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ADEWUMI, Ayomikun Solomon Department of Architecture Federal University of Technology, Akure M.Tech 1 Course: Advanced Urban Design, ARC 809 Matriculation Number: ARC/05/5577
ABSTRACT: The form of a city and what it represents are two major areas that should be of high priority to a designer as he comes up with his design strategies. This must be considered thoroughly as his scope of work is for a relatively large, dense and permanent settlement of heterogeneous individuals. He should therefore come up with a city where adequate priority will be given to open spaces which is seen as an essential part of urban heritage that can accommodate human activities taking into consideration some artificial factors as yardstick for his design solutions. This paper thus considers how these essential priorities influence and dictates city design and image. Keywords: Artificial factors, Heritage, Human activities, Open spaces,
INTRODUCTION A city is considered as a place with relatively large population that has a certain legal
status, granted by the national or provincial government and that is associated with specific administrative or local government structures (Brockerhofff, 2000). The city is a product of the manifestation of physical and economic factors involved in its growth. This is more pronounced during the colonial era as development was caused by selection of a few of the existing towns as centers of administration from which the colonial lords could govern the territory under their control. Major towns (then) like Lagos, Enugu and Kaduna were linked by roads and railways to enable them constitute what can be called commercial centers, with those along the coast as major ports. Thus, one can say that human activities as from inception contributed greatly to formation and the metamorphosis of city from a town. It is therefore essential to consider this and the spaces to be used for these activities at the conceptual stage of city planning and design.
poultry. logging in recent times has been in recent times a major register in city design and image. e.t. Religious activities have contributed greatly to the image of some cities. commercial.g. This economic structure can be classified as either formal or informal sectors. Non agricultural occupations make up the secondary activities and they include tailoring. Fadamiro (2005) opined that people will shop at city centre than at neighbourhood. Manufacturing industries in recent times has brought fame to some towns e. welding. The formal sectors include the public service. Primary activities which include crop farming. location. religious. In analysing this. Kaduna. Availability of good Schools for both young and old has a great way of contributing to a city’s image. 2 . It does not end with distribution but also quality. This will in turn influence the images people make of their environment. Basorun (2005) said that in Nigeria for instance.c. state and Local government levels and in arms i.t. industrial. artistic.c. In fact Onokerhoraye (1985) in his definition of urbanity from functional perspective coined out the word ‘urban function’. which resulted in unlimited coverage of the economic sector.The 1946 town planning helped former British colonies around the early. For example. Industrial activities on the other hand are mostly concerned with manufacturing majors in the conversion of raw materials into finished or semi-finished products. thousands of pilgrimages do travel to Mecca at certain times of the year and same too is observed with the Christians who do travel to Jerusalem. large scale companies and business services. How these activities are distributed within the urban centres constitutes the city image and design. he opined that functional description is associated with social. People will perceive such environment as one that can solve their thirst for knowledge needs. master plans have been prepared for quite a number of towns and cities like Lagos. Owerri and Abuja consisting of general goals and specific objective of certain functional elements that concerns development and redevelopment proposals. being specified in texts and maps. affordability. The informal sector as explained by Onokerhoraye (1985) can be grouped into four major activities. These activities are blocks that make up the urban centre. 2. cement factory in Ewekoro which has made the place a trade centre. fishing. Kano. vulcanizing e. Judiciary. auto-repair. Legislative and Executive arms. animal husbandry.e. Basorun (2005) in his analysis opined that most urban centers have developed in ways. cultural.0 ROLE OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES IN CITY DESIGN AND IMAGE Human activities are a major contributor which dictates the form of a city. Administrative activities entails governance in all levels be it Federal. Calabar. educational and administrative activities.
