Metacognition From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Metacognition is defined as "cognition about cognition", or "knowing about knowing.

"[1] It can take many forms; it includes knowledge about when and how to use particular strategies for learning or for problem solving. [1] Metamemory, defined as knowing about memory and mnemonic strategies, is an especially important form of metacognition." [2] Differences in metacognitive processing across cultures have not been widely studied, but could provide better outcomes in cross-cultural learning between teachers and students. [3] Some evolutionary psychologists hypothesize that metacognition is used as a survival tool, which would make metacognition the same across cultures. [3] Writings on metacognition can be traced back at least as far as De Anima and the Parva Naturalia of the Greek philosopher Aristotle.[4] [edit] Definitions

J. H. Flavell first used the word "metacognition". [5] He describes it in these words: Metacognition refers to one¶s knowledge concerning one¶s own cognitive processes or anything related to them, e.g., the learning -relevant properties of information or data. For example, I am engaging in metacognit ion if I notice that I am having more trouble learning A than B; if it strikes me that I should double check C before accepting it as fact. ²J. H. Flavell (1976, p. 232). A. Demetriou, in his theory, one of the neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development, used the term hypercognition to refer to self -monitoring, selfrepresentation, and self-regulation processes, which are regarded as integral components of the human mind. [6] Moreover, with his colleagues, he showed that these processes participate in general intelligence, together with processing efficiency and reasoning, which have traditionally been considered to compose fluid intelligence.[7] Different fields define metacognition very differently. Metacognition variously refers to the study of memory-monitoring and self-regulation, meta-reasoning, consciousness/awareness and auto-consciousness/self-awareness. In practice these capacities are used to regulate one's own cognition, to maximize one's potential to think, learn and to the evaluation of proper ethical/moral rules.

to guide study choices). in Dunlosky & Bjork. Metacognitive regulation is the regulation of cognition and learning experiences through a set of activities that help people control their learning. 3. monitoring comprehension. Narens) is between Monitoring²making judgments about the strength of one's memories ²and Control²using those judgments to guide behavior (in particular. Planning the way to approach a learning task. 2. which receives (monitors) sensory signals from other cortical regions and through feedback loops implements control (see chapters by Schwartz & Bacon and Shimamura. 2008). Metacognition refers to a level of thinking that involves active control over the process of thinking that is used in learning situations. Metacognition has been used. maintaining motivation to see a task to completion is also a metacognitive skill. metacognitive monitoring and control has been viewed as a function of the prefrontal cortex. to describe one's own knowledge that we will die.In the domain of experimental psychology. In the domain of cognitive neuroscience. The theory that metacognition has a critical role to play in successful learning means it is important that it be demonstrated by both students and teachers. Metacognitive knowledge (also called metacognitive awareness) is what individuals know about themselves and others as cognitive processors. The ability to become aware of distracting stimuli ± both internal and external ± and sustain effort over time also involves metacognitive or executive functions. albeit off the original definition. on-going cognitive endeavor. an influen tial distinction in metacognition (proposed by T. and Baker (2007) covered this distinction in a recent review of metamemory research that focused on how findings from this domain can be applied to other areas of applied research. Serra. and evaluating the progress towards the completion of a task: these are skills that are metacognitive in their nature. Metacognitive experiences are those experiences that have something to do with the current. Similarly. Nelson & L. Therefore it is the domain of interest of emergent systemics. [2] Metacognition is studied in the domain of artificial intelligence [8] and modeling. [citation needed] Metacognition is classified into three components: [citation needed] 1. Dunlosky. O. Students who demonstrate a wide . Writers in the 1990s involved with the musical "grunge" kabayo scene often used the term to describe self -awareness of mortality.

