Other party wants, you probably will not be very succesful.

You will learn how to negotiate in chapter 4. Sensitivity to other is categorized as the Big five dimension of agreeableness. Are you sensitive to others? THE PERSONALITY PROFILE OF EFFECTIVE LEADERS Effective leaders have specific personality traits. McClelland’s trait theories of achievement Motivation Theory and Leader Motive Profile Theory had strong research support and a great deal of relevance to the practice of leadership. Achievement Motivation Theory indentifies three major traits, which McClelland calls needs. Leader Motive Profile Theory identifies the personality profile of effective leaders. You will learn about both of these theories in this section. ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION THEORY Achiement Motivation Theory attempts to explain and predict behavior and performance based on a person’s need for achievement, power, and affiliation. David McClelland originally developed Achievement Motivation Theory in the 1940s. He believes that we have needs and that our needs motivate us to satisty them. Our behavior is thus motivated by our needs. However, McClelland says this is an unconscious process. He further states that needsare based on personality and are developed as we interact with the environment. All people posses the need for achievement, power, and affiliation, but to varying degrees. One of the three needs tends to be dominant in each one of u and motivates our behavior. THE NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT (N ACH) The needs for achievement is the unconscious concern for excellence in accomplishments through individual efforts. People with strong n Ach tend to have an internal locus of control, self-confidence, and high energy traits. High n Ach is categorized as the Big Five dimension of conscientiousness. People with High n Achtend to be characterized as wanting to take personal responsibility for solving problems. They are goal oriented and set moderate, realistic, attainable goals. They seek challenge, excellent, and individuality; take calculate, moderate risk; desire ocuerets feedback on their performance, and woth nard. People with High n Ach think about ways to do a better job, how to accomplish something unusual or important, and carrer progression. They perform well in nonroutine, challenging, and competitive situation, while people low in Ach do not. mcClelland’s research showed that only about 10 percent of the U.S population has a “strong” dominant need for achievement. There is evidence of a correlation between high achievement need and high performance in the general population. People with high n Ach tend to enjoy entrepreneurial-type positions. THE NEED FOR POWER (N POW) The need for power is teh unconscious concern for influencing others and seeking position of authority. People with strong n Pow have the dominance trait and tend to be self-confident with high energy. High n Pow is categorized as the

being willing to confront others. LEADER MOTIVE PROFILE THEORY Leader motive profile theory attempts to explain and predict leadership succes based on a person’s need for achievement. THE NEED FOR AFFILIATION (N AFF) The need for affiliation is the unconscious concern for developing. People with high n Aff think about friends and relationships. wanting influence or control over others. They are more concerned about getting their own way (influencing others) than about what others think of them.Big Five dimension of surgency. Let’s first define the profile to effective leaders and then discuss why it results in success. they tend to avoid management because they like to be one of the group rather than its leader. They seek job as teachers. YOUR MOTIVE PROFILE Note that McClelland does not have a classification for the adjustment and openness-to-experience Big Five personality dimensions. you can understand why they tend to have friends and get along well with people. They tend to enjoy developing. supportive behavior toward the mentorec and will do a good job. So these two dimensions of personality ore ignored in determining the Achievement Motivation Theory personality profile. The Leader Motive Profile includes a . For example. in human resource management. Knowing a motive profile is useful. High n Aff is categorized as the Big Five dimension of agreenableness. enjoying competition in which they can win (they don’t like to lose). They tend to have a low n Pow. People with high n Aff tend to be characterized as seeking close relationships with other. and restoring close personal relationship. and either open or close to new experience. and in others helping professions. People with strong n Aff have the trait of sensitivity of others. You can predict that if they are assigned a job as a mentor. People with high n Pow tend to be ambitious and have a lower need for affiliation. McClelland found that effective leaders consistently have the same motive profile. they will enjoy the task and display helpful. and seeking to belong. and seeking positions of authority status. People with a high need for power tend to be characterized as wanting to control the situation. enjoying lots of social activities. maintaining. power and affiliation motive profile. A person can have a high or low need for achievement. and affiliation and be either well adjusted or not. if you know people have a high need for affiliation. because it can explain and predict behavior and performance. and that Leader Motive Profile (LMP) has been found to be a reliable predictor of leader effectiveness. People with high n Aff are more concerned about what others think of them than about getting their own way (influencing others). They are attuned to power and politics as essential for succesful leadership. so they join groups and organizations. they are not needs. Complete Self-Assessment 2 to determine your motive pfrofile now. wanting to be liked by others. power. helping and teaching others.

