind of “Rec- ceptance by certain choices.
ommendation’’ for all European Historical Departments in
Tertiary Education, based on data gathered through an Therefore, as several studies on teachers’ attitudes and
-over 80 pages -questionnaire and facts and data regis- teachers’ lives have been made and/or are still going on,
tered by Eurydice and nation-scale official statistics. Some exploring the close relationship between their personal
questionnaires resembling to the ones filled in the above and professional identities and suggesting that they are
mentioned Greek research were distributed to colleagues interlinked with their teaching roles in terms of personal
who attended the workshop [15], in order to get an idea fulfilment [16], the importance of adjusting and strength-
of an random sample of attending the Conference history ening the Initial and In Service Training Courses taking into
teachers’ attitudes and viewpoints on the subject. consideration all the previous, is quite obvious and could
be a consensus point for all interested parties of the edu-
After processing the data, we can see that: cational world [17].
Most of the teachers strongly feel their nationality, while
they feel less European citizens and hardly world citizens. References:
They seem to promote very much their national identity 1. C. Hauessler-Bohan and O. L. Davis, “Historical Con-
when teaching and enough of European citizenship. They structions: How Social Studies Student Teachers’ Historical
all agree on promoting Local History and half of them Thinking is reflected in their Writing of History”, Theory
National History, while most support teaching History of and Research in Social Education, 26 (1998), 173-197.
Western Countries and hardly History of Africa, Asia and 2. Keith C. Barton and Linda S. Levstik, Teaching History
Latin America. They also seem to support the ¡modern’ for the Common Good, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Pub-
aims of teaching history (¡to form and enhance the iden- lishers, Mahwah – New Jersey – London 2004, 249.
tity of democratic citizen’, ¡to improve tolerance towards 3. According to Penelope Harnett referring to Evans’ typol-
otherness and difference’, ¡to help people acquire mental ogy (R.W.Evans ‘Educational Ideologies and the Teaching
skills’), less agree on the aim of forming national identity, of History’ in G.Leinhardt, I.L. Beck and C. Stainton (eds)
while, contradictory, most agree on the aim of ¡forming Teaching and Learning in History, Lawrence Erlbaum Asso-
ethos/moral through historical paradigm’ and the major- ciates, Hillsdale New Jersey 1994) of history teachers, he
ity supports the pure cognitive aims of teaching history indicates that ‘their beliefs about history influence both
(to know the most important political-military events’ and selection of content and ways in which they teach the
the mechanisms of social and economic evolution’). The subject’, while five broad categories of history teachers
majority also disagrees that the content of subject history emerge from his data: storyteller, scientific/historian,
could be the same for the schools in Europe, while few relativist/reformer, cosmic phi-losopher and eclectic,
believe that the content could be the same in schools of resembling more or less to Hauessler-Bohan and Davis
their region. The potential of history for citizenship edu- classification mentioned above: Pen. Harnett, History in
cation is evident in their answers, but, contradictory to the Primary School; Reshaping Our Pasts. The Influence of
previous answers, they seem to believe that this can be Primary Scholl Teachers; Knowledge and Understanding
served through common subjects in History in Europe. Fi- of History on Curriculum Planning and Implementation’,
nally when asked to answer what kind of training seminar in Heirnet, International Journal of Historical Learning,
they would like to attend, the majority chose first Meth- Teaching and Research, Vol. 3, N. 2, July 2003 (visited on
odology and Practice in History Didactics, then using I.T. in April 2007).
teaching history, while History as Science (Epistemology, 4. ibid. Keith Barton – Linda Levstik, 251, 252-253.
methodology, historiographical trends) and Intercultural 5. bid., 253 and 255, and K. D. Vinson, “The Traditions
History Didactics followed. Finally, though they expressed Revisited: Instructional Approach and High School Social
an interest in keeping up with scientific developments in Studies Teachers”, Theory and Research in Social Educa-
the field, they were hardly readers of educational journals tion, 26 (1996), 50-82.
or scientific reviews.

55

ZRSS_Zbornik_ENG.indd 55 14.2.2008 12:19:50


6. P. Harnett, History in the Primary School…’, ibid, un- History, a process that returns to the starting (?) point, the
derlines the importance of family, personal backgrounds temporal orientation of life, drawing an endless circle…
and teachers’ own beliefs and values on their professional 11. J. Topolsky (1998) refers to 7 fundamental myths upon
identities and work practices, while, referring to Evans’ which the level of theoretical conception and ideology is
study, she indicates that teachers’ conceptions of history based: the myth of evolution and progress, the myth of
can also be related to their political beliefs. Also: C. Hus- revolution, of greatness, of continuity/sequence, of cau-
bands, A. Kitson, A. Pendry, Understanding History Teach- sality, of human voluntarism or spontaneous creativity and
ing. Teaching and Learning about the Past in Secondary the myth of determinism.
Schools, Open University Press, Mainland, Fhiladelphia 12. Bodo van Borris, Requirements of Initial Training of
2003, 123. History Teachers, (2006), in www.euroclio.eu/articles
7. Jörn Rüsen, ¡Historical Consciousness: Narrative Struc- 13. The Structures and Standards of Initial Training for His-
ture, Moral Fiction and Ontogenetic Development’, in tory Teachers in Europe-a comparative study’ (Universität
Peter Seixas (ed.), Theorizing Historical Counsciousness, Wienn, European Commission – Directorate-General for
University of Toronto Press, Toronto-Buffalo-London 2004, Education and Culture): the study aims at comparing the
16-17 and Jerzy Topolski, ‘The Structure of Historical Nar- tenets, structures and standards of initial training for his-
ratives and the Teaching of History’ in James F. Voss-Mario tory teachers in Europe. Results of the study will be dis-
Carretero (ed.), Learning and Reasoning in History, Inter- seminated in the framework of the Council of Europe, EU-
national Review of History Education, vol. 2, Woburn Press, ROCLIO, and elsewhere. Resulting recommendations go to
London 1998, 9-22. international organizations in education, to ministries of
8. A. W. Gouldner, The Dialectic of Ideology and Technol- education and to teacher training institutions. There were
ogy. The Origins, Grammar, and Future of Ideology, Mac- two pilot studies referring on Southeast Europe and 13 Eu-
millan, London 1976. ropean countries on the subject, available on line and in
9. Luis Althusser, Philosophie und Spontane Philosophie printed version by the Council of Europe (http://www.itt-
der Wissenschaftler, Argument, Berlin 1985. history.eu).
Gerasimos Kouzelis, Against the phenomena. For an episte- 14. 13 questionnaires from several countries, filled mostly
mological approach to Didactics of Social Sciences, Nisos, by women educators with teaching experience from 10-30
Athens 2005, 88-89. years, all but one in Secondary Education, 8 holding a Mas-
10. Jörn Rüsen (2004) defining the principles of historical ter Degree in History Didactics.
orientation/differentiation and shaping the forms of his- 15. Penelope Harnett, ibid.
torical meaning making indicates that: temporal orienta- 16. Sam Wineburg, Historical Thinking and Other Un-
tion of life leads to the creation of needs of historical natural Acts: Charting the future of teaching the past,
orientation and consequently to the turn to the past. The Philadelphia, Temple University Press, Philadelphia 2001,
processing of the experience determines the formation of 48-52.

School visits during the conference

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14. Yugoslavia and the Volksdeutscher Work Camps in 1945-
Should the Crimes of Individuals Determine the Fate of Groups?
Materials from the Workshop of Denis Detling, Croatia

Denis’s materials here offer the chance to tackle issues related to the aftermath of war, and the impact that conflict has
on human rights by studying the persecution of some 170 000 Volksdeutschers (members of the German ethnic minority)
in Yugoslavia immediately after the Second World War, and resultant 60 000 deaths within this group. Yugoslavia was not
exceptional in this reaction to the war and resident minorities. Germans met with the same fate in the whole of Eastern
Europe, and a similar fate befell the Italian community in Yugoslavia during the same period. The activity involves three
groups responding to a series of tasks.

A great majority of Volkdeutschers were settled through planned colonisation in the 18th century Habsburg Empire, which was
encouraged by the Habsburg monarchs in accordance with ideas of cameralism and physiocratism. Their immigration was aimed at
populating uninhabited areas, and stimulating the development of agriculture and trade. After the fall of the Habsburg monarchy af-
ter the First World War, the Germans became a Yugoslav ethnic minority in the newly established state. During the Second World War
members of the German ethnic minority were divided among themselves, as were many others in the Yugoslav area – some served
the fascists, some joined the anti-fascist movement, and some merely tried to survive the turbulent times.

Tasks for Group 1

You are working to a fixed time limit


At the end you must report back to the whole class what you discussed on the three questions below

The National-Liberation War was led under the slogan of Fight for the ‘national and social liberation of the peoples
in Yugoslavia.’

1. Based on the material you have received try to explain what was meant by social and national liberation
2. Did the guaranteed rights apply to all? Explain your viewpoint
3. Discuss within the group the issue of collectivisation of guilt- what does it mean?

