What Life Could Be Like Living in a Resource Based Economy

• What is, and what do you think about it, the relationship between habitat and place of living? Which variables do you consider in conceiving architecture, or even a city?

The city of the future must be designed as a totally integrated environment with clean renewable sources of energy, schools, shopping centers, health care, education, transportation, waste recycling, agriculture and entertainment. These city systems can not be built by architects alone but also require an interdisciplinary team of professionals such as sociologists, computer analysts, material scientists, environmental scientists, systems engineers, behavioral scientists, educators, etc..  Can you briefly describe the process you used in designing the Circular City? What factors where most important? The factors that were most important were to design a self-sufficient system where schools, transportation, housing, agriculture, health care, research facilities for innovation, and a productive healthy lifestyle for all were incorporated into the total design.  What kind of change do you expect in architecture? Ending pollution and waste while keeping a high standard of living will require profound changes in the way we plan cities and conduct human affairs. While some advocate modifying existing cities and spend lots of time and resources attempting to update them, I find such attempts inadequate. Modification carries a large price in dollars and sustaining resources. Modifying and building onto what we have means supporting older infrastructure and energy requirements, a high cost for operation and maintenance thereof, overall inefficiency, and detrimental effects on occupants. It is less expensive to build new cities from the ground up than to restore and maintain old ones, just as it is more efficient to use state-of-the art production methods than to upgrade obsolete factories. The innovative multi-dimensional circular cities I propose use the most sophisticated resources and construction techniques. The geometrically elegant circular arrangement, surrounded by parks and gardens, is designed to operate with a minimum expenditure of energy while obtaining the highest possible standard of living. The city would use totally clean technology in harmony with the local ecology. When we see a city as a biome that grows and adapts, and requires energy, food, water, disposal systems, and arteries for transportation of goods and people, our ideas about space and permanence change dramatically. Our present haphazard growth patterns reflect available space and access rather than cohesive planning. Joining city elements together in a predetermined way conserves energy and provides easy access to all portions of the city. The prefabricated elements comprising the city would be designed to permit modification as needed. As newer materials come on line, the city design can be continuously upgraded, while also keeping in mind new technological and structural progress, and evolving human patterns. All systems would be of an emergent nature and constructed to allow maximum latitude in accommodating change. This would permit the city to function as an evolving integrated organism rather than as a static structure. The design and development of these new cities emphasize restoration and protection of the environment: in my view, technology without human concern is meaningless. Page 1 of 12

 How would one choose a home? An example of the wide range of choice available in a resource-based economy is the way one selects a house. For instance, a man and woman may visit an architectural design center and sit in front of a clear hemisphere approximately six feet in diameter. The woman describes the type of house she would prefer and her areas of interest. The house appears as a 3-dimensional image in the center of the hemisphere. It rotates slowly to present a view of the interior and exterior. Then the man describes his major interests and preferences and suggests a larger balcony. The 3dimensional image is adjusted. When they have finished requesting changes, the computer presents various alternatives to consider. They will also enter a sensorium to experience a walk-through of their preferred design and continue to make changes. When they arrive at a final design, construction procedures are set in motion. The computer selects materials for efficiency and durability. None of the architecture is permanent and can be modified and updated at the request of the occupants. This is real individual choice. In a monetary system, most live near their work with a house, car, and lifestyle they can afford (or all too often cannot afford), rather than one they prefer. Today we are only as free as our purchasing power permits. Lacking a true sense of self worth, many buy houses as status symbols just to impress others. A resource-based economy changes the nature of our dwellings from that of status symbol, or just basic shelter, to a reflection of individuality and personal interests.  What kind of change do you expect in health equipment? Health equipment will be in each home and it will automatically monitor the physical conditions of the occupants. It will make various adjustments to maintain optimal health.  What kind of change do you expect in transport? Transportation will be rapid, clean, silent, and safe. In the new cybernated cities, mag-lev transveyors will move horizontally, vertically, and circumferentially within and without. Over long distances, people can travel in trains inside tunnels. The trains could electrically repel air away from their surface, thereby diminishing skin resistance and permitting speeds up to three thousand miles an hour. This could replace most aircraft.  Could individuals live outside the cities? Yes people can live where ever they wish especially when there is more research done on selfsustaining houses in terms of energy, but there are would be so many advantages of living in this type of city. What the new city would provide is a total environment, with clean air and water, health care, good nutrition, access to information and education for all. The city would have art and music centers, fully equipped machine shops, science labs, hobby and sports areas, and manufacturing districts. These new cities could also provide all manners of recreation within a short distance of the residential district. This type of technology is inevitable. Waste recycling, renewable and clean power generating systems, and all manner of services would be managed by integrated, cybernated methods. The management of human affairs, such as life styles and personal preferences, are totally selected by the individual. Page 2 of 12

