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Early CAPTCHAs such as these, generated by the EZ-Gimpy program, were used on Yahoo!. However, technology was developed to read this type of CAPTCHA
A modern CAPTCHA, rather than attempting to create a distorted background and high levels of warping on the text, might focus on making segmentation difficult by adding an angled line
Another way to make segmentation difficult is to crowd symbols together, as in Yahoo's current CAPTCHA format. A CAPTCHA or Captcha (pronounced /ˈkæptʃə/) is a type of challenge-response test used in computing as an attempt to ensure that the response is not generated by a computer. The process usually involves one computer (a server) asking a user to complete a simple test which the computer is able to generate and grade. Because other computers are supposedly unable to solve the CAPTCHA, any user entering a correct solution is presumed to be human. Thus, it is sometimes described as a reverse Turing test, because it is administered by a machine and targeted to a human, in contrast to the standard Turing test that is typically administered by a human and targeted to a machine. A common type of CAPTCHA requires the user to type letters or digits from a distorted image that appears on the screen. The term "CAPTCHA" was coined in 2000 by Luis von Ahn, Manuel Blum, Nicholas J. Hopper, and John Langford (all of Carnegie Mellon University). It is a contrived acronym based on the word "capture" and standing for "Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart". Carnegie Mellon University attempted to trademark the term, but the trademark application was abandoned on 21 April 2008.
3 Human solvers 4 Circumvention • • • • • 5 Legal concerns 6 Image-recognition CAPTCHAs 7 See also 8 References 9 External links  Characteristics A CAPTCHA is a means of automatically generating challenges which intends to: • • Provide a problem easy enough for all humans to solve. In such cases. Hotmail. although they can. whether due to abuse or resource expenditure. CAPTCHAs also serve an important function in rate limiting. The article rating systems used by many news web sites are another example of an online facility vulnerable to manipulation by automated software. whether as a result of commercial promotion. It also creates incentive to further develop artificial intelligence of computers. Prevent standard automated software from filling out a form.1 Insecure implementation 4. administrators can use CAPTCHA to enforce automated usage policies based on given thresholds. A check box in a form that reads "check this box please" is the simplest (and perhaps least effective) form of a CAPTCHA. Automated usage of a service might be desirable until such usage is done to excess and to the detriment of human users.2 Computer character recognition 4. CAPTCHAs can be deployed to protect systems vulnerable to e-mail spam. CAPTCHAs do not have to rely on difficult problems in artificial intelligence. This has the benefit of distinguishing humans from computers. . and Yahoo! Mail. such as the webmail services of Gmail. CAPTCHAs are also used to minimize automated posting to blogs. forums and wikis.Contents [hide] • • • • 1 Characteristics 2 Applications 3 Accessibility ○ ○ ○ ○ 3. unless it is specially designed to circumvent specific CAPTCHA systems.  Applications CAPTCHAs are used in attempts to prevent automated software from performing actions which degrade the quality of service of a given system.1 Attempts at more accessible CAPTCHAs 4. or harassment and vandalism.
