I pl enta on:How Do L a a L ega m em ti w nd l S ys s a M a ?

tem L w tter

Agenda Deci ng i l w m a stur on as s : di f a tter ns sesi ng i pl enta on i the “prnci la m em ti n i pa- gent” pr em . obl • W e ca l f efects l w us m a dif ent n ook or f of a i ng ny fer i sa dea bout how l w “s d” w or . T hes i s a houl k e dea tend to be lnked to dif ent s a si i fer ocil cences . • O urper pecti on i pl enta on ofpolc as s ve m em ti iy l o s pes a s s ent ofl w . ha our sesm a • W hen w e exa i l w a i pl enta on fom the m ne a nd m em ti r per pec i ofthe “prnci la s tve i pa- gent pr em ” of obl econom isw e ca s both pr c, n ee oducti w a of ve ys thi ng a nki bout l lis a chaa i tis the ega sues nd r cters c of l ls tem tha m a the m odelpr em a c ega ys t ke obl ti.

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i ncenti a cons ants publ a prv t a t r ves nd tr i on i nd i a e c o s c … thr oughout s ety.T he concepti ofl w pl ysnto as s ents l w a the on a a i sesm of a nd l l ys . s per uai l t m a y.W hy? W e pr bl w on’ fnd s ethi unl s e egas tem oba y t i om ng es w know to l f i a r ook or t nd ecogni i w hen w e s i. categories and taxonomies provided by courts allow us to sort experience so to tell us who we are. linear and direct impacts” in a large number of targets. om iesm odel. Only compliant behavior counts as “influence. S tr tegi a c Cons tuti ti ve T hos as s ents i tur pl y i dicplnay as s ents e sesm . a nto si i r sesm of l w a i efects a nd ts f . what we want and what we should expect. Action by courts has prompt. oci ” Courts police “official meanings. S tr tegi a c Cons tuti ti ve 2 . ti a a s on” s s on.by pr di thr t . ze t ee t R om a c nti Beha i a vor l L a i m a by cour to pr w s de ts otect the dienfa s ori vdua rghtsa l ti s r nchied ndi i l i nd i es ber ( “the counterm aortai ni pule”) .” J c a aton w or s ough the com m unia on of udii l c i k “thr c ti s bol . nd o Law is “ways of knowing.” Law does not dictate behavior but conveys “rationalities of action” that allow legal actors to understand and carry out social life. “unidirectional.j i ra m s Courts enforce “determinate rules or commands that offer clear standards for evaluating compliance by targeted groups.egii c s gm . R om a c nti Beha i a vor l Al aton by cour i “i entl cons l ci tss nher y equentil” a.n n.” The classifications. ym s ovi ng easpr s .” Acti by cour c ea “i por nt … endow m ents on ts r tes m ta .

e. police after Miranda. exuai f w e Congr s f Curis es ater tsW rght i Courts act by changing the culture. Influence: rights discussions. ora ti aterR oe. about abortion after Roe..Dif i as s ents the efia y ofl la ton ae ti to ferng sesm on fc c ega c i r ed thos dif i per pec i . t.g.g. Key finding: local governments evade the law. 4 bor on f hom os lty aterL a r nce.Exa pl :cvl sues ha ng t e onfit m es ii rghtsaterCaol i f r eneP r oduc sn. of speech after Schenk (clear and present danger).. of industrial strife after labor injunctions. S tr tegi a c Cons tuti ti ve W her does e the w or ofl w a k a nd the l ls tem ega ys ft i the polc i n iy pr oces? s 3 . e. e ferng s tves Beha i a vor l Court decisions follow the dominant coalition. school boards after Brown Cour w il c w hen the dom i nt coati s ts l at na l oni “dea ocked” by r i i the pr i dl asng om nence ofgr oups or is ors pi the naur ofc lc .

T hey oferno cea.I w i y s r concepti ofpubl polc n del haed ons i c iy. S ta m odel ae not“si fc ” ge sr centii.kng I pl enta on m em ti For ul ti m a on Evaua on l ti I pl enta on i c r yi out or m em ti s a r ng exec ng publ pol y. uti i i c c ( ne l s ofP S 321:T he s ge m odelofthe pol O eson ta i cy pr oces i w i y crtii ) ss del i czed. top. dery nd rever i e ta . a a pr c i . s Agendas ng -etti Decii m a i s on.n bis dow a. i pl enta on i a ornea the end ofapol y m em ti s t r i c pr oces. 4 . f l r c usl editons S ta m odel ha a“l ls c ” ge s ve egaiti. P ubl pol y does pr es i i c i c not ogr sn nea or l a ir sbl s ges t.