Of course, people will be free to live wherever they choose. But these cities are planned with plenty of open country, parks, and wooded areas. In the areas for individual housing there will be enough vegetation and trees between houses to impart a sense of privacy. Our proposal for a city of the future represents an achievable, sustainable, and sophisticated environment, one that is designed to help bring out the best in the human potential. These cities will not only provide resources and information but will be university cities of continuous growth, designed to encourage individuality, creativity, and cooperation, with concern for the total person and the environment in which they live. It is not the intent of The Venus Project to foster uniformity. It is our intent to provide the best tools and information relevant to the needs of each individual. The system also welcomes constructive criticism of its proposals, architecture, and all other aspects of the social system.  But, what if someone wanted to go out into a remote area, far from the cities. For remote traveling air cars that propel the vehicle off the ground about 4-6 feet and propelled by a ring vortex. There would be individual aircraft accessible to anyone that don't require the type of operating skills necessary today. These transport units are about 10 to 15 years into the culture. We don't try to patch first we work at designing infrastructure, transportation and new cities and then for a transition we use conventional vehicles land sea and air including other available methods from helicopters to all terrain vehicles. We could put units on the conventional cars that avoid collisions by sonar, radar, or other means that slow the vehicles when needed. Tires will have a rim built in so if they go flat they won't lose control and whatever safety devices that can be used on conventional cars until we get the other systems and cities underway. It really depends on what is new at the time. During the transition participation is voluntary. We don't need that many people. You don't need to convince everyone.  What is the role of the family? At present, both husbands and wives work. Monetary economics has undermined family cohesion and childcare. Parents have little time to spend with their children, and they are constantly stressed by ever-rising medical bills, insurance payments, educational expenses, and cost of living expenses. In this area, one of the most profound benefits of this new civilization can be realized. Shorter workdays will provide greater opportunity for family members to pursue areas of personal interest. Free access to goods and services will make the home a pleasant place, without the economic stress that causes so much family turmoil. Would people be happier in this kind of society? Perhaps it isn't happiness that we seek: happiness is relative to each individual's distinct nature, and is thus individually defined and achieved. We seek to create a society where people are free to choose their life's work, develop hidden potential, and pursue dreams without government intervention or financial constraint. A resource-based economy would provide art centers, music centers, theater projects, and opportunities for people to return to an educational environment, allowing them to pursue their interests. Although people would be economically secure, they would still find real challenges that would maintain incentives and enhance creativity. Page 3 of 12

