Targeting Women’s Clothing Fashion

Opinion Leaders in Media Planning:
An Application for Magazines
ÉRIC VERNETTE

Preparing a media plan aimed at opinion leaders requires accurately identifying and

University of

describing the attributes of this target as well as measuring its affinities with different

Toulouse 1, France
vernette@univ-tlse1.fr

media. Our research findings on women’s fashion, particularly magazines, reveal that
a media plan targeted at opinion leaders can succeed, that these opinion leaders
tend to be positive toward and discuss advertising media, and that they read more
women’s fashion magazines and have significantly more affinities with such media
than nonopinion leaders.

leadership was first in-

terknit relationships; at the same time, leaders

vestigated by sociologists in the United States in

could be viewed as “opinion brokers” who carry

the 1950s. Their studies showed how those opin-

information across the social boundaries between

ion leaders who are more exposed to media pro-

groups (Burt, 1999). The influence wielded by an

cess the information they receive and forward it

opinion leaders will depend on its degree of “cen-

to their immediate circle of friends or relatives

trality” in the group and on the strength of the

(Katz and Lazarsfeld, 1955). In marketing, the

links that join members of the network (Reingen

opinion leader is someone who informally influ-

and Kernan, 1986). In a postmodern context, con-

ences the attitudes of other individuals in an in-

sumption is part of a world of symbols and im-

tended direction (Reynolds and Wells, 1977). A

ages (Firat and Venkatesh, 1995). Consumption

great number of marketing researches conducted

enacts a social code that reflects affiliation to a

in the 1970s and 1980s highlight the potential of

given social network. The judgments of a group

opinion leaders as a media target because they

on individual choices and on the appeal of a

provide a primary “word of mouth” source of

product become more important than the product

information in interpersonal communications: their

itself. Within the group, the opinion leader’s judg-

immediate environment (friends, colleagues, neigh-

ments would be given greater importance and

bors, social contacts) seeks their views before or

emulated by his immediate environment for ex-

after buying a product or service (Bearden and

pressing support for the norms of the group.

THE

INTEREST IN OPINION

Etzel, 1982; Dichter, 1966; Montgomery and Silk,

While opinion leaders provide an attractive tar-

1971; Newman and Staelin, 1973). Research has

get for advertising media, a media plan centered

also shown that information spread by word of

on this target raises a number of questions: how

The present study has been sup-

mouth has a greater impact on decisions to buy

can opinion leaders be identified in a given seg-

ported by advertising space seller

than other marketer-dominated sources of infor-

ment? Do the media they read statistically differ

Interdeco Global Advertising, a

mation such as publicity (Herr, Kardes, and Kim,

from the media read by nonopinion leaders? This

subsidiary of the Hachette Fili-

1991; Price and Feick, 1984).

article aims to address these questions by trying

pacchi Media. We are particu-

More recently, the theory of social networks has

to identify the specific characteristics of these opin-

larly grateful to its marketing

revived interest in opinion leadership (Iacobucci

ion leaders as a media target. We will first discuss

director Bruno Schmutz for his

and Hopkins, 1992). A social network includes a

opinion leaders as a potential target for a given

contribution and commitment.

large number of players and a structure of in-

media plan. We will then go on to make different

90

JOURNAL OF ADVERTISING RESEARCH

March 2004

DOI: 10.1017/S0021849904040061

The current method used to identify opinion leaders measures the volume of information they exchange and the degree of influence they exert. a poorly rated brand may be participant observation: an observer (group other people and seeking to act differ- swiftly rejected by the opinion leader’s member) appoints one or more indi- ently (Chan and Misra. Current research has (Herr. information. Some authors lowed because it is deemed to be unbi- other colleagues (Collins. This method is effective in in- regard as forwarding information on con- judgments of the opinion leader on con- dustrial marketing because the parent sumer products and brands. A consumer brand what ambiguous. 1990). More- vation stresses the dual role of opinion over. Katz and Lazarsfeld (1955) had initially formulated a two-step flow communica- It increases advertising persuasion. selecting relevant variables (social and demographic. 1987) the opinion leader likes to discuss con- and influencers because their status im- sumer products with his/her immediate parts social visibility to the product. etc. however. Blackwell. major impact on his immediate environ- The latter will then be overexposed to ment. the opinion leader would influence munication the individual receiving the approach is relevant to organizational re- all consumer products. because opinion leaders have an leaders as information transmitters (Feick enduring involvement with consumer and Price. Prior to purchase. 1990). being an influ- endorsed by the opinion leader will tend Key informants. Yale and Gilly. advertising media. The “two-step iard (1995). then forwards it to his im- consumer purchasing than advertising 20. industrial buyers. applied in encer implies having a “strong personality” to increase its appeal among its target. Johnson-Brown and Reingen. Rogers (1983) ranks opinion reaches this indirect audience will tend to leaders as interfaces between innovators originate from messages contained in and early majority. uses (Weiman. these unwieldy when applied to mass con- a dominant position in the exchange of judgments contribute to customer satisfac- sumer products. a media plan benefits from the opinion The role of the opinion leader in leader in the following two ways. Kardes.000 general practitioners and specialist mediate environment. In- Sociometric. this term is some- tion (or dissatisfaction). 1991) and feeling different from Conversely. this is the term “opinion leader. and Da- prefer the term “influential. This method. Gatignon and Robertson. Stage 1: Selecting a method to identify opinion leaders. However. Strengths of a media plan aimed How to target opinion leaders at opinion leaders in a media plan THE POTENTIAL OF MEDIA PLANNING Regardless of the nature and sphere of AIMED AT OPINION LEADERS influence occupied by the opinion leader. The theory of the diffusion of inno- advertising in their areas of interest. This true. and Kim. rather than sumer brands shape and fashion the be- populations are small. the vis. Finally. If this were environment because in interpersonal com- viduals who act as opinion leaders. products or services (Venkatram.) March 2004 JOURNAL OF ADVERTISING RESEARCH 91 . the opinion leader directly flow” and “multistage interaction” mod- (by word of mouth) or indirectly (by peo- els both regard the media as an essential ple’s imitating his or her behavior) has a information source for opinion leaders. and Min- It leverages its audience. 1987. 1991). cuss our research results on the women’s clothing fashion market in France. The views physicians revealed that on average each uncovered numerous ways in which opin- of the opinion leader are recognized as physician seeks medical advice from five ion leaders and receivers interact (Aassel. In environment: much of the information that his model. 1977. advertisements. Respondents are asked to tion model in which the opinion leader formation exchanged in interpersonal com- name the people they turn to for advice.” which they ased and impartial. interpersonal communications According to Engel. authoritative. Mizerski. but this assump- information gives greater weight to the search (sales forces. 2000). Hawks. 1982). and his/her advice is fol- colleagues and friendly advice from three 1983.TARGETING AND MEDIA PLANNING hypotheses on opinion leader attitudes to tion has been invalidated by King and negative attributes (Holmes and Lett. ranking types of publications according to the affinity they elicit on the part of opinion leaders. This entails three stages: identifying a subgroup of opinion leaders in the chosen marketing target. Three methods are available to do this but only the aforementioned method applies to the marketing of consumer products and services. ethnography and psychosociology. In effect. first interprets the information provided munication has a stronger impact on An American survey conducted among by its source. attitudes) to distinguish opinion leaders from the remainder of the target. lifestyles.” which implies liefs of his immediate environment. 1985. we will dis- Summers (1970). 1995).