The metacognologist is aw are of their own strengths and weaknesses. There is evidence that rhesus monkeys and apes can make accurate judgments about the strengths of their memories of fact and monitor their own uncertainty [9]. they are more likely to be useful in different types of learning situations. [edit] Relation to sapience Metacognologists believe that the ability to consciously think about thinking is unique to sapient species and indeed is one of the definitions of sapience. Domain specific refers to metacognition which is applied in particular subject or content areas. Being engaged in metacognition is a salient feature of good self-regulated learners. Another distinction in metacognition is executive management and strategic knowledge. 2001). especially. and context independent. when it comes to the discussion of self-regulated learning.[14] [edit] Metacognitive strategies The metacognitive-like processes are ubiquitous. Individuals with a high level of metacognitive knowledge and skill identify blocks to learning as early as possible and change "tools" or strategies to ensure goal attainment.[11][12][13] but further analysis suggested that they may have been following simple operant conditioning principles.range of metacognitive skills perform better on exams and complete work more efficiently. A broader repertoire of "tools" also assists in goal attainment. the nature of the task at hand. generic. and available "tools" or skills. The activities of strategy selection and application . Both executive management and strategic knowledge metacognition are needed to self -regulate one's own thinking and learning (Hartman. They are self-regulated learners who utilize the "right tool for the job" and modify learning strategies and skills based on their awareness of effectiveness. Finally. monitoring. knowing when and why (conditional or contextual knowledge) and knowing how (procedural or methodological knowledge). Groups reinforcing collective discussion of metacognition is a salient feature of self -critical and selfregulating social groups. while attempts to demonstrate metacognition in birds have been inconclusive. there is a distinction between domain general and domain -specific metacognition. Executive management processes involve planning. When "tools" are general. such as setting goals. evaluating and revising one's own thinking processes an d products. [10] A 2007 study has provided some evidence for metacognition in rats. such as editing an essay or verifying one's answer to a mathematics problem. Strategic knowledge involves knowing what (factual or declarative knowledge). Domain general refers to metacognition which transcends particular subject or content areas.

concept maps. evaluate.2 Metacognitive skills are important not only in school. argues that the physical act of writing plays a large part in the development of metacognitive skil ls (as cited in Gam Metacognitive Skills 1 Metacognition refers to learners' automatic awareness of their own knowledge and their ability to understand. flow charts. "What do I already know about this topic? How have I solved problems like this before?").g. monitor. Garner. 2010).g. this has led to emphasis on the development of reflective practice. Metacognition is 'stable' in that learners' initial decisions derive from the pertinent fact about their cognition through years of learning experience. This new development has been much related to Flavell (1979). the notion has been applied to the study of second language learners in the field of TESOL [1] and applied linguistics in general (e. emotion. [1] Strategies for promoting metacognition include self -questioning (e. semantic webs) of one's thoughts and knowledge.include those concerned with an ongoing attempt to plan. In addition to exploring the relationships between learner metacognition and performance. select. Learner metacognition is defined and investigated by examining their person knowledge. Individuals need to regulate their thoughts about the strategy they are usi ng and adjust it based on the situation to which the strategy is being applied. in first language contexts. Mumford (1986) says that it is essential that an . 2005. Recently. where the notion of metacognition is elaborated within a tripartite theoretical framework. and Chamot. Zhang. Zhang. 1987. check. control. Simultaneously. For example. researchers are also interested in the effects of metacognitively -oriented strategic instruction on reading comprehension (e. and manipulate their own cognitive processes. Wenden. revise. Wenden (1991) has proposed and used this framework and Zhang (2001) has adopted this approach and investigated second lang uage learners' metacognition or metacognitive knowledge. Carr.g.g. The efforts are aimed at developing learner autonomy. At a professional level. 2002. and so forth. independence and self-regulation. task knowledge and strategy knowledge. but throughout life. Metacognition helps people to perform many cognitive tasks more effectively. particularly in the education and health-care professions. it is also 'situated' in the sense that it depends on learners' familiarity with the task. 1994. 2010). etc. motivation.. and making graphic representations (e.. 2001. thinking aloud while performing a task.

relating different parts of the passage to one another. 2. The concept of self-regulation overlaps heavily with the preceding two terms. Metacognition overlaps heavily with some of these other terms. (b) knowledge of which strategy to use for a par ticular memory task. This term refers to the learners' ability to monitor the degree to which they understand information being communicated to them. looking for topic sentences or summary paragraphs. Metacognition is a relatively new field. This refers to the learners' awareness of and knowledge about their own memory systems and strategies for using their memories effectively. learners who are mo re adept at metacomprehension will check for confusion or inconsistency.effective manager be a person who has learned to learn. to recognize failures to comprehend. Metamemory includes (a) awareness of different memory strategies. The terminology simply supplies an additional useful way to look at thought processes. As you read this section. such as rereading. Metamemory. .. and (c) knowledge of how to use a given memory strategy most effectively.a person who can identify and overcome blocks to learning and can bring learning from off -the-job learning to on-the-job situations.add more) 3. This term refers to the learners' ability to make adjustments in their own learning processes in response to their perception of feedback regarding their current sta tus of learning. 1988. Learners with poor metacomprehension skills often finish reading passages without even knowing that they have not understood them. and to employ repair strategies when failures are identified. (See Harris et al. However. Self-Regulation. do not worry about distinguishing between metacognitive skills and some of the other terms in this chapter. Metacomprehension. H e describes this person as one who knows the stages in the process of learning and understands his or her own preferred approaches to it . and undertake a corrective strategy. or relating the current information to prior knowledge. . most metacognitive research falls within the following categories: 1. On the other hand. and theorists have not yet settled on conventional terminology.