 What is the approach to professionals running this new society? Many of the professions familiar to us today will eventually be phased out. With the rate of change now taking place, a vast array of occupations will become obsolete and disappear. In a society that applies a systems approach, these professions will be replaced by interdisciplinary teams - the systems analysts, computer programmers, operation researchers, and those who link the world together in vast communications networks. We have the skills and the knowledge to apply interdisciplinary teams to problems. However, only in times of war or national emergencies do we call upon and assemble interdisciplinary teams to help find workable solutions to social problems. If we mobilize the same resources for our social problems as we do during a war, beneficial effects on a large scale can be achieved in a relatively short amount of time. This could easily be accomplished by utilizing many of our universities' training facilities and staffs to best determine possible alternative methods to solve these problems. This approach would be an important initial phase to define the possible parameters for the future of all civilization. The process of social change must allow for changing conditions that continuously update the design parameters, and for the infusion of new technologies into emerging cultures. Design teams, utilizing socially integrated computers, can automatically be informed of any changes in conditions.  Will there be a government? As to the need for government, only during the transition from a monetary based society to a cybernated high-technological resource based economy of common heritage would it be necessary to utilize the services of systems analysts, engineers, computer programmers, etc. They will not dictate the policies or have any more advantage than other people. Their job will be to carry out the restoration of the environment to near natural conditions as possible on land and in the sea. They will also economically layout the most efficient way to manage transportation, agriculture, city planning, and production. This too is always in the process of modification and updating to fit the needs of an ever-changing civilization. There are no final frontiers  Could you describe the distribution of food and/or other objects of desire, like telephones, computers, or books? Distribution of goods and services without the use of money or tokens would be accomplished through the establishment of distribution centers. These distribution centers would be similar to expositions, where the advantages of new products could be explained and demonstrated. For example, if you visited Yellowstone National Park you could check out a camera or camcorder from a distribution center, use it and then, if you choose to, return it to another distribution center or dropoff, eliminating storing and maintenance. Besides the computerized centers throughout the various communities where products would eventually be displayed, there will be 3-D, flat-screen imaging capabilities in each home. If you desire an item, an order can be placed and the item automatically delivered directly to your place of residence. All raw materials for the manufacture of these products can be transported directly to the manufacturing facilities by automated transportation "sequences" such as boats, monorails, mag-lev trains, pipelines, and pneumatic tubes. An automated inventory system would be connected to both Page 4 of 12

the distribution centers and the manufacturing facilities, thus coordinating production to meet demand and providing a constant evaluation of preferences and consumption. In this way a balanced-load economy can be maintained. Shortages, over-runs, and waste could be eliminated.  What about food? Would people eat meat? Food and nutrition would be based upon personal preference and if studies indicate that eating living animals are detrimental to health the information would be there for all people. Through time and education and the manufacturing of synthetic proteins we could do away with killing fish and animals. We can not outlaw what people eat but we can outgrow the need for eating animal protein. During the transition to a better diet for those who need it we could also develop foods that taste and feel just like the ones they like eating but are healthier for people. We are also against experimenting on animals or people.  What about drug addicts and achoholics? They can be educated out of the need for requiring artificial stimulants. Life would be much more interesting, exciting and always evolving. All drug addicts would be taken care of and provided with the necessary treatment to overcome their problems without the dependence on drugs, alcohol or tobacco; all without a price tag. Not using money would eliminate the sale of drugs, prostitution, etc. In a society where people are brought up with access to information, and resources there would far less stress or need for these artificial substances. Meditation, exercises and other means in many instances will serve to relax tensions. People would also learn how to express themselves without needing substances to say what they think.  What about the use of drugs in the future? There is a tremendous incentive today for the selling of drugs and making people addicted as it is very profitable. Yes during the transition there will be problems because people need and require drugs. They will be able to attain them. But there will be more information out in regards to the negative and positive effects of taking various drugs. There will also be a tremendous amount of help for those who want to get off of them but today they can not afford the facilities today. There will be no moral judgments with the rehabilitation from drugs but the main concern is health both physically and mentally. We ultimately hope to provide an environment that is interesting and challenging enough that very few people will have a need for drugs. Through education and a much less stressful atmosphere the need will be surpassed. People will be equipped with a healthier mental outlook or better tools for handling situations that confront them.

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VENUS PROJECT – CITY SYSTEMS Total City Systems - It would be far easier and would require less energy to build new, efficient cities than to attempt to update and solve the problems of the old ones. The Venus Project proposes a Research City that would use the most sophisticated available resources and construction techniques. Its geometrically elegant and efficient circular arrangement will be surrounded by, and incorporated into the city design, parks and lovely gardens. This city will be designed to operate with the minimum expenditure of energy using the cleanest technology available, which will be in harmony with nature to obtain the highest possible standard of living for everyone. This system facilitates efficient transportation for city residents, eliminating the need for automobiles. The Venus Project's Circular City arrangement is comprised of the following:

1. The central dome or theme center will house the core of the cybernated system, educational facilities, access center, computerized communications networking systems, health and child care facilities. 2. The buildings surrounding the central dome provide the community with centers for cultural activities such as the arts, theater, exhibitions, concerts, access centers, and various forms of entertainment. 3. Next is the design and development complex for this research and planning city. The design centers are beautifully landscaped in natural surroundings. 4. Adjacent the research facilities are dining and other amenities. 5. The eight residential districts have a variety of free form unique architecture to fulfil the various needs of the occupant. Each home is immersed in lovely gardens isolating one from another with lush landscaping. Page 6 of 12