is not corroborated by Goldsmith mers. 1986. self-confidence (Summers. fashion due to the way responses are recorded population. 1991. The opinion leader’s were to be confirmed. smith and Desborde. he Stage 3: Measuring media affinity among claims. more open but more open to and Robertson. in a descending manner as the trickle- (1986) have identified just one. and Eastman (1996) and Childers ent product categories (Engel. tified. Venkatram. students. and Miniard (1995. he maintains that since the explosion of teristics differ from one culture to another and senior managers (Vernette. Gutman and Mills. Respondents self-assess diate environment but this is not enough same product category for opinion lead- their influence in a given category of con- of a prerequisite to make him or her an ers and nonopinion leaders alike. share little. Such ephemeral ion leader is rather monomorphic and leaders. has a leadership in more than four catego- is impossible: “Even if they can be iden- However. a media plan targeted at opin- a series of standard questions. 1995). Hence. 1961). Flynn. First. . signs are dictated by a desire to seduce that only a small percentage (13 percent) Blackwell. it is agreed that an opin- icantly from those chosen by nonopinion to individual expression. 1995). King and Sum- ever. it may be unstable. tion is fraught with consequences: if it studies. p. more active METHODOLOGY within a given population. how- ion leaders toward the media. King. 1969. 1970). in- the interest it draws from opinion leaders bach’s alpha value.e. 1970). 1996. However. “people are more informed but opinion leadership may be shared be- do not differ in any meaningful ways more unstructured. so the argument the opinion leader tends to have endur- only this segment . These variables depend on differ- King (1969). 1987).” This assump- driven by a whole host of groups orga- 92 JOURNAL OF ADVERTISING RESEARCH March 2004 . worthwhile. While today’s ion leaders. Chanel’s Mademoiselle in 1920. Summers. that they embraced many identified and if such media differ signif- differences by giving greater importance categories. 1970). This is a In terms of personality. and Miniard. more innovative (Gold- The above discussions involve defining a have been developed and compared in smith and Desborde. Finally. occupation) provide (Dawson and Ridgway. 1970) than non- identify and measure the attitude of opin- Goldsmith. this and be different (within marginal groups). world has lost its epicenter: fashion. To be sumer products or services by answering undisputed opinion leader (Kelman. and Eastman. . their media exposure patterns often equally. Today. Lipovetsky (1987) notes that ries (King and Summers. 1972). 1988. there is not one fashion trend but ing involvement with the product cat- dia will be wasted resulting from the large many delocalized and contrary trends egory in which he exercises his opinion number of non-prospects. Goldsmith mensionality has not been clearly resolved: little or no explanation as to the role of and Stith. 1992. 1982. Gold- 1972). the King and Sum- ers are more emotionally stable and suffer We have chosen the women’s clothing mers (1970) scale raises methodology issues less from depression than the average fashion for several reasons. no longer belongs to a social elite Stage 2: Identifying the specifics of opin- opinion leaders.TARGETING AND MEDIA PLANNING but unsuitable for quantitative marketing leadership (Richins and Root-Shaffer. On the other hand. the fashion (Marshall and Gitosudarmo. Goldsmith and Desborde (1991) identify the opinion leader (Myers and Robertson. and the fact that one item reduces Cron- Sociodemographic variables (age.” As a result. According to two dimensions. fashion gets disseminated not smith. whereas Flynn. scale di- come level. 1991) and have more range of product categories in order to North America (Childers. the affinity of me- expertise must be perceived by his imme- dia audiences will be identical within the Self-designating. more adult but more tween similar product categories (Myers from those of receivers. according to Engel. Use of general me- goes. 1987. Targeting opinion lead- but spans all social classes. impossible to mount strategies that reach influence. In the late 1960s. research down theory claims but interactively. For example. the external validity of the method is ques- shows that opinion leaders who favor the Lipovetsky (1987) goes further when tionable because opinion leaders charac- internet are mainly young men. i. Research has revealed that By using measurement scales with verbal opinion leaders are more sociable (Johnson- ratings. it reduces such polymorphic. opinion leaders ion leaders must establish specific affinity suitable solution for quantitative studies.. In addition. Blackwell. gender. opinion leaders can be identified Brown and Reingen. some au- ers is only of practical relevance if media world of fashion does not erase differ- thors argued that opinion leaders were mainly utilized by opinion leaders can be ences in social ranking. Summers (1970) con- Choosing the product category research confirm that these scales con- cludes that female fashion opinion lead- and media verge and are reliable. Gold- opinion leaders. 2002). Different scales (Piirto. 1992). Although the results of this and Desborde (1991). The latter claim. 1990). However. has often been a benchmark because of indices. 732).

