Interfaced DG Units
H.R. Baghaee, M.Mirsalim, M. J. Sanjari, G.B. Gharehpetian
Center of Excellence on Power system, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Emails: hrbaghaee@aut.ac.ir, mirsalim@aut.ac.ir, m_j_sanjari@aut.ac.ir, grptian@aut.ac.ir ,
Abstract—In this paper, a power control strategy for three phase inverters has also been presented [2730].
parallel inverters of DGs, which are connected to harmonic Some other aspects like maximum current control
polluted grids, is proposed. In order to optimize the strategy, failure isolation and hotswap features and
controller performance, the dualtime sampling scheme is bidirectional power flow in grid connected inverters have
implemented. Also, the parameters of the controller are been investigated in [3135]. In [30,3638], the
optimized by Harmony Search Algorithm. The simulation
results show that by using this scheme the system control
interconnection of DGs to the system using this scheme
delay is minimized, and the proposed controller presents a has been proposed.
high performance even under presence of system harmonics With a pulse width modulation (PWM) based switching
or fault. strategy, the converter connecting DGs to the grid will
contains loworder harmonics. To decrease the current
harmonic content of the DG interconnection, a new
Keywords— Parallel Inverters, Distributed Generation, approach based on space vector pulse width modulation
Harmonics, Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation. (SVPWM) switching strategy is used in this paper. In the
proposed approach, a power control strategy for parallel
inverter interfaced DG units, shown in Fig. 1, is
I. INTRODUCTION presented, too. In order to optimize the parameters of the
The Installation of a variety of smallsize DG is changing controller, Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA) is used.
the traditional structure of distribution systems. The
integration of DG units within the existing infrastructure
requires a full understanding of their impact on power II. SVM SWITCHING STRATEGY
flow and power quality at both customer and utility sides
All modulation techniques try to obtain variable output
[13]. Depending on the distribution system operating
voltage with maximum fundamental component and
characteristics and the DG characteristics, the impacts
minimum harmonics. Many PWM techniques have been
might be positive or negative. DGs have different
developed to let the inverters to posses desired output
characteristics, and therefore, their impact on voltage
characteristics, achieve a wide linear modulation range
control, stability, and system protection will also be
and higher efficiency, and have less switching and
different [47]. DGs should meet various operating
commutation losses and lower Total Harmonic Distortion
requirements of the utilities or the power system
(THD) [3943].
operators [810]. Considering the inherent benefits of
The Space Vector Modulation (SVM) technique is more
power electronic (PE) interfaces [11], they have widely
popular than conventional techniques because it has
used for DG sources. Also, different aspects of DG
lower base band harmonics than regular PWM or
interconnection like power quality and protection issues
sinusoidal PWM (SPWM). SVM increases the output
have been discussed, too [1214].
capability of SPWM without distorting line to line output
As the system load grows, the Uninterruptible Power
voltage waveform. Moreover, SVM has 15% higher
Supply (UPS) needs to be replaced with a higher capacity
fundamental output voltage than conventional modulation
one. Also, if the UPS fails, the entire system is affected.
methods and leads to better DC link utilization [43].
To increase the reliability as well as power capability of
In SVM technique, the three phase quantities can be
the supply system, a single UPS unit can be replaced with
transformed to their equivalent two phase quantity either
a multiple smaller UPS in parallel. This system has many
in synchronously rotating or stationary reference frame
advantages like expandability, modularity,
[44, 45]. The reference vector magnitude can be found
maintainability, redundancy, and increased reliability
using this two phase component and used to modulate the
[15].