6. Areas are set aside for renewable clean sources of energy such as wind generators, solar, heat concentrating systems, geothermal, photovoltaic and others. 7. Next are the indoor hydroponic facilities and outdoor agricultural belts which will be used to grow a wide variety of organic plants without the use of pesticides. 8. A circular waterway for irrigation and filtration surrounds the agricultural belt. 9. The outermost perimeter is utilized for recreational activities such as biking, golfing, hiking and riding, etc. All the facilities are available to everyone without cost in a resource based economy. The sole purpose of this sophisticated technology is to free people from boring monotonous tasks, make available a much higher standard of living, and provide more leisure time. With an opportunity for constant growth and achievement people could have the time and freedom to choose the lifestyle they find most fulfilling. The city is designed to serve the needs of every member of society. Cybernated Government - We are fast approaching a time when human intelligence will be incapable of interacting with the rapidly occurring events in the physical world. The human mind is far too simple to handle and put to practical use the voluminous information needed to operate a highly technical and advanced world society. The processing required would have to deal with trillions of bits of information per second, far too complex for human systems, particularly with the infusion of nanotechnology. The Venus Project calls for a cybernated society in which computers could replace the outmoded system of electing politicians that in most cases represent the entrenched vested interests. This new technology will not dictate or monitor individual's lives, as in The Venus Project this would be consider socially offensive and counterproductive. Books such as 1984 and Brave New World, and motion pictures such as Blade-Runner and Terminator 2 have spawned fear in some people regarding the takeover of technology in our society. The Venus Project's only purpose is to elevate the spiritual and intellectual potential of all people, while at the same time providing the goods and services that will meet their individual and material needs. Cybernation is the linking of computers with automated systems. Eventually the central cybernated systems will coordinate all of the machinery and equipment that serve the entire city, the nation and ultimately the world. One can think of this as an electronic autonomic nervous system extending into all areas of the social complex. For example, in the agricultural belt the computers could automatically monitor and maintain the water table, soil chemistry, and coordinate the planting and harvesting of crops. In the residential sector, the system could maintain environmental cleanliness and the recycling of waste materials. In addition, to ensure the efficient operation of the city's various functions, all of the processes and services could be equipped with electronic environmental feedback sensors. These sensors could be coordinated with redundant, back-up systems that could operate in the event of failure or breakdown of the city's primary systems. Page 7 of 12

Only when cybernation is integrated into all aspects of this new and dynamic culture can computers appropriately serve the needs of all people. No technological civilization can ever operate efficiently and effectively without the integration of cybernetics as an integral part of this new world civilization. These proposals, from an engineering standpoint, seem fantastic and unfeasible within the present monetary system; and they are. The sums involved in ventures of this magnitude would be too huge and inconceivable. No government today can possibly afford this prodigious undertaking. All of this could only be accomplished in a resource-based world economy where all of the world's resources are held as the common heritage of all of the earth's peoples. University of Global Resource Management - This University of Global Resource Management and Environmental Studies, or "world-university," is a testing ground for each phase of development. This would be a dynamic, continually evolving research institute open to all of society. Student performance would be based on "competence accreditation," and research findings would be periodically applied directly to the social structure to benefit all members of the world society. People will live in these experimental cities and provide feedback on the liability and serviceability of the various structures. This information would be used to formulate modifications to structures so that maximum efficiency, comfort, and safety is assured. This facility is also used to develop modular construction systems and components that can be installed to serve a wide range of needs and preferences. In most instances, the external appearance of the buildings will reflect the function of the building - they are designed "from the inside out." Skyscraper - These skyscrapers would be constructed of reinforced and pre-stressed concrete, steel and glass. They will be stabilized against earthquakes and high winds by three massive, elongated, tapered columns. These support structures will surround the cylindrical central tower, which is 150 feet wide. This tripod-like structure is reinforced to diminish compression, tension, and torsion stresses. These super-size skyscrapers will assure that more land will be available for parks and wilderness preserves, while concurrently helping to eliminate urban sprawl. Each one of these towers will be a total enclosure system containing an access center, as well as childcare, educational, health, and recreational facilities. This will help alleviate the need to travel to outside facilities. If we do not maintain a balance between the population and the earth's carrying capacity we may have to move our cities not only skyward and seaward, but subterranean as well. Subterranean Cities - In-hospitable regions of the planet, such as polar and desert regions, cities below the surface of the earth would become an entirely comfortable home for many. Numerous elevators allow residents to enjoy skiing and other recreational activities on the surface. The primary source of power for these cities, where feasible, would be geo-thermal energy. VENUS PROJECT – HOUSING Page 8 of 12