Tasks for Group 2

You are working to a fixed time limit to prepare, then you will be asked to carry out the interview

Based on the sources provided, prepare for an interview with Group 3, who will be playing the role of Volks-
deutschers who have survived internment camps and deportation from Yugoslavia…

Your task, as young research historians, is to learn as much as you can about what happened to the Volksdeutschers
in post-war Yugoslavia and how they feel about their experiences.

Tasks for Group 3

You are working to a fixed time limit to prepare, then you will be asked to carry out the interview

Read the testimonies of Volksdeutschers who survived deportation and life in the internment camps in Yugoslavia.

You are taking on the role of elderly Volksdeutscher survivors who will be interviewed by young research historians
(Group 2. ) who will want to learn in detail about your hardships.

Remember:
You are now around 80 or more!

Suggestion:
divide the testimonies among yourselves in the group and try to prepare collectively, as a group and not as indi-
viduals, for the interview.

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Group Work Materials

SOURCE 1
Declaration of Basic Rights of Peoples and Citizens in Democratic Croatia, adopted at the third session of ZAVNOH
(National Anti-Fascist Council of the Peoples’ Liberation of Croatia) in Topusko on 9 May 1944.

1. The Croatian and Serbian people in Croatia have entirely equal rights. The ethnic minorities in Croatia will
be given full rights for their ethnic existence.

2. All citizens of the federal state of Croatia are equal before the law regardless of nationality, race and reli-
gious denomination.

3. Women have equal rights as men.

4. Every citizen is guaranteed the safety of their person and property. Private property and private initiative in
the economy are guaranteed.

5. All citizens are guaranteed the freedom of religious denomination and freedom of conscience.

SOURCE 2
Rules for the transfer of enemy property into state ownership, and on the public use of the property of absent
persons.
Produced by AVNOJ (Anti-Fascist Council of the Peoples’ Liberation of Yugoslavia), 21st November 1944
Article 1
On the day this Decision takes effect the following is transferred into state ownership:
• all property of the German Reich and its citizens which is situated on the territory of Yugoslavia;
• all property of persons of German nationality, except Germans who fought in the National Liberation Army and
Partisan forces of Yugoslavia or are subjects of neutral states, and did not have enemy status during the occupa-
tion;
• all property of war criminals and their helpers, regardless of their citizenship, and property of persons who
were sentenced to loss of possessions in favour of the state by verdict of civil or military courts of justice regard-
less of their citizenship.
The property of Yugoslav citizens in this case comes under the Decision, regardless of whether they are in the
country or abroad.

Article 5
The aim of putting all nationalised or sequestered property under the control of the Public Administration of
Peoples’ Resources is the maximum exploitation of these resources and property for planned production, in order
to achieve victory in the liberation war as quickly and successfully as possible, and to create conditions for the
successful economic reconstruction of Yugoslavia as a whole and of all of its federal units (…)

(The Official Gazette of the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia, year 1, no. 2, Belgrade, 6th Feb 1945, pp.13-14; Source taken
from the book: Vladimir Geiger, Folksdojčeri pod teretom kolektivne krivnje ( Volksdeutschers Under the Burden of Col-
lective Guilt), Osijek 2002, 56)

SOURCE 3
The hardships of the German civilians in Yugoslavia caused by Tito’s regime from 1941 to 1948.

From some 540 000 Germans living in Yugoslavia until 1941, some 95 000 were members of German, Hungarian and Croa-
tian military forces, and some 245 000 Germans were evacuated to Germany before Yugoslavia was reconstructed under
Tito’s regime. In the period between October 1944 and April 1945, the remaining
200 000 Germans came under the control of Tito’s regime. With an exception of some 8000 people, the remaining 170
000 ethnic German civilians (from children to elderly people), in the period from 1945 to 1948, were sent into camps,
out of which 51 000 women, children and elderly people succumbed to illness, hunger and other hardships. Out of 64 000
victims from 1941 to 1948 some 40 000 are documented by name.

(Verbrechen an den Deutschen in Jugoslawien 1944-1948., Die Station eines Volkermordes, Donauschwäbische Kulturstif-
tung, München, 1998.; data translated by Denis Detling)

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SOURCE 4a. Where the Volksdeutchser citizens lived

Key
Red shading: Areas in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia where Volksdeutschers lived

Source 4b.

Key:
Red stars: locations of Camps in which more than 2000 Volksdeutscher – civilians died
Red circles: Camps in which more than 200 Volksdeutscher – civilians died

These maps were created by Denis Detling based on the book Verbrechen an den Deutschen in Jugoslawien 1944-1948., Die
Station eines Volkermordes, Donauschwäbische Kulturstiftung, München, 1998.

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SOURCE 5

From: Ministry of Internal Affairs of Federal Croatia


Zagreb

To: The National Commission on the Repatriation of Germans;


Local, District, and City Council Administrative Departments

Procedure for Repatriation


(Emigration / Exile) of Volksdeutschers.

7 July 1945

‘The Yugoslav Government is of the viewpoint that all Germans who are within the borders of Yugoslavia should be
relocated and sent to Germany, when favourable technical conditions for that are attained.-
We have this right due to the following reasons:
1) Because the Germans who are in Yugoslavia today were settled by German invaders on land that belonged to
Yugoslav people.-
2) Because the Germans of the German minority since their arrival in our country have worked against the inter-
ests of the peoples of Yugoslavia, putting themselves in the service of German imperialists. This has specifically
manifested itself during this war, when they were actively and fully engaged in the fight against our army and the
National Liberation Movement in general.-
3) Because German minorities in Yugoslavia did so much evil to the peoples of Yugoslavia that their further stay
within the borders of Yugoslavia would disrupt the consolidation and construction of our country.
Based on the previously said, those considered for repatriation are all German men and women according to
the following criteria:
1) Whose mother tongue is German (descends from the marriage of a German man or woman).-
2) Who descends from a marriage in which the father is German-
Excluded from this are the following:
1) Who have actively assisted the National Liberation War (remain with their immediate family – children,
father and mother)
2) German women who are married to Yugoslav men, with children.
3) Children up to 16 years of age from marriages between a Yugoslav woman and German man, in case the
woman decides to stay in the country and leave her German husband. A Yugoslav woman married to a Ger-
man man can decide freely whether to leave with her husband or remain in the country with children up to
16. In case the wife is not of Yugoslav nationality, she is obliged to follow her German husband.
4) Persons who can prove that they are Austrian citizens or of Austrian nationality do not have to leave. But
careful attention should be given in case persons of German citizenship or nationality present themselves as
such. This pertains to persons who are offenders in the same way as the Germans are, because in that case
the same criterion of repatriation applies. If the Austrians were members of the Kulturbund they have to
leave.
For the purpose of repatriation the authorised ministries constituted the National Commission with the Ministry of
Internal Affairs, which is responsible for organising, managing and controlling etc. the repatriation of Germans /…/
Immediately after receiving these directives, promptly (by courier or dispatch) send to this Commission the overall
number of persons for repatriation and which camps they are now situated in. This information is urgently needed
in order to have the necessary overview and undertake further measures. The Local and District Commissions can
decide on employing the repatriates as workforce during their stay in the camps. All these tasks should be com-
pleted thoroughly and promptly, because the transport of repatriates is to follow immediately, from the whole of
Croatian territory to Germany.’

(Taken from the book: Vladimir Geiger, Nestanak Folksdojčera, Nova stvarnost, Zagreb, 1997 and Vladimir Geiger,
Folkdojčeri pod teretom kolektivne krivnje, Osijek 2002)

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SOURCE 6
Transport of Volksdeutschers exiled from Yugoslavia to Austria in summer 1945.

Picture taken from Vladimir Geiger’s book Nestanak Folksdojčera (The Disappearance of Volksdeutschers), Nova stvarnost,
Zagreb, 1997

SOURCE 7a
Testimonies of Camp Survivors: Repatriation

“In front of our eyes train carriages were sealed and left, their destination unknown, people said to Russia (Ros-
tov). Later we heard that most of the detainees died of lack of food, thirst and heat. Some, reportedly, later sent
word from Germany.” Paula Kotnik, born in 1927

“At the time, transports were organised for Germany, but we didn’t want to go because we were born here and we
wanted to go home, as we did nothing wrong. After a few days we were taken to the Valpovo camp. After a while
there was another transport to Germany. This time we had to board the train. We were transported in cattle car-
riages full of people, exhausted and ill, to the Austrian border. They wouldn’t let us cross, so we went back via Velika
Pisanica, the Šipovac camp to Krndija. Everything was destroyed there, so we spent about three weeks in the open.
From Krndija they made us go on foot, under guard, to the Valpovo camp.”
Elizabeta Konig, born Reitz in 1921

“However, we were brought back. Germany and Austria had already taken enough exiled Volksdeutschers and they
couldn’t accept us…. We went back to the Valpovo camp where we were again separated from our father.”
Franciska Bušljeta, born Poker in Brčko

SOURCE 7b
Testimonies of Camp Survivors: The Valpovo Camp…

“The Valpovo camp was bigger and better secured with barbed wire. In the centre of the camp circle was a wood-
en scouting tower with a spotlight. On one side were barracks in a few rows and on the other there was a building
for the partisans. In that building there was a so-called doctor’s surgery. The cabin we slept in was 20 metres long
with bunk beds made of planks along the whole length of the room. There was about half a metre space for each
person. Here in Valpovo there were more guards than in Josipovac. And they also had dogs. The guards were rough
and brutal. There were partisan women whose behaviour was frightening too. They often lost consciousness falling
to the floor, they shouted and swore asking for Ustasha blood and to cut their throats and making other blood-
thirsty comments.”
Paula Kotnik, born in 1927

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SOURCE 7c
Testimonies of Camp Survivors: Arrests and Transport into Transit Camps

“Our family tragedy started on 29 April 1945 – at 2 o’clock in the morning. Armed young men came to take us to a
hearing. They kept assuring us that they knew us and that nothing bad would happen to us. They took us to a pri-
vate flat where the military command of the city of Brčko was. There we found several families with German last
names. During the questioning our late father showed he had a Yugoslav certificate of citizenship. He explained
that he arrived during the annexation of Bosnia by the Austro-Hungarian monarchy as a civil servant.