and to make adjustments when something goes wrong. and evaluating their use of these strategies. and manipulate one's own cognitive processes. Being aware of the importance of a positive attitude and deliberately fostering such an attitude is an example of a metacognitive skill. (It's easier to point out examples of metacognitive activity than to define what it is. Graham & Harris.its focus is on the ability of the learners themselves to monitor their own learning (without external stimuli or persuasion) and to maintain the attitudes necessary to invoke and employ these strategies on their own. good readers automatically (unconsciously) employ metacognitive strategies to focus their attention. In the preceding paragraph. 1989. If these skills were not automatic and unconscious.) In addition to its obvious cognitive components. listening. metacognition has been described as a conscious awareness of one's own knowledge and the conscious ability to understand.. This is not quite accurate. Borkowski. Reid & Harris. like any other skill that becomes automatic . 1979. but also become capable of adequately selecting. To learn most effectively. or when they have to advise someone else regarding the same skill . to derive meaning. (See Hallahan et al. For example. employing. an important part of comprehension is approaching a reading task with the attitude that the topic is important and worth comprehending.they slow down and become consciously aware of t heir metacognitive activity. students should not only understand what strategies are available and the purposes these strategies will serve. and other cognitive activities less efficient. but if we ask them what they were doing that was successful.) It would be more accurate to say that meta cognitive strategies are almost always potentially conscious and potentially controllable (Pressley. They do not think about or label these skills while performing them. control. & Schneider. when they encounter extremely difficult or contradictory text. 1993. they can usually describe their metacognitive processes accurately. these skills become most effective whe n they become overlearned and automatic. metacognition often has important affective or personality components. but it's difficult to define metacognition more accurately. monitoring. Therefore. and this would have the result of making reading. 1992. For example. when serious problems arise . 1987). In addition.as when there is a distraction. they would occupy some of the effort of the working memory. While it is occasionally useful to consciously reflect on one's metacognitive processes and while it useful to make learners aware of these processes while they are trying to acquire them.

They talk to themselves about the metacognitive process. but it i s their talk to themselves that is essential. and sometimes it occurs during personal experience. metacognitive skills are learned by applying principles from almost every other chapter in this book. This proper focusing of attention puts the necessary information into working memory (Chapter 6) .and requires minimal activity in the working memory. They focus their attention on what it is that they or someone else does that is metacognitively useful. 2. they begin to use the process without even being aware that they are doing so. 3. It enables them to practice the process (Chapter 3). When learning a metacognitive skill. It enables them to transfer the process to new situations beyond those in which it has already been used (Chapters 3 and 6). Borkowski. 4. 1987): 1. They establish a motivation to learn a metacognitive process. learners typically go through the following steps (Pressley. This talk can arise during their interactions with others. This self talk serves several purposes: o o o o It enables them to understand and encode the process (Chapter 6). metacognitive skills work best when they are overlearned and can operate unconsciously. and it is often the process of formulating . they often use the scaffolded instruction strategies described in chapter 12. When teachers intervene to help students develop a m etacognitive process. (Motivation is discussed in chapter 5). & Schneider. Learners with good metacognitive skills are able to mon itor and direct their own learning processes. the techniques of cooperative learning and peer tutoring (discussed in Chapter 15) often provide opportunities for students to talk to others about their thought processes. Sometimes this focusing of attention can occur through modeling (Chapter 12). It enables them to obtain feedback and to make ad justments regarding their effective use of the process (Chapters 3 and 12). This occurs when either they themselves or someone else points gives them reason to believe that there would be some benefit to knowing how to app ly the process. This process usually represents a high-level implementation of the phases of learning and instruction described by Gagne and discussed in Chapter 3 of this book. Like many other processes. In addition. Eventually.