and a sound variable in media planning (Smit and million French people over 15 years old indicator of attitudes on information Neijens. sports clubs. 2000). In practical While opinion leadership in the fashion terms. A sim- vey. the greater the individu- Finally. was included in the annual SIMM-Scanner mant. commu- chosen for two reasons. pling plan. provided all members of cultural context by Ben Miled and Le ally and economically. Second. We chose the “difference. the opinion leader Each method of identification has its pros the scores that the individual has ob- tends to prefer fashion brands that it views and cons (Rogers. and behavioral variables. and Davis (2000) have a in any other European country. While identify- tained on the five questions: the higher as unique (Dawson and Ridgway. p.” according to aesthetic codes and on the publications they read. the fashion and gar- only feasible for delimited and uniform of this scale have been verified in a French ment industry is a sound choice cultur- social networks.46) with opinion leadership March 2004 JOURNAL OF ADVERTISING RESEARCH 93 . universities. HYPOTHESES a large part of the media market in France: 1994). the perception of advertising clutter var- subsidiary of the Taylor Nelson Sofres Childers. colleges) (Weiman. Since product knowledge is corre- survey. attitudi- that make up the leadership scale are groups. Our questionnaire study. lated (r 5 .TARGETING AND MEDIA PLANNING nized around the opinion leaders. the method can be nication and influence) with a coefficients ent media plans is more consistent when usefully applied to networks of profes- ranging between . file of general practitioners listed under this medium is particularly favored by professional services and suppliers. For example. because our investigations center has the merit of being more objective. we can match opinion leadership 5-point semantic scale. H1: Women’s clothing fashion opin- marketing environment such as in the Sampling world of mass consumer products. The reliability and dimensionality flair and expertise. able attitude toward media capture 51 percent of French advertising this method is not applicable in a sam- advertising than nonopinion budgets in this industry.68 and . nal. an advertisement is a particularly useful questionnaires representative of the 47 are easier to use. prompt the following hypotheses: vestments are allocated to them. The questionnaires were fielded 1991). By analyzing its find- have chosen five items measured on a produce subtle “differences” that give rise ings.] Fi- ion leaders have a more favor- fashion advertisers: consumer magazines nally. more than Collins. The latter have validated a We have selected a single media chan- while remaining accessible to the re- two-dimensional factor structure (commu- nel because a comparison between differ- searcher. scientific. The aim of this survey was to collect Because of the scope of our study. Moreover. On the other hand. Goldsmith and Desborde. 1986. France’s main media market sur- satisfactorily converge. reliable. The five questions to ranking between and within social with a host of sociodemographic. the three main methods (key infor- communication problems (Elliot and Speck. as revealed in the con- cerned: television and magazines exhibited and mailed to respondents during the sec- clusions of the Jacoby (1974) comparative the highest level of advertising-related ond quarter of 2000. and self-designating) 1998). sociometric. self- Individual affinity with the message of Our sample is based on 10.000 usable designating methods are more flexible. a country famed for fashion nonetheless admitted that this method is ion wear. trade ucts concerned. they occupy nities. presented in the Appendix. 1983). First. we ilar view is held by Bourdieu (1979) who information from the same individuals on decided to make use of a self-assessment notes that fashion leads to asserting a their consumer product buying patterns scale on opinion leadership. 1987). (quota method) recruited by a French searching and product purchasing (e. as Rogers points out (1983. Hawks. Magazines have been unions.g. advertising budget. it is al’s opinion leadership in women’s fash- on France. ing leaders by the sociometric method the total score. in an open leaders. retail channels.82 depending conducted within similar media vehicles sionals or communities with mutual inter- on the dimensions and consumer prod- to leverage the effectiveness of a given ests (associations.. In the population at large. We therefore garded as “legitimate works of art” in media planning. This final version of the Childers’s scale (1986) and measures that result in form prevail- type of survey polls readership of indi- that recommends eliminating the conten- ing over function: fashion objects re- vidual magazine titles and is widely used tious item from the scale. ies according to the type of media con- group. [Weiman (1994) uses this method The above considerations and comments some 20 percent of total advertising in- within the context of an Israeli kibbutz. the total leadership score for each market is not significantly correlated with Measuring opinion leadership individual is obtained by adding together the need for uniqueness. the networks are mutually acquainted Louarn (1994). 278).

opinion H4: The degree of quantitative affin- is so. Blackwell. and Min- vertising more than nonopinion iard (1995). but it is necessary so as choice of limit requires a trade-off be- search on fashion opinion leadership has draw the interest of marketing managers. There- ion opinion leaders have with pact on leaders in identically perceived fore. Accord- that belong to the same segment. we have observed the choices more fashion magazines than other opin- opinion leaders read categories of the made by researchers faced with this type ion leaders (Reynolds and Darden. In other words. This hypothesis tion is compounded by the fact that set- views of opinion leaders are frequently requires further validation because consul- ting a threshold is a basically arbitrary sought by their immediate environment tant research indicates that the opposite is exercise. Mittal. it is equally of decision.. and Newman. our choice has been on a given category of products. with H3: Women’s clothing fashion opin- lications will probably be more trendy than the allocation of scores on a metric scale. women’s consumer magazines are aimed flects a continuum of varying intensity at carefully targeted audiences: some pub- (Weiman. 1982). Goldsmith and Stith Chan and Misra (1990). 1999). on the other hand. the appeal of a given magazine leaders need advertising to obtain infor- ity that women’s clothing fash- advertisement could have a higher im- mation (Gutman and Mills. and their editorial content more or we can calibrate the degree of leadership than nonopinion leaders. cantly for the women’s magazines segments concerned. the Wall Street First. p. Consequently. printed press than nonleaders. “young” and “upscale” women’s statistics (median. However. While true: according to Erdos and Morgan-MPG dictated by three types of considerations. 246). the latter would have Journal is “the publication most widely read assumed that the opinion leadership is to refer to these products. if only to con- by opinion leaders in the USA. This limit does 94 JOURNAL OF ADVERTISING RESEARCH March 2004 . advertising is a source of information for (quoted by Advertising Age). exposure to mass ers. 1991). the ion leadership concept. the to reach with advertising. Opinion leaders are assumed to be active information seekers and to read mag- The second consideration is based on azines massively.g.TARGETING AND MEDIA PLANNING (Goldsmith and Desborde. Opin- less appealing to opinion leaders. in purely theoretical terms. Faced with a similar issue Summers. with current issues: “Leaders are more ex- ity among the women’s fashion the median) yields a marketing target that posed to a variety of media source. especially those that deal H5: The degree of “qualitative” affin- pragmatism: a low selection limit (e. decile): an in- the categories of women’s maga- magazines are supposed to attract wom- dividual with a score in the initial upper zines than do nonopinion leaders. en’s clothing fashion opinion leaders decile will be regarded as a “more pow- more than do “people” or “mass consumer” erful” leader than a leader in the second women’s magazines. 1971.. limit (e. this assumption is unfounded leadership scale leaders. because it presupposes that there are no How must an individual score on the differences in affinity to explain the low in- opinion leadership scale to be regarded as Calibrating scores on the opinion In accordance with the “two-step flow” terest on the part of advertisers for this opin- an opinion leader? Answering this ques- or “multistage interaction” models. than nonopinion leaders. a high (Sheth. the initial centile) produced a ing to Piirto (1992) “influentials’ heavy use high differentiated target but with too lit- of print media makes them relatively easy This is a stricter assumption than the tle marketing potential. re- two previous one. However. age profiles among opinion leaders: if this encompass the innovators. shown that female opinion leaders read While it is important to check that the Third. not a dichotonomous condition but re- vey his or her views on them. For ex- from the usual indices used in descriptive ion leaders also read more each of ample. ion leaders read more magazines others. this point re- important to check that some titles are when having to determine a threshold in quires confirmation because according to regarded as having more appeal than oth- an innovation scale. quartile. Consequently. 1970).” Finally.” Moreover. women’s magazines (1992) have argued that scores in the up- media produces a weak correlation with the should reveal significantly different im- per 12 percent range of the scale would degree of opinion leadership.g. we the opinion leader. or third decile. H2: RESULTS Women’s clothing fashion opinion leaders discuss media ad- According to Engel. tween these two extremes. espe- wear opinion leaders differs sig- is relevant in size but with little distinc- cially news and information program” nificantly for magazine press titles tiveness while. they should feel less inconvenienced different media differs signifi- magazines. 1994.