“Our late mother and us three sisters were brought up as Croats in a religious spirit. We were not members of
any political organisations. Apparently, someone had intervened on our behalf, to let us go. However, our flat had
already been taken by a “good neighbour”, so they probably gave up the idea.”
Franciska Bušljeta, born Poker in Brčko

“Elizabeta Konig (b1921) together with mother Ana Reitz (b1892) and father Andrija Reitz (b1885) and daughter
Erna Konig (b1943), we were taken away from our home in 153 Divaltova Street in Osijek on 10 May 1945, first to
the City Garden, where many of our neighbours and acquaintances were gathered. In the evening we were trans-
ported by train to Josipovac, where we spent about three months, in Youth barracks, on earthen floors. We could
not take anything with us, apart from the clothing we were wearing.” Elizabeta Konig, born Reitz in 1921

“We were living in Mrzović, so on 27 October 1944 we escaped through Hungary to Austria. When the Russians
came there, they told us to go back to Yugoslavia because there was enough work there, after the war. We arrived
home through Podravina in late May 1945, in the afternoon. A notice from the National Council came immediately
informing us that all German property was confiscated and that we had no civil or human rights and that we should
be ready to be taken to Đakovo the following morning, where a camp was established in the old mill for all Ger-
mans from Đakovština.”
Stefan Schwob, born in 1930 in Mrzović, near Đakovo

SOURCE 7d
Testimonies of Camp Survivors: Life in the Transit Camp Josipovac and Deportation to Valpovo

“Then a long line of innocent people, civilians, followed their “way of the cross” from Josipovac to Valpovo,
another camp. We walked the whole day along a dusty village road, without food, water and rest. It was hot, the
sun was burning. The people were kept going by armed partisans on horses with whips. Weaker persons, mostly old
people, would fall, but no one was allowed to help them. We had to go on, and behind us shots could be heard.
My mother fell too, and I stopped beside her. A partisan on a horse, tall, dark, in a well- tailored suit (I don’t know
the rank), harshly ordered me to go on, playing with his gun. He came close with his horse, as if he was going to
trample over us. After I said it was my mother, and that he could kill me too, he rode away and hit someone with a
whip.” Paula Kotnik, born in 1927

“One day we started on foot from Đakovo to Josipovac, near Osijek. We were walking along the railway when
the guards saw that the children, old and sick people could not walk. They started to shoot along the rails and
managed to stop a cargo train. They put us in open carriages that took us to Osijek. Josipovac, a former German
village, was full of detainees. Two days later they transported us to a camp in Valpovo.
Stefan Schwob, born in 1930 in Mrzović near Đakovo

“Our “way of the cross“ then continued. We walked through villages in Slavonia, from Bošnjaci, Županja, Štitar,
Babina Greda, Piškorevci to Osijek, escorted by partisan soldiers and an officer (a Macedonian who told my father
that he was embarrassed by being given this task). We arrived in Osijek after 11 days of walking. We immediately
noticed that they were removing Volksdeutschers from their flats and houses, but we didn’t yet realise what was to
follow. We were put in the camp “Josipovac” in barracks, and the whole complex was closed off by barbed wire. …
In “Josipovac” we were separated from our father. After some time, we who were younger were assigned work tasks.
My mother volunteered because she didn’t want to get separated from us. We worked on Fajfer’s farm “Ovčara”.
We had to dig sugar-beet and we slept in the barns. The food in the camp and on the farm was disgusting. … After
working in the fields, they would take us back to “Josipovac”, where our father was waiting for us.”

Franciska Bušljeta, born Poker in Brčko

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SOURCE 7e. Testimonies of Camp Survivors: Living Conditions in the Valpovo Camp…

“The barracks were full of detainees, so there was no place for us. We slept in the field, on the grass. We had pil-
lows and blankets, which our friends had given us when we left. Also, due to bad hygiene conditions there were a
lot of lice in the barracks. At least we were saved from that.”
Franciska Bušljeta, born Poker in Brčko

“The barracks were full of bedbugs and lice. The hygiene was very bad. We all washed under one tap in the camp
circle, and we also drank water from this tap. … We could sometimes have visitors, depending on the mood of the
management and guards. The visitors didn’t enter the camp, but talked through the barbed wire in the presence of
guards. Sometimes the guard would only allow the visit, and sometimes we could take food or soap or clothing. Visi-
tors frequently had to take things back, and since we were hungry, we cried on both sides of the fence. During a visit
my sister told us that our brother was arrested and in prison in Osijek.
Paula Kotnik, born in 1927

“Immediately after arriving at the camp, men were separated from the women. In the cabin where my father slept
was a doctor named Schmidt, who worked in the surgery. He was about 50, small, plump, with slightly grey hair and
a moustache. Dr Schmidt told my father that he would ask for an assistant in the surgery and advised me to apply,
in order to protect me from rape and other hardship, of which he had heard. Detainees were closed in cellars and
beaten. A public disgrace was to be tied to the “post of shame”. There were several posts in the camp circle where
disobedient detainees were tied and left to stand throughout the day with no food or water. I was with the generous
doctor during the day. Nights were dangerous because guards would patrol the barracks and use flashlights to pick
persons for “night interrogation”.
Paula Kotnik, born in 1927

“I was ill there … I got dysentery and lost weight. There were many insects (lice, flees, bedbugs) in the barracks
and we lay on bare planks. Some 3000 people died of typhoid. When typhoid spread in Valpovo, they closed down
the camp and sent detainees to other camps.”
Stefan Schwob, born in 1930 in Mrzović near Đakovo

“Life in the camp was difficult, we were exposed to harassment and beating by the guards, who were armed with
guns or pistols, and they had sticks for beating.”
Franje Tein, born in 1924 in Sag near Valpovo

“We communicated little among ourselves, because we could get a beating for that. We were tense and scared. I
remember that the Cigler brothers from Retfal in Osijek were detained in the camp. One of them tried to escape, but
was caught and immediately executed. That day we had to watch his execution. After that Prekodravac told us that we
would get the same if we tried to escape. At night they took us to Prekodravac’s cabin and interrogated us or accused
for taking the side of the fascists and beat us. Several times I noticed that from 2 to 3 in the morning there was a wagon
to take dead detainees away, but I don’t know where they were buried.”
Franje Tein, born in 1924 in Sag near Valpovo

“There were approximately five to seven people dying in the camp per day of typhoid and dysentery. The bodies
were taken out by detainees under watch by the guards. For a while my father was among those who took out the
bodies. He never wanted to say where they were buried, but since they returned in an hour or two, I guessed that
they were buried somewhere near Valpovo. The Red Cross, or some other humanitarian organisation never visited
the camp, of course.”
Paula Kotnik, born in 1927

SOURCE 7f
Testimonies of Camp Survivors: Food in the Camp
“I don’t know how they fed us, but I remember being hungry.”
Franciska Bušljeta, born Poker in Brčko

“There was little food, two meals a day of very bad quality. We would wait in line with an aluminium pot and
spoon. In the rain we ate standing or on the grass in the camp circle.
Paula Kotnik, born in 1927

“Here it was very bad, we got pea, potato or bean soup. We were also given some corn or barley bread. Everything
was cooked without lard or salt. In the morning we would get oak bark tea without sugar, to prevent diarrhoea. We
got little water per person, one hour in the morning and one hour in the evening.”
Stefan Schwob, born in 1930 in Mrzović near Đakovo
“One day over twenty small children died. After this, the commander of the Valpovo camp let the women go beg
for milk in the neighbourhood! Where was the people’s government? I remember well that in Valpovo all the rooms
were in wooden cabins, we ate mulberry leaves and the men used dry leaves for smoking. If somebody took water
out of the time allowed , they were punished and tied to a post near the well and had to look into the sun.”
Stefan Schwob, born in 1930 in Mrzović near Đakovo

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SOURCE 7g
Testimonies of Camp Survivors: Work in and Outside the Camp

“After some time a group of some fifteen detainees, among which were my parents and I, were taken to a burnt
down farm called Hrastovac. This was somewhere near Valpovo, but I don’t know exactly. In a big building, which
we couldn’t approach, the guards were sleeping, while we slept in a barn, whose windows were closed from the
outside at night. We didn’t get food, but were told to eat what we found. We survived on the remains of potatoes,
or raw grain, which my father stole in the fields. My mother, who used to weigh 85 kilos, was only 40 at the end of
our detention. After three to four weeks we were brought back to Valpovo.” Paula Kotnik, born in 1927