were cracked shortly after. With enough traffic.20 for each 1. In October 2007. and the letters are connected by this clutter. If the background clutter consists of shapes similar to letter shapes. A Newcastle University research team has defeated the segmentation part of Microsoft's CAPTCHA with a 90% success rate. a computer fills out a form and when it reaches a CAPTCHA. These methods have been used by spammers to set up thousands of accounts on free email services such as Gmail and Yahoo!. Ticketmaster sued software maker RMG Technologies for its product which circumvented the ticket seller's CAPTCHAs on the basis that it violated the anti-circumvention clause of the DMCA. In February 2008 it was reported that spammers had achieved a success rate of 30% to 35%. In 2007. Spammers pay about $0. 3. an injunction was issued stating that Ticketmaster would likely succeed in making its case. Steps 1 and 3 are easy tasks for computers. Computer character recognition A number of research projects have attempted (often with success) to beat visual CAPTCHAs by creating programs that contain the following functionality: 1. One approach involves relaying the puzzles to a group of human operators who can solve CAPTCHAs. phpBB. Classification: Identifying the character in each region. Pre-processing: Removal of background clutter and noise. including one of Yahoo's early CAPTCHAs called "EZ-Gimpy" and the CAPTCHA used by popular sites such as PayPal. 2.000 solved CAPTCHAs to companies employing human solvers in Bangladesh. Since Gmail and Yahoo! are unlikely to be blacklisted by anti-spam systems. a piece of malware appeared in the wild which enticed users to solve CAPTCHAs in order to see progressively further into a series of striptease images. in responding to CAPTCHAs for Microsoft's Live Mail service and a success rate of 20% against Google's Gmail CAPTCHA. Segmentation: Splitting the image into regions which each contain a single character. Hence. India.80 to $1. the other two major free email providers. A more recent view is that this is unlikely to work due to unavailability of high-traffic sites and competition by similar sites. In this scheme.  Human solvers CAPTCHA is vulnerable to a relay attack that uses humans to solve the puzzles. Several research projects have broken real world CAPTCHAs. Windows Live Hotmail and Gmail. an effective CAPTCHA should focus on the segmentation. In October 2007. Another approach involves copying the CAPTCHA images and using them as CAPTCHAs for a high-traffic site owned by the attacker. In January 2008 Network Security Research released their program for automated Yahoo! CAPTCHA recognition. The only step where humans still outperform computers is segmentation. LiveJournal. using a bot. China. and claim that this could lead to a complete crack with a greater than 60% rate. and other services. spam sent through these compromised accounts is less likely to be blocked. the attacker can get a solution to the CAPTCHA puzzle in time to relay it back to the target site. In . the segmentation becomes nearly impossible with current software.  Legal concerns The circumvention of CAPTCHAs may violate the anti-circumvention clause of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) in the United States. and many other developing nations. it gives the CAPTCHA to the human operator to solve.
 Image-recognition CAPTCHAs Some researchers promote image recognition CAPTCHAs as a possible alternative for text-based CAPTCHAs. The IMAGINATION CAPTCHA. However. Computer-based recognition algorithms require the extraction of color. an image based challenge does not usually meet the definition of a CAPTCHA. uses a sequence of randomized distortions on the original images to create the CAPTCHA images. however. the boat and the clock”)." which it is providing as a free web service.June 2008.g. Their original images can be made public without risking image-retrieval or image-annotation based attacks. It is difficult for a small site to acquire a large dictionary of images which an attacker does not have access to and without a means of automatically acquiring new labelled images. which cannot be correctly extracted after the designed distortions.. If the database of cat and dog photos can be downloaded.000. or special point features. A recent example of image recognition CAPTCHA is to present the website visitor with a grid of random pictures and instruct the visitor to click on specific pictures to verify that they are not a bot (such as “Click on the pictures of the airplane. then paying workers $0. An example of an image recognition CAPTCHA from Confident Technologies Image recognition CAPTCHAs face many potential problems which have not been fully studied. which has provided it with more than three million images of cats and dogs. image hashes. texture. Ticketmaster filed for default judgment against RMG. shape. Causing minor changes to images each time they appear will not prevent a computer from recognizing a repeated image as there are robust image comparator functions (e. Photos that are subsequently added to the Asirra database are then a relatively small data set that can be classified as they first appear. by default.com. KittenAuth. attempts to address this by means of Microsoft Research's partnership with Petfinder. The Court granted Ticketmaster the default and entered an $18. Researchers claim to have written a program that can break the Microsoft Asirra CAPTCHA. human can still recognize the original concept depicted in the images even with these distortions.01 to classify each photo as either a dog or a cat means that almost the entire database of photos can be deciphered for $30. only had 42 images in its database. Human solvers are a potential weakness for strategies such as Asirra. classified by people at thousands of US animal shelters.2M judgment in favor of Ticketmaster. Microsoft's "Asirra. color histograms) that are insensitive to many simple image .
