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# Experiment No.

## 4 Principles of Digital Techniques

Experiment No. 4
1.0 TITLE :
To verify NAND and NOR gates as universal logic gate.

## 2.0 PRIOR CONCEPTS:

1. Symbols and truth tables of AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR Gates.
2. IC 7400,7402.
3. Boolean expression of all the logic gates.

## 3.0 NEW CONCEPTS :

Proposition 1 :
NAND and NOR gate are universal logic gates.
Concept Structure 1 :

Proposition 2 :
NAND and NOR gates are universal gates because any boolean expression can be realized by
these gates.
Concept Structure 2:

## 4.0 LEARNING OBJECTIVES :

Intellectual Skills :
1. To understand the working of NAND and NOR gates.
2. To know the concept of realization of AND, OR, NOT gates by using NAND and NOR gate.
3. To understand how to connect NAND gate IC 7400 to realize above gates.
Motor Skills :
1. Ability to mount the ICs on Breadboard.
2. Ability to make the connections as per circuit diagram.
3. Ability to observe and record the readings.

5.0 EQUIPMENTS :
Power Supply, bread board, IC7400, IC 7402, connecting wires, LED, 270 Ω resistor.

## 20 o MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

Principles of Digital Techniques Experiment No. 4

## 6.0 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :

1. Pin configuration of IC 7402

i. NOT Gate :

ii. OR Gate :

## MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION o 21

Experiment No. 4 Principles of Digital Techniques

i. NOT Gate :

iii. OR Gate :

## 7.0 STEPWISE PROCEDURE:

1. Mount the IC on breadboard.
2. Connect +5v to pin 14 and ground to pin 7 of IC.
3. Make the connections as per circuit diagram.
4. Give the logic level inputs according to truth table shown for each gate.
5. Write down the output logic level.
6. Put logic 1 for ON state of LED and logic 0 for OFF state of LED in the observation table.

8.0 OBSERVATION :
Observation table for NAND and NOR gates as universal gates
1. NOT gate.

## 22 o MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

Principles of Digital Techniques Experiment No. 4

2. AND gate.

3. OR gate.

## 9.0 RESULT : (Student to write result on the basis of output)

10.0 CONCLUSION :
Any boolean expression can be realized using …………………………(Universal / Basic) gates.

11.0 QUESTIONS :
Write answers to Q…. Q…. Q…. Q…. Q….The questions to be allotted by teacher.
1. Draw EX-OR gate using NAND and NOR gate.
2. Why NOR gate and NAND gate called "Universal logic gate"?
3. Draw the symbol and truth table of following gates.
1. NOT 2. AND 3. OR 4. NAND 5. Ex-OR .
4. Give the IC number for CMOS NOR gate.
5. Draw circuit diagram of EX NOR gate using NOR gate.
6. Implement following expressions by NOR gate only.
1. (A + B) . (B + C)
2. (A + C) . (B)
7. Define NAND gate. Draw the symbol and truth table.
8. Give the IC number for CMOS NAND gate.
9. Draw circuit diagram of Ex-NOR gate using NAND gate.
10. Implement following expressions using NAND gate only.
1. AB + BC
2.