“My whole family: father, mother, myself, my brother and two sisters – six and two years old, came to work in a
brick factory in Donji Miholjac. I was then fourteen and a half years old and I had to work as an adult. I was still
weak from being ill in Valpovo, but we had three workers and three children in the family. The food was bet-
ter than in Valpovo, we had salt and good drinking water. We went begging from door to door in Donji Miholjac
because we were hungry. In some houses we would get some milk for the children, which was important, others
would turn us out. It was summer so we could bathe in clean water outside in the brick holes. There were six
families of detainees, the older women cooked and looked after the children and the others worked. There were
no more barbed-wire fences nor guards. … In mid August we left on foot through Valpovo to the Krndija camp.”
Stefan Schwob, born in 1930 in Mrzović near Đakovo

“In Valpovo we also had to work hard in the field, constantly harassed and badly fed, half-naked and barefoot.
Rozina Petrović from Osijek, born Holstein in 1927

“We had to go to work … and that was better than staying in the camp, where there was disease, typhoid, dysen-
tery, lice and bedbugs. Sometimes the villagers would give us food.”
Elizabeta Konig, born Reitz in 1921

“Prekodravac used to hire us out as labourers to citizens of Valpovo and get a fee for it. We were treated as slaves
because anyone could hire us for any work, but had to pay Prekodravac for it. I was lucky because I was hired sev-
eral times by my father’s friends and was paid for the work. They were called Bračevac and Ugraj and were kind to
me, relieving me from the everyday misery of the camp.”
Franje Tein, born in 1924 in Sag near Valpovo

SOURCE 7h
Testimonies of Camp Survivors: Leaving the Camps

“On 1 May 1946 we were released from the camp, as were all the other detainees.
Rozina Petrović from Osijek, born Holstein in 1927

“I don’t know how I was released or who spoke for freeing me, I’m grateful to God that I survived.”
Franje Tein, born in 1924 in Sag near Valpovo

“In late September 1945, a new “commission” arrived at the camp. It was led by an OZNA (State Security Police)
member, Moco Bunjevac, and a man named Tepeš (or Tepavac?) from the city NOO (National Liberation Council).
They divided us into groups. My parents and I were sent to the Municipal Court Prison in Osijek. My brother was
already there. My mother and I and another twenty women were placed in a room 4 metres long and wide. They
never interrogated us. In the evening of 23 December 1945 we were released with discharge certificates dated 12
December. My father was sentenced to three years of prison and eight years of loss of civil rights and confiscation
of entire property.” Paula Kotnik, born in 1927

“When we went back to Valpovo camp again, we were informed that the discharge certificate had arrived for us,
but not for our father. We left on 15 August 1945, sadly saying goodbye to our father, a day I will never forget. He
was later taken to Krndija camp with the other detainees where he died on 4 February 1946.
Franciska Bušljeta, born Poker in Brčko

“After some time I started to work in a home for children who lost their parents in the war, which was situated in
the Valpovo Castle. I was discharged from the camp on 29 April 1946 and remained working in the Home until 1948.
My daughter was with me, and the food was good, we got clothes sent by the UNRA. My parents were discharged
on 6 May 1946, returned to Osijek and with the help of good people continued with their lives.
Elizabeta Konig, born Reitz in 1921

Testimonies taken from the book Radni logor Valpovo (The Valpovo Work Camp) 1945-1946, Osijek, 1999.

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15. The 1940s: The End of Democracy in Yugoslavia
Workshop Materials of Emina Dautovic, Serbia

This teaching activity addresses the key question: ‘What was the perception of democracy in Yugoslavia after
World War II?’, and is centred on teaching about post-war period linked to the international context with interior
development of Yugoslavia. The work with the sources has a potential of deve-loping motivation for students.

Aims and Objectives


Aim of the Session: To achieve students’ understanding of
the different perceptions of the democracy by politicians
who lived in Yugoslavia
Outcomes: At the end of the class students are to show by the
example that they have understood that there were different
perceptions of the democracy by the politicians who lived in
Yugoslavia.
Abilities and Skills: analysis of historical sources, choice of
relevant facts, making conclusions, development of critical
thinking, development of multi-perspective approach.
Time: 45 min.

The principle aim of the workshop is to show that the term


“democracy” (as well as many other terms) does not have the
same meaning in different circumstances, and to develop a Discussion during a workshop
discussion about what students perceive as democracy, and
what it is ‘supposed to be’ in an ideal system. These sources unification of formed individual views and formulation of
have been chosen, because in the renewed Yugoslavia of n common thesis.
the second part of 1940s there were different perceptions Step 4: Presentation of each group’s view by a group repre-
and interpretations of the term “democracy”. sentative – 10 min. Group representative presents conclu-
sions based on the theses prepared by his/her group.
Communists have used the term “people’s democracy” and Step 5: Pleanary (Final discussion)– 8 mins. Aimed to ex-
considered that the true democracy exists only through the change attitudes, arguments and form one common pic-
government by their party as the only political representative ture which should include three perspectives: communist,
of “workers, peasants and honest intellectuals”. liberal-democratic and foreigners.
Liberal politicians used the term “parliamentary democra-
cy” and believed that only the multi-party electoral system Materials required:
of equal political competitors could offer truly legitimate 5) Results of the elections organized 1945.
government, which would represent all social strata and all 6) Sources for communist’s attitudes
citizens with the right of vote. 7) Sources for liberal-democrat’s attitudes
Foreign politicians, who monitored the occurrences in Yu- 8) Sources for foreign factor’s attitudes
goslavia, gave their comments and conclusions, and they are
used here as a referent group and throw further light to the Questions for the Plenary:
problem and its understanding on the part of the partici- What were the similarities and differences between the per-
pants. ception of the democracy by communists, liberal democrats
and Western politicians?
Activities: Was the political organization of Yugoslavia influenced by in-
Divides your students into three groups. ternational situation? In what way?
Each group gets two documents, plus elections results: Where did the re-introduction of the multi-party system in
Group I- Communists (documents 1, 2, and 7), Yugoslavia by the end of 1980s lead?
Group II- Liberal politicians (documents 3, 4 and 7), According to your opinion, could Yugoslavia exist as parlia-
Group III- Foreign politicians (documents 5, 6 and 7). mentary democracy? Explain your viewpoint.

Students analyse sources and write conclusions on a sheet


of paper, which the group representative uses to inform
the others about his/her group’s view in a report back.

After this, all students analyse the results of the election


and discuss the political situation in Yugoslavia after the
World War II.
Suggested Timings:
Step 1: Giving the instructions – 5 min. Each group should
create an impression about the political situation in Yugo-
slavia after World War II.
Step 2: Division into three groups: communists, liberal
politicians and foreigners. – 2 min.
Step 3: Analysis of the texts according to enclosed ques-
tions – 20 min. All students work individually with received
texts for 15 min., and last 5 min. is reserved for group

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Students’ Materials: (All Groups)
Yugoslavia in the 1940s: Briefing
Historical Context:
After World War II Yugoslavia was reestablished as a democratic federal republic.

There were two basic political groups aiming at governing the nation:
1.) communists, led by marshal Josip Broz Tito, who had military force, monolith and mass Communist Party, the
reputation of liberators and support of the allies, especially USSR;

2.) liberal politicians represented by King Peter Karadjordjevic, who were disunited, lacked effective power and
had reputation of runaways from the occupied country, supported by Great Britain and the USA. The Great Powers
intended to organise the world according to their needs, and secure peace and stability in a lasting manner. The
Powers planned to renew Yugoslavia as a stable and unified state, able to meet the international obligations, and
to achieve that in the fastest and the cheapest way. They intended to prevent any possibility of renewal of clashes
within the country.

Voting Results in Federal Districts and Autonomous Regions of Yugoslavia, 1945.

Federal unit/autonomous Votes in total % Votes for National front % Votes for the box without
region the list %

Serbia 77,16% 88,59% 11,41%


Vojvodina 92,20% 85,90% 14,60%
Kosovo and Metohija 97,68% 85,40% 3,22%
Croatia 91,77% 91,52% 8,48%
Slovenia 95,29% 83,25% 16,75%
Bosnia and Herzegovina 92,53% 95,21% 4,79%
Macedonia 96,82% 95,85% 4,15%
Montenegro 96,13% 97,93% 2,07%

Source: Sluzbeni list, No. 92/1945. (Official papers, No.92/1945)

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Student Materials: Group 1

Yugoslav Communists in the 1940s

Source 1. Communists: Views of Democracy in 1945 and 1947

“I think that today we have no right to say to out peoples, which gave so many sacrifices and victims
during the War for freedom and equality, the following: Brothers, indeed you fought, shed blood, but
these sacrifices are not important any more, they are useless, now the elections will decide if you
are going to be equal or not. The one, who put things in this context, in my opinion, wants confusion in Yugoslavia, not
prosperity nor peace. Does the request of our peoples to be included in the Constitution as equal nations and to decide
equally, means violation of sovereignty of Constitutional parliament? I don’t think so.”