while others were attached to dogs. 6. no text). If there was a large variance in answers for the candidate image.1812084. Researchers at Google used image orientation and collaborative filtering as a CAPTCHA. (It stands for "completely automated public Turing test to tell computers and humans apart".com/time/magazine/article/0.co. The images (and the challenge questions) can be customized.distortions. http://www.  See also • • • Image spam. 2. it was deemed too hard for people as well and discarded. no faces. Currently.) The point of the CAPTCHA is that reading those swirly letters is something that computers aren't very good at. http://www. Images were also collaboratively filtered by showing a "candidate" image along with good images for the person to rotate.ca/~mori/research/gimpy/." 3. Howard Yeend (pureMango. no.R (2003). Mori.html.php. "Breaking a Visual CAPTCHA". ^ a b Greg. the acronym doesn't really fit. http://www.uk).sfu. Jitendra. This was later removed because (legitimate) users had trouble entering the correct letters.puremango. 2005. 5. Lev (2008-06-05). Retrieved 2008-06-12. .gov/servlet/tarr?regser=serial&entry=78500434. reported in August 2010. Simon Fraser University. ^ "Latest Status of CAPTCHA Trademark Application". CAPTCHA creators recommend use of reCAPTCHA as the official implementation. RapidShare free users had to get past a CAPTCHA where they had to only enter letters attached to a cat. Retrieved 2008-12-21. ^ Wagner N. Retrieved 2006-08-22.. "Computer Literacy Tests: Are You Human?".uk/cm_breaking_captcha_115. Verifying the Presence of Humans: Three New CAPTCHAs. "The Carnegie Mellon team came back with the CAPTCHA. http://paper.9171.co.org/07_book/200703/20070348. Many users[who?] of the phpBB forum software (which has suffered greatly from spam) have implemented an open source image recognition CAPTCHA system in the form of an addon called KittenAuth which in its default form presents a question requiring the user to select a stated type of animal from an array of thumbnail images of assorted animals. this CAPTCHA has been cracked with 30% success rate.pdf. people know what "up" is but computers have a difficult time for a broad range of images. Furthermore.g. 2008-04-21. for example to present questions and images which would be easily answered by the forum's target userbase.  In September 2009. Generally speaking. ^ Amrinder Arora (2007).time. 4.uspto. Retrieved 2008-12-21. Warping an image sufficiently to fool a computer will likely also be troublesome to a human. for a time. International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security 7: 342–347. Time (magazine). However.00. where spammers exploit the inability of computers to read text in images to avoid junkmail filtering One-way function Web scraping  References 1. USPTO.ijcsns. Malik. "Statistics Hacking — Exploiting Vulnerabilities in News Websites" (PDF). Images were pre-screened to be determined to be difficult to detect up (e. no skies. ^ "Breaking CAPTCHAs Without Using OCR". Google acquired reCAPTCHA to aid their book digitization efforts.cs. http://tarr. ^ Grossman.
pl?sid=08/04/15/1941236&from=rss. School of Computing Science. Retrieved 2008-12-21.pl?sid=08/02/27/0045242.com/. http://web. Retrieved 2008-12-21. http://tech. 12.uk/jeff. Mary Czerwinski (2005) (PDF).cc/papers-2005/160. http://www. Lisa (2007-11-01).boingboing. 9.com/article/ALeqM5jnNrQKxFzt7 mPu3DZcP7_UWr8UfwD8SKE6Q80. Computerworld"'.p hp?BlogID=174.pdf.kloover. Websense.pcmag.^ Dawson (2008-02-26). http://www. Ahmad Salah El Ahmad (April 13.html? src=me&ref=technology. Computers beat Humans at Single Character Recognition in Reading based Human Interaction Proofs (HIPs).^ Hocevar. Vikas (April 25. Retrieved 2006-08-02. Jordan (2007-11-01).ru.zoy. Kurt (May 12. San Jose.archive. http://www. Kloover.^ Bajaj. http://network-security-research.2210674.^ Jeff Yan. "Spammers' bot cracks Microsoft's CAPTCHA: Bot beats Windows Live Mail's registration test 30% to 35% of the time. Kruglov. "Breaking ASP Security Image Generator". ^ Kluever.org/web/20080822032312/http://www. Retrieved 2007-01-04.com.captcha. Slashdot (SourceForge).