Self Contained Dwellings - The Venus Project recommends that the present state and aims of architecture be redefined to fit the evolving needs of individuals in this new, emergent culture. The architecture and individual dwellings of future cities will evolve on an entirely different basis from today’s houses. With the intelligent application of humane technologies, we will be able to provide and allow for a wide array of unique individual homes. Their structural elements will be flexible and coherently arranged to best serve individual preference. These prefabricated, modular homes, embodying a high degree of flexibility inconceivable in times past, could be built anyplace one might imagine, amidst forests, atop mountains, or on remote islands. All of these dwellings can be designed as self-contained residences with their own thermal generators and heat concentrators. Photovoltaic arrays would be built into the skin of the building and into the windows themselves. “Thermopanes” would be used to tint out the bright sunlight by variable patterns of shading. All these features could be selected by the occupant to supply more than enough of the energy required to operate the entire household. Homes could be prefabricated of a new type of pre-stressed, reinforced concrete with a flexible ceramic external coating that would be relatively maintenance free, fireproof, and impervious to the weather. Their thin shell construction can be massproduced in a matter of hours. With this type of construction, there would be minimal damage from earthquakes and hurricanes. VENUS PROJECT – TRANSPORTATION Maglev Trains - Various segments of the passenger compartments on these high-speed maglev trains can be removed as the train passes through the station. These removable sections can then take passengers to their local destinations while other compartments are lowered in their place. This method allows the main body of the train to remain in motion, thus conserving energy. In addition, the removable multi-functional compartments could be specially equipped to serve most transportation purposes. Aircraft - Since military aircraft will be unnecessary in the future, emphasis can be shifted to advancing medical, emergency, service, and transportation vehicles. Here is an example of VTOL (Vertical Take-off and Landing) aircraft with three synchronous turbines, which allow for exceptional Page 9 of 12

maneuverability. These delta-configuration aircraft can be controlled by electrodynamic means eliminating the need for ailerons, elevators, rudders, spoilers, flaps or any other mechanical controls. In addition to providing better maneuverability and aerodynamic qualities, this innovative technology will also serve as an anti-icing system. In the event of an emergency landing fuel will be ejected to prevent fires. These Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) aircraft are designed to lift passengers and freight by the use of ring-vortex air columns. The helicopter in the foreground has a stationary center around which the rotors are propelled by engines at their tips. VTOL aircraft will be propelled by a variety of techniques, from ducted fans to vectored jets. They will be designed to combine the most desirable attributes of fixed winged aircraft, helicopters, and flying platforms. Transcontinental travel will be achieved through advanced aircraft and high-speed mag-lev trains, all integrated in a worldwide transportation system.

Airport - The central dome of this airport of the future would contain air terminals, maintenance facilities, service centers, and hotels. The runways are arranged in a radial configuration, which allows airplanes to easily take off into the prevailing winds and to avoid dangerous crosswind landings. Emergency stations are located at the edge of the runways, which are fully equipped with built-in fire fighting equipment and emergency arresting gear. All of the runways will be equipped with built in sprinkler systems in case of emergency. Passengers will be transported to and from the airport by underground conveyors. Many of the terminals themselves will eventually be constructed underground.