es c nd s ? R es r us the top.( gr tr i to alofpoltia si s A ea el ef l i c l cence! ) T he top dow n vi :T o w ha extent ae thos ew t r e a the perpher brngi a t i y i ng bout com m a nded r ul ? es ts Efecti i pl enta on depends f ve m em ti on: 1) Cl ra cons tent obj ves ea nd i s ecti 2) Adequa ca atheor te usl y 3) A pr oces l ly s uctur to segal tr ed enha com pla by ofi il nce ince fcas a tagets nd r 4)Com m i tted. pr ba er a oponent ofthe top.p m em ti Dow nd U T he top dow n vi :T o w ha extent ae thos ew t r e a the perpher brngi a t i y i ng bout com m a nded r ul ? es ts T he bottom .n a Bottom .n a oa dow ppr ch s m ai the tw o per pec i on s um rzes s tves tudyi ng i pl enta on:T op.vi :How do centr lcom m a up ew a nds r a to a obj vesr our esa taks el te ctor ecti . es c ul fcas r our ef ofi il 5)S uppor ofi es gr t nter t oups s ei & over gns 6)S oci econom i condi ons oc ti No YES ! 5 .n m odel phai the each i ng dow em szes i pora c o w el-t uctur pr m t n e f lsr ed oceses pol y s to i c s ucces.S a ti .

s es up tudi under ti a i r es m te ndiect efectss a sr t es nd i f . nm i n n ppr i te c • Bottom .vi :How do centr lcom m a up ew a nds r a to a obj vesr our esa taks el te ctor ecti . s uc ur oftop.Yet.r each i notorous nonup es r s i l y theor c la r etia nd equies i fc nt r s ia gni s ta ve know l ubs nti edge orr i nce upon ela per epti ofi or a . • Bottom . li s c sulm em ti i c T he top dow n vi :T o w ha extent ae thos ew t r e a the perpher brngi a t i y i ng bout com m a nded r ul ? es ts • T op dow n vi sgnor ew i e i ti ti fom the bottom ni a ves r • T op dow n r each i es es r gnor s lf a da ofc a kilul voi nce entr l i ncom petence • T op dow n r each i had to es r s r us i as s m ul -a e n sesi ng tif ceted ori em enta pr a s ncr l ogr m Bottom .r each does el a i up es r w l t dentiyi pr em s f ng obl . sr t gesa r our es the perpher – i puts t a e i nd es c on i y t gover ent pol y i a a opra context.n r each over the t t e r dow es r cam s uc esf i pl enta on ofpol y. es c nd s ? 6 . ves a pat ofapolc s r iy. uch s t uc ur a ncenti . c ons nf m nts T he bottom .

Contem por r r each on “sr ay es r t ucturng” i i pl enta on dr w s econom i theor a m em ti a on c y bout a gency. oc s (nf m a tona la s m m e ty I or i y r) • Prnc i l a nd a g e nt ha v i pa s s e d i f r ntpr f r nc e s fe e e e e .a g e nt i pa s e fe rs e pons st i e ntv sa r e o nc ie e pr d i t b l . f uie y • Prnc i l c a nob s r e out om e s i pa s e v c b utnotm oni ora n a g e nt wor t ’s k orpr e s .a nd a g e nc y e c a e c onta c t a r ul i a t s r s e tm um 7 .( S 101 r s P evii ted?) E onom i t d e v l d t c a noni a lprnc i la g e nt c s s e ope he c i pa m od e lwi h s v r lke ya s um ptons( ha td on’t t e e a s i t a l y wor we l f a na l ssof i i s wa s k l or y i poltc . • Ag e nt c a n a fe c ta prnc i l s f i pa ’s pa yof – b utnote xc l sv l . ( e f r nc e a s m m e ty Pr e e y r) • Prnc i l a r uni i d .