^ Vaas.org/web/20060613111749/http://www.com/cracker/list.org/article.google. Retrieved 2008-12-21. Archived from the original on 2007-11-06. 2008) (PDF).archive. Kurt (February 28.^ Prasad. 18.^ Doctorow.html.slashdot.2704.pdf. Archived from the original on 2006-06-13. 22.com/securitylabs/blog/blog. 2008 17. Microsoft Research. Sam. 15.captcha decoder". Retrieved 2008-12-21. 14. Retrieved 2008-12-21. 11.com/2010/04/26/technology/26captcha. Kevin Larson. "Breaking the PayPal CAPTCHA".kloover.^ Dawson (2008-04-15). Kloover. "Google’s CAPTCHA busted in recent spammer tactics".php.zoy.ncl. ^ Kumar Chellapilla.7. http://web. Boing Boing. 10. 13. "PWNtcha . "Striptease Used to Recruit Help in Cracking Sites". Archived from the original on 2008-08-22. 2008). "Gmail CAPTCHA Cracked". 8.slashdot.archive.net/2004/01/27/solving_and_creating.asp.org/web/20071106170737/http://ap. 16. Retrieved 2008-04-16. UK.com. says Websense". Sam.00. Retrieved 2010-04-28 20. Sumeet (2008-02-22). Cory (2004-01-27). PC Magazine. http://milw0rm. ^ "Online services allow MD5 hashes to be cracked". February 7. California. "Spammers Pay Others to Answer Security Tests". Slashdot (SourceForge).cs. "Windows Live Hotmail CAPTCHA Cracked. Captcha. 21. 2008).org/article.websense.org. http://it.^ Kluever. 2010). http://www.net . Retrieved 2008-04-16. http://www. http://www. The New York Times. http://web. "Scams Use Striptease to Break Web Traps". "Defeating of some weak CAPTCHAs". Retrieved 2006-0822. 23.com/2008/02/28/breaking-the-asp-security-image-generator/.blogspot.^ Sergei. Retrieved 2008-12-21. Newcastle University.^ Captcha.ac. Retrieved 2008-12-21. Retrieved 2008-12-21. "Solving and creating CAPTCHAs with free porn".^ "Network Security Research and AI". Exploited".com/article2/0. Patrice Simard.ceas.nytimes.^ Gregg Keizer.org/pwntcha/. A Low-cost Attack on a Microsoft CAPTCHA.ru/en/breakings/.com/2008/05/12/breaking-the-paypalcom-captcha/.yan/msn_draft. 19. http://sam. http://homepages.^ Robertson.
Captcha.^ Asirra: A CAPTCHA that Exploits Interest-Aligned Manual Image Categorization from Microsoft Research (PDF) 31. 2008). http://www.^ Ulanoff. 34.2209782. 33.^ a b The Cutest Human-Test: KittenAuth from ThePCSpy.^ What’s Up CAPTCHA? A CAPTCHA Based On Image Orientation from WWW'09 by Rich Gossweiler. "Deep-Sixing CAPTCHA".stanford. PC Magazine. Retrieved 2008-04-10.co.captcha. Retrieved 2009-09-16. 35.com 28.html. "Attached to a Captcha". Maryam Kamvar.blogspot.wikipedia.com/doc/404395/ticketmaster-v-rmg. 27.net. 25. 2008-04-10.pcmag.^ "CAPTCHA homepage". 2007). 26.^ "Teaching computers to read: Google acquires reCAPTCHA". http://www. http://googleblog.randomwire.org/wiki/CAPTCHA" Categories: Turing tests | Access control software | Internet forum terminology Hidden categories: Articles needing additional references from January 2011 | All articles needing additional references | All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from July 2010 | All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases | Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from August 2010 Personal tools • • • Views Log in / create account Article Discussion Namespaces Variants • • Read Edit .^ "Spam filtering services throttle Gmail to fight spammers". Philippe. http://www. Retrieved 2009-12-04.00.com.scribd.2704. Stanford Crypto. randomwire.asp. http://crypto.^ David (June 4.html. and Shumeet Baluja 32.com/article2/0.com  External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Captcha • Definition of CAPTCHA from Wiktionary Retrieved from "http://en. Retrieved 2007-12-12.net/.theregister. Lance (October 31. Retrieved 2008-12-21.^ Darkreading. Ziff Davis Media. Retrieved 2008-12-21. Machine Learning Attacks Against the Asirra CAPTCHA. 2009. http://www.24.edu/~pgolle/papers/dogcat.^ Asirra from Microsoft Research (PDF) 29.uk/2008/04/10/web_mail_throttled/. 30.com/2008/06/04/attached-to-a-captcha/.com/2009/09/teaching-computers-to-read-google. http://www.^ "TicketMaster v. RMG".^ Golle.