10 percent of the U. innovators fall population. p. 1994. opinion leaders would fit into fairly reasonable in theory. Moreover. chat rooms. We have results and hence overvalue the average (quoted by Weiman.” Similarly. Figure 1 Distribution of Women’s Clothing Fashion Opinion Leadership Scores in France not seem to be really selective because. this incomplete data on statistical grounds.. into the top 2. messages boards. Figure 1). Elim- terval between one and two standard de- a given population are potentially opin- inating incomplete scores (generally lower viations). comprised of five items. overlooked the question or because they that “10% of Americans determine how The average French score on the opin- were genuinely indifferent to the category the rest consume and live by chatting ion leadership scale is 11.S. Consequently.” 15 points (Top 25) and 18 points for the 10 threshold remains unchanged (18 points defined according to their intensive use first decile (Top 10).5 points (see of products.5 percent (mean. the ion leaders in a given category of con- than the mean) would upwardly bias the findings of the 1970 Kingdom study sumer products (i. less the in- we argued that a little over 10 percent of of opinion leadership in the category.5 percent of a population These major differences suggest that the However. March 2004 JOURNAL OF ADVERTISING RESEARCH 95 . the fact that re- (instead of 15) for the Top 25 in the sec- company and opinion websites. in theory. In the political sphere.e. Since the scale is in both options) and rises to 16 points of email. online adult items should have led to elimination of according to Rogers (1983). 56) reveal prudently defined a second group of more level of opinion leadership of the popula- that only 10 percent of the American pop- moderate opinion leaders who belong to tion. On the other hand. make up spondents failed to answer one of these ond scenario. probably strongly correlated with a lack the next 13. there is good reason that adopts innovations (average adop- upper 10 percent limit is a satisfactory for keeping individuals who abandon the tion time less two standard deviations). the limit for the first quartile is adjustments remains negligible: the Top Cakim (2002) argue that the “E-fluentials. the impact of these about their likes and dislikes.TARGETING AND MEDIA PLANNING Source: Interdeco Expert (2000). However. rule of thumb in marketing terms and scale half way through because this is Moreover.” This group will be used to whether they did not reply because they titioners: Keller and Berry (2003) maintain support certain hypotheses when necessary. “Top 10”). individuals who ulation exhibit opinion leader characteris- the next 15 percent of the scale (upper 25 did not reply to any of the five items tics. this 10 percent limit finds percent—upper 10 percent) that we call were eliminated because it is hard to say a broad consensus among marketing prac- the “Top 25.

................. en’s clothing fashion opinion Students 26 10 ......to 35-year- highlight significant differences from the ion leaders have a more favor- old female employee or student: the rest of the French population.................................................................................. In general..........................................................e..................... In a nut- able attitude toward media age............................................................................. of female magazines than non- Retirees 11 26 ................................................ analysis of variance with a 3-level factor Farmers 1 1 ................24..................................................................................................... 96 JOURNAL OF ADVERTISING RESEARCH March 2004 opinion leaders.................................................................................................. x2 Significant Sociodemographic Variables (%) Statistics Levels (%) ....................................................................................................................... The four series of one- TABLE 1 Socio-demographic Profile of Women’s Clothing Fashion Opinion Leaders Leader degrees of leadership).......................... The typical profile of the “fashion” opin- Not surprisingly........................................................................................................................................................................................... wanderlust.............43........................ 25–34 19 15 .................. leaders also read more con- Unemployed 13 12 .. The results in Table 3 show that opinion leaders favor media advertising more than nonopinion leaders: the mean scores of opinion leaders decline according to the degree of opinion leadership on each of the four items measuring attitude toward advertising...... senior managers 4 6 ............. throw- social group (see Table 2)................... gender........... conducted on the attitude toward advertising..... Male 6 51 ....................7 p < ............................. Middle managers 11 12 .......................... and nonopinion leaders scored 2.......... In all a way for opinion leaders to feel dif- leaders.................. topic of discussion.......... cant and support Hypothesis H2: opinion Executives.............................................. the Top 25 opinion leaders scored 2........001 Female 94 49 ................................................ such differences are statistically signifi- (degree of opinion leadership) reveal that Craftsmen.....................................................................02............................................................................. i......................... The results of a one-way x 2 = 653..................................... p < ................................................ the importance given to fashion opinion leader friends......................................................................................... fashion-related items Verification of hypotheses H1: Women’s clothing fashion opin- ion leader in France is a 15................................ 15–19 years old 17 6 ............................................................................................. leadership.................................................. confirm the existence of statistically significant differences according to the degree of opinion Nonopinion Top 10 way ANOVA (with three levels............... Women’s clothing fashion opinion leaders discuss media ad- Gender leaders scored 2. much more than choosing a dress associated with a young audience domi- code to show that one belongs to a given nate: open-mindedness......... 35–49 23 27 ........... wom- sumer magazines than nonopin- ..... terms of lifestyle..................................................... vertising more than nonopinion Age x 2 = 295......... small businessmen 4 3 ..................... the values traditionally ferent.............................................................001 On the item “advertising is a frequent 50–64 17 22 .................................8 p < .....................................................................................” the Top 10 opinion 65+ 11 24 ................. Office workers 24 15 ............................................... and job variables are all shell..... being hip and fashionable is above advertising than nonopinion statistically significant (see Table 1)....................................................... leaders like discussing advertisements H3: PCS x 2 = 360..................................................................................... ion leaders.... H2: 20–24 14 6 .5 leaders............. Hypothesis H1 is therefore validated (see Table 4)...................................................................001 Women’s clothing fashion opinion leaders read more categories Manual workers 7 15 .....................TARGETING AND MEDIA PLANNING Typical profile of the women’s clothing ing parties........... more than nonopinion leaders (see Table 5)................................................................

