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ANDHRA UNIVERSITY

COMMON ENTRANCE TEST, A U C E T – 2011


SYLLABI FOR ENTRANCE TESTS IN SCIENCES, ARTS, COMMERCE & ENGINEERING
101. BIOCHEMISTRY
Part - A Structure and functions of liver, kidney, Composition of blood, blood coagulation, Digestion and absorption of
proximate principles, Biological value of proteins, protein malnutrition disorders, Chemistry and physiological
role of vitamins, Role of minerals in living systems, Structure and physiological roles of hormones, Basic
features of immune response, Lymphoid system, T and B lymphocytes, Cellular and humoral - immunity,
Classes and structure of immunoglobulin, RIA, ELISA, Vaccines. Bacteria, Viruses, Organization of genome
in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, DNA replication, transcription and translation, Basic concepts of regulation of
gene expression, principles and applications of recombinant DNA technology.
Part - B Bioenergetics, Biological oxidations. Metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, amino acids and nucleic
acids. Basic principles of biochemical separation methods – paper, thin layer, ion-exchange, affinity
chromatography, gel filtration, Centrifugation, Electrophoresis - paper, polyacrylamide, agarose gels. Basic
principles of Colorimetry and spectrophotometry. Radio isotopes and their use in Biochemistry.
Part - C Classification chemistry and physico – chemical properties of amino acids, proteins, nucleic acids,
carbohydrates, lipids, porphyrins, PH and Buffers, Bio-membranes – composition and organization. Principles
of enzymology, classification of enzymes, nomenclature, enzyme assays, enzyme units, enzyme inhibition.

102. BIOTECHNOLOGY
Part - A Paper : III - Molecular Biology, Genetic Engineering and Immunology,

Unit I : Gene and Genome organization 1.1 Organization of nuclear genome – Genes and gene numbers –
essential and non essential genes, 1.2 Denaturation and renaturation of DNA - Tm values and Cot curves,
1.3 Kinetic classes of DNA - Single copy sequences, and repeated sequences. Inverted, tandem and
palindromic repeats, 1.4 Satellite DNA, 1.5 Mitochondrial genome organization (eg: Human), 1.6 Chloroplast
genome organization in plants, 1.7 Organization of eukaryotic genes - Exons, introns, promoters and
terminators, 1.8 Gene families and clusters – eg. Globin gene, histones and ribosomal genes. Unit-II : Gene
expression and Gene Regulation : 2.1.Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic transcription , Post-transcriptional
modifications (Capping, polyadenylation splicing and alternate splicing), 2.2 Translation, Genetic code and
its features, Wobble Hypothesis Synthesis of polypeptides - initiation, elongation and termination in
prokaryotes and eukaryotes, 2.3 Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes Operon
concept in bacteria – Lac operon, Unit III : Recombinant DNA Technology : 3.1. Enzymes used in gene
cloning : Restriction endonucleases, Ligases, Phosphatases, Methylases, Kinases, 3.2. Cloning vehicles –
Plasmids, Cosmids, Phage vectors, Shuttle vectors, 3.3. Baculovirus vector system, Expression vectors -
expression cassettes, 3.4. Construction of genomic and cDNA libraries, 3.5. Identification of cloned genes,
3.6. Principles involved in Blotting Techniques – Southern, Northern and Western, 3.7. Principles and
Applications of PCR Technology, 3.8. DNA Finger printing technique and its applications, Unit IV Basics of
Immunology : 2.1 Introduction to immune system – Organs and cells of the immune system, 2.2 Antigens,
Haptens – physico-chemical characteristics, 2.3 Structure of different immunoglobulins and their functions
– Primary and secondary antibody responses, 2.4 Antigen - Antibody Reactions, 2.5 The Major
Histocompatibility gene complex and its role in organ transplantation, Generation of antibody diversity, 2.6
Hypersensitivity – Coombs classification, Types of hypersensitivity, 2.7 Autoimmune diseases – mechanisms
of auto immunity, Paper : III (IV) - Applications of Biotechnology : Unit I Animal Biotechnology : 1.1
Introduction to animal biotechnology, 1.2 Principles of animal cell culture – culture vessels, 1.3 Cell culture media
preparation, sterilization, types of cultures, 1.4 Establishment and preservation of cell lines, 1.5 Explants and
cell disaggregation, 1.6 Culture of cells and tissues (including Stem cells and their application) , 1.7 In vitro
fertilization and embryo transfer technology, 1.8 Methods of gene transfer – Microinjection and viral mediated
gene transfer techniquesProduction of transgenic animals and molecular pharming, 1.9 Principles of Ex
vivo and In vivo gene therapy, Unit II Plant Biotechnology : 2.1. Composition of media (Murashige and
Skoog’s and Gamborg’s only) Preparation of media and methods of sterilizations, 2.2. Role of plant growth
regulators in differentiation, 2.3. Induction of callus, 2.4. Meristem culture and production of virus free
plantsClonal propagation of plants on a commercial scale (Somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis),
2.5. Mass cultivation of cell cultures and process engineering – batch and continuous cultures, Bioreactors,
2.6. Production of commercially useful compounds by plant cell culture, 2.7. Methods of gene transfer
techniques (Agrobacterium, Microprojectile bombardment), 2.8. Applications of recombinant DNA technology
in agriculture, 2.9. Production of therapeutic proteins from transgenic plants, Unit III Industrial Biotechnology
: 3.1 Introduction to industrial biotechnology. 3.2 Primary and secondary metabolic products of
microorganisms, 3.3 Screening and isolation and preservation of industrial microorganisms, 3.4 Principles
of Fermentation technology, 3.5 Commercial production of fuels and chemicals by microbial fermentations,
3.6 Fermentative production of microbial enzymes (amylases, proteases), and antibiotics, 3.7 Fermentative
production of foods and dairy products., 3.8 Animal cells as bioreactors; characteristics of bioreactors,
expression and over production of targeted proteins – human growth hormones – production of α and β -
interferons, monoclonal antibodies, 3.9 Good manufacturing practices, Biosafety issues, Bioethics, 3.10
Intellectual Property Rights and Patenting issues, Unit IV Environmental Biotechnology : 4.1 Introduction to
environmental biotechnology, 4.2 Renewable and non-renewable energy resources, 4.3 Conventional energy