inverter output. A three phase sinusoidal voltage set is
To realize the above mentioned goals, different
assumed to be as follows:
approaches have been discussed in [1639]. The load
Va = Vm sin (ωt )
sharing of parallel three phase inverters has been
discussed in [2024]. The current sharing control strategy § 2π ·
Vb = Vm sin ¨¨ ωt − ¸¸
for parallel multiinverter systems to achieve a weighted © 3 ¹ (1)
output current distribution has been introduced in [25, § 2π ·
Vc = Vm sin ¨¨ ωt + ¸
26]. The wireless load sharing and control of parallel © 3 ¸¹
629
9781424417421/08/$25.00
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When this three phase voltage set is applied to the AC Hence, we have:
machine, it produces a rotating flux in the air gap of the Vα + jVβ =
2§ 2 ·
¨Va + aVb + a Vc ¸
AC machine. This rotating flux component can be 3© ¹
2§ § 2π · § 2π · · 2 § § 2π · § 2π · · (6)
represented as a single rotating voltage vector. The = ¨Va + cos¨¨ ¸¸Vb + cos¨¨ 3 ¸¸Vc ¸¸ + j 3 ¨¨ sin ¨¨ 3 ¸¸Vb − sin ¨¨ 3 ¸¸Vc ¸¸
3 ©¨ © 3 ¹
magnitude and angle of the rotating vector can be found © ¹ ¹ © © ¹ © ¹ ¹
by means of Clark’s transformation [4445]. The Separating the real and imaginary parts of (6), results in
representation of the rotating vector in the complex plane the following equations:
has been shown in Fig. 2. 2§ § 2π · § 2π · ·
Vα = ¨¨Va + cos¨ ¸Vb + cos¨ ¸Vc ¸¸ (7)
Space vector representation of the 3 phase quantity can be 3© © 3 ¹ © 3 ¹ ¹
expressed as follows.
2§ § 2π · § 2π · ·
* 2
V = Vα + jVβ = Va + aVb + a 2Vc
3
( ) (2) Vβ = ¨¨ 0Va + sin ¨
3© © 3 ¹
¸Vb − sin ¨ ¸Vc ¸¸
© 3 ¹ ¹
(8)
where, ª § 2π · § 2π · º ªV º
1 cos¨ ¸ cos¨ ¸» a
a = 1∠120$ (3) ªVα º 2 « © 3 ¹ © 3 ¹ ».«V »
« »= «
« b»
V = Vα 2 + Vβ 2 (4) «¬Vβ »¼ 3 «0 sin §¨ 2π ·¸ − sin §¨ 2π ·¸» « »
« 3 3 » ¬Vc ¼
¬ © ¹ © ¹¼
§ Vβ · (9)
α = tan −1¨¨ ¸
¸ (5) ª
1 −
1
−
1 º ªV º
a
© Vα ¹ 2« 2 2 »».«V »
= «
3« 3 3 » « b»
0 − «V »
¬« 2 2 »¼ ¬ c ¼
In the SVM switching strategy, a sinusoidal voltage is
treated as a constant amplitude vector rotating at constant
frequency. The reference voltage, Vref is usually
approximated by a combination of the eight switching
patterns (V0 to V7).Then, threephase voltage vectors are
transformed into a vector in the stationary dq coordinate
frame which represents the spatial vector sum of the
threephase voltages [14].
