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Differential Protection

Measuring Principle

Basis is the first Kirchhoff’s law e.g. Transformer


1
I I1 I2 IL

∆I
ΣI=0 2
∆I = II1 + I2I
The currents to a node In the case of load:
are positive defined. I1 = IL
I2 = -IL }∆I = 0

1 Internal fault 2 External fault


(înfeed from two sides)
I1 = I1,F I1 = IF
I2 = I2,F I2 = -IF
∆I = II1,F + I2,FI ∆I = IIF - IFI = 0
⇒ trip ⇒ no trip
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Peculiarity of the Transformer Differential Protection
1. Vector group (e. g. Yd5) 2. Different CT´s,
tap changer, magnetising current
I1
∆I

∆I trip region
current transformer
150° tap changer,
CT adaptation
- (will be eliminated)
I2
magnetising current

ITr, IRestr.
⇒ vector group adaptation ⇒ restraint function (stabilising) is necessary
 ∆I = f (Irestr.)
3. Dynamic currents  Irestr. = |I1| + |I2|
 inrush current
⇒ blocking via harmonics
 overflux (overexcitation)
 CT saturation during
external faults ⇒ saturation detector
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Differential Currents with Harmonics

i
energising Y y iDiff = i1
even,

t=0 2nd harm.


i1

20 40 60 80 ms 100 t
i
energising iDiff = i1
D y even

2nd
t=0
i1 harm.

paralleling 20 40 60 80 ms 100 t
(energising transformer T1)
T2 even i iDiff = i2
i2 and
odd
T1
2nd
harm.

20 40 60 ms 80 t

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Differential Currents with Harmonics

Over-excitation
UTr > UN i
iDiff = i1 - i2

odd
i1 i2
3rd and
5th
harm.
External short circuit with 20 40 60 ms 80 t
saturation of the CTs at the i
low-voltage side iDiff = i1 - i2

even
and
i1 i2 odd

20 40 60 ms 80 t
internal short circuit with i iDiff = i1
saturation of the CTs at the
high-voltage side even
and
odd

i1 i2 ~ 0

20 40 60 ms 80 t

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Differential Protection for Generators and Motors
Basic principle can be nearly direct used.
1. Stabilising characteristic

∆I

Trip area ∆I

Error currents ⇒ identically current transformers


via CT
⇒ sensitive setting is possible
IRestr.

2. Transients sensitive settings

generators: external short circuit with large Insensitive settings at


dc time constants  matching transformers
in the secondary circuit
motors: start-up currents
 different primary CTs
transient transfer features of a CT  different burden
are important (dc component)
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Devices with Differential Protection Functions
7UM62 and7UT6xx -Family

7UM621 and 7UM622


for protection objects with two ends
(machines)

7UT612 for protection objects with two


ends

7UT613 for protection objects with three


ends

7UT633 for protection objects with three


ends
7UT635 for protection objects up to five
ends

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Applications

7UM 62
7UT613
7UT612
Trans-
7UT613 former

Two winding transformer Three winding transformer 1 1/2 circuit breaker application
2 or 3phases 2 or 3phases with two winding transformer

GS
3~

7UT6 7UT613
7UM 62
7UT612

Generator/Motor longitudinal or Short lines Short lines


transversal differential protection 2 ends 3 ends

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Connection Example

Side1 Side 3 Side 2  direct connection to the main CTs


(Winding1) (Winding 3) (Winding 2)

 no matching transformers / no
matching connections

 numerical vector group adaptation


without zero sequence current
correction depending of the type of
earthing of the winding.

7UT613; 633  increased sensitivity by 33% by


measuring of the zero sequence
current (7UT6) for single-pole
faults.

 1A/5A main CTs adaptation in the


7UM 62 relay
7UT 612 )*
 permissible ratio CT nominal current
)* direct zero sequence current to transformer nominal current up to
also possible 1:8

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Functional Diagram of the Differential Protection
tripping characteristic
and saturat. detection
IDiff
tripping by IDIFF>
IDiff>