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sources and their impact on environment. 4.4 Non-conventional fuels and their impact on environment
(biogas, bioethanol, microbial hydrogen production), 4.5 Microbiological analysis of milk, food and water, 4.6
Microbiological treatment of municipal and industrial effluents, 4.7 Microbial degradation of pesticides and
toxic chemicals, 4.8 Biopesticides and Biofertilizers (Nitrogen fixing, phosphate solubilizing microorganisms),
4.9 Microbial ore leaching Introduction to Bioremediation
Part - B Paper : II - Biological Chemistry and Microbiology
UNIT- I : Biomolecules : 1.1 Carbohydrates : Importance, classification and properties , 1.2 Structure,
configuration and biochemical importance of monosaccharides (glucose and fructose), 1.3 Dissacharides
– Structures and biochemical importance of sucrose and trehalose Physiologically important glycosides
(streptomycin, cardiac glycosides, ouabain), 1.4 Structure and function of homo polysaccharides – starch,
inulin, cellulose and glycogen Structure and function of heteropolysaccharides – Hyaluronic acid, 1.5 Proteins
: Classification, structure and properties amino acids, 1.6 Peptide bond – Synthesis and characters, 1.7
Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins, 1.8 Lipids : Fatty acids : Saturated and
unsaturated, 1.9 Triacylglycerols, Sphingolipids, Sterols Phospholipids (phosphatidic acid,
phosphatidylcholine), 1.10 Enzymes : Classification and nomenclature of enzymes Kinetics of enzyme
catalyzed reactions, 1.11 Factors influencing enzymatic reactions (a) pH (b) Temperature (c) Substrate
concentration (d) Enzyme concentration 1.12 Enzyme Inhibition – Competitive and non-competitive , Unit II :
Intermediary Metabolism : 2.1 Glycolysis, 2.2 Citric acid cycle, 2.3 Gluconeogenesis and its significance,
2.4 Mitochondrial electron transport Chemiosmotic theory of ATP synthesis, 2.5 β-Oxidation of fatty acid , 2.6
Deamination, decarboxylation and transamination reactions of amino acids, 2.7
Catabolism of amino acids – phenyl alanine and tyrosine (Phenylketonuria and albinism), 2.8 Photosynthesis
– Light reaction and photophosphorylation, 2.9 Carbon assimilation Unit III : Fundamentals of Microbiology
: 3.1 Outlines of classification of microorganisms , 3.2 Structure and general characters of Viruses, Bacteria,
Fungi and Micro Algae (one example from each group) 3.3 Disease causing pathogens and their symptoms
(examples; Typhoid, HIV only) 3.4 Isolation, identification and preservation of microorganisms (Bacteria), 3.5
Identification methods of Fungi and useful Micro Algae, 3.6 Methods of sterilization, 3.7 Bacterial reproduction
and growth kinetics (Batch and continuous cultures), 3.8 Pure cultures and cultural characteristics , UNIT –
IV : Principles and Applications of Biophysical Techniques : 4.1 Microscopy – Light, Inverted, Fluorescent
and Electron microscopy, 4.2 Colorimetry – Beer – Lambert’s Law, 4.3 UV-VIS Spectrophotometry , 4.4
Chromatography (a) Paper (b) Thin Layer (c) Ion-exchange (d) Gel-filtration , 4.5 Electrophoresis – Native
gels and SDS-PAGE, Agarose, 4.6 Centrifugation and filtration – Basic Principles, 4.7 Dialysis and