On the other hand. they must find a way to help them develop both an automatic grasp of basic skills and effective metacognitive skills to enable self -directed learning. then the working memory of the learner will be overwhelmed by the subject matter. . instead of simply telling them what to do. they not only have solved the problem less effectively. Students typically learn metacognitive skills while they are involved in learning something else . If that prerequisite knowledge has not been mastered to a sufficient level of automaticity. when children who are missing some of these prerequisite skills try to solve the same problem. it is important not to do too much thinking for them. because their working memory is not totally occupied with other demands. but they also have little or no time for practicing or developing metacognitive skills. adults or knowledgeable peers may make them experts at seeking help. If teachers hope to help low-performing students break out of their intellectual imprisonment. If this is the case. For example. By doing their thinking for the children they wish to help. adults can help children become independent and successful thinkers (Biemiller & Meichenbaum. Finally. If they are to do this successfully. it is extremely important that the learners have overlearned the prerequisite content knowledge for the subject matter topic being studied. 1992). and metacognitive skills enable students to master information and solve problems more easily. they can afford to talk to themselves about what they are doing. it is interesting to note an important relationship between the higher order skills of metacognition and the basic or factual skills that may be a part of a specific unit of instruction. when children who have largely mastered the prerequisite skills try to solve a word problem in arithmetic. it is often better to say. The preceding paragraph describes how the intellectual rich get richer and the poor get poorer.thoughts in order to express them to others that leads to metacognitive development (Piaget. In ot her words. well prepared children will have time for metacognitive practice. What should you do next?" and then to prompt the children as necessary. by setting tasks at an appropriate level and prompting children to think about what they are doing as they successfully complete these tasks. rather than expert thinkers. That is. On the othe r hand. 1964). their working memory is likely to be totally occupied with a fran tic need to find the basic skills and facts needed to solve the problem. When teachers and parents try to help students. and the result will be no time for metacognitive reflection. Knowledge of factual information and basic skills provides a foundation for developing metacognitive skills.

Metacognition: An Overview Jennifer A. Livingston © 1997 by Jennifer A. and has been associated with intelligence (e. a student who adheres to a belief that the best way to learn scientific concepts is to repeat the definitions ten times each night before going to bed is not as likely to come to an understanding of these concepts as a person who has a more effective conception of how to master these concepts. you'll also be able to use them to monitor and improve your own thought processes. Livingston "Metacognition" is one of the latest buzz words in educational psychology. yet its not as daunting a concept as it might seem.g. monitoring comprehension.. For example. 1986). In chapter 1 I suggested that you apply various strategies while reading this book. There are numerous definitions and theories of metacognitive skills (e.Misconceptions with regard to specific subject matter were discussed in Chapters 4 and 6. 1986a. 1979. Corno. Activities such as planning how to approach a given learning task. Metacognition refers to higher order thinking which involves active control over the cognitive processes engaged in learning. Borkowski. We engage in metacognitive activities everyday. 1984. Metacognition enables us to be successful learners..g. 1987. Flavell. there is a good chance that by now you understand the rationale of ma ny of these principles and can see how they contribute to your own learning. If you have done so. but what exactly is metacognition? The length and abstract nature of the word makes it sound intimidating. note that a major purpose of this book is to help you develop your metacognitive skills. 1986b). Finally. you will not only be able to use these principles to teach others more effectively. Sternberg. By becoming consciously aware of these strategies and how they work. & Pressley. That's metacognition! Footnote: 1. Wittrock (1991) notes that learners' misconceptions about learning-to-learn skills and about metacognitive strategies are also a critical source of learning problems. and evaluating progress toward the . Carr.

it is important to study metacognitive activity and development to determine how students can be taught to better apply their cognitive resources through metacogniti ve control. For example. Although the term has been part of the vocabulary of educational psychologists for the last couple of decades. Because metacognition plays a critical role in successful learning. you may be aware that it will take more time for you to read and comprehend a science text than it would for you to read and comprehend a novel. Finally. defining metacognition is not that simple. (1979)..g. knowledge about strategy variables include knowledge about both . and these terms are often used interchangeably in the literature. Knowle dge of task variables include knowledge about the nature of the task as well as the type of processing demands that it will place upon the individual. 1996 for a full discussion).completion of a task are me tacognitive in nature. 1994. The term "metacognition" is most often associated with John Flavell. Metacognitive Knowledge Stated very briefly.g. task variables and strategy variables. as well as individual knowledge of one's own learning processes. meta memory). all emphasize the role of executive processes in the overseeing and regulation of cognitive processes. For example. Metacognitive knowledge refers to acquired knowledge about cognitive processes.. and the concept for as long as humans have been able to reflect on their cognitive experiences. 1987). While there are some distinctions between definitions (see Van Zile -Tamsen. knowledge of person variables refers to general knowledge about how human beings learn and pr ocess information. executive control). According to Flavell (1979. knowledge that can be used to control cognitive processes. there is much debate over exactly what metacognition is. self regulation. you may be aware that your study session will be more productive if you work in the quiet library rather than at home where there are many distractions. or an aspect of that phenomenon (e. metaco gnition consists of both metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive experiences or regulation." In actuality. One reason for this confusion is the fact that there are several terms currently used to describe the same b asic phenomenon (e. Flavell further divides metacognitive knowledge into three categories: knowledge of person variables. "Metacognition" is often simply defined as "thinking about thinking.