IStab
i1P measured value i1A* tripping
preprocessing iDIFF = i1A* + i2A* + i3A* harmonics analysis logic TRIP-
winding 1 crossblock Blocking command
basic wave by
filtering IDiff harmonics & TRIP L1
i2P measured value i2A*
preprocessing blocking by
2nd harmonics TRIP L2
winding 2 iStab = | i*1A | +
| i*2A | + | i*3A | and 3rd or 4th. >1 TRIP L3
measured value or 5th harmonics
i3P i3A* rectified mean value
preprocessing IStab fast tripping with
winding 3 evaluation of
IDiff and iDiff
tripping by IDIFF>>

iDIFF>> Stage

i1P, i2P, i3P sampling values from winding 1, 2, 3


i *1A, i *2A, i *3A values after vector group and CT matching
IDiff basic wave contents in the differential current
iDiff differential current
IStab rectified mean value of the stabilising current
iStab stabilising current

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Measuring Pre-processing, Example for CT Matching (Part 1)

SN = 100MVA

UN1 = 110kV UN2 = 30kV


1000/1A 2000/1A
IP1 = 500A IP2 = 1833A
(load current) Side 1 Side 2 (load current)

IN, Trafo = 525A IN, Trafo = 1924A

IS1 = 0,5A 7UM 62 IS2 = - 0,92A


7UT6 measured
secondary currents

IDiff = ?
IRestr. = ?

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Measuring Pre-processing, Example for CT Matching
(Part 2)

SN
1. Calculation of the transformer nominal current INTrafo = 3 ⋅ UN
I NCT
2. Correction factor kW = I NTrafo

3. Correction nominal current I’ = kW IS

4. Calculation of the differential and stabilising current Idiff = |I1' + I2' | Istab = |I1' | + |I2' |

Calculation example:

SN = 100MVA; UN1 = 110kV; UN2 = 30kV; IN1CT = 1000A; IN2CT = 2000A

Correction factors: kW1 = 1,9; kW2 = 1,04 Idiff = 0A

Load conditions: Ip1 = 500A; Ip2 = 1833A IStab = 1,9A

Secondary currents:  Is1 = 0,5A; Is2 = 0,92A Idiff = 0 ·IN Trafo

Matched currents: I1' = 0,95A; I2' = 0,95A Istab = 1,9IN Trafo

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Measuring Preprocessing: Vector Group Adaptation)

Ip Is
YN d5
L1
L2 IpL1 IsL3
L3

IE IsL2

IpL3 IpL2
IsL1
Protection

zero sequence elimination


 I *pL1  2 - 1 - 1  I pL1   I * sL1  - 1 0 1   I sL1  standard setting
  1     I *  = 1  1 - 1 0  • I 
 I *pL2  = 3 -1 2 - 1 •  I pL2   sL2  3    sL2 
I *  -1 - 1 2  I pL3   I * sL3   0 1 - 1  I sL3 
 pL3   

additional earth current measurement (I0-correction)


increasing of the
 I *pL1  1 0 0   I pL1   I E  I * sL1  - 1 0 1   I sL1 
      1   I  1     sensitivity via the
 I *pL2  = 0 1 0 •  I pL2  + 3  IE  * sL2  = 3  1 - 1 0 •  I sL2  connection of IE-CT
I *  0 0 1  I pL3   IE  I * sL3   0 1 - 1  I sL3 
 pL3    (only at 7UT6 possible)

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Example Calculation: Vector Group Correction
Situation: Single Phase Fault, No Load

ISC Ynd1 ISC/ √3


F1 F2
L1
Source

L2
ISC/ √3
L3

ISC

F1 F2
IL1 = -ISC IL1 = 0 Il 1 = ISC / √3
IL2 = 0 IL2 = 0 Il 2 = - ISC / √3
IL3 = 0 IL3 = 0 Il 3 = 0
IE = ISC IE = ISC

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Example Calculation: Vector Group Correction
I Zero Elimination
F1 F2

I*L1 2 -1 -1 - ISC 0 I*l 1 1 -1 0 ISC / √3


I*L2 = 1/3 -1 2 -1 0 0 I*l 2 = 1/√3 0 1 -1 - ISC / √3
I*L3 -1 -1 2 0 0 I*l 3 -1 0 1 0

I*L1 = -2/3 ISC 0


I*L2 = 1/3 ISC 0 I*l 1 = 1/3 ISC + 1/3 ISC = 2/3 ISC
I*l 2 = 0 - 1/3 ISC = -1/3 ISC
I*L3 = 1/3 ISC 0
I*l 3 = -1/3 ISC + 0 = -1/3 ISC

IDIFF1 =  I*L1 + I*l 1 = 0 2/3 ISC


IDIFF2 =  I*L2 + I*l 2 = 0 1/3 ISC
We see in all three phases a
differential current; this must
IDIFF3 =  I*L3 + I*l 3 = 0 1/3 ISC be considered during a
single phase test
Use only the trip signal
from the tested phase!