Speech of Edvard Kardelj from 1945,


in: Branko Petranovic and Momcilo Zecevic, Yugoslavia 1918-1988. Thematic collection of documents, Belgrade 1988,
p.765.

“The new social organization of our country requests a new form of political life. Numerous and heterogeneous in their
perceptions, political parties would be the greatest obstacle for a fast and lasting development of our country. Not only
the political, but also the economical structure of our country excludes possibility of existence of a number of parties,
with the old programs and old visions. A unified economy demands political unification. Imagine this: we ended the War,
now we should rebuild the country, (…) and we have different leading parties. One says: we should not build this bridge,
but the other one. The other will say: why does Bosnia, Lika, Montenegro, for example, get more help than some other
republic…they would say: why do we need industrialization, electrification…, let every peasant work as he knows and
is able to…It would paralyze all our powers…”

Tito’s speech on the Second Congress of the National Front of Yugoslavia, 27.9.1947.

Source 2. Collaboration between communists and some liberal politicians on


establishing a new political organisation in Yugoslavia 1945.

‘Our military and police force were strong enough and self-confident, but the support we had amongst the people,
especially in the middle class, was insufficient… The greatest part of the work in this field was Kardelj’s responsibility.
But I was also included, to make a common platform with supporters of national front, republicans and agricultural
party… all together, the discussions and the search for the right formulations were held in ultimate mutual respect,
even in a friendly manner. The only “incident” occurred with the representative of one group of intellectuals of minor
importance. Provoked by something, he nervously yelled: “We are not equal! We ask equality!” –That provoked me, so
I added: “After all you are not equal! You can not be. After all, behind us, the communists, there are 50 divisions and
one horrible war, and you are just a group. You misunderstand equality! This is not about forcing equality, it’s rather
about negotiations.”
–All were quiet after this, even Uncle Jasa, only Dragoljub Jovanovic was smiling ironically.’

Djilas, Milovan, The Rule, London 1983, p. 11–12.

Tasks:
A. Based on the analysis of the sources and the data given in the table, answer this question:
What attitude did the Yugoslav Communists take to democracy in Yugoslavia after 1945?
B. Study the results of the first elections in 1945 with the estimates of the support for the parties suggested by the
communists, liberal democrats and Western monitors.

Were the predictions accurate?

Prepare a report for the rest of class of your answers.

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Student Materials: Group 3

The Great Powers in the 1940s

Source 3. The Memorandum of Yugoslav democratic political parties in London addressed to the
Foreign Ministries of the five ‘Great Powers’:Great Britain, USA, USSR, France and China

‘We deeply regret that we must declare that the Government, empowered by moral, material and military support of
the Great Allies, established in our country the regime which has nothing to do with democracy and freedom, neither
in political issues nor in State organisation.

That regime is totally overpowered by one political party, communist one, in one word, to one obvious minority and its
force: its politicised police and politicised army, today the so called “Yugoslav army”. That small party, supported by its
armed political force, tries to implement its own programme, in some areas at once, in others in fast steps… (It) seems
to be the basic condition… (that) dictatorship … (is taking over) as a way of ruling…

All the economic measures, which this government uses, deliberately destroying and paralysing the state economy have
the same aim. The first result will be the fall of the living standard for people, making everybody depend on the govern-
ment for their survival, and from the secret police OZNA for personal freedom. With one Election law which gives the
Communist party and its government the right to choose not only candidates but the voters also, there can be no doubt
about the outcome of the elections. The result will be 100% for the governmental party.

Signed by- Dr Vlatko Macek, the President of Croatian Peasants’ party, now in Paris; Dr Zivko Topalovic, the President
of the Socialist Party, now in Rome; Mr Adam Pribicevic, Honorable President of the Independent Democratic Party, now
in Rome; Dr Miha Krek, the President of the Slovenian People’s Party, now in Rome; Dr Slobodan Jovanovic, previous
President of the exiled government of Yugoslavia in London; Jovan Banjanin, Vice-President of the Yugoslav National
Party; Veceslav Vilder, the President of the Executive Board of the Independent Democratic Party; Dr Milan Gavrilovic,
the President of the Serbian Agricultural Party; Radoje L. Knezevic, the Executive Board Member of the Democratic
party; K.LJ.Miletic, Executive Board member of the Radical Party’

Archive of Yugoslavia: Exiled government of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1941-1945), file 158, document 573.

Source 4. Collaboration between communists and some liberal politicians on establishing new
political organisation in Yugoslavia 1945.

‘Our military and police force were strong enough and self-confident, but the support we had among people, especially
in the middle class, was insufficient. (…) The greatest part of work in this field was Kardelj’s responsibility. But I was
also included, to make common platform with supporters of National front, republicans and agricultural party. (…) all
together, the discussions and the search for the right formulations were held in ultimate mutual respect, even in a
friendly manner. The only “incident” occurred with the representative of one group of intellectuals of minor impor-
tance. Provoked by something, he nervously yelled: “We are not equal! We ask equality! –That provoked me, so I added:
After all you are not equal! You can not be. After all, behind us, the communists, there are 50 divisions and one horrible
war, and you are just a group. You misunderstand equality! This is not about forcing equality, it’s rather about negotia-
tions. –All were quiet after this, even uncle Jasa, only Dragoljub Jovanovic was smiling ironically.’

Djilas, Milovan, The Rule, London 1983, p. 11–12

Tasks:
A. Based on the analysis of the sources and the data given in the table, answer this question:
What attitude did the Great Powers take to democracy in Yugoslavia after 1945?
B. Study the results of the first elections in 1945 with the estimates of the support for the parties suggested by the
communists, liberal democrats and Western monitors.

Were the predictions accurate?

Prepare a report for the rest of class of your answers.

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The Great Powers in the 1940s

Source 5.
Transcript from the Great Powers Potsdam Conference,
Third Session, 19th July 1945.

Participants:
Anthony Eden British, Foreign Minister (Member of the elected National Government and Conservative Party)
Josef Stalin, USSR, Russian Leader of the Soviet Union, (Communist Dictator)
Harry Truman USA, President of the United States of America (Elected Republican/Conservative Party leader)
Winston Churchill British, Prime Minister (Elected Prime Minister, National Government and Conservative Party)

Eden: “Next question – about Yugoslavia. We’ve already submitted one little project about this question.”
Stalin: “I don’t think that we can consider this matter without the presence of Yugoslav representatives.”
Eden: “We should pay attention on the fact that we made an agreement on Yugoslav mater on Crimea conference with-
out Yugoslav representatives.”
Stalin: “It is independent and the alliance country now, with it’s own legitimate government. We shouldn’t resolve the
mater without the presence of the Yugoslav representatives.”
Truman: “Do you seriously suggest that we should invite them here? I don’t think it would be appropriate.”
Churchill: “We already signed the agreement made on Crimea conference, and now we see that this agreement is not ful-
filled: there is no election law, parliament is not extended, legal procedure not established. Tito’s administration controls
everything with help of politicized police, controlled newspapers, just like in some fascist countries also.”
Stalin: “You see, the information which Mr. Churchill refers to, concerning violating some decisions of Crimea confer-
ence, these information, according to our sources, are not reliable.”
Truman: “We will just waste our time by analyzing every political complain. If we invite here Tito, Franco or other
statesmen it will not lead to a good outcome.”
Stalin: “You are right about this.”
Source: Tehran, Yalta, Potsdam, (Collection of documents), Moscow 1971. p. 240–242.

Source 6. American Projection of the Political Situation in Yugoslavia 1947.

AMERICAN EMBASSY, BELGRADE, YUGOSLAVIA


7 JULY 1947, CONFIDENTIAL
To the Honorable Secretary of State – Washington

‘Communism has its great weaknesses: by founding its doctrine on materialism, believing that the cause justify the means,
however hard it seemed, it ruins spontaneous tendency for freedom of the human race (we should add another big tendency
– security). (…) It is very dangerous to oversimplify how strong support of the nation is towards government, or not. The
estimation that 85-95% people are against the government is just guessing… My personal opinion that the wide population,
although skeptic and unsatisfied, are still not totally against government. Why would they be? If we put aside measure such
as government control or wheat ransom it is not any harder for them than it was during previous regime… We must not take
for granted attacks of sarcastic former politicians of cosmopolite elite as a voice of common people. Even if we assume that
great majority of population is against the communism, it doesn’t mean that the number of those why would be ready to
sacrifice their lives for overthrowing the government is larger than those who would defend it.’
John M. Cabot, Chargé d’Affairs
Source: Museum of the History of Yugoslavia, Travels and Visits of J. B. Tito, I-3-b/759-2

Tasks:
A. Based on the analysis of the sources and the data given in the table, answer this question:
What attitude did the Great Powers take to democracy in Yugoslavia after 1945?
B. Study the results of the first elections in 1945 with the estimates of the support for the parties suggested by the
communists, liberal democrats and Western monitors.

Were the predictions accurate?

Prepare a report for the rest of class of your answers.

