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# Differential Protection

Measuring Principle

## Basis is the first Kirchhoff’s law e.g. Transformer

1
I I1 I2 IL

∆I
ΣI=0 2
∆I = II1 + I2I
The currents to a node In the case of load:
are positive defined. I1 = IL
I2 = -IL }∆I = 0

## 1 Internal fault 2 External fault

(înfeed from two sides)
I1 = I1,F I1 = IF
I2 = I2,F I2 = -IF
∆I = II1,F + I2,FI ∆I = IIF - IFI = 0
⇒ trip ⇒ no trip
Peculiarity of the Transformer Differential Protection
1. Vector group (e. g. Yd5) 2. Different CT´s,
tap changer, magnetising current
I1
∆I

∆I trip region
current transformer
150° tap changer,
- (will be eliminated)
I2
magnetising current

ITr, IRestr.
⇒ vector group adaptation ⇒ restraint function (stabilising) is necessary
 ∆I = f (Irestr.)
3. Dynamic currents  Irestr. = |I1| + |I2|
 inrush current
⇒ blocking via harmonics
 overflux (overexcitation)
 CT saturation during
external faults ⇒ saturation detector
Differential Currents with Harmonics

i
energising Y y iDiff = i1
even,

## t=0 2nd harm.

i1

20 40 60 80 ms 100 t
i
energising iDiff = i1
D y even

2nd
t=0
i1 harm.

paralleling 20 40 60 80 ms 100 t
(energising transformer T1)
T2 even i iDiff = i2
i2 and
odd
T1
2nd
harm.

20 40 60 ms 80 t

Differential Currents with Harmonics

Over-excitation
UTr > UN i
iDiff = i1 - i2

odd
i1 i2
3rd and
5th
harm.
External short circuit with 20 40 60 ms 80 t
saturation of the CTs at the i
low-voltage side iDiff = i1 - i2

even
and
i1 i2 odd

20 40 60 ms 80 t
internal short circuit with i iDiff = i1
saturation of the CTs at the
high-voltage side even
and
odd

i1 i2 ~ 0

20 40 60 ms 80 t

Differential Protection for Generators and Motors
Basic principle can be nearly direct used.
1. Stabilising characteristic

∆I

Trip area ∆I

## Error currents ⇒ identically current transformers

via CT
⇒ sensitive setting is possible
IRestr.

## generators: external short circuit with large Insensitive settings at

dc time constants  matching transformers
in the secondary circuit
motors: start-up currents
 different primary CTs
transient transfer features of a CT  different burden
are important (dc component)
Devices with Differential Protection Functions
7UM62 and7UT6xx -Family

## 7UM621 and 7UM622

for protection objects with two ends
(machines)

ends

ends

## 7UT633 for protection objects with three

ends
7UT635 for protection objects up to five
ends

Applications

7UM 62
7UT613
7UT612
Trans-
7UT613 former

Two winding transformer Three winding transformer 1 1/2 circuit breaker application
2 or 3phases 2 or 3phases with two winding transformer

GS
3~

7UT6 7UT613
7UM 62
7UT612

## Generator/Motor longitudinal or Short lines Short lines

transversal differential protection 2 ends 3 ends

Connection Example

## Side1 Side 3 Side 2  direct connection to the main CTs

(Winding1) (Winding 3) (Winding 2)

 no matching transformers / no
matching connections

##  numerical vector group adaptation

without zero sequence current
correction depending of the type of
earthing of the winding.

## 7UT613; 633  increased sensitivity by 33% by

measuring of the zero sequence
current (7UT6) for single-pole
faults.

##  1A/5A main CTs adaptation in the

7UM 62 relay
7UT 612 )*
 permissible ratio CT nominal current
)* direct zero sequence current to transformer nominal current up to
also possible 1:8

Functional Diagram of the Differential Protection
tripping characteristic
and saturat. detection
IDiff
tripping by IDIFF>
IDiff>