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Example Calculation: Vector Group Correction
I Zero Correction

F1 F2

I*L1 1 0 0 - ISC 0 1/3 ISC I*l 1 1 -1 0 ISC / √3


1
I*L2 = 0 1 0 0 0 + 1/3 ISC I*l 2 = 0 1 -1 - ISC / √3
I*L3 0 0 1 0 0 1/3 ISC I*l 3 √3 -1 0 1 0

I*L1 = -2/3ISC 1/3 ISC


I*L2 = 1/3 ISC 1/3 ISC I*l = 1/3 ISC + 1/3 ISC = 2/3 ISC
I*l 2 = 0 - 1/3 ISC = -1/3 ISC
I*L3 = 1/3 ISC 1/3 ISC
I*l 3 = -1/3 ISC + 0 = -1/3 ISC

IDIFF1 =I*L1 + I*l 1 = 0 ISC


IDIFF2 =I*L2 + I*l 2 = 0 0
We see only in the faulty
IDIFF3 =I*L3 + I*l 3 = 0 0 phase the currents

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Tripping Characteristic

 flexible adaptation to various transformers, e.g. with tap changer or different main CTs
 high stability against external faults with CT saturation
 fast tripping for solid short-circuits within one period
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Relay Settings
Influence of the Tap Changer

Problem: The tap changer modifies the transformer ratio


additional error in the differential current
±c
Example: tap changer c = 16% I diff = I res
2m c
c = 0,16 ⇒ I diff ≈ 0 ,087 I res

If IN.Tr. is flowing the additional Idiff is approx. 17,5% of the transformer


current. With slope 1 = 0,25 there is the pick-up threshold at 50%. The
security margin is for steady state conditions high enough. Considering
transient conditions (CT-influence) a small increasing of slope 1 (to 0,3) is
recommended.
Recommendation for voltage setting:

U max ∗ U min
U N, New = 2 = U N (1 - c2 )
U max + U min
c: steps of tap changer (p.u.)
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Pick up of Differential Protection

For triggering of internal tasks, events and fault records the differential protection
function needs a pickup information. This pickup becomes active, if the
differential current or the restraint current is over an internal threshold (dotted
line). Each external large current leads to a pickup.
Pickup doesn‘t always means internal failure!
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IDiff / IRestr.- Areas for Short Circuit / Normal Operation
I diff
I NTr internal
short circuit/
Inrush

limiting curve

external short
1
circuit with
CT saturation

external short
external
circuit with
short circuit (low current) a high current
I Restr.
normal operation 2 4 I NTr
(nominal current)

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Rush Stabilisation
Cross-block = No (phase separate blocking)
filter window
1 cycle L1-block Idiff, L1 > trip blocking
iRUSH = iDiff &
Inrush current
in one phase L2-block Idiff, L2 > trip blocking
&

L3-block Idiff, L3 > trip blocking


&

t
1P 2P 3P
I2HAR Cross-block = Yes (blocking of all phases)
Idiff
block L1-block
15 % setting value L2-block IDiff > trip blocking for a limited time
OR
≥1
L3-block
no block
t

 Recognise inrush condition by evaluating the ratio 2nd harmonic I2HAR to basic
wave IDiff.
 Time limit for cross-block. Reliable reaction to the inrush condition with cross-block.
Trip of a short circuit after the set time delay.
 Recognise over-excitation by evaluating the ratio 3rd or 5th harmonic to basic wave

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Example of an Inrush Current
A unit transformer (IN = 396 A) was switched on from the high voltage side

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Stabilising at Motor Starting
Typical for motor starting is the starting current and the superimposed dc component
with a large time constant. The current transformers (ct) transfer different this dc
component. The result is a differential current and the risk of an over-function is given.

Detection of motor starting:


Increases the pick-up values for a restricted time

Criterion:
Supervision of
restraint current

Istab > I-Restr. Startup


(until 2 I/InO)
than the
Start-Factor (max. 2)
is active for a restricted
time
T Start Max
(Duration of dynamical
increasing of pickup)
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Setting Recommendations
Power System Data 1
The setting of this parameters are important, because they are necessary for the
scaling and “direction definition” of the measurands. At the protection object
transformer the setting for star point Solid Earthed leads to a zero sequence
elimination. Isolated leads to a direct current comparison (without zero sequence
consideration). This setting is only allowed at a really free star point (no over voltage
arrester, no Peterson coil).
At the protection object generator always the direct current comparison method
is active (no zero sequence elimination).