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16. How do high school students resolve social problems and use historical
competencies all through this cognitive process?
A research project beginning in Quebec
Marc-André Éthier, Professor, Université de Montréal, with the collaboration of David Lefrançois,
Fellow, Université de Montréal

In this article Marc-André and David explore their research plan to consider how teachers and young people in-
teract in historical problem solving, and how these processes operate.

The subsidized researches which we have conducted, and documents: corroboration, critique and putting in context.
continue to conduct, in the domain of political awareness However, empirical research into the learning and usage
and, alone or in teams, have explored and are exploring of historical competencies remains relatively sparse, and
the use of history that future teachers of social studies at that on their transfer to political practice is yet inexist-
the secondary level, as well as their students, make when ent in French-speaking Canadian province of Quebec. This
resolving problems of a socio-political nature. While these amounts in general to case studies on the way in which
individuals cite numerous cultural references associated very small numbers of subjects, often primary/elementary
with history, including many learnt at school, our research or university students, perform (or not) on a predeter-
suggests that subjects rarely called upon competencies mined task in an artificial context.
in the analysis of history during resolution of problems.
These results corroborate evidence for the relative fail- As a result, we are ignorant about what events, under what
ure of history courses in effect in Quebec between 1982 conditions and in what ways school students mobilize and
and 2005 in regard to their principle training objectives: transfer historical competencies. Do they, for example, do
the teaching dispensed did not train in historical compe- so when they have to resolve a problem in science class,
tence; the textbooks discouraged reasoned political prac- when they have to write an argumentative text in French
tice; school-students, teachers and university students class (first language), when they have to deliberate about a
exposed to the teaching of history understood poorly how moral issue in ethics and religious culture class (a non-con-
this discipline is constructed; they were barely aware of fessional philosophic and anthropologic study of believes
questions related to historical interpretation and mul- that exist in Quebec or elsewhere) or when they have to
tiple causality; they foster poorly-founded perceptions get along when deciding how to organize their graduation
relative to the ends of the teaching of history itself. ball?Theoretical Framework.

However, normative discourses which postulate the beneficial The well-known work of Flavell and Ross (1981) on meta-
effects of learning historical competencies on the development cognition fed the resurgence, based on the fundaments
of a reflective practice towards politics abound in the scien- of cognitive psychology, of research on cognitive, affec-
tific and professional literature. Innumerable authors main- tive and social processes involved in learning in the school
tain in fact that the study of history is one of the best means environment. This research was particularly interested in
of teaching school students to postulate problems (that is, to the development of a conscious, autonomous and strategic
see them, specify them and analyze them) in regard to cur- executive centre for thought processes. From the middle
rent public controversies, to expose them to factual inquiry, of the 1980’s on, it produced a wealth of theoretical devel-
to question their own beliefs, to weigh arguments and to de- opments. The later research conducted by Schön (1994),
bate them, in brief to deliberate with respect and tolerance. then by others, on the reflective competence of profes-
sionals in action inscribed itself in part into this movement.
In addition to this, most of the contemporary historians af-
firm that these tasks are what define their profession. In Schön showed that the know-how acquired and mobilized
their opinion, the competent historian in fact does many by practitioners, when the time comes to postulate and re-
things. He highlights, selects and critiques pertinent docu- solve a problem, often remains tacit. These practitioners
ments in order to establish the facts. He identifies actors and manage to keep abreast, with virtuosity, of a large number
witnesses, as well as their interests. He examines the point of complex tasks. Yet some of these turn out to be barely
of view of different protagonists. He elucidates relevant cir- aware of what they are doing and of the reasons why they
cumstances and deeds so as to identify the numerous causes have proceeded the way they have, while others - reflec-
of a political, social, economic, or cultural phenomenon, al- tive practitioners - reflect on (and articulate) the effects
ways ordering and organizing these causes. He probes diverse of their daily practice in respect to their intentions, both
dimensions of the problem. He frames historical periods ac- while they are in the middle of acting and retroactively.
cording to structural homogeneity connected to the problem. These consciously direct and organize their strategies of
He sets the question being examined into a wider context and acquisition, recall and processing of pertinent declarative,
underscores the underlying societal issues. He renders pub- procedural or conditional knowledge.
lic his sources and procedures (with footnotes, primarily…). Following Schön (or D. Kuhn), we conclude that the reflec-
tive approach of the practitioner is necessarily paradig-
This enumeration covers in their entirety the disciplinary matic, since it is a matter of finding and circumscribing a
competences as proposed in the course Citizenship History problem (connected to the reflective subject’s practice), of
and Education, but does it correspond to the real practice collecting and analyzing data, of critiquing and interpret-
of historians? Researches conducted on our continent (by ing these analyses, and then of acting in consequence. This
Seixas and Wineburg, for example), in regard to how profes- means that reflective thought is learnt in situations, in op-
sional historians, teachers and students of history process erating on a relevant object, and following this is general-
to reasoning when they interpret written sources, indicates ized. Conversely, a competence is effectuated in a specific
that the claims of historians are founded but that three domain and is developed from out of structures (and from
general strategies guide their intercourse with primary a base of knowledge) proper to this domain, but it neces-

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sitates nevertheless the usage of meta-cognitive strate- per school. At the end of May 2007, the student-research-
gies. The paradigm of a practice should therefore fashion ers will contact the teachers of the schools chosen and,
the reflection of its practitioner, because the manner in according to the availability of volunteers, will then com-
which the real is conceived and problems discerned vary pile the sub-sample. I will add a convenient sub-sample,
according to the heuristic, the problematic, the concep- if the groups seem too atypical (for example, if only 25%
tual frame and the model that the paradigm employed of the group are girls, given that they represent 51% of
comprise. Thus, evidence in science and technology is gen- the Montreal school population). The students will devote
erally considered different from that for social science. around 30 hours to sampling, including contacting teach-
This theoretical development permits us to better under- ers. The net school-student sample will consist therefore
stand the practice of expert citizens, a complex and non- of 12 groups of 32 students (N=384), based on two groups
routine paradigmatic activity that Rosenberg (2002) calls per school.
political reasoning and Ennis (1985), critical thought. Thus,
even if two professional politicians such as Churchill (1948) Four data collection procedures will be used conjointly:
and Trotsky (1933) acted from out of their irreconcilable observation in class, problem resolution, research inter-
ideologies, borrowed from different intellectual approaches views and extracurricular observation. In all these cases,
and concepts and possessed divergent procedures with re- we will seek to discover what affirmations, arguments and
gard the one to the other, both had a reflective political justifications the students invoke and to which they sub-
practice when they wrote the political histories in which scribe.
they had participated themselves and when they attempted
to draw lessons from this that would help solve other po- 1) Observations in class. Over two complete and consecu-
litical problems. Their know-how was not tacit. Like all re- tive school years, student-researchers will observe each
flective thought, their political thought was of a contextual of two groups (always the same ones) during all their Citi-
nature: it was not learnt in the abstract, for its own sake: zenship History and Education classes, as well as during
it was rather developed during usage for approaches to the Science and Technology class distributed in equal parts
resolution of specific problems, proper to a given discipline. throughout these same two years. This will be non-covert
and direct observation. The student-researchers will have
In sum, a subject learns to resolve social problems when to take note of verbal content related to modes of problem
he disentangles such social problems by means of social resolution.
scientific investigative strategies (themselves variable and 2) Problem Resolution. To observe the transfer of historical
adapted to circumstance), when he exercises his creative competencies in disciplines very different in appearance,
thought or his critical judgement with regards to such social the student-researchers will observe four activities involving
issues through the manipulation of such relevant historical problem resolution (two per year per group), with the same
information (fact, concept or generalization). This model as- school students.
sumes that the reasoning activities of the subject who inter-
acts with his or her socio-political environment transforms, This will consist of participant-observation, since the stu-
by assimilation or accommodation, the content on which dent-researchers will act as if they were the assistants
they are brought to bear, just as this content transforms of the teacher whose class is involved, so as to be able
the reasoning activities (Rosenberg 2002). On the level of to direct the activity, and to circulate from one team to
methodology, this involves the conjoint study of the proc- the other. The researcher will prepare these activities
esses (the way in which reason functions), tools (concepts, in collaboration with the teachers and the student-re-
factual information, methods) and products (ideologies, at- searchers. We will prepare at least eight pre-experi-
titudes, and behaviours) of political reasoning in vivo. mental activities which we will test out on other groups.
Following Lee, Ashby and Dickinson and Stevens, Wineburg et We will retain those activities most effective in terms
al. (2005), we will combine several qualitative approaches. of “revealers” of reasoning. The speaking-aloud activi-
This cross-path strategy is becoming more and more com- ties will be conducted in pairs. They will be thought ex-
mon in this field of research, as it is proving a more robust periments of a fashion to cause to emerge (and thus to
and fertile approach. Therefore, my student-researchers permit us to identify as such) that which counts for the
will observe school students, both in history class and out of school-students as a good argument or sound evidence,
class, set an activity for them, and they will ask questions as they interact in pairs. Note that there are here no ex-
to students. This will be a qualitative longitudinal study. perimental groups and test-observers, as this is a question
The investigation will be performed using a sam- of describing and exploring, not of testing a hypothesis.
ple of primary/elementary and secondary stu-
dents, registered in the regular syllabus, in French- 3) Research Interviews. Once the activity is completed,
language public schools in the region of greater the student-researchers will interview a student from the
Montreal, during the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 school years. group (randomly chosen). This will be an individual face-to-
face interview, semi-structured (using a discussion guide),
Junior high (premier cycle) students have been chosen of a duration of around 30 minutes. The in-depth interview
because the Citizenship History and Education course will permit interaction with the interviewer and will lead
has been obligatory since 2005, while this requirement the subject to reflect on the activity and to specify his or
will not be extended to the whole of the senior high her stances, his representations connected to the defini-
level (deuxième cycle) until 2009 (posing problems re- tion of the problem and the origin of cognitive resources
garding teachers’ need to familiarize themselves with mobilized.
the program, thus rendering collaboration more dif-
ficult), but also because they are more often in sta- 4) Extracurricular Observation. The student-researchers
ble groups (which aids in the compilation of sample). will attend school student council meetings, and this even
if the committee does not include students from the group
The student-researchers will pick randomly six from 74 that they will observe in class. The student-researchers
secondary public schools from the Island of Montreal. will observe how the school students deliberate in regard
These schools will form the (random) sample from which to public issues affecting them. For example, if, following
they will then extract a random sub-sample of two groups a complaint from adults, the administration is threatening