Automobiles - Streamlined cars will provide high-speed, energy efficient, and safe, long-range transportation. Some vehicles will have wheels, while others will eventually be equipped with magnetic levitation or air-floatation capabilities. Most vehicles will be equipped with voice-recognition technology that will allow the passengers to program their destination by voice command. Self-monitoring systems will tell the vehicles when service is required, and they will be able to transport themselves to service and maintenance facilities. Use of clean, non-polluting electrical energy allows for silent vehicle operation, while proximity-sensor devices linked to automated velocity and breaking systems enhance safety by enabling the vehicles to avoid collisions. As a secondary safety measure, the entire interior will be equipped with ergonomically designed air bag systems. Within the cities, horizontal, vertical, radial, and circular conveyors will serve most transportation needs.

Freighters - This modular freighter leaving a city in the sea consists of floating, detachable sections that can be rapidly loaded or unloaded. The number of sections can be varied depending on the amount of freight to be delivered. When all of the modules are connected, they can be propelled as a single unit. Then, when the freight arrives at its destination, the selected modules can be disconnected and towed to docks. Page 10 of 12

Sea craft will be available for recreation exploration and other submersible activities. Their hydrodynamic designs will permit high speed, safe and energy efficient travel. They will provide maximum comfort for the passengers. Their internal construction will include flotation chambers, which will render them practically unsinkable. They can be self-maintained and fully automated.

VENUS PROJECT – ENERGY

None of these mega-projects will ever be undertaken without a comprehensive study of the positive and negative retroactions involved.

Geothermal Energy - As refinements in conversion technologies increase its feasibility, geothermal energy will come to take on a more prominent role. Readily available in various geographical regions throughout the world, both on land and under the sea, this energy source alone could provide enough clean energy for the next thousand years.

Underwater Turbines - These underwater structures are designed to convert a portion of the flow of the Gulf Stream through turbines to generate clean electric power. These slow rotating turbines would have a centrifugal separator and deflectors to prevent harm to marine life. Bering Strait Dam - A land bridge or tunnel might be constructed across the Bering Strait. The primary function of this span would be to generate electrical power and house facilities for collecting and processing marine products. Beneath and above the ocean surface would be tunnels for the transport of both passengers and freight. Not only could this structure provide a physical link between Asia and North America, it could also serve as an avenue for social and cultural exchange. This land bridge would perhaps serve as a base for the development of clean fusion power. Pipelines to conduct fresh water from melting icebergs to other parts of the world may also be incorporated. Solar Power - Solar power has tremendous potential from photovoltaic panels that store energy in batteries for private use to large scale solar plants on land and in the sea. The radiation that strikes Page 11 of 12

the Earth’s surface each year is more than 10,000 times the world's energy use. New technologies are constantly merging to harness this potential. VENUS PROJECT - CONSTRUCTION If technology does not liberate all people for the pursuit of higher aspirations in human achievement, then all its technical potential will be meaningless.

Automated Construction Systems - The machine in the foreground is a multi-function unit. Here, it is used to lift and insert prefabricated housing components into a support structure. Although these "prefab" units will be composed of standard components, they will be of a modular design of such a wide and diverse array as to allow maximum individual expression in interior design and décor. Automated Cranes - The construction of these industrial and research complexes in the Circular City can be carried out by robotic equipment that will receive instructions via satellite. Automated cranes travel along the buildings' length installing floors, windows, curtain walls, roofing, and other components from the ground up. These devices will contain sensors to minimize industrial accidents or collisions with other devices or living beings. Laser Excavator - This scene depicts a laser excavator of the future. Such devices, which could be directed via satellite, would be capable of fusing the earth beneath it into a molten magma-like material. This machine would be able to change its shape to conform to a wide range of contours such as canals, roads, and waterways. Industrial Robots - These "multi access industrial robots" will utilize vast information resources, which will enable them to received commands via satellite up-link or on-site. They can also be designed to take appropriate actions in the absence of human directives by combining an array of sensors and receivers with sophisticated decision making abilities. They will be capable of handling a wide range of industrial production tasks, and will be able to upgrade their level of service and replace defective or worn parts. These mega robots will communicate with one another to coordinate delivery of the required materials for each project. Nanotechnology - There future of nanotechnology offers enormous potential, Nanotechnology combines optics and lasers, and will eventually enable us to assemble matter, atom by atom, into whatever molecular structure is needed. Nanotechnology will lead to a sub-microscopic revolution in all fields, including the way in which we conduct human affairs.

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