Setting values:
Under normal conditions the factory settings correspond with the practical experiences.
It’s not necessary to change these parameters.
At transformers with tap changer the inclination of SLOPE 1 should be increased. The
setting for the inrush detection can be final select during the primary test. If we are on
the limits (low setting value) an activation of CROSSBL. 2. Harm. is recommended.
If are current transformer operates on their limit the pickup value Idiff > and die slope 1
should be increased.
The Idiff >> - stage must be set over the maximum inrush current.
At generators and motors SLOPE 1 can be reduced (to 0,15), if the current
transformers are identical. At generators the Idiff>>-stage must be set over the
transient fault current (3 to 7 IN,G).
Additional at generators it’s also recommended an activation of increasing the pickup
threshold during starting or at external faults (Start-Factor >Siemens.
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1). Innovation for generations.
Earth Current Differential Protection in the 7UM62
The earth current differential protection (restricted earth fault protection - REF) offers
a higher sensitivity at single phase faults (approx. 5 %) against the conventional
protection. It’s used at generators with low ohmic star point or at earthed Wye
connected transformer windings .

Connection 1 Connection 2
At connection 1 the zero
sequence current is calculated
from the phase currents and
direct measured on the star
point
(transformer application)

protection protection At connection 2 the zero


object object
sequence current is calculated
only from the phase currents.
(generator application, where
more than one generator feeds
into the busbar)

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Measuring Principle of Earth Current Differential Protection in
the 7UM62

protection object:
iL1S1 generator iL1S2 3I 01 = I L1S1 + I L2S1 + I L3S1
iL2S1 iL2S2 iee2
3I 02 = I L1S2 + I L2S2 + I L3S2
iL3S1 iL3S2
or 3I 02 = I EE2
3I01 3I02
1

I/InO
I 0 Diff = 3I 01 + 3I 02
Tripping range
I0Diff
Stabilizing range I 0 Stab = 3I 01 + 3I 02
Range not possible

I-EDS>
1
I/InO
I0Stab

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Earth Current Differential Protection in the 7UM62
Stabilizing against Overfunction
Main problem are „external faults“:
Transient conditions with large time constants; Short current circuits
with current transformer saturation
 Direction of zero sequence current:
90°
115° 65° I. internal fault
III. external fault
II. IV. direction not considered
II. measuring repetition
III. I. (<90°internal fault)

1 8 0°
IV. | ∆ ϕ | = 0°

2104 EDS |∆ϕ| I MIN>


 Limitation of phase current:
I > Imax (max. 2.5 IN), than blocking

 Release at zero sequence voltage:


A release of zero sequence current measurement is be caused by a measured zero
sequence voltage (can be switched off).
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Restricted Earth Fault Protection (REF) in the 7UT6
Trip
Trip = I0' - k S
i1 Stab < 0 Trip = I0' Trip - tripping quantity
i2
i3 Stab ≥ 0 Stab - I0 angle-dependent
stabilization
iF
fault current tripping area
restricted i '0 against earth
IEDF- pick-up valve
earth fault
protection stabilization
7UT6 area
i "0 = i1 + i2 + i3

i 0" + i0' = iF 0 Stab = I I '0 - I " 0| - | I ' 0 + I " 0|

 calculation of the basic wave and the complex vectors of I0' and I0"

 insensitive against DC components and CT saturation

 evaluation of the modulus and angle between I0' and I0"

 sensitive fault detection starting with 5% transformer nominal current

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Commissioning with Browser- Support

Currents on the high


and low voltage side

Tripping characteristic
with actual
operating points

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Benefits for the Customer

 Protection relay with flexible adaptation to the transformer/generator/motor


or short line. Programming of the device data in the relay.
 Reduced amount of wiring by direct connection to the main CTs.
No matching transformers and therefore no wiring errors.
 Zero sequence current can be measured (in the 7UT6).
Sensitivity for single-pole faults in the transformer increased by 33% .
 Flexible adaptation of the tripping characteristic to various main CTs,
tapped transformers.
 Exact discrimination between the short circuit condition and the inrush
condition by on-line analysis of the harmonics. Fast tripping for
high-current faults. Saturation detector for external faults.
 Thermal monitoring of two transformer windings.
 Back-up DMTL/IDMTL with reverse blocking for one winding.
 Sensitive short circuit protection for faults winding against earth.
 Manifold commissioning aids.

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