restaurant operators. The people in this category travel from city to city and from one area to another to purchase goods for sale to retailers in urban centres. First are the hawkers who trade on light manufactured goods. the second group comprises of petty traders who make use of movable kiosks. The tertiary activities of the informal sectors are services that will enable the inhabitants to have adequate and comfortable surroundings.The third category which is the small scale distribution is of topmost concern to the topic as it is concerned with the geographical spread of some basic commercial activities within the urban centre. dry cleaners. The third group are typically wholesalers who engage in bulk sales. The small scale distribution is also an indispensable tool in city design as it allows global participation of people in the distribution of variety of goods within and around the city. 2005). quite conducive so as to enhance high productivity. Those who engage in this activity are classified into a number of categories based on their mode and location of operation. There is also the third group which comprises mainly of market sellers which activities is mostly restricted to market places that are available within the city.0: The Urban System showing the divers human activities Source: Basorun (2005) 3 . builders of housing units (Basorun. Figure 2. Notable among them are activities of transport operators.
g. Newman (1972) gave the most well known of definitions related to use some decades ago with the categories of public. Such activities include going to school or work. Gehl (1987) describes it from the user’s point of view as being an arena that allows for different types of activities encompassing necessary. This underlies the fact that it must be considered in city planning and design. 4 . a strong element in the architectural and aesthetic form of a city. planned. the definition given by Gehl gave a clearer picture of what open spaces is in a city. plays an important educational role. Open spaces and benefits Council of Europe (1986) opined that Open spaces is an essential part of the urban heritage. However. Semi-public spaces have limited opening time to the public or can only be generally accessed and used by a particular group within the society. They are spaces that must be provided for irrespective of the physical environment. communal gardens. On should however take cognizance that the feeling of inclusion and exclusion can be experience by people if such spaces are not well defined. built and used with only one activity in mind while open-minded space includes spaces such as squares. or plaza where variety of building provide a context of mixed use. He argued that it is not only for optional or social activities but also for necessary activities. semi-private and private open spaces. semi private open spaces include spaces where limited number of people use but where ordinary public would generally not be welcomed e. designed and managed cannot be fully estimated. By single minded. semi-public. Cranz (1982) viewed open spaces as wide open areas that can be fluid to the extent that the city can flow into the park and the park can flow into the city.3. is ecologically important for social interaction and fostering community development and is supportive of economic objectives and activities.0 CONSIDERATION FOR OPEN SPACES IN CITY DESIGN AND IMAGE Open spaces is another peculiar feature in city design and image. optional and social activities. Public open spaces can be identified as spaces such as parks and plazas. he meant those places designed. Gehl (1987) admitted that how much improved people’s daily of life might be if the spaces of these activities that take place are well conceived. Private open spaces include individual gardens. Walzer (1986) sees open spaces as either single-minded or open-minded. shopping and waiting for a bus.
Ross (1991) opined that it is quite impossible to conserve all buildings in their original state irrespective of cost and there frequently has to be to be a compromise between the value of old and the needs of the new. is important for social interaction and provides opportunities for community development through individuals having management responsibilities. especially in high density urban areas and encouraging inward investment in formerly rundown areas” (Department of Transport. Heritage takes the conservation of the idea further and embraces consideration of the use of what is conserved. 2001). perhaps even exploration of the things of the past.The Department of the Environment grouped the benefits of open spaces and greening urban areas into three main categories—economic regeneration. Local Government and the Regions. It shows battles won. but conservation embraces elements of change and even enhancement. cultural achievements and customs that have been passed on from earlier generations. creates community pride and has a recreational and leisure role. 1986). The idea of sustainable conservation or better still conservation for sustainability is now coming up in recent times. environmental and educational and social and cultural (Department of the Environment. The distinctions should however be made between conservation and preservation.0 THE ROLE OF HERITAGE CONSERVATION AND PRESERVATION IN CITY DESIGN AND IMAGE The conservation and preservation of historical monuments and artefacts can never be overemphasized in city planning. It also states that open space has an educational role. and interpretation. selection. 1996). is of ecological significance. territories acquired and images of past heroes. It extends to the process of evaluation. Conservation encourages the recycling of existing buildings 5 . Preservation implies maintaining the original in an unchanged state. 3. More recently the Department of Transport. It includes such things as work of art. transforming the environment. Local Government and the Regions has affirmed the benefits of open spaces in urban areas in the interim report of the Urban Green Spaces Taskforce: “by enhancing the quality of life for people living in towns and cities. Heritage shows the labour of our past heroes and it is in fact source strength for future endeavours and aspirations. The Council of Europe describes open space as ‘a public living room for the locality’ (Council of Europe. It indicates the way of life of the people and it might go to the extent of showing the traditional and generally accepted way of doing things.