Metacognitive Regulation Metacognitive experiences involve the use of metacognitive strategies or metacognitive regulation (Brown. Cognitive vs. These processes help to regulate and oversee learning. there are a number of problems associated with using such definitions.cognitive and metacognitive strategies. the metacognitive strategy of self-questioning is used to ensure that the cognitive goal of comprehension is met.g. she may determine that she understands the material. Metacognitive Strategies Most definitions of metacognition include both knowledge and strategy components. understanding a text) has been met. 1987). as well as checking the outcomes of those activities. For example. If. Recall that metacognition is referred to as "thinking about thinking" and . One major issue involves separating what is cognitive from what is metacognitive. after reading a paragraph in a text a learner may question herself about the concepts discussed in the paragraph. and to ensure that a cognitive goal (e. after re-reading through the text she can now answer the questions. Thus. as well as conditional knowledge about when and where it is appropriate to use such strat egies. She may decide to go back and re -read the paragraph with the goal of being able to answer the questions she had generated. is the knowledge that you have difficulty understanding principles from bio -chemistry cognitive or metacognitive knowledge? Flavell himself acknowledges that metacognitive knowledge may not be different from cognitive knowledge (Flavell. however. What is the difference between a cognitive and a metacognitive strategy? Can declarative knowledge be metacognitive in nature? For example. 1979). Metacognitive strategies are sequential processes that one uses to control cognitive activities.. Her cognitive goal is to understand the text. and consist of planning and monitoring cognitive activities. The distinction lies in how the informat ion is used. she must then determine what needs to be done to ensure that she meets the cognitive goal of understanding the text. or that she does not understand the material discussed. Self-questioning is a common metacognitive comprehension monitoring strategy. If she finds that she can not answer her own questions.

Metacognition and Intelligence Metacognition. such as the recognition that one did not understand what one just read. Such an impasse is believed to activate metacognitive processes as the learner attempts to rectify t he situation (Roberts & Erdos. a student may use knowledge in planning how to approach a math exam: "I know that I (person variable) have difficulty with word problems (task variable). any attempt to examine one without acknowledging the other would not provide an adequate picture. 1987. 1986b). quizzing oneself to evaluate one's understanding of that text). 1986a. 1984.g.involves overseeing whether a cognitive goal has been met. This should be the defining criterion for determining what is metacognitive. 1984. so I will answer the computational problems first and save the word problems for last (strate gy variable). or the ability to control one's cognitive processes (self regulation) has been linked to intelligence (Borkowski et al. For example. 1986a. They often occur when cognitions fail." Simply possessing knowledge about one's cognitive strengths or weaknesses and the nature of the task without actively utilizing this information to oversee learning is not metacognitive. 1993). could be regarded as either a cognitive or a metacognitive strategy depending on what the purpose for using that strat egy may be. Sternberg. Metacognitive and cognitive strategies may overlap in that the same strategy. Cognitive strategies are used to help an individual achieve a particular goal (e. you may use a self -questioning strategy while reading as a means of obtaining knowledge (cognitive). Knowledge is considered to be metacognitive if it is actively used in a strategic manner to ensure that a goal is met. such as questioning. 1986b). For example. metacomponents are responsible for "figuring out how to do a particular task or set of tasks. understanding a text) while metacognitive strategies are used to ensure that the goal has been reached (e. Brown. and then making sure . Because cognitive and metacognitive strategies are closely intertwined and dependent upon each other.g. Metacomponents are executive processes that control other cognitive components as well as receive feedback from these components. Metacognitive experiences usually precede or follow a cognitive activity.. or as a way of monitoring what you have read (metacognitive)... 1987. Sternberg refers to these executive processes as "metacomponents" in his triarchic theory of intelligence (Sternberg. According to Sternberg.