To realize the SVM switching strategy, direct and
quadrature axis voltage components, Vd and Vq, and the
630 2008 13th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPEPEMC 2008)
reference voltage and angle α must be obtained using and V0. T0 is the period in a sampling period for null
(10). vectors should be filled. As each switching period (half of
ª 1 1 º ªV º sampling period) Tz must start and end with zero vectors,
ªVd º 2 «1 − 2 − an
2 » «V » i.e., there will be two zero vectors per Tz or four null
« »= « » « bn » vectors per Ts, the duration of each null vector is Ts/4
«¬Vq »¼ 3 «0 3
−
3»
«V »
¬« 2 2 ¼» ¬ cn ¼ [43].Therefore, the time duration T1, T2 and T0 can be
(10) calculated as following:
Vref = Vd 2 + Vd 2 T2 T1 T1 + T2 T2
§ Vq · ³ Vref dt = ³ V1dt + ³ V2dt + ³ V2dt
α = tan −1 ¨¨ ¸ = ω s t = 2πf s t
¸ 0 0 T1 T1 + T2
© Vd ¹
T1, T2 and T0 represent the time widths for vectors V1, V2 (
∴Tz Vref = T1V1 + T2V2 )
ª § π ·º
ªcos(α )º 2 ª1 º 2 «cos¨ ¸»
© 3 ¹»
Tz Vref .« » = .T1.Vdc « » + .T2 .Vdc «
¬ sin (α ) ¼ 3 0
¬ ¼ 3 « § π ·»
sin ¨ ¸»
«
¬ © 3 ¹¼
_
V ref
where 0 < α < 60 (11)
§π ·
sin ¨ − α ¸
© 3 ¹
∴T1 = Tz a
§π ·
sin ¨ ¸
©3¹
sin (α )
∴T2 = Tz a
_ §π ·
V2 sin ¨ ¸
©3¹
1 Vref
T0 = Tz − (T1 + T2 ), where, Tz =
_
V ref and a = (12)
fs 2
.Vdc
T2 _ 3
V2
Tz
_ Then, switching time of each switch (S1 to S6) must be
V1
T1 _ determined. The voltage space vector and its components
V1
Tz in dq plane is show in Fig. 3a. The switching sequence
for the lower and upper switches has been shown in
Table. 1.
The above mentioned symmetrical pulse pattern for two
Fig. 3. a) Voltage Space Vector and its components in (d,q) axis consecutive Tz intervals are shown and Ts=2 and Tz=1/fs is
b) Reference vector as a combination of adjacent vectors at sector 1
the sampling time, where fs is switching frequency. Note
that the null time has been conveniently distributed
TABLE. 1 SWITCHING SEQUENCE
between the V0 and V7 vectors to describe the
Sector Upper Switches (S1, lower Switches symmetrical pulse width. Studies have been shown that a
S3, S5) (S4, S6, S2) symmetrical pulse pattern gives minimal output
1 S1=T1+T2+T0/2 S4= T0/2 harmonics [39].
S3= T2+T0/2 S6= T2+T0/2
S5= T0/2 S2= T1+T2+T0/2
2 S1=T1+ T0/2 S4= T2+T0/2 III. CONTROLLER DESIGN
S3= T1+ T2+T0/2 S6= T0/2
S5= T0/2 S2= T1+T2+T0/2 The line currents and the grid voltage at the Point of
Common Coupling (PCC) are feedback variables. These
3 S1= T0/2 S4= T1+T2+T0/2
variables are transformed to the dqo frame by the Park
S3= T1+ T2+T0/2 S6= T0/2
transform as [44] follows:
S5= T2+T0/2 S2= T1+ T0/2
4 S1= T0/2 S4= T1+T2+T0/2
ª
( )
«cos θ g
§
cos¨θ g −
2π · §
¸ cos¨θ g +
3 ¹
2π ·º
¸»
3 ¹» ª f º
S3= T1+T0/2 S6= T2+T0/2 ª fq º « © ©
a
S5= T1+T2+T0/2 S2= T0/2 « » 2«
( )
« f d » = 3 « sin θ g
§
sin ¨θ g −
2π ·
3
§
¸ sin ¨θ g +
2π · » « »
3
¸ » « fb » (13)
5 S1= T2+T0/2 S4= T1+ T0/2 «¬ f 0 »¼ « © ¹ © ¹ »« »
f
« 1 1 1 »¬ c ¼
S3= T0/2 S6= T1+T2+T0/2 « 2 »
2 2
S5= T1+T2+T0/2 S2= T0/2 ¬ ¼
6 S1=T1+T2+T0/2 S4= T0/2 Where,
t
S3= T0/2 S6= T1+T2+T0/2 θ g = ³ ω g (t )dt + α (0) (14)
S5= T1+T0/2 S2= T2+T0/2 0
2008 13th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPEPEMC 2008) 631
Using this transform, the line currents and the PCC (HMS), or the number of solution vectors in the harmony
voltage are transformed to the dq0 frame. Then, the memory; harmony memory considering rate (HMCR);
reference currents of q and d axis can be calculated by the pitch adjusting rate (PAR); number of decision variables
following equations: (N) and the number of improvisations (NI), or stopping
Pref criterion. The harmony memory (HM) is a memory
I q ,ref = location where all the solution vectors (sets of decision
§2· (15)
¨ ¸ × V PCC ,q variables) are stored. This HM is similar to the genetic
©3¹ pool in the GA [48]. Here, HMCR and PAR are
Qref (16) parameters that are used to improve the solution vector
I d ,ref = and both defined in Step 3.