IStab
i1P measured value i1A* tripping
preprocessing iDIFF = i1A* + i2A* + i3A* harmonics analysis logic TRIP-
winding 1 crossblock Blocking command
basic wave by
filtering IDiff harmonics & TRIP L1
i2P measured value i2A*
preprocessing blocking by
2nd harmonics TRIP L2
winding 2 iStab = | i*1A | +
| i*2A | + | i*3A | and 3rd or 4th. >1 TRIP L3
measured value or 5th harmonics
i3P i3A* rectified mean value
preprocessing IStab fast tripping with
winding 3 evaluation of
IDiff and iDiff
tripping by IDIFF>>

iDIFF>> Stage

## i1P, i2P, i3P sampling values from winding 1, 2, 3

i *1A, i *2A, i *3A values after vector group and CT matching
IDiff basic wave contents in the differential current
iDiff differential current
IStab rectified mean value of the stabilising current
iStab stabilising current

Measuring Pre-processing, Example for CT Matching (Part 1)

SN = 100MVA

## UN1 = 110kV UN2 = 30kV

1000/1A 2000/1A
IP1 = 500A IP2 = 1833A

## IS1 = 0,5A 7UM 62 IS2 = - 0,92A

7UT6 measured
secondary currents

IDiff = ?
IRestr. = ?

Measuring Pre-processing, Example for CT Matching
(Part 2)

SN
1. Calculation of the transformer nominal current INTrafo = 3 ⋅ UN
I NCT
2. Correction factor kW = I NTrafo

## 3. Correction nominal current I’ = kW IS

4. Calculation of the differential and stabilising current Idiff = |I1' + I2' | Istab = |I1' | + |I2' |

Calculation example:

Ip Is
YN d5
L1
L2 IpL1 IsL3
L3

IE IsL2

IpL3 IpL2
IsL1
Protection

## zero sequence elimination

 I *pL1  2 - 1 - 1  I pL1   I * sL1  - 1 0 1   I sL1  standard setting
  1     I *  = 1  1 - 1 0  • I 
 I *pL2  = 3 -1 2 - 1 •  I pL2   sL2  3    sL2 
I *  -1 - 1 2  I pL3   I * sL3   0 1 - 1  I sL3 
 pL3   

## additional earth current measurement (I0-correction)

increasing of the
 I *pL1  1 0 0   I pL1   I E  I * sL1  - 1 0 1   I sL1 
      1   I  1     sensitivity via the
 I *pL2  = 0 1 0 •  I pL2  + 3  IE  * sL2  = 3  1 - 1 0 •  I sL2  connection of IE-CT
I *  0 0 1  I pL3   IE  I * sL3   0 1 - 1  I sL3 
 pL3    (only at 7UT6 possible)

Example Calculation: Vector Group Correction
Situation: Single Phase Fault, No Load

## ISC Ynd1 ISC/ √3

F1 F2
L1
Source

L2
ISC/ √3
L3

ISC

F1 F2
IL1 = -ISC IL1 = 0 Il 1 = ISC / √3
IL2 = 0 IL2 = 0 Il 2 = - ISC / √3
IL3 = 0 IL3 = 0 Il 3 = 0
IE = ISC IE = ISC

Example Calculation: Vector Group Correction
I Zero Elimination
F1 F2

## I*L1 2 -1 -1 - ISC 0 I*l 1 1 -1 0 ISC / √3

I*L2 = 1/3 -1 2 -1 0 0 I*l 2 = 1/√3 0 1 -1 - ISC / √3
I*L3 -1 -1 2 0 0 I*l 3 -1 0 1 0

## I*L1 = -2/3 ISC 0

I*L2 = 1/3 ISC 0 I*l 1 = 1/3 ISC + 1/3 ISC = 2/3 ISC
I*l 2 = 0 - 1/3 ISC = -1/3 ISC
I*L3 = 1/3 ISC 0
I*l 3 = -1/3 ISC + 0 = -1/3 ISC

## IDIFF1 =  I*L1 + I*l 1 = 0 2/3 ISC

IDIFF2 =  I*L2 + I*l 2 = 0 1/3 ISC
We see in all three phases a
differential current; this must
IDIFF3 =  I*L3 + I*l 3 = 0 1/3 ISC be considered during a
single phase test
Use only the trip signal
from the tested phase!