ns a ” I poltc s prnc ipa la g e ntr l tonsa r pe r a sv .ov ra pping n ii . e he i pa e a i hi E a m pl :Drvng d i f r ntyb e c a u e “Iha v x e ii fe e l s e I ur nc e . e s e s e e i a a d Ad v r e s l c ton r l t st a n a g e nt e s e e i e a e o ’s m a ki g u e oft b e te ri or a ton a v ia b l n s he t nf m i a l e t hi orhe rt t prnc i lsd i a d v nt g e . x e lng i e ns a o he i g A m or lha z r r l t st a l e r d rs t ki a a d e a e o t e i k a ng b e c a us oft prnc i la g e ntr l tons p.how d o t prnc i a l e ol e he i p s e v rg e te noug h i or a ton t e nf m i o supe r i e m e a ni g f ly vs n ul ? W ha tm or lha z r sd o s c r c yor a a d e e t r sofof i e pr s nt ( t li or e m fc e e ? s a lng “g a m b lng f r s re c ton”) i or e u r i The Pr sd e nt e i ( e nt Ag ) 8 . The Ee c t a t l or e ( i i l Prnc pa ) How d o hund r d sofm ilons e li ofpe opl c oor i t t i a c tvte s e d na e he r i i i s a st “s r i e .E onom i t e m pha sz t m a j rs inprnc ipa la g e nt c ss i e wo or i ks i c ont xt :a d v r e s l c ton a nd m or lha z r . o m o he i pa ’ s a a E a m pl :Se li lf i ur nc e t t d y n . d i c i i or o o upe vs ” s plne r wa r t i “a g e nt” e d he r ? E e n i t c oor i a ton pr l m v f he d n i ob e we r s v d . i e a i e v ie e l a nd c ha le ng ing t a s um ptonsoft c l s i a lm od e lu e d in l o s i he a sc s e c onom i s c .

i e a i e v ie e l a nd c ha le ng ing t a s um ptonsoft c l s i a lm od e lu e d in l o s i he a sc s e c onom i s c .ov ra pping n ii . e i nor s m t ne v rwor a lone .I poltc s prnc ipa la g e ntr l tonsa r pe r a sv . 9 . The Ee c t a t l or e ( i i l Prnc pa ) The Pr sd e nt e i ( e nt Ag ) But Pr sd e nt– org ove r sorm a yor – a l os . e i nor s m t ne v rwor a lone . i e a i e v ie e l a nd c ha le ng ing t a s um ptonsoft c l s i a lm od e lu e d in l o s i he a sc s e c onom i s c . I poltc s prnc ipa la g e ntr l tonsa r pe r a sv .ov ra pping n ii . r a r a l y oor i t b r nc he s e k The e e wa sc d na e a . r a r a l y oor i t b r nc he s e k The e e wa sc d na e a . The Ee c t a t l or e ( i i l Prnc pa ) Cong r s e s ( e nt Ag ) The Pr sd e nt e i ( e nt Ag ) Cour s t ( e nt Ag ) But Pr sd e nt– org ove r sorm a yor – a l os .

a l t e e “b r nc he sofg ove r e ntc ont nd f “poltc a l l hr a nm e or ii c ontol ove rt f d e r lb ur a uc r c y r ” he e a e a .a nd t r s a r h i s t i he e e c s ue ofob s r a tona le qui a l nc e e m e r e d .t t or tc a lpr l m s he he e i ob e ofd e m oc r c ya nd prnc i l a i pa a g e ntm od e l a r s rous.e nt Sub Ag ) Ye t t e a r onl t . e e s ofe xpe r i e a m ong poltc i ns ts ii a lt l e vd e nc e of“puni hm e nt” i te i s .I poltc s prnc ipa la g e ntr l tonsa r pe r a sv . i e a i e v ie e l a nd c ha le ng ing t a s um ptonsoft c l s i a lm od e lu e d in l o s i he a sc s e c onom i s c . N e w ve w:Cong r s m oni or i e s t s t b ur a uc r c yc l s l – he e a oe y F d e r lb ur a uc r c y e a e a I ta ly i t r s c e nt r d on ni i l . hos e y he s a le s pa r ofg ove r e nt m l t t nm . n e e t e e m oni orng . The Ee c t a t l or e ( i i l Prnc pa ) So. And . Cour s t ( nt Age ) Cong r s e s ( nt Age ) The Pr sd e nt e i ( nt Age ) F d e r lBur a uc r c y e a e a ( . s e e i . e v i v e g By polc e i pa t ol r ove r i ht sg Byfr ie alr a m ove r i ht sg 10 . b ur a uc r c i sa r t e a e e he l r e s pa r ofg ove r e nt a g t t nm . The poltc a lc ont ollt r t e ha si e ntfe d a num b e rof ii r i e a ur d ii m e a n b ywhi h t “poltc a lb r nc he s c ontol s c he ii a ” r b ur a uc r c i s e a e .ov ra pping n ii . “Poltc a lb r nc he s ii a ” O l ve w:F w r s c e s d i e e our s nton ov r i ht low l v l pe e sg .