§2·
¨ ¸ × V PCC ,q
©3¹ B. Initialize the harmony memory
The difference between reference and actual currents of q The HM matrix is filled with as many randomly
and d axis are the input of the proportional integral (PI) generated solution vectors as the HMS.
controller. The outputs of PI controllers are added to the
actual q and d axis voltages. The result is the reference q
and d axis voltages. ª x 11 x 21 ... x N1 −1 x N1 º
Tend « 2 »
« x1 x 22 ... x N2 −1 x N2
( )
V d ,ref = V d + K P ,d I d ,ref − I d + K I ,d
³ (I d , ref )
− I d .dt (17) HM = «
»
»
(20)
0 « HMS −1 »
Tend «x 1 x 2HMS −1 ... x NHMS
−1
−1 HMS −1
xN »
(
V q,ref = V q + K P,q I q,ref − I q + K I ,q ) ³ (I q ,ref )
− I q .dt (18) « x HMS
¬ 1 x 2HMS HMS
... x N −1 x NHMS »¼
0
where, Tend is the simulation time. These reference C. Improvise a new harmony
voltages are the input of SVM system. A new harmony vector, x 1′ = (x 1′, x 2′ ,..., x N′ ) , is generated
In the normal operating condition of parallel inverters, the
based on three rules: (1) memory consideration, (2) pitch
converter should compensate the harmonics of the grid.
adjustment and (3) random selection. Generating a new
The controller output signals are used as the input to the
harmony is called ‘improvisation’ [48]. In the memory
SVM pulse generating module.
consideration, the value of the first decision variable x 1′
IV. HARMONY SEARCH ALGORITHM for the new vector is chosen from any value in the
specified HM range (x 11 − x 1HMS ) . Values of the other
The parameters of the controller has been also optimized
using HAS described in the next section. The objective decision variables (x 2′ , x 3′ ,..., x N′ ) are chosen in the same
function is integral of time square of total error (ITSE) manner. The HMCR, which varies between 0 and 1, is the
namely: rate of choosing one value from the historical values
Tend stored in the HM, while (1 _ HMCR) is the rate of
ITSE = ³ t.((I
0
d , ref − Id )2 + (I q,ref − I q )2 )dt (19) randomly selecting one value from the possible range of
values.
The steps in the procedure of HSA are as follows [4647]: °x ′ ∈ {x i1 , x i2 ,..., x i HMS } with probability HMCR
x i′ ← ® i (21)
Step 1: Initialize the problem and algorithm parameters. °̄ x i′ ∈ X i with probability (1 − HMCR )
Step 2: Initialize the harmony memory.
For example, a HMCR of 0.85 indicates that the HS
Step 3: Improvise a new harmony.
algorithm will choose the decision variable value from
Step 4: Update the harmony memory.
historically stored values in the HM with the 85%
Step 5: Check the stopping criterion.
probability or from the entire possible range with the
These steps will be described in the next five subsections.