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Microsoft. The solution to this problem was to use CAPTCHAs to ensure that only humans obtain free accounts. "buy penny stocks here"). Easy to install plugins and controls are available for WordPress. and no legitimate comments are ever lost! • Protecting Website Registration. Most bloggers are familiar with programs that submit bogus comments. Get a Free CAPTCHA For Your Site A free. You play the games. There is no need to make users sign up before they enter a comment. usually for the purpose of raising search engine ranks of some website (e. Our newest CAPTCHA! ESP-PIX. computers get smarter! Applications of CAPTCHAs CAPTCHAs have several applications for practical security. most of these services suffered from a specific type of attack: "bots" that would sign up for thousands of email accounts every minute. etc. This is called comment spam. Java. Up until a few years ago. Python. ASP. PHP. By using a CAPTCHA. secure and accessible CAPTCHA implementation is available from the reCAPTCHA project. Perl. GWAP. Stop spam and help digitize books at the same time! The words shown come directly from old books that are being digitized. free services should be protected with a CAPTCHA in order to prevent .g. SQUIGL-PIX. New: Play Games that Computers Cannot Play! Our new site. including (but not limited to): • Preventing Comment Spam in Blogs. MediaWiki. reCAPTCHA is our officially recommended CAPTCHA implementation. reCAPTCHA also comes with an audio test to ensure that blind users can freely navigate your site. This was the first example of a CAPTCHA based on image recognition. In general. you authenticate yourself as a human by recognizing what object is common in a set of images. Several companies (Yahoo!.com contains many addictive games that help computers learn to think more like humans. and many other environments. Test Drive a CAPTCHA • • • reCAPTCHA..Carnegie Mellon University.NET.) offer free email services. only humans can enter comments on a blog. Instead of typing letters. A CAPTCHA script that's close to our hearts.
032 and every other school with less than 1.abuse by automated scripts. http://www. The idea is simple: prevent a computer from being able to iterate through the entire space of passwords by requiring it to solve a CAPTCHA after a certain number of unsuccessful logins." A few companies are already marketing this idea. Such CAPTCHAs may make a site incompatible with Section 508 in the United States. respect web pages that don't want to allow them in. There is an html tag to prevent search engine bots from reading web pages. some better than others. Spammers crawl the Web in search of email addresses posted in clear text. for example. • Protecting Email Addresses From Scrapers.000. CAPTCHAs can also be used to prevent dictionary attacks in password systems. Guidelines If your website needs protection from abuse. by permitting users to opt for an audio or sound CAPTCHA.slashdot. The next day. CAPTCHAs also offer a plausible solution against email worms and spam: "I will only accept an email if I know there is a human behind the other computer. • Online Polls. • Image Security. However. There are many CAPTCHA implementations. It is sometimes desirable to keep webpages unindexed to prevent others from finding them easily. IP addresses of voters were recorded in order to prevent single users from voting more than once. Carnegie Mellon with 21. Many implementations of CAPTCHAs use undistorted text. students at Carnegie Mellon found a way to stuff the ballots using programs that voted for CMU thousands of times. Any implementation of a CAPTCHA should allow blind users to get around the barrier. As is the case with most online polls. CAPTCHAs must be accessible. CAPTCHA images of text should be distorted randomly before being presented to the user. doesn't guarantee that bots won't read a web page. CAPTCHAs provide an effective mechanism to hide your email address from Web scrapers. In November 1999. • Preventing Dictionary Attacks. in order to truly guarantee that bots won't enter a web site. students at MIT wrote their own program and the poll became a contest between voting "bots. • Worms and Spam. CAPTCHAs based solely on reading text — or other visual-perception tasks — prevent visually impaired users from accessing the protected resource. it only serves to say "no bots." MIT finished with 21.156 votes. • Search Engine Bots. since they usually belong to large companies. The idea is to require users to solve a CAPTCHA before showing your email address. CAPTCHAs are needed. it is recommended that you use a CAPTCHA.org released an online poll asking which was the best graduate school in computer science (a dangerous question to ask over the web!). however. Can the result of any online poll be trusted? Not unless the poll ensures that only humans can vote. since doing so allows an attacker to lock accounts at will. However. This is better than the classic approach of locking an account after a sequence of unsuccessful logins. The tag." Search engine bots. please. The following guidelines are strongly recommended for any CAPTCHA code: • Accessibility. A free and secure implementation that uses CAPTCHAs to obfuscate an email address can be found at reCAPTCHA MailHide. or text with . CMU's score started growing rapidly.