..............................” 3...........65 4.............................51 2......................................38 p < ...............................32 7...77 p < ..................................................................10 ...39 2...... resulting in far higher affinity based on the midpoints in each range of “popular...............93 p < .........................................................” The indices......16 2.....................” 2......................61 8........................................TARGETING AND MEDIA PLANNING TABLE 2 Mean Values of Clothing Fashion Opinion Leaders Nonopinion Significant t Lifestyle and Values* Top 10 Leader Values Levels .........................” 2...........01 ...............................50 2...........................................................................................................43 4.... I’m happy.......................” 3...................36 3. This overweighting does not have values and on an estimated score of 10 for penetration rates of these different seg- the same impact on different categories of the heavy reader segment.......... The format of the questionnaire does not make it possible to directly determine whether opinion lead- We have followed the classification ments (Table 6) are significantly higher ers read more consumer magazines than adopted by women’s magazine profession- ( p ............................................................................................” “middle-market.............................” 3..........” 3......” 1........................................... 4 5 totally agree)............................ “I like advertising...........................................................................05 ........................................................................................................08....................................s....... “I have excellent friends................................ ..4..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................10 ....................................................................................” 2.” 2..” leaders.........................07 5..............................................................................................................................” and “youth and teenager....................... “It is important to keep informed of world events................................................................. structure of consumer magazine readers is significantly different when one addresses the Top 10 opinion leaders or non- “I find advertising entertaining..................................................21 p < .........................................80 2..01 .. “In my generation men and women shared a lot........................................................................................ Moreover...........001)...................... However..........................................................................19 3........................ “You have to live your passions.......25 2......... ...............................................................................................................................20 2........................ 4 5 totally agree).......................................... p ..........................98 10.....43 .......................... opinion leaders ( x 2 5 141....52 3........................................60 p < ....................................20 p < ................01 p < ......89 p < ................................05 p < ........................................................................ “It’s important to travel and discover the world................. “I feel original and different from other people.....20 p < ..................38 3...............................................................................................................01 .............” 2.......52 3.............................16 ..............90 .......................................32 9.............................................. “I feel good about myself............ “I have a good relationship with my parents.. ................................ “I am confident about my future.........................10 .............” 2..................24 1..41 n.......57 2......................................01 ...........” 3....98 2...18 3.......................................................................................................................................................33 1..................01 ............... “It is essential to be fashionable.............001).... the average March 2004 JOURNAL OF ADVERTISING RESEARCH 97 .. “I trust companies that advertise their products............72 2......03 −1............01 ............. the percentage of “heavy read- “Life would be dull without advertising..................99 n........ leaders than among nonopinion leaders (Z 5 11....................................................................................85 −2........ “The same look allows me to identify with people who are close to me and who think like me............................................................................... “It’s important to sow your oats before starting work.001) among opinion leaders in the nonopinion leaders because this variable als that divide women’s consumer maga- fashion industry than among nonopinion is measured on a nominal scale.................30 2................................................................................................................................” 2...........................................................06 1...... p ...................................................................... ers” is noticeably higher among opinion *Each proposal is rated on a 4-point Likert scale (1 5 totally disagree.................................78 2...............” 2..........................................................05 ........ consumer magazines: the upscale wom- TABLE 3 Attitudes toward Advertising and Leadership (Mean Scores) Opinion Opinion Leaders Leaders en’s category records a proportionally higher level than indices recorded by other categories.. *Each proposal is rated on a 4-point Likert scale (1 5 totally disagree........... zines into “upscale.... The results of Table 7 show that the Nonopinion Attitudes toward Advertising* Top 10 Top 25 Leaders ..........................................................................” 3........ ... ......01 .........................................................................84 2......................” 2.......s...........................................................

................................... Variance within groups 7.................................287 0..............................................93 2 82.....TARGETING AND MEDIA PLANNING TABLE 4 Analysis of Variance of Attitude toward Advertising Sum of Degrees of Mean F Attitudes toward Advertising Squares Freedom Squares Ratio .....................................9** ................................................. Youth and teenager women’s magazines 11% 6% 183 z = 6......................287 0.......90 .................................” Variance between groups 77.............................................................................................................................................................................05 9...................................................................001..................................146 0...................287 0.......................................................001.. *(% opinion leaders Top 10/% nonopinion leaders) 3 100 **p .....................................................09* .................” Variance between groups 164................................901...........................................................................................................98 64.....................................................001........................... “I find advertising entertaining.......14 9.81* ....................................................................................305........................................................... “I trust companies that advertise their products” Variance between groups 71..........................................96 43..................................................56 9...........994.........................46 107........................ ..............” Variance between groups 165........82 9.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Upscale and glossy women’s magazines 33% 15% 220 z = 14.................................................... Variance within groups 6...................................................................................................................................137............................................................................................ “I like advertising..............................57* ............................................ 98 JOURNAL OF ADVERTISING RESEARCH March 2004 ......................................95 2 35.....................................................75 * ........... “Advertising is a frequent topic of discussion.........................................................................................................76 ..................................32* ......... People and popular women’s magazines 36% 20% 180 z = 10..........................................................................56 .............................................. “Life would be dull without advertising......................................................................................................................................................................65 9...................................................................................................................................................80 ................................................................................... ...................................................” Variance between groups 82................................................................................................ Variance within groups 5..47 2 82................................................................................................................7** .................................... *p ............................................. Middle market women’s magazines 58% 38% 152 z = 11.................................................................................77 110...................................389..................................................................... Variance within groups 6............................................................................ 0.........................................................................................26 2 38.............................................................................................56 ........................................................................................ *p ......................................................287 0...................... TABLE 5 Analysis of Variance of Advertising Discussion and Opinion Leadership Sum of Degrees of Mean F Sources of Variance Squares Freedom Squares Ratio .........................................01 51............................28** ............. Variance within groups 8.........................................................................................................02 2 41.....................6** ............................................................................ TABLE 6 Penetration Rates of Magazine Segments Top 10 Segments of Women’s Opinion Nonopinion Affinity Z Consumer Magazines Leaders Leaders Indices* Test ......