lyopholization, 4.8 Radio isotopes and their uses in biology
Part - C Paper : I - Cell Biology and Genetics
Unit I : Cell Structure, Function and Cell Division : 1.1 Cells as basic units of living organisms Viral, bacterial,
fungal, plant and animal cells, 1.2 Ultra structure of prokaryotic cell (Cell membrane, plasmids) 1.3 Ultra
structure of eukaryotic cell (Cell wall, cell membrane, mitochondria, chloroplast, endoplasmic reticulum,
Golgi apparatus, vacuoles). 1.4 Chromosome organization in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes, 1.5 Structure of
specialized chromosomes (Polytene and Lamp Brush), 1.6 Cell Division and Cell Cycle , 1.7 Significance of
mitosis and meiosis, Unit II : Mendel’s Laws and Mechanism of Inheritance, 2.1 Mendel’s experiments –
Factors contributing to success of Mendel’s experiments, 2.2 Law of segregation – Monohybrid ratio, 2.3
Law of Independent assortment – Dihybrids, Trihybrids , 2.4 Deviation from Mendel’s Laws - partial or
incomplete dominance, co-dominance , 2.5 Penetrance and expressivity, pleiotropism , 2.6 Epistatic gene
interaction – Modified dihybrid ratios (12:3:1; 9:7; !5:1; 9:3:4:, 9:6:1; 13:3), 2.7 Genes and environment –
phenocopies, 2.8 Linkage and recombination – Discovery of linkage, cytological proof of crossing over
Recombination frequency and map distance Interference and coincidence Mitotic crossing over in Drosophila,
2.9 Mechanism of sex determination-genic balance theory - Drosophila Homogametic and Heterogametic
theory (Human, Mamalian, Birds), 2.10 X – linked inheritance (eg. Haemophilia) Unit III : Structure and
Function of Nucleic Acids : 3.1 DNA as the genetic material – Griffiths experiments on transformation in
Streptococcus pneumoniae. Avery, McEleod and Mc Carty’s experiments. Hershey – Chase experiments
with radio-labelled T2 bacteriophage, 3.2 RNA as genetic material – Tobacco Mosaic Virus, 3.3 Structure of
DNA – Watson and Crick Model Forms of DNA – A, B and Z forms of DNA, Super coiled and related DNA – Role
of topoisomerases, 3.4 DNA Replication – Models of DNA replication (Semi-conservative, non-conservative
models) Mechanisms of DNA replication – Linear and circular – Rolling circle and theta mechanism of
replication, 3.6. DNA damage and Repair, Unit IV : Concepts of Biostatistics and Bioinnformatics : 4.1
Concept of probability, basic laws and its application to Mendelian segregation. Concept of probability
distribution. Binomial and Poisson distributions, Normal distribution and their application to biology , 4.2
Concept of sampling and sampling distribution. Concept of test of hypothesis. Applications of t-test statistics
to biological problems/data: Chi-square, statistic applications in biology , 4.3 Simple Regression and
Correlation. Concept of analysis of variance (one-way classification). 4.4 Introduction to Bioinformatics
Biological Databases – Nucleotide sequence and Protein databases, their utilization in Biotechnology,
Storage of biological data in databanks, data retrieval from databases and their utilization.

103. BOTANY
Part - A Paper : III - Cell Biology, Genetics, Ecology and Biodiversity
Unit - I : Cell Biology : 1. Plant cell envelops: Ultra structