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You are on page 1of 4

Pens, pencils, erasers, and straight edges allowed. No books. No crib sheets. Calcu-

lators allowed.

If you have a difficulty you may try making REASONABLE assumptions. State

the assumption and how that assumption limits your answer. Show all your work and

justify all your answers. Marks are given for how an answer is arrived at not just the

answer itself.

Do ALL 7 questions given.

Total of 65 marks.

1. It may seem counterintuitive, but the distribution of the first significant digit

in many collections of numbers is NOT uniform on the integers 1 through 9,

but follows Benford's distribution which is as follows:

One use of this distribution is in auditing financial records. The idea is that if

the books have been artificially altered, the distribution of the first significant

digit will differ markedly from what is predicted by Benfords's distribution.

Suppose that Revenue Canada is auditing the records of a large company.

(a) If the numbers in the company's records follow Benford's distribution, what

is the probability that a randomly chosen number from the company's

records has a first significant digit of 1? (2 marks)

(b) If 1000 numbers are selected randomly from the company's records and if

Y is the number of those 1000 that start with 1, what is the distribution

of y ? Be sure to state all parameters of the distribution. (2 marks)

(c) If of the 1000 numbers sampled from the financial data sheets 120 started

with 1 form a 95% confidence interval of the portion p of all numbers in

the financial records that start with 1. (4 marks)

(d) If of the 1000 numbers sampled from the financial data sheets 120 started

with 1 would you conclude that there is evidence that the financial records

have been artificially altered? Explain. (2 marks)

(a) If you sample this signal determine the distribution of the sample value.

Specifically determine the distribution of Y where Y = cos 9 where 9 is

uniformly distributed on [0, 27r]. (8 marks)

The following calculus formula may be useful:

d -1

— cos - I

ax

3. Given two random variables X and Y, plot them on the x—y plane. The distance

from that point to the origin is R = \/X + Y . If X and Y are independent

2 2

gaussian random variables both with mean 0 and standard deviation a then R

has a Rayleigh distribution which is

(a) Determine the probability that the point lands more than 0.75a from the

origin. (3 marks)

(b) Determine the mean of R. (Hint: Compare the equation you develop

for the mean with the second moment of some gaussian distribution.) (4

marks)

(c) Determine the probability that 2X + Y is more than 3a. (3 marks)

4. Twenty rebuilt pumps were sampled from the hydraulics shop of an aircraft

rework facility. The number of defects for each pump is given below.

P u m p Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

No. of defects 6 3 4 0 2 7 3 1 0 0

P u m p Number 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

No. of defects 4 3 2 2 6 5 0 7 2 1

(b) Determine the sample median of the number of defects. (2 marks)

(c) Determine the sample mode of the number of defects. (2 marks)

(d) Determine the sample variance of the number of defects. (2 marks)

(e) Determine the sample standard deviation of the number of defects. (1

marks)

(f) Determine the sample range of the number of defects. (1 marks)

5. The arrival of phone calls at certain business is a poisson process with an average

of 10 calls per hour.

(b) W h a t is the standard deviation of the number of calls in one hour? (2

marks)

(c) If the calls are routed by a receptionist in 30 seconds, what is the proba-

bility that a new call will arrive before the receptionist has time to route

the current call? (2 marks)

(d) W h a t is the mean interarrival time of calls? (2 marks)

(e) W h a t is the standard deviation of the interrival time? (2 marks)

6. Consider two discrete random variables X and Y whose support is shown in the

figure. Each of the points shown are equally likely.

• • •

• • • •

• • • •

• • • •

•• •

-•

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

(b) Determine the conditional distribution of Y when X is 2. (3 marks)

(c) Are X and Y independent. Justify your response. (2 marks)

(d) Determine the probability that a point plotted on the plane according to

this distribution is more t h a n 3 units from the origin in distance. (2 marks)

7. In a paper factory paper is cut with knife blades. If the blade is "sharp" only

1% of the paper exhibits rough edges. If the blade if "average" 3% of the paper

exhibits rough edges. Finally if the blade is "dull" 5% of the paper exhibits

rough edges. If 25% of blades in the factory are sharp, 60% are average, and

15% are dull what is the portion of all paper that has rough edges? (5 marks)

S o m e Useful E q u a t i o n s

fix I y) =

f { l y )

fiv)

a\ = E[(X - ^ f]

x

<?XY

PXY =

k 2

n 2

i=l Z

N

1 _ n+l

r

f{x) = ) p*q - n x

«-(::!)^

e- {Xt) xt x

fix

\/2TI(7

z= ~ x l i x

ox

f{x) = ^eT

/ a ^ - V ' d x = (a - 1)!

M it)

x = E[e ] tx

1 *

S2

=

Ef (^-x) =1

2

N - 1

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