t s m i htb e m or a i e d But he e g e m a tl g i i a c yt n a tc ontol) e tm ha r .a c t a lc ha ng e s nt s u i a ppr i tonsori s i a tons n opra i nve tg i m e a n Cong r s g e t wha ti wa nt s e s s t s -nott Cong r s i we a k) he e ss F d e r lb ur a uc r c y e a e a ? U s ofe x a nt “d e c k e e s a c king ” (ora s urng t f s i c om pla nc e wi h una r i u a t d i t tc l e wi he s s ) La t ri e r s c e nt r d on t e nt e t e e he m e c ha ni m sof“c ontol” s r . e a i powe r ” m a ke sd e t r ina ton ofof s e m i a n “i e a l( om pla nt a g e nc yposton” m or d i fc ul .The poltc a lc ont ollt r t e ha si e ntfe d a num b e rof ii r i e a ur d ii m e a n b ywhi h t “poltc a lb r nc he s c ontol s c he ii a ” r b ur a uc r c i s e a e . ( . d c i ) ii e fi t Cong e s “PolPrasdr ant he s i ie lBr nc tc i s ” F d e r lb ur a uc r c y e a e a Ar Be l tc r ” Shi e a n yond “Po i i a lContol r g ki 11 . “Poltc a lb r nc he s ii a ” a ppr i ton & i s i a tons opra i nve tg i ) ( a b s nc e oft e a t t The e hr s o a ppoi m e nt . I poltc s “s pa r ton of n ii . ? Thr a tofe xpos e t s nc tons( ppoi m e nt a i a nt .

r pe a t d pl yg a m e . i e e e a 12 . t s e . t e om i m hort . g .b uta l o a ut i yt i pos d e c i i he a s hort o m e sons r qui e d b ys a t e . e r t ut “Poltc a lb r nc he s ii a ” The Cour s t F d e r lb ur a uc r c y e a e a “Poltc a lb r nc he s ii a ” The Cour s t F d e r lb ur a uc r c y e a e a Al o.I e v l a tng l w a nd pub lc polc y t poston oft c our s n a u i a i i . he ii he t i unc l a r Cour sha v s e polc y a king a ut i y e . o m a ke t c om m on l w. .t e c onom i slt r t e pr s nt a “one -m e ” s he c i e a ur e e s t i ul i a t g a m e ( e d i tng t out om e wr l ) i s e a d of tm um pr c i he c ong y n t a ne g ota t d .

s e tm e s a g e nt c a n ov r hr om i .I poltc s prnc ipa l m a ywi h t m a ke “c r d i l n ii . s ol n he t he i oc s • H i r r hi a lprnc i la g e ntr l tons psa r a pe r a sv – b ut e a c c i pa e a i hi e v ie note xc l sv – m e a nsofc oor i a tng poltc a la c ton. • Fna ly g ove r e nt lprnc i l wa ntng t m a ke c r d i l i l. H ow c a n a m e r ha ntm a ke a c ont a c twi h c r t t King ?( ow c a n king s– org ove r e nt -e he H nm sb tu t d ? rse ) And . 13 . nm a i pa s i o e b e c om m i m e nt m a yc hoos t pl c e a g e nt b e yond t i c ontol t s e o a s he r r . Ke ypoi s nt • La w a nd l g a ls s e m sc a n m a te ri a v re t ofwa y . s e t ow t prnc ipa l he i .I uie d n i ii i n e c onom i m od e l .rs ofi pl m e nt ton c om e fom c s i ks m e a i r a s m m e t i sofpr f r nc e sa nd ofi or a ton. i s s o e b e c om m i m e nt – st tonst tr qui e a n a g e nt t s i ua i ha e r who c a n a c tc onta r t t ( hor t r ) s l r y o he s t e m e f int r s oft prnc ipa l e e t he i . . y re e e e nf m i • I poltc s a pplc a ton oft s m od e l i m or a te nua t d : n ii .t l g a ls s e m a m t ol n m e a i But he e yt a l o ha sr e si ot rpa r soft polc ypr e s . i i he e ss e t e I e ntfc a ton ofm e a ni f lprnc i l i a nor a tv l d ii i ng u i pa s s m ie y c ha le ng i que s i I s sa rs – a swe l – fom “j nt l ng ton. s ue ie l r oi pr uc ton” ( pr uc ton d i e c t d b ya sng l prnc i l of od i not od i r e i e i pa ) g ove r nc e ov rr pe a t d m a te r ( a sng l ta n a c tons na e e e t s not i e r s i ).a nd t y e yt t n a i y s he pl ya n i pora ntr e i i pl m e nt ton.

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