Verb

Structure
Regular Irregular Main/ Ordinary

Function
Auxiliary/ Helping

 Regular Verbs: Which form their past tense and past participle by adding
(ed, d).
Walk + ed = walked Move + d = moved A_ As follows below: (a) If the Verbs end in ‘e’, to form Past Forms (2nd and 3rd forms), just add‘d’. (b) To make the ‘ing’ form drop the ‘e’ and just add ‘ing’ for Present participle (continues tenses).

END OF VERBS
‘e’

SIMPLE FORM (1ST form)
Smile, hope, move

PAST FORMS (2ND&3RD forms)
Smiled, hoped, moved

PRESENT PARICIPLE (ING form)
Smiling, hoping, moving

B_ If the Verbs end in two Consonants letters:

(a) (b)

Simply add ‘ed’ to form Past Forms (2nd & 3rd Forms). Simply add ‘ing’ to form Present Participle (ING Forms).

END OF VERBS
Two Consonants

SIMPLE FORM (1ST.form)
Help, learn, form

PAST FORMS (2ND&3RD forms)
Helped, learned, formed

PRESENT PARICIPLE (ING form)
Helping, learning, forming

C_ If the Verbs end in two Vowels + one Consonant letter:

(a)
(b)

Simply add ‘ed’ to make Past Forms (2nd & 3rd forms). Simply add ‘ing’ to make Present Participle (ING Form).

END OF VERBS
Two Vowels + one Consonant + ed

SIMPLE FORM (1ST.form)
Rain, heat, sail

PAST FORMS (2ND&3RD forms)
Rained, heated, sailed

PRESENT PARICIPLE (ING form)
Raining, heating, sailing

D_ When the Verbs end in Vowel + Consonant(s), have generally two steps:

1) (a) (b)

If the Verbs have one Syllable end in one Vowel + one Consonant; Double the Consonant and simply add ‘ed’ to make the Past Forms (2nd & 3rd Forms). Double the Consonant and simply add ‘ing’ to make Present Participle (ING - Form).

END OF VERBS
One Vowel (One Syllable) + One Consonant + the **Pre- Consonant + ‘ed/ ing’

SIMPLE FORM (1ST.form)
Stop, plan, grin

PAST FORMS (2ND&3RD forms)
Stopped, Planned, grinned

PRESENT PARICIPLE (ING form)
Stopping, planning, Grinning*

2) (a) (b)

A_ If the first Syllable of the two - verbs are stressed, do not double the Consonant: Simply add ‘ed’ to make Past Forms (2nd & 3rd Forms). Simply add ‘ing’ to make Present Participle (ING Form).

END OF VERBS
One Vowel (Two – Syllables, stressed on 1st) + one consonant + ‘ed/ ing’

SIMPLE FORM (1ST.form)
Visit, offer, gather

PAST FORMS (2ND&3RD forms)
Visited, offered, gathered

PRESENT PARICIPLE (ING form)
Visiting, offering, gathering

3) (a) (b)

If the second syllable of a two – verbs are stressed, double the Consonant; Simply add ‘ed’ to make the Past Forms (2nd & 3rd Forms). Simply add ‘ing’ to make the Present Participle (ING Form).

END OF VERBS
One Vowel (Two – Syllable, stressed on 2nd) + one consonant + **preconsonant + ‘ed/ ing’

SIMPLE FORM (1ST.form)
Prefer, admit, rebut

PAST FORMS (2ND&3RD forms)
Preferred, admitted, rebutted

PRESENT PARICIPLE (ING form)
Preferring. Admitting, rebutting

E_ When the Verbs end in ‘y’, have two steps to conjugate them. 1_ If the Verbs end in a Vowel + ‘y’:

(a) (b)

Simply add ‘ed’ to make Past Forms (2nd & 3rd Forms). Simply add ‘ing’ to make Present Participle (ING Form).

END OF VERBS

SIMPLE FORM (1ST.form)

PAST FORMS (2ND&3RD forms)

PRESENT PARICIPLE (ING form)

Vowel + y + ‘ed/ ing’

Play, enjoy, relay

Played, enjoyed, relayed

Playing, enjoying, relaying

2_ If the Verbs end in a Consonant + ‘y’:

(a) (b)

Change the ‘y’ to ‘I’ and then simply add ‘ed’ to make Past Forms (2nd & 3rd Forms). But keep the ‘y’ and the simply add ‘ing’ to make Present Participle (ING Form).

END OF VERBS
Consonant + ‘y’= I + ‘ed’. Consonant + ‘y’ + ‘ing’

SIMPLE FORM (1ST.form)
Worry, study, reply

PAST FORMS (2ND&3RD forms)
Worried, studied, replied

PRESENT PARICIPLE (ING frm)
Worrying, studying, replying

F_ If the Verbs end in ‘ie’:

(a) (b)

Merely add‘d’ to make Past Forms (2nd & 3rd Forms). Change the ‘ie’ to ‘y’ and simply add ‘ing’ to make Present Participle (ING Form).

END OF VERBS
‘ie’ + ‘d’= Past Forms but, ‘ie’= y + ‘ing’= Pre.P.

SIMPLE FORM (1ST.form)
Die, tie, vie

PAST FORMS (2ND&3RD forms)
Died, tied, vied

PRESENT PARICIPLE (ING form)
Dying, tying, vying

*Exception: Do not double the following two letters; ‘w’ and ‘x’ such as: snow/ snowed/ snowing, Fix/ fixed/ fixing.

 Irregular Verbs: Irregular Verbs are those verbs which have no rules and
regulation for making their Past Forms (They rather change their properties or structures).
There are three distinguished types of Irregular Verbs, as arranged below: 1) Verbs in which all three forms are the same. Verbs in which two of the three forms are the same (One is different from those three). Verbs in which all three forms are different from one another. Type 1: All three forms are the same. bet bet bet burst burst burst cut cut cut hurt hurt hurt let let let put put put shut shut shut set set set read read read

2)
3)

Type 2: Two of the three forms are the same. beat beat beaten become became become bend bent bent bring brought brought dig dug dug keep kept kept hold held held feed fed fed find found found bleed bled bled Type 3: All three forms are different (different from one another). Be (am, is, are) was, were been begin began begun bite bit bitten break broke broken blow blew blown do did done fall fell fallen fly flew flown eat ate eaten choose chose chosen

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