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to cancel a student dance due to “dance styles judged to tree-structure, followed by cross-comparison, association,
be too sexualized” (an actual case with which the student and re-dissection of data, so as to allow comparison of
council at a school in Montréal had to deal in 2005), the segments of discourse and to analyze the interpretative
student-researchers would pay particular attention to the hypotheses produced by Alceste regarding the sense that
manner in which the students might position the problem the respondents give to their own statements. As such, N-
and then debate it: do students remain composed during Vivo is a tool which favours interpretation which is both
such debate, do they permit the right of the assertion of emergent and meaningful.
dissenting opinion? Do they attempt to set the question
within a larger context? Do they interrogate the diverse Conclusions expected
aspects of the problem? Are they concerned with posses- This research intends therefore, concurrently to deepen
sion of a broad-ranging perspective? Do they look further our knowledge of the field of citizenship education, to
than simple mono-causal explanations? Do they try to dig maximize the theoretical advantages of work on the teach-
out the underlying societal issues (freedom of expression, ing of history in the secondary school, and to open new
equality of women)? and concrete pathways so as to aid those in the school
system, particularly the teachers and those in the Depart-
Although the four information-collection procedures will ment of Education, in satisfying the social demands of
generate a very great variety of data, the corpus to be their position, for example by developing and putting into
analyzed will principally constituted of verbal data set practice university teaching tools and situations for educa-
down in field notes and audiovisual and sound recordings. tion students, concerned with training them in a reflective
Following Stevens et al (2005), we will compare the data at approach to their (double) activity as citizens and formers
diverse levels of organization. At the level of the word, we of citizens.
will compare the use which the students make of the terms
“cause,” “theory,” “argument” and “proof / evidence.” References
At a more general level, we will compare the structure of Lee, P. & R. Ashby (2000) Progression in Historical Under-
arguments in different contexts and the “nomadism” of standing Ages 7-14. P. Stearns, P. Seixas & S. Wineburg
concepts. Thus, if the students discuss in council meetings (dir.), Knowing, Teaching, and Learning History: National
regarding the source of a piece of information, we would and International Perspectives (p.199-222). New York: New
here be able to identify a strategy associated with history. York University Press.
Pires, A. (1997). Échantillonnage et recherche qualitative :
The interview recordings and activities will be re-tran- essai théorique et méthodologique, Poupart et coll., La re-
scribed word for word and analyzed with the aid of Al- cherche qualitative (p.113-172). Montréal : Gaëtan Morin
ceste software (lexicometric analysis of content) in order éditeur.
to categorize the corpus in terms of “type sentences.” Rosenberg (2002). The Not So Common Sense. Differences
Taking as a base the population studied in its totality in How People Judge Social and Political Life. New Haven:
(that is, all statements uttered in the transcription), Al- Yale University Press.
ceste quantifies the distribution of words in the texts so Seixas, P. (2006). Benchmarks of Historical Literacy: To-
as to extract the most significant meaningful structures, wards a Framework for Assessment in Canada. Report on
in order to pick out the essential information and clas- the symposium, Historica and the Centre for the Study of
sify it. To do this, the software constructs a tree-graph Historical Consciousness, UBC, April 20-21.
which isolates groupings that are increasingly homo- Stevens, R., S. Wineburg, L. R. Herrenkohl & P. Bell (2005).
geneous and distinguishes these groups by using, for Comparative Understanding of School Subjects, Review of
each branch of the tree, the most pertinent variable. Educational Research, 75(2): p. 125-157.
Vallerand, R.J. & U. Hess (2000). Méthodes de recherché
The themes of this automatic analysis will be used to code en psychologie. Montréal : Gaétan Morin.
the text-based data for a second analysis, this time using Wineburg, S. (2001). Historical Thinking and Other Unnatu-
N-Vivo. In contradistinction to Alceste, N’Vivo is not lexico- ral Acts. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 255 p.
metric software. It permits rather dissection of interviews
into themes, and elaboration of a thematic and analytical

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17. Human Rights Education: Lessons from History
A summary of the EUROCLIO 2007 European Survey
Dr. Chara Makriayianni, EUROCLIO Policy Officer, Cyprus

2007 EUROCLIO questionnaire had its focus on the theme of the conference Human Rights Education: Lessons
from History. This is a summary report on the questionnaire findings.

Participants to the Annual Conference and Professional In addition the three different ‘generations’ of rights,
Training Development Course of EUROCLIO and the Slove- which cover different dimensions of human activity, recog-
nian History Teachers’ Association were kindly requested nized by the international were deployed:
to discuss the questionnaire on a wide as possible scale
within their own associations in order to enhance the va- First generation rights (Liberty rights):
lidity of its results. The help and collective effort of all These include the civil and political rights -
those who contributed to the completion of the question- such as the right to freedom of expression,
naire was valuable in gathering important information on freedom of association, the right to life, to
human rights and history teaching in each country. a fair trial, to participation in the political
life of society, and so on.
During the Conference results were presented and there
was time for questions and discussion. The aim was to Second generation rights (Equality rights):
raise constructive debate at a European and international These include the social, economic and
level on the important issue of human rights’ awareness cultural rights - such as the right to an ad-
and mutual respect. equate standard of living, to work, to join a
trade union, to health and to education.
The questionnaire comprised three parts:
Third generation rights (Solidarity rights):
Part I: Demographics These rights are also known as ‘emerging’
Part II: Definitions rights, because they are still in the process
Part III: Human Rights and History Education of being acknowledged and recognised.
They refer to the collective rights of soci-
Part I: Demographics ety or peoples - such as the right to sus-
The questionnaires were completed, in many different tainable development, to peace, or to a
countries, by either: individuals, members or board mem- healthy environment.
bers of History Teacher’s Associations, most of the board
or all the Associations’ members. The majority, from
various countries, of those who took the responsibility Part III: Human Rights and History Education
of completing the questionnaire, were Board members of
Member Associations (31%). For this section, participants to the research were asked
to have at hand their country’s National Curriculum on His-
To the question ‘Is there a debate in your country about tory (if any) whilst completing the questionnaire, so that
how ethnic, religious or linguistic groups should be taught the information provided would be as accurate and repre-
in the official educational system?’ the majority of those sentative as possible of their country’s official policy on
who completed the questionnaire stated that such debate history teaching.
ranged from little to a moderate extent (3.43 out of 4,
on a Likert scale, where: 1=not at all; 2= little; 3=moder- To the first question, the majority of those who completed
ately; 4=to a great extent.) the questionnaire noted the moderate extend to which his-
tory curriculum requires them to teach about the history
of human rights (3.25 out of 4, on a Likert scale, where:
1=not at all; 2= little; 3=moderately; 4=to a great extent).
The history of children was the one least requested to be
taught (2.39 out of 4).

Part II: Definitions


In this part, an attempt was made to provide certain defi-
nitions in order to frame participants’ responses:

The wide definition offered by the Council of Europe, Hu- The majority moreover noted that their history curricu-
man Rights Education and Compass was used to identify lum requires to a moderate extend to: put emphasis on
human rights issues: ‘Almost any question concerning vio- promoting respect for human rights (3.41 out of 4); and
lations of rights may be termed a human rights issue’. to teach about the history of different religious (2.86 out

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of 4) and different linguistic groups (2.50 out of 4) in the The majority of respondents (69,23%) stated that their coun-
country. The majority also replied that only to a limited try’s history curriculum place emphasis on particular viola-
degree did compulsory guidelines exist in their history cur- tions of human rights, in contrast to 30, 77% who stated that
riculum about how to teach themes related to different it did not.
ethnic (2.44 out of 4), religious (2.18 out of 4), linguistic To the question ‘which of the following statements are
(2.00 out of 4) groups. mentioned as violations of human rights?’ the following
three were those reported the most:
Overall, the majority of those who completed the ques- 1. Freedom of speech or religion, are denied (86%)
tionnaire reported that human rights issues in their coun- 2. A person is sold as or used as a slave (86%)
try’s history curriculum are given coverage to a moderate 3. Life, liberty or security of person, are thre-atened
extent (2.96 out of 4). (86%)

To the question regarding the degree to which certain rec-


ommendations of the Council of Europe on history teaching
are pursued in the participants’ national history curricu-
lum, the majority highlighted the following three as those
pursued to a great extent:

1. History should develop in pupils the intellectual abil-


ity to analyse and interpret information critically and
responsibly (3.64 out of 4)
2. History should develop play an important role in the
promotion of tolerance, mutual understanding, hu-
man rights and democracy ( 3.64 out of 4)
3. History should develop promote peaceful develop-
ment of human societies in a national, European and
global perspective (3.54 out of 4).