................... This supports Hy- validates Hypothesis H5..................................... on these image scores obtained for the ners distinguish two major indices to assess Again............................. The second index covers “long- Table 9)...................... A coefficient above 25 expresses • On the other hand..................9% 44 ......TARGETING AND MEDIA PLANNING TABLE 7 Penetration Rates for Readership Segments Top 10 Categories of Magazines Readers Opinion Nonopinion Affinity (Immediate Readership) Leaders Leaders Indices* .......... keeping with the conventional media cat- with affinity indices calculated for the same A three-way ANOVA was conducted egories used by professionals..................... ership situation...... the image scores term” readers......................... with 3 and 24 degrees of free- fashion magazines among leaders and the four abovementioned segments............................. media differs significantly for the four levels (segments) was run to see if women’s magazines segments magazine titles significantly vary in terms We selected four common image items concerned............ Media plan- titles but over a longer reading period. irrespective of the diate readership............................................................................. A one-way ANOVA with segment..2% 4............. The cant (45....................................... we have calculated the varia- • First.............................19............................................................... Frequently read consumer magazines (more than eight titles read during the last reference period) 42........g............................. reading..... azine... Rarely read consumer magazines (one to three titles read during the last reference period) 25...........001 (F ra- perceptions on the major four women’s consumer magazine titles to either one of tio 5 20....... the difference is highly significant (t 5 over 8 days for a weekly magazine and 24... ing findings deserve mention: ship..5................................” encompasses the many readers who To estimate the dispersion within each state that they held a copy of a weekly segment...................................... in dom)........ i......................... *(% of Top 10 opinion leaders/% of nonopinion leaders) 3 100...... the total number of a statistical series with highly dispersed attributed by leaders and nonleaders individuals who have read an average observations: this is the case with imme- are very significantly different ( p 5 issue of a magazine.... there are no statistical differences consumer magazine during the week fol- tion coefficients [(standard deviation/ in the way the four magazines are per- lowing publication and during the month average) 3 100] of affinity indices for ceived by all readers ( p ................... ................... appeal. The scatter of indices is .....2% 89 ... The same analysis was conducted nonleaders.............. .................................... e.................................................................................. p ............................ Total 100 100 ....96 for nonopinion leaders— exceed the periodicity of the title................. Several interest- first................ as sug- following publication of a monthly mag- each segment and readership type (see gested by Table 10........014).....................6 172 .......................4 24............. called “immediate recent reader- pothesis H4.................................. Table 10 compares We have allocated the main women’s are highly significant at p ....... of affinity indices for an immediate read- of reader’s magazine: overall image......................... .................. ....................001)...........8% 33........9......001)........... The reference period will not so great over a longer period of ers versus 4.6% 37% 69 ...................................................... trust.................................................................... This analysis fully the audience of a given medium..... Read consumer magazines quite often (four to seven titles during the last reference period) 29. p .... Table 8 lists the penetration rates for ity among the women’s fashion immediate readership: the penetration in- wear opinion leaders differs sig- H4: The degree of affinity that dices of different women’s consumer mag- nificantly for magazine press women’s clothing fashion opin- azine titles are not strictly equivalent titles that belong to the same ion leaders have with different between titles.............................................. Do not read consumer magazines (have not read any titles during the last reference period) 2.......................................10)...................................... number of titles is 6............. March 2004 JOURNAL OF ADVERTISING RESEARCH 99 .....................................e........... These different findings over a month for a monthly magazine................. Results shown in Table 8 closeness.................................................11 for opinion lead- reading period....... the F ratio is particularly signifi- different magazine titles....................... H5: The degree of “qualitative” affin- support Hypothesis H3.........

................................................................................................7 197 ........................................................0 174 ................................................................................0 4.................................................. the variances between both these Maxi Popular 13........................................................ the interaction between the image items Prima Middle market 13................... Period Segments Readership Readership .......... Marie Claire Upscale 14..................... one single contact with an opinion leader will naturally produce 100 JOURNAL OF ADVERTISING RESEARCH March 2004 ...................................................................................................................................... Moreover......................... the same is not true among the leaders. Opinion leaders Ok podium Teenager and young adult 3.......... Marie France Upscale 7.................2 7.................1 184 .........................................................2 293 ......................................................5 394 ....... ers........................................................................7 1................................................................................................. Jeune and Jolie Teenager and young adult 9.....................7 196 .............. considered (see Table 11)....................................................8 11........7 .................................001): in Version femme Middle market 11...0 1................................... DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS France Dimanche Popular 6............................................................................................................................................8 1..........................8 1.....9 164 ..............................................................................2 7.....................1 117 .......................................................................................2 1..........................................6 ................................................... targets vary according to the image items Nous deux Popular 4....................................................................... while the ways in which the magazine Femme actuelle Middle market 31......... marketing terms....................1 1................. 20 ans Teenager and young adult 9......................................................................TARGETING AND MEDIA PLANNING TABLE 8 Comparison of Penetration Rates (Immediate Readership) According to Segments and Targets TABLE 9 Variation Coefficients for Affinity Indices LongImmediate % Penetration for the % Penetration Affinity Magazine Titles Segments Top 10 for Nonleaders Indices ................................................................1 318 .. more inclined to be in favor of advertis- Star club Teenager and young adult 3....................8 212 ...................................................................................................... Madame Figaro Upscale 6..............................................8 1...............................................4 14......................................................................................................................5 590 ............... Elle Upscale 12............................................................................................... ing than nonleaders........................................................1 142 ......................................... are perceived are assumed to be similar Avantage Middle market 10.................6 ................................................... Our findings reveal how important it is to Biba Teenager and young adult 5.......................... more exposed and Salut Teenager and young adult 3......................8 4....................................................................4 6.........6 4........................................................................................................................... ing interaction between the magazine titles and the leadership ( p 5 .........7 18........................................... been validated confirms the merit of de- Girls Teenager and young adult 6...................... are.....8 131 ...3 176 .................................................................3 4.................................................................................5 ........................................................................................2 4...................9 276 ............3 252 ......0 365 ................. leverage the audience exposed to an advertisement: hence................................ • All the interactions are significant..................................................7 198 ...............................................................7 6.....................6 ....................................................................................8 174 ..........................................4 3.............................3 500 .................0 18.......0 225 ............... this confirms that Coté femme Middle market 2....................................................... advertising is for them a more frequent topic for discussion than for nonleaders....................8 1...................................................................................................5 628 ....................1 1........6 1................7 231 ................................... vising media plans that target “women’s fashion” opinion leaders................................. Voici Popular 15......................... Vogue Upscale 5.......................................................5 8..............................................6 138 ........... Middle market 17.................................................... and............................................................................................................ Femme Upscale 2............................................................................ among all the respondents................................................................................... Modes Travaux Middle market 15............................................................................ though the leaders generally rate these titles more positively than the nonlead- Point vue Popular 3..............6 6.......................................................................................7 11...................8 168 .........................................3 4.....6 125 . The Votre beauté Upscale 2.............................................................................8 2..................3 9....................... The fact that Hypotheses H1 and H2 have Ici Paris Popular 7........3 3........... on the one hand.......2 306 ................ most interesting finding is the very strik- Fémina Middle market 13.... on the other...........................................2 236 ....................................................................................................................................... Teen and young adult 26......................................................................... Popular 21.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Upscale 19........... and the leadership means that al- Gala Popular 9......................