1996). & Pressley. and productive in their learning endeavors (Scheid. Schneider. the most effective involve providing the learner with both knowledge of cognitive processes and strategies (to be used as metacognitive knowledge). Use of these strategies have been associated with successful lear ning (Borkowski. Metacognition and Cognitive Strategy Instruction Although most individuals of normal inte lligence engage in metacognitive regulation when confronted with an effortful cognitive task. Those with greater metacognitive abilities tend to be more successful in their cognitive endeavors. Carr. flexible. such as deciding how and when a given task should be accomplished. 1990). 1987. Metacognition enables students to benefit from instruction (Carr. Simply providing knowledge without experience or vice versa does not seem to be sufficient for the development of metacognitive control (Li vingston. p. The study of metacognition has provided educational psychologists with insight about the cognitive processes involved in learning and what differentiates . and experience or practice in using both cognitive and metacognitive strategies and evaluating the outcomes of their efforts (develops metacognitive regulation). Van Zile -Tamsen. Garner. self-reliant. Sternberg maintains that the ability to appropriately allocate cognitive resources. which can be taught to most students (Halpern. These executive processes involve planning. Cognitive Strategy Instruction (CSI) is an instructional approach which emphasizes the development of thinking skills and processes as a means to enhance learning. Most often.that the task or set of tasks are done correctly" (Sternberg. Kurtz. Wh ile there are several approaches to metacognitive instruction. CSI is based on the assumption that there are identifiable cognitive strategies. Turner & Borkowski. 1993). previously believed to be utilized by only the best and the brightest students. 24). 1989. The good news is that individuals can learn how to better regulate their cognitive activities. 1996) and influences the use and maintenance of cognitive strategies. some are more metacognitive than others. is central to intelligence. 1986b. evaluating and monitoring problem solving activities. metacognitive instruction occurs within Cognitive Strategy Instruction programs. 1996). The objective of CSI is to enable all students to become more strategic.

21-29). (1987).successful students from their less successful peers. Flavell. M.. Educational Psychology. motivation. (1987). & Pressely. Review of Educational Research. R. Strategy acquisition and transfer among German and American children: Environmental influences on metacognitive development. 11. MA: Brookline Books. Flavell.. K. J. E. 259-266. W. J. (1979). Turner. Thought and knowledge: An introduction to critical thinking. Hillsdale. Helping students become strategic learners: Guidelines for teaching. (1996).. E. F. H. G. Schneider. Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive-developmental inquiry. & Borkowski. Mahwah. Developmental Psychology. Garner. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Carr. and other more mysterious mechanisms. Metacognition. (1989). In F. executive control. J. M. J. Weinert & R. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 13. E. Weinert & R. Hillside. Metacognition. H. Halpern. 25. Kurtz. (1996). State University of New York at Buffalo. 65-116). M. (1987). Carr.. L. J. It also holds several implications for instructional interventions. Cambridge. and understanding (pp. B. (1993). When children and adults do not use learning strategies: Toward a theory of settings. M. (1993). In F.). 906-911. Livingston. Kluwe (Eds. Kluwe (Eds. A. Unpublished manuscript. 517-529. such as teaching students how to be more aware of their learning processes and products as well as how to regulate those processes for more effective learning. 765-771. 34. (1990).. Roberts. 61-75. Strategy selection and metacognition. References Borkowski. Motivation and Understanding (pp. Intelligence. Metacognition.. self -regulation. A. G. "Spontaneous" strategy use: Perspectives from metacognitive theory.. 60. . Scheid. J.). A. L. Publishers. American Psychologist. Effects of metacognitive instruction on strategy use of college students. D. & Erdos. Brown. H. Speculations about the nature and development of metacognition. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. H.

M. What should intelligence tests test? Implications for a triarchic theory of intelligence for intelligence testing. Sternberg. (1986a). (1986b). Sternberg. C. The role of motivation in metacognitive self-regulation. 13 (1). Van Zile-Tamsen. (1994). (1996). J. Educational Researcher. Metacognitive self-regualtion and the daily academic activities of college students. M. R. R. (1984). Unpublished doctoral dissertation. State University of New York at Buffalo. Unpublished manuscript. Inside intelligence. American Scientist.Sternberg. 137-143. State University of New York at Buffalo. C. Publishers. J. 74. Intelligence applied. R. Van Zile-Tamsen. . J. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. 5-15.