CAPTCHAs are thus a win-win situation: either a CAPTCHA is not broken and there is a way to differentiate humans from computers. the system should ensure that there are no easy ways around it at the script level. and induce security researchers. While it might be the case that some spammers use porn sites to attack CAPTCHAs. This is not a security concern for CAPTCHAs.only minor distortions. Therefore. True CAPTCHAs should be secure even after a significant number of websites adopt them. Since a parser could easily be written that would allow bots to bypass this test. Most CAPTCHA scripts found freely on the Web are vulnerable to these types of attacks. The economics of this attack just don't add up: every time a porn site shows a CAPTCHA before a porn image. such "CAPTCHAs" rely on the fact that few sites use them. as well as otherwise malicious programmers. We recommend that you use a well-tested implementation such as reCAPTCHA. they risk losing a customer to another site that doesn't do this. Whereas it is trivial to write a bot that abuses an unprotected site millions of times a day. redirecting CAPTCHAs to be solved by humans viewing pornography would only allow spammers to abuse systems a few thousand times per day. or the CAPTCHA is broken and an AI problem is solved.Net) is a bad idea. the amount of damage this can inflict is tiny (so tiny that we haven't even noticed a dent!). CAPTCHAs also offer well-defined challenges for the AI community. • Security Even After Wide-Spread Adoption. Common examples of insecurities in this respect include: (1) Systems that pass the answer to the CAPTCHA in plain text as part of the web form. as there are many failure modes. such as a mathematical question ("what is 1+1"). These implementations are vulnerable to simple automated attacks. for instance. Academic Publications and .. making your own CAPTCHA script (e. • Should I Make My Own CAPTCHA? In general. Building a secure CAPTCHA code is not easy. In addition to making the images unreadable by computers. and the porn site users are asked to solve the CAPTCHA before being able to see a pornographic image. using PHP. to work on advancing the field of AI. An example of such a puzzle is asking text-based questions. There are various "CAPTCHAs" that would be insecure if a significant number of sites started using them. is well beyond the capabilities of modern computers. Advancing Artificial Intelligence CAPTCHA tests are based on open problems in artificial intelligence (AI): decoding images of distorted text. and thus that a bot author has no incentive to program their bot to solve that challenge. The "Pornography Attack" is Not a Concern It is sometimes rumored that spammers are using pornographic sites to solve CAPTCHAs: the CAPTCHA images are sent to a porn site. • Script Security. (2) Systems where a solution to the same CAPTCHA can be used multiple times (this makes the CAPTCHA vulnerable to so-called "replay attacks"). Perl or .g.
Presentations • • • • • • • Luis von Ahn. Using Machine Learning to Break Human Interaction Proofs (HIPs). In Science. Luis von Ahn. Luis von Ahn. Simard. all rights reserved. reCAPTCHA . In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS).) Greg Mori and Jitendra Malik. In Eurocrypt. . Read Books. Breaking Audio CAPTCHAs.) Google Tech Talk about CAPTCHAs and Human Computation. and John Langford. CAPTCHA: Using Hard AI Problems for Security. For Certain Tasks. Jennifer Tam. Ben Maurer. In CVPR. Wired Magazine. Telling Humans and Computers Apart Automatically. Selected Popular Press Pieces • • • Human or Computer? Take This Test. Kumar Chellapilla and Patrice Y. (Explains how to break a simple CAPTCHA. Sean Hyde. and Luis von Ahn. reCAPTCHA: Human-Based Character Recognition via Web Security Measures. In Communications of the ACM. Jiri Simsa. David Abraham and Manuel Blum. Manuel Blum and John Langford. Colin McMillen. O'Reilly Radar.Stop Spam. (Explains how to break the simple CAPTCHAs for which character segmentation is easy. Recognizing Objects in Adversarial Clutter: Breaking a Visual CAPTCHA. © 2000-2010 Carnegie Mellon University. The New York Times. In NIPS. the Cortex Still Beats the CPU. Nicholas Hopper. Manuel Blum.
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