on validation. This is terpersonal communication is deemed to ing the opinion leader target for two pub- an argument be prioritizing this target in be more credible. he naturally leverages his or her magazine is proportionally higher than In addition. the leader is encouraging result yet is that the affinity their appraisal is qualitatively superior: more exposed to advertisements than the of leaders for magazines varies consider- they tend to trust them more. on the other. Consequently. Therefore.) so as to allocate budgets image (index 5 176) or on specific items and his or her circle of friends and more effectively to various publications. influence model is used (two-step flow or fore possible to rank publications based For example. the leaders’ affinity for Elle more interesting than nonleaders. in a first stage. advertising is for them a more messages. any advertisement that the opinion leader believes in will strengthen. . zines. It is there- aimed at an identical market segment. “fashion wear” leaders not only read more n (free) contacts in his or her area of foregone conclusion. be- Besides this first quantitative audience impossible to find one single title that is cause the leaders pay more attention to lever. although we have seen that the message as one of his or her sources considerably the assumptions of Engel. in a second . that the opinion leaders have a far better Hypothesis H5. frequent topic for discussion than for nonleaders. whereas the latter are seen or read. the leaders have signifi- contacts when talking to family and friends that for its competitors within the “up- cantly different qualitative affinities be- about the advertisements he or she has scale segment”: 293 points as against 276 tween magazines. on the one hand. will also out to be also of great interest. and find their articles tions. imparted by an opinion leader (who uses considerably. his or her confidence in the brand. Basically. be- more inclined to be in favour of advertising than nonlead- cause leader and nonleader targets alike were equally reached by advertising ers. effective audi- its competitors. more qualitative in nature. March 2004 JOURNAL OF ADVERTISING RESEARCH 101 . and. etc. reveals perception of top-of-the-range women’s magazines than nonleaders. such as men’s or women’s maga- stance.TARGETING AND MEDIA PLANNING Opinion leaders are. [A]ny advertisements that the opinion leader be- stage. (closeness: index 5 471. Our own findings moderate Moreover. For in- affinity with them. will also strengthen that of his or her circle of friends and family by word lieves in will strengthen. his or her con- of mouth. acquaintances. the fact remains that advertis- on the indices habitually utilized in me- nificantly greater qualitative affinities than ing messages will induce interpersonal dia planning (coverage. both in terms of overall communication between the opinion leader ence. In other words. then. although it is practically appeal index 5 352). trust index 5 302. tion may be termed opinion leaders). and Miniard (1995) who sug- magazines than the nonleaders. In other words. Elle magazine generates sig- interactive). affinity. all messages targeted at opinion read by opinion leaders only (because 10 advertising than nonleaders. advertising messages lications having the same readership varies media planning. In concrete terms. But by far the most women’s magazines than nonleaders. in a second stage. which was a by word of mouth. then. overall the leaders read more women’s of information) will carry with them stron- Blackwell. it is ceptivity” among the leaders varies sig- Since information as conveyed during in- to be noted that the affinity index regard- nificantly between magazine titles. Validating Hypotheses H3 and H4 turns fidence in the brand. whatever kind of points for its nearest competitor. it may be leaders are likely to be bolstered by a percent to 25 percent of a given popula- safely assumed that the “advertising re- second lever. . in a first stage. more exposed and gested that a media plan specifically geared to opinion leaders was of little value. but influence. have more nonleader because he reads more publica- ably from one title to another. Table 12 ger conviction. We have first demonstrated that leaders read a strengthen that of his or her circle of friends and family greater number of women’s magazines than nonopinion leaders.

.....23 11.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Leaders 42..............................18 311........................05 2................................................................................................................ Leaders 13...................................g..... Affinity index 351..............70 a .......................................................................60 challengers (Marie France and Marie Claire) Our findings tally with those published percent) and Madame Figaro (22.......... Appealing (population) 6........78 .........76 5.....57 10..........................54 ................ when the costs involved in ity gains in terms of the Top 10 leaders insert costs confirms the merit of such contacting a fashion wear leader is com- target achieved by advertisement mes- selectivity because there are substantial pared with those incurred for other tradi- sages inserted in the print magazine variances in the cost of contact a fashion tional targets with equivalent potential press....................94 2.................................................20 1.....54 195......................................02 129.............68 6.................................................................... Leaders 9................................. 2003............................. Leaders 17..........................................73 1....................99 5...47 5.................................................................................................................................................................................................................51 10..........................14 .............................. Consequently.....................................................90 ......... a more selective choice It therefore is economically feasible to of these same titles secures substantial segment the titles according to power scales readership gains on the opinion leaders and effective costs based on opinion lead- Figure 2 summarizes the average affin- target....... will necessarily reach a larger number fash- Schmutz..... expensive to reach a leader in Madame per status.. while it is logical to the leader Elle........................................................................................ women....................................................01 ..........00 .............68 35.45 248........... Affinity index 471...............53 ....g....... up- the same appeal among the leaders: e.....42 2............................23 3.............. ............................................ (Readers interested in egories of opinion leaders in other coun- assume that any women’s magazine title these issues should consult Vernette and tries (e............26 235..............6 per- are about 10 percent less expensive than in other studies that focused on other cat- cent).......................... An inspection of advertisement ership.......g...83 328...........................................................................60 .....................................................91 24............................................ Nonleaders 4.................. we ob- the effective audience varies by some Figaro than with Elle magazine...................... Nonleaders 23............................................................79 25..................95 23.................. Finally.....................................................................68 5............57 .............. Nonleaders 4........................68 20...............................................................................12 23...88 ....................................................27 ........................................... it is twice as and for the same titles (e....97 ........................................................................................... 2003.................33 5...............................................................................32 233.......TARGETING AND MEDIA PLANNING TABLE 10 Comparison between Evaluated Perceptions on Women’s Magazines among Fashion Wear Leaders and Nonleaders Assessment Items Elle Madame Figaro Marie Claire Marie France ................................................................. 1994): in generally...................................96 3..... five points between Elle magazine (27.........90 177................. 23......................39 19...............59 141........................................26 ................................................................................................................................................... Affinity index 302................................................................................................................................ (% of leaders who attribute the on-line item to the magazine/% of nonleaders who attribute the on-line item to the magazine) * 100.......................................................................... Nonleaders 2.............................. Affinity index 176.................................................... Trust (population) 5.......................................................................................................................................................99 4..............39 7................................................................................................................................................71 153............................48 4......................................................... 25 to 49 year olds)..........................79 2........................................................................................97 2..........................93 ......................................24 4...............................23 30.......) Weiman...........20 6..... reveals that all these titles do not have wear leader........................................... Closeness (population) 2........ For example...........................35 b 132..65 9.................. the magazine ion wear leaders.................................................39 5........... The two tained very similar costs.. Vernette and Schmutz...........................38 Strong image (population) 25...................................90 212....26 .......................................................................................... a b % of individual who attribute the on-line item to the magazine...........................................................66 4..............57 2... we have followed the steps of 102 JOURNAL OF ADVERTISING RESEARCH March 2004 press enables accurate targeting of opinion leaders......................................................................................