100–85% probability. Every component obtained by the
memory consideration is examined to determine whether
A. Initialize the problem and algorithm parameters it should be pitchadjusted. This operation uses the PAR
parameter, which is the rate of pitch adjustment as
The optimization problem is specified as follows:
follows:
min {f (x )  x ∈ X } subject to g (x ) ≥ 0 and h (x ) = 0
Y es with probability PAR
where, f(x) is the objective function and g(x) is the x i′ ← ® (22)
¯ No with probability (1 − PAR )
inequality constraint function; h(x) is the equality
constraint function. x is the set of each decision variable, The value of (1 _ PAR) sets the rate of doing nothing. If
x i , and X is the set of the possible range of values for the pitch adjustment decision for x i′ is Yes, x i′ is
each decision variable, that is X i ,min ≤ X i ≤ X i ,max . replaced as follows:
x i′ ← x i′ ± rand () * bw (23)
where X i ,min and X i ,max are the lower and upper bounds
Where, bw is an arbitrary distance bandwidth, rand () is a
for each decision variable. The HSA parameters are also random number between 0 and 1.
specified in this step. These are the harmony memory size
632 2008 13th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPEPEMC 2008)
In Step 3, HM consideration, pitch adjustment or random Case2: Normal condition, DG units are not the same
selection is applied to each variable of the new harmony
In this case, both DG units of parallel inverter interfaced
vector in turn.
are micro turbine generator (MTG) discussed in [49] and
the fuel cell discussed in [50]. The PCC voltage,
D. Update harmony memory
harmonic spectrum and active and reactive power of the
If the new harmony vector, x i′ = ( x 1′, x 2′ ,..., x N′ ) is better
inverters have been shown in Fig. 5. In this case, THD of
than the worst harmony in the HM‘, judged in terms of PCC voltage is equal to 6.63%.
the objective function value, the new harmony is included
in the HM and the existing worst harmony is excluded Case3: Fault condition of case1
from the HM. In this case, a three phase fault has been simulated in the
case 1. The PCC voltage and active and reactive power of
E. Check stopping criterion the inverters have been shown in Fig. 6.
If the stopping criterion (maximum number of
improvisations) is satisfied, computation is terminated. Case4: Fault condition of case 2
Otherwise, Steps 3 and 4 should be repeated. In this case, the three phase fault has been applied to the
case 2. The PCC voltage and active and reactive power of
V. SIMULATION RESULTS the inverters has been shown in Fig. 7. Simulation results
The proposed parallel inverter interfaced DG units has indicate that the proposed controller presents a good
been simulated for four different cases: performance for normal and fault conditions.
Case1: Normal condition
In this case, both DG units of parallel inverter interfaced VI. CONCLUSION
are microturbine generator (MTG) discussed in [49]. The In this paper, a new control strategy for parallel inverter
PCC voltage, harmonic spectrum and active and reactive interfaced distributed generation units have been
power of inverters have been shown in Fig. 4. in this case proposed. The space vector pulse width modulation has
THD of PCC voltage is equal to 4.06%. also used to generate switching signals of parallel
4000
4000
3000
3000
2000 2000
1000 1000
Phase A Voltage (V)
PCC Voltage (V)
0 0
1000 1000
2000 2000
3000 3000
4000 4000
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1 0.03 0.035 0.04 0.045 0.05 0.055 0.06 0.065 0.07 0.075 0.08
Time (sec.) Time (sec.)
a) a)
b) b)
c) c)
Fig. 4. a) PCC voltage, b) Harmonic Fig. 5. a) PCC voltage, b) Harmonic
spectrum and c) active and reactive power spectrum and c) active and reactive power
for case1 for case2
2008 13th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPEPEMC 2008) 633
4000 4000
Voltage of phase A
3000 3000
2000 2000
1000 1000
1000 1000
2000 2000
3000 3000
4000 4000
0.03 0.035 0.04 0.045 0.05 0.055 0.06 0.065 0.07 0.075 0.08 0.03 0.035 0.04 0.045 0.05 0.055 0.06 0.065 0.07 0.075 0.08
Time (sec) Time (sec.)
a) a)
b) b)
634 2008 13th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPEPEMC 2008)
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Hamid Reza Baghaee (IEEE Student Member'
Inverters in Distributed Generation Systems”, Power Electronics, IEEE
2008) received the BSc degree in Electrical
Transactions on
Engineering from Kashan University in 2006.