Example Calculation: Vector Group Correction
I Zero Correction

F1 F2

## I*L1 1 0 0 - ISC 0 1/3 ISC I*l 1 1 -1 0 ISC / √3

1
I*L2 = 0 1 0 0 0 + 1/3 ISC I*l 2 = 0 1 -1 - ISC / √3
I*L3 0 0 1 0 0 1/3 ISC I*l 3 √3 -1 0 1 0

## I*L1 = -2/3ISC 1/3 ISC

I*L2 = 1/3 ISC 1/3 ISC I*l = 1/3 ISC + 1/3 ISC = 2/3 ISC
I*l 2 = 0 - 1/3 ISC = -1/3 ISC
I*L3 = 1/3 ISC 1/3 ISC
I*l 3 = -1/3 ISC + 0 = -1/3 ISC

## IDIFF1 =I*L1 + I*l 1 = 0 ISC

IDIFF2 =I*L2 + I*l 2 = 0 0
We see only in the faulty
IDIFF3 =I*L3 + I*l 3 = 0 0 phase the currents

Tripping Characteristic

 flexible adaptation to various transformers, e.g. with tap changer or different main CTs
 high stability against external faults with CT saturation
 fast tripping for solid short-circuits within one period
Relay Settings
Influence of the Tap Changer

## Problem: The tap changer modifies the transformer ratio

additional error in the differential current
±c
Example: tap changer c = 16% I diff = I res
2m c
c = 0,16 ⇒ I diff ≈ 0 ,087 I res

## If IN.Tr. is flowing the additional Idiff is approx. 17,5% of the transformer

current. With slope 1 = 0,25 there is the pick-up threshold at 50%. The
security margin is for steady state conditions high enough. Considering
transient conditions (CT-influence) a small increasing of slope 1 (to 0,3) is
recommended.
Recommendation for voltage setting:

U max ∗ U min
U N, New = 2 = U N (1 - c2 )
U max + U min
c: steps of tap changer (p.u.)
Pick up of Differential Protection

For triggering of internal tasks, events and fault records the differential protection
function needs a pickup information. This pickup becomes active, if the
differential current or the restraint current is over an internal threshold (dotted
line). Each external large current leads to a pickup.
Pickup doesn‘t always means internal failure!
IDiff / IRestr.- Areas for Short Circuit / Normal Operation
I diff
I NTr internal
short circuit/
Inrush

limiting curve

external short
1
circuit with
CT saturation

external short
external
circuit with
short circuit (low current) a high current
I Restr.
normal operation 2 4 I NTr
(nominal current)

Rush Stabilisation
Cross-block = No (phase separate blocking)
filter window
1 cycle L1-block Idiff, L1 > trip blocking
iRUSH = iDiff &
Inrush current
in one phase L2-block Idiff, L2 > trip blocking
&

## L3-block Idiff, L3 > trip blocking

&

t
1P 2P 3P
I2HAR Cross-block = Yes (blocking of all phases)
Idiff
block L1-block
15 % setting value L2-block IDiff > trip blocking for a limited time
OR
≥1
L3-block
no block
t

 Recognise inrush condition by evaluating the ratio 2nd harmonic I2HAR to basic
wave IDiff.
 Time limit for cross-block. Reliable reaction to the inrush condition with cross-block.
Trip of a short circuit after the set time delay.
 Recognise over-excitation by evaluating the ratio 3rd or 5th harmonic to basic wave

Example of an Inrush Current
A unit transformer (IN = 396 A) was switched on from the high voltage side

Stabilising at Motor Starting
Typical for motor starting is the starting current and the superimposed dc component
with a large time constant. The current transformers (ct) transfer different this dc
component. The result is a differential current and the risk of an over-function is given.

## Detection of motor starting:

Increases the pick-up values for a restricted time

Criterion:
Supervision of
restraint current

## Istab > I-Restr. Startup

(until 2 I/InO)
than the
Start-Factor (max. 2)
is active for a restricted
time
T Start Max
(Duration of dynamical
increasing of pickup)
Setting Recommendations
Power System Data 1
The setting of this parameters are important, because they are necessary for the
scaling and “direction definition” of the measurands. At the protection object
transformer the setting for star point Solid Earthed leads to a zero sequence
elimination. Isolated leads to a direct current comparison (without zero sequence
consideration). This setting is only allowed at a really free star point (no over voltage
arrester, no Peterson coil).
At the protection object generator always the direct current comparison method
is active (no zero sequence elimination).