..071 ........................ or an affinity score of 125 Marie Claire 42............................................................................................001 ....................................................60% 4 ............... Error 44........................................................................................................ Error 14.......................................................TARGETING AND MEDIA PLANNING TABLE 11 Analysis of Variance of Title....................................................................................................313 3 26............438 2........................................................................................ ..624 26............................... Leadership * items Hypothesis 44......... Image items Hypothesis 2........................................ Title * items Hypothesis 39.......................................................9............. Error 741..... leaders stated that they were more attentive to an advertisement placed in this Elle 46...... and Opinion Leadership Sum of Squares Source (Type I) df Mean Square F Sig...........................................001 ..............85 2 26...................423 ........................................................ 42 percent of opin- percent of the opinion leaders for maga- advertisement ion leaders have read at least 8 magazines zines versus by 15.2 percent for nonlead- Madame Figaro 104.......................6 percent of nonlead- The opinion leader target represents on av- during the preceding week versus 24 per- ers ( p ................ What’s more.. ers ( p ........................................ Phase 2 = attention given to a TABLE 12 Effective Cost and Audience of Women’s Magazines for Female Opinion Leaders magazine advertisement One specific question was intended to assess the degree of attention given by Top 10 leaders to an advertisement seen Effective Cost Top of the Market Women’s per 1.....................................857 .................................................................................................... Title magazines Hypothesis 4.......................................................014 ...............001)......... Error 72..........................................001) for nonleaders......... for magazines............... ............................................ clear and zines than do nonleaders: 6...................................................................................................................................589 ...004 ..............................................................14 4 22..................................... Error 14.........................804 9..............67 3 27..........................................................051 53...............589 ................................................................................9 percent of opinion Effective Magazine Titles (in Euros) Ranking Audience Ranking .............................085 240..840 4.................371 3.........305 9 1........ ......................................................... The com- (1976)...................................................................................................153 3 948................................................................... ..705 ....................................................................... on average read 23 percent more maga- ment “Advertising is simple......................................109 ................................................................................ Leadership Hypothesis 389...........................................................................................................................................................................................................000 in a magazine: 27.........................................................................651 4 1...........804 ..............90% 2 ................412 3 14...................... Error 14...........319 .....................653 ................................................................. Phase 3 = comprehension of a magazine advertisement Respondents were asked to rate either McGuire’s advertising effectiveness model mediate readership) because opinion leaders one of the media publications................................................................................844.........................589 .........................341 .........................................................9 Phase 1 = exposure to a magazine versus 4............................................................................................................................................ medium versus 22..........................................................412 3 14...........................................................945 9 4.....305 9 1.. Leadership * title Hypothesis 78...............................................................................................................................94 1 25...........................................001).......1 publications easy to understand” was made by 22.........................................80% 3 .................314 ............... March 2004 JOURNAL OF ADVERTISING RESEARCH 103 ...........................................792 ............................624 1 389................................................................. Image Items.............................305 9 1..............................................................60% 1 ......104 16............................................................................................................................................. affinity score......................................................................669.. delivering a 146-point erage an exposure gain of 23 points (im- cent ( p ............. Marie France 40..........................................................................................................126 17.......................................................................167..........................................413 4.................

Chanel. other ques- point affinity. The advantage of magazines over other competitive publications is highly pronounced with respect to advertising impact: on the item “Advertising makes me want to buy products. YSL. . Such Top opinion leaders in general like adver- percentage of people who agree com- results should make it possible to com- tising more (all publications included) than pletely with this statement is 35 percent pute and compare the different respective do nonleaders: the mean score on this for opinion leaders and 25.9). A very simple computing Figure 2 How a Magazine Advertisement Can Leverage Advertising Effectiveness for a Top 10 Fashion Opinion Leader Target formula yields this affinity indice for any given publication P 5 [penetration rate by publication P in respect of the “higher incomes and executives.43 versus 2. What’s more.001)].50 versus 2. .6 percent ( p .02. Our results comple- is attributed by 38. or a 120-point affinity index. or a 119-point .” divided by the penetration rate of publication P in the French population that is “high income 1 Phase 4 = retention fits in well and does not disturb me. or a 113-point affinity score. profile of opinion leaders in the women’s item “Ads are nice and pleasant to read” Phase 5 = target impact clothing fashion area. It is possible to further refine the analysis to factor in targets specific to the readership of each publication.16 versus 1. The average affinity score tions were put to respondents to assess of magazines on those two items reaches CONCLUSION the degree of acceptance of an advertise- 147 points.” the higher intellectual professions”] 3 100. those same leaders have more confidence in products that are advertised (all publications included) than nonleaders (2. For example.3 percent of nonleaders ( p . In addition.001) or a 159- seen (all publications included) with their States.” the affinity score is 144 points for opinion leaders [30.g. or a 136- affinity score. a given category of point affinity.8 percent of opinion leaders agree completely versus 21. etc.2 percent of opinion The Top 10 fashion and clothing opinion ment and confirm many results derived leaders to magazines as against 24 per- leaders discuss advertisements they have from research conducted in the United cent of nonleaders ( p .) will mainly consider the segment of “higher incomes and executives. item is 2.” Readership penetration of this target by the other competitive magazines should be calculated and compared with the penetration indices obtained in respect of the leaders belonging to this very same target.TARGETING AND MEDIA PLANNING quently than do nonleaders: the average score is 2. For instance. Dior.. The present study clarifies the role and ment according to where it appeared: the GRPs relative to the Top 10 target for each media plan. as to the item “Advertising relatives and acquaintances more fre- products reveals sociodemographic pro- 104 JOURNAL OF ADVERTISING RESEARCH March 2004 .001) for nonopinion leaders. an upmarket ready-to-wear brand (e.10.

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................................ Item 3: Diffusion of information Over the last six months how many different people did A small A moderate A large A very large you talk to about women’s Nobody number number number number clothing fashion? 01 02 03 04 05 .................. Item 5: Usefulness of advice given My friend(s) and neighbor(s) feel that if I give them some Neither advice on women’s clothing Quite Rather useless nor Rather Quite fashion.......................................................................... 01 02 03 04 05 ......................................................................................................................................................... My friend(s) My friend(s) Nobody will I would rather I would convince If I had to discuss would convince would rather convince convince my my friend(s) women’s clothing fashion....................... .................................. Item 2: Amount of information shared If you had to talk your friend(s) A very large and neighbor(s) about women’s No Small Moderate A large amount of clothing fashion........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ March 2004 JOURNAL OF ADVERTISING RESEARCH 107 .............................................................. ......................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................. 01 02 03 04 05 Item 4: Ability to convince ......... my advice will probably useless useless useful useful useful be .............................................................TARGETING AND MEDIA PLANNING APPENDIX Measurement Scale of Women’s Clothing Fashion Leadership (Adapted from Ben Miled and Le Louarn Scale.......................................................................... ... me completely convince me the other friend(s) completely most likely ................. how much infor- information amount amount amount information mation would you give them? 01 02 03 04 05 ............................................................ 1994) Item 1: Frequency of discussion Would you say that you generally talk to your friend(s) and From time neighbor(s) about women’s Never Rarely to time Often Very often clothing fashion 01 02 03 04 05 ............................................................................