AFFILIATION Effective leaders have a lower need for affiliation than power. Leaders with high n Aff tend to have a lower need for power and are thus reluctant to play the bad-guy role. It can be used for personal gain at the expense of others (personalized power). They have . such as when disciplining and influencing followers to do thing they would rather not do-like change. self-confidence. the probability of the following problems occurring may be increased. and higher-level managers. peers. greater than need for affiliation and with a moderate need for achievement. SOCIALIZED POWER McClelland further indentified power as neither good or bad. POWER Power is essential to leaders because it is a means of influencing followers. Thus a person with a low need for affiliation can have a high sensitivity to others. because these negative traits are personalized power. If the achievement score is lower than that for affiliation. Without power. and when they are not interested in being a leader. and the reason is described next. so complete Self-Assessment 3 to determine your motive profile with socialized power. is the danger of personalized power. with ethic.that is. To be successful. there is the chance for personalized power and derailment. You will learn more about how to gain power and be successful in organizational politics in Chapter 4.high need for power. People with a high need for achievement tend to seek individual achievement. which is socialized. The achievement score is usually somewhere between the power and affiliation score. The reason for a moderate rather than high need for achievement. ACHIEVEMENT To be effective. and they are conscientious (Big Five dimension). Social power is discussed later. Effective leaders use socialized power. which would included a lower need for power. They have high energy. or it can be use to help oneself and others (socialized power). leaders generally need to have a moderate need for achiement. leaders need to want to be in charge and enjoy the leadership role. You will need power to influence your followers. so that relationship don’t get it the way of influencing followers. McClelland’s research supports the reason for executive derailment. which includes the traits of sensitivity to others and stability. and openness-to-experience traits. Socialized power is not included in the motive profile. and is the Big Five adjustment dimension. there is no leadership.

. and how the Pygmalion effect influence followers’ behavior and performance. Even if you have a negative attitude toward a class or job. . stated that the company’s success depends more upon employee attitudes than any other single factor. you will attend more often and work harder. Legendary football coach Lou Holtz says that attitude is the most important thing in this world and that we each choose the attitude we have. work. attitudes have an important influence on behavior an performance. and companies are recruiting workers with positive attitudes. It also includes organizational objectives (which achiever set and accomplish well) and change (which achievers are open to). Generally. Optimism is a good predictor of job performance. host of CNN’s Larry King Live. and successful leaders have positive. Jr. and everything else. things and issues. we will consider how the leader’s attitudes about followers. affect the leadership style of the leader. attitude toward a class or job can be positive or negative. optimistic attitudes ganerally have a well-adjusted personality profile. you may work hard to succeedeven with a negative attitude toward the class or job. Like personality traits. we’ll discuss how leadership attitudes relate to Theory X and Theory Y. but not necessarily. you may still attend and work hard due to other factors. People with positive. optimistic attitudes. We all have favorable or positive attitudes. pressident of Marriott Corporation. Lastly. In this section. The leader motive profile is included in the definition of leadership. says that the right attitude is the basic to success. Our definition of leadership includes the five key elements of leadership in the LMP. LEADERSHIP ATTITUDES Attitudes are positive or negative feelings about people. recall that effective leaders do have concern for followers-socialized power. However.been found to show favoritism behavior toward their friends. school. and about his or her self-concept. Then we will discuss self-concept and how it affects the leader’s behavior and performance. So follow Jack Welch’s advice and have a positive attitudes to advance. and unfavorable or negative attitudes about life. There has been considerable interest in how attitudes affect performance. you may try hard.. and you like the instuctor and/or student. leadership. If you have a high need for affiliation. Our definition of leadership includes influencing and leader-followers (power) and getting along with people (social power). Larry King. W Marriott. if you like a class or job. So being a positive or negative person is your choice. If you have a high need for achievement. For example. such as your personality traits and motives.

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