Setting values:
Under normal conditions the factory settings correspond with the practical experiences.
It’s not necessary to change these parameters.
At transformers with tap changer the inclination of SLOPE 1 should be increased. The
setting for the inrush detection can be final select during the primary test. If we are on
the limits (low setting value) an activation of CROSSBL. 2. Harm. is recommended.
If are current transformer operates on their limit the pickup value Idiff > and die slope 1
should be increased.
The Idiff >> - stage must be set over the maximum inrush current.
At generators and motors SLOPE 1 can be reduced (to 0,15), if the current
transformers are identical. At generators the Idiff>>-stage must be set over the
transient fault current (3 to 7 IN,G).
Additional at generators it’s also recommended an activation of increasing the pickup
threshold during starting or at external faults (Start-Factor >Siemens.
1). Innovation for generations.
Earth Current Differential Protection in the 7UM62
The earth current differential protection (restricted earth fault protection - REF) offers
a higher sensitivity at single phase faults (approx. 5 %) against the conventional
protection. It’s used at generators with low ohmic star point or at earthed Wye
connected transformer windings .

Connection 1 Connection 2
At connection 1 the zero
sequence current is calculated
from the phase currents and
direct measured on the star
point
(transformer application)

## protection protection At connection 2 the zero

object object
sequence current is calculated
only from the phase currents.
(generator application, where
more than one generator feeds
into the busbar)

Measuring Principle of Earth Current Differential Protection in
the 7UM62

protection object:
iL1S1 generator iL1S2 3I 01 = I L1S1 + I L2S1 + I L3S1
iL2S1 iL2S2 iee2
3I 02 = I L1S2 + I L2S2 + I L3S2
iL3S1 iL3S2
or 3I 02 = I EE2
3I01 3I02
1

I/InO
I 0 Diff = 3I 01 + 3I 02
Tripping range
I0Diff
Stabilizing range I 0 Stab = 3I 01 + 3I 02
Range not possible

I-EDS>
1
I/InO
I0Stab

Earth Current Differential Protection in the 7UM62
Stabilizing against Overfunction
Main problem are „external faults“:
Transient conditions with large time constants; Short current circuits
with current transformer saturation
 Direction of zero sequence current:
90°
115° 65° I. internal fault
III. external fault
II. IV. direction not considered
II. measuring repetition
III. I. (<90°internal fault)

1 8 0°
IV. | ∆ ϕ | = 0°

## 2104 EDS |∆ϕ| I MIN>

 Limitation of phase current:
I > Imax (max. 2.5 IN), than blocking

##  Release at zero sequence voltage:

A release of zero sequence current measurement is be caused by a measured zero
sequence voltage (can be switched off).
Restricted Earth Fault Protection (REF) in the 7UT6
Trip
Trip = I0' - k S
i1 Stab < 0 Trip = I0' Trip - tripping quantity
i2
i3 Stab ≥ 0 Stab - I0 angle-dependent
stabilization
iF
fault current tripping area
restricted i '0 against earth
IEDF- pick-up valve
earth fault
protection stabilization
7UT6 area
i "0 = i1 + i2 + i3

## i 0" + i0' = iF 0 Stab = I I '0 - I " 0| - | I ' 0 + I " 0|

 calculation of the basic wave and the complex vectors of I0' and I0"

##  sensitive fault detection starting with 5% transformer nominal current

Commissioning with Browser- Support

## Currents on the high

and low voltage side

Tripping characteristic
with actual
operating points

Benefits for the Customer

##  Protection relay with flexible adaptation to the transformer/generator/motor

or short line. Programming of the device data in the relay.
 Reduced amount of wiring by direct connection to the main CTs.
No matching transformers and therefore no wiring errors.
 Zero sequence current can be measured (in the 7UT6).
Sensitivity for single-pole faults in the transformer increased by 33% .
 Flexible adaptation of the tripping characteristic to various main CTs,
tapped transformers.
 Exact discrimination between the short circuit condition and the inrush
condition by on-line analysis of the harmonics. Fast tripping for
high-current faults. Saturation detector for external faults.
 Thermal monitoring of two transformer windings.
 Back-up DMTL/IDMTL with reverse blocking for one winding.
 Sensitive short circuit protection for faults winding against earth.
 Manifold commissioning aids.