Participants to this questionnaire survey were also asked


to state the extent to which they (or their Association)
considered certain historical skills important for the pro-
motion of human rights.
Amongst those who were considered as the most important
for the promotion of human rights were:

1) distinguishing facts from opinions (3.89 out of 4);


On reporting the particular school subjects, in their coun- 2) analysing, evaluating and using historical sources in
try, which put emphasis on promoting respect for human their historical context (3.86 out of 4)
rights participants ranked the following: 3) handling conflicting interpretations (3.86 out of 4)

1. History To the open-ended question ‘What constitutes best prac-


tice in teaching about human rights according to your
2. Civic Education (or Civics or Citizenship Education) country’s history curriculum?’ responses varied:

3. Social Sciences ‘Students should develop an understanding of and an abil-


ity to apply such concepts as are fundamental to the study
4. Sociology and writing of History’. Under substantive concepts are
listed ‘Democracy and Human Rights’.
5. Philosophy
‘By studying the history of states where human rights have
6. Religious Studies been ignored (e.g. Nazi Germany, Soviet Union in Stalin’s
time) and comparing them to Icelandic society’.
7. Politics (or Political Sciences)
Giving the students opportunity to, with the teachers’
8. Law (or Legal Studies) guidance, look for the explanations themselves. Presenta-
tions in the group and discussions
To the question ‘Does your history curriculum include any
explicit references to the Universal Declaration of Human ‘I am not sure that we have it in our history curriculum
Rights (1948)?’ the picture was divided with a bit more that on at all’.
half of the respondents answering ‘yes’ (51,85%) , and a bit
less than half answering ‘no’ (48,15%). ‘Interactive lessons, Critical thinking methods, Active
learning methods’.

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ZRSS_Zbornik_ENG.indd 74 14.2.2008 12:19:53


‘Making parallels between historical situations and con- ‘To demonstrate, to show, the evils of the past ... but also
temporary situations’. the hell of today (i.e. Darfour in the Soudan)!’
‘High-quality textbooks for students and manuals for
teachers, Teaching teachers (in-service institutes), Sup- ‘I think it is very important not only to teach students, but
port of local Departments of Education’. to involve them in real society’s life in different levels (a
school, a town, country, EU)’.
‘The approach of history teachers during the teaching to
create the peace climate and to promote democratic val- ‘Using multi-media devices, (films, slides…) involving stu-
ues as tolerance, understanding with «the others» and the dents in activities of role-play, brain storming, coopera-
people of different point of view for the same topic’. tive learning’.

‘The history of the Dutch constitutional state is part of the ‘See the HA’s forthcoming report Teaching Emotive and Con-
curriculum in secondary schools, as is the history and mean- troversial History, 3-19, published in March 2007 and available
ing of the United Nations. In our curriculum it isn’t only the free to all HA members, and from the HA website for a clear
past that we are teaching, but we also hope that the stu- statement on how to tackle such issues throughout the whole
dents look at the present. In a way: take some lessons from history curriculum from age 3 to age 19’.
the past. We try to do that especially in topics of human
rights, for example the position of women in a society, free- ‘There is no specific best practice’.
dom of speech and crimes against humanity’.
‘Dialogue based on multiperspectivity of opinions’.

Overview of main trends as revealed by the analysis of the questionnaire

• Human rights in general, and individual rights in particular, seem to be at the ‘top of the list’ in curricula and
are very much connected to the history lesson.
• The promotion of human rights seems to be linked to a more process oriented way of teaching history
(distinguishing facts from opinions, evaluating and using historical sources in their historical context, handling
conflicting interpretations, utilising appropriately different types of historical sources, developing debating skills)
• There is variability to the way human rights are understood in each country. Also, differences exist within
countries and between Associations (with emphasis ranging from individual rights to more collective ones).
• Certain countries lack guidelines and special curricula on human rights; thus there is a lot of space for
improvement.
• Sharing examples of good practice and engaging in productive dialogue and cooperation can lead to the
advancement of critical thinking and promotion of human rights around Europe.

75

ZRSS_Zbornik_ENG.indd 75 14.2.2008 12:19:53


with:

The History Teacher


Education Network

Come and Join Us at….


EUROCLIO’s 15th Annual International Training
Conference
Exploring Diversity,Identity and Values
Through History Teaching
BRISTOL 2008

In April 2008 the City of Bristol has the honour to host EUROCLIO’s international conference on the theme of
identity, diversity and values- involving teachers from across Europe and beyond- and a chance to showcase the
best that the City of Bristol has to offer.

The week long programme offers the


chance to contribute to a vibrant and
powerful learning experience and to ex-
plore what diversity, culture, identity and
heritage mean in England and in English
education.

Come and join us to:


- explore and celebrate ‘Englishness’
and ‘Britishness’,
- consider local diversity, achievement
and culture;
- take part in international networking
and use an unrivalled opportunity to
build partnerships- details at

www.EUROCLIO.eu

76

ZRSS_Zbornik_ENG.indd 76 14.2.2008 12:19:53


EUROCLIO Board from April 2007

Súsanna Margrét Gestsdóttir Elbert Roest (Co-opted from former EUROCLIO


President Foundation Board)
Engjasel 87 Stationsweg3
109 Reykjavik 1251 KC Laren
Iceland The Netherlands
Phone: + 354 557 50 79 (home) E-mail: roest.dejong@scarlet.nl
Phone: + 354 581 40 22 (work)
Fax: + 354 568 0335 Kiki Sakka,
E-mail: margret@fa.is Secretary
2 Dervenakion Str.,
Dr. Chara Makriyianni Petroupolis, 132 31,
Policy and Research Officer Athens
Magdalene College Greece
CB3 0AG Cambridge UK Phone +30 210 5021267
Phone UK: + 44 07786 617764 kiksak@yahoo.com
Phone CY: + 357 22 658376
E-mail: cm353@cam.ac.uk Dr. Dean Smart
Journal Editor and Publications Officer
Huub Oattes 117 Sandy Park Road
Vice President and Communication Officer Brislington, Bristol, BS4 3PG
Roerdomp 80 United Kingdom
3641 TK Mijdrecht Phone: +44 (0) 117 328 4203 (work)
The Netherlands Phone: +44 (0) 117 977 4933 (home)
Phone: 072- 5353540 (work) Fax: +44 (0) 117 328 4108
Phone: 0297-281197 (home) E-mail: Dean.Smart@uwe.ac.uk
Phone fax: 072-5111024
E-mail: hfoattes@planet.nl Executive Director of the EUROCLIO
Secretariat
Jelka Razpotnik Joke van der Leeuw-Roord
Treasurer and Projects Officer (Co-opted) Juliana van Stolberglaan 41,
Celouska 269 2595 CA The Hague,
1000 Ljubljana The Netherlands
Phone: 386 (1) 50 00 667 (work) Phone: + 31 70 382 7836
E-mail: jelka.razpotnik2@guest.arnes.si Fax: + 31 70 385 3669
E-mail: joke@euroclio.nl

Website: www.euroclio.eu

Ovitek_Zbornik_ENG.indd 3 14.2.2008 12:20:28


European History Educators’ Association

The European History Educators’ Association was founded in 1993 and-

• Works to improve European history education, offers a constructive contribution to


stability and democracy in Europe, and prepares young people for society;

• Is an Association with over 60 member organisations from more than 40 countries;

• Links over 40 000 history educators through its network;

• Has a democratically elected honorary International Governing Board, and a prestigious


honorary Advisory Board:

• Has it’s headquarters in The Hague

• Organises an international training conference each year together with, and hosted
by, local History Teachers’ Associations (HTAs), with 150-200 participants from many
countries working together to share and study innovative approaches and methodologies
for the teaching and learning of history and citizenship.

• Has since its foundation in 1993 run projects with local HTAs in Abkhazia, Albania,
Belgium, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland,
France, Georgia, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Macedonia, Moldavia, The Netherlands, Poland,
Romania, Russia, Serbia-Montenegro, Slovakia, Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom
and Ukraine.

• Works together with a range of partners: the Council of Europe, the European Union, the
OSCE, UNESCO, national and regional governments, universities and organisations such as
the Anne Frank Foundation (Netherlands), the Körber Foundation and the Georg Eckert
Institute (Germany).

Ovitek_Zbornik_ENG.indd 4 14.2.2008 12:20:28

Related Interests