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Currently he is graduate student of Power
[31] X. Rihui, L. Yunfeng, Z. Jixiang, “Modeling and Analysis of
Engineering in Amirkabir University of
Stability for Parallel Inverters Operated with Instantaneous Maximum
Technology. His research interests are power
Current Control Strategy”, Computational Engineering in Systems
system dynamic and control, HVDC & FACTS
Applications, IMACS Multiconference on Volume , Issue , Oct. 2006
devices, Distributed Generation (DG) and
Page(s):1701  1706
application of Artificial Intelligence in power
[32] T.F. Wu et al., “Design and implementation of a paralleled
systems.
inverter system with failure isolation and hotswap feature,” in Proc.
IEEE Appl. Power Electron. Conf., Feb. 2005, pp. 531–536.
Mojtaba Mirsalim (IEEE Senior Member' 2004)
[33] W. TsaiFu, H. HuiMing, W. YuEn, C. YuKai, “ParallelInverter
was born in Tehran, Iran, on February 14, 1956.
System With Failure Isolation and HotSwap Features”, Industry
He received his B.S. degree in EECS/NE, M.S.
Applications, IEEE Transactions on
degree in Nuclear Engineering from the
Volume 43, Issue 5, Sept.oct. 2007 Page(s):1329  1340
University of California, Berkeley in 1978 and
[34] H. Matthias and S. Helmut, “Control of a three phase inverter
1980 respectively, and the PhD in Electrical
feeding an unbalanced load and operating in parallel with other power
Engineering from Oregon State University,
sources,” in Proc. EPEPEMC’02 Conf., 2002, pp. 1–10.
Corvallis in 1986. Since 1987 he has been at
[35] Seshadri Sivakuma;, Tom Parsons and Shyamalt Sivakuma,
Amirkabir University of Technology, has served
“Modeling analysis and control of Bidirectional Power Flow in Grid
5 years as the Vice Chairman and more than 7 years as the General
Connected Inverter Systems”, IEEE conference of PCC, Osaka, 2002.
Director in Charge of Academic Assessments, and currently is a Full
pp. 10151019.
Professor in the department of Electrical Engineering where he teaches
[36] C.C. Hua, K.A. Liao, and J.R. Lin, “Parallel operation of
courses and conducts research in energy conversion and CAD, among
inverters for distributed photovoltaic power supply system,” in Proc.
others.
IEEE PESC’02 Conf., 2002, pp. 1979–1983.
His special fields of interest include the design, analysis, prototyping,
[37] S. R. Wall, “Performance of inverter interfaced distributed
and optimization of electric machines, renewable energy, FEM, and
generation,” in Proc. IEEE/PESTransmission and Distribution Conf.
hybrid vehicles. Mirsalim is the author of more than 100 international
Expo., 2001, pp. 945–950.
journal and conference papers and three books on electric machinery
[38] K. De Brabandere, B. Bolsens, J. Van den Keybus, A. Woyte, J.
and FEM. He is the founder and at present, the director of the Electrical
Driesen, R. Belmans,”A Voltage and Frequency Droop Control Method
Machines & Transformers Research Laboratory at
http://ele.aut.ac.ir/EMTRL/Homepage.htm
2008 13th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPEPEMC 2008) 635
Mohammad Javad Sanjari received the BSc
degree in Electrical Engineering from Amirkabir
University of Technology in 2006. Currently he
is graduate student of Power Engineering in
Amirkabir University of Technology. His
research interests are power system dynamic and
control, power system security assessment,
HVDC & FACTS devices, Distributed
Generation (DG) and application of Artificial
Intelligence in power systems.
636 2008 13th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPEPEMC 2008)