cultural. Activities which can be social. industrial.e. the master plan concept which essentially provides frame work for the understanding and analysis of urban spatial pattern should be engaged or adopted at the conceptual stage. commercial. it is a building in which objects of artistic. ancient man-made objects so as to orient new generations what the journey was then. Heritage can be monumental buildings. one that will be functional and a city that will represent good vision.c. places of such include Idanre Hills. This is essential for nation building. planning authourities or better still administrators should strive to meet the millennium development goals (MDGs) in an attempt to have a city where people will feel secure and save.and materials. a war or maritime museum e. one that will show the architectural and aesthetic form as required of a city. Also. It will not only make them appreciate their past heroes and heroines but will enable individuals to interpret their roles in the society in becoming greater heroes.t. artistic. religious. 4. cultural. Attractive historical sites could serve as a tourist centre for tourists which can alone change the fortune of a weak economy in revenue generation.c. The museum thus serves to ‘preserve’ artefacts i. Ikogosi Warm springs in Ekiti state. attraction of foreign investors. historical sites (such as parks which are example of open spaces) e. This will be of great help in preserving the culture of the people if there exist such link of the present with the past. educational and administrative activities needs to be bore in mind for successful city design. artefacts. For a successful city planning to be achieved.t.c. the use of local resources and diversity in the environment. employment opportunities e. Ile-Ife museum in Osun state. historical or scientific interest. Igbo Olodumare all in Ondo state.t. Museums could come in different types such as a museum for natural history. 6 . Recently the use of Museums has been of great help in this preservation.0 CONCLUSION AND RECCOMENDATION The above paper has dealt on cogent issues that must be in mind at the conceptual stage in city planning and design discussing extensively on the need for open spaces to accommodate human activities being influenced by some artificial factors. Heritage preservation and conservation was also considered in this paper as it influences in part the image of a city. This alone presents a city with an image that is peculiar to it. Ebomi Lake.
O (2005): Basic elements of Urban and Regional planning. London: The Stationery Office. (1987): Life between Buildings: Using public spaces. Benin City. Shalom Publishers. London: Spon publishers Walzer. R (86) 11 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on Urban Open Space. Fadamiro.G and Omuta. M.E. Spon Press. Gehl. M. H (2003): Urban Open Spaces. Cranz. Strasbourg: Council of Europe. (1985): Urban Systems and Planning. London: MIT Press. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Woolley. Akure Brockerhoff.A (2005): Behavioural Architecture.P. Department of the Environment (1996) Greening the City: A Guide to Good Practice. Dissent 33. FUTA. 4:470–475. UN. Local Government and the Regions (2001) Green Spaces: Better Places (Interim report of the Green spaces Taskforce). (1991) Planning and the Heritage (first edition). Department of Transport. Council of Europe (1986) Recommendation No. J. (1986) ‘Public Space: Pleasures and Costs of Urbanity’. The Geography and Planning Series. (2000): “An Urbanizing World” Population Bulletin of Population References Bureau.a lecture manual.D. G. London: The Stationery Office. London 7 . M.REFERENCES Basorun. J. Ross. Onokerhoraye. A. (1982) The Politics of Park Design: A history of urban parks in America. University of Benin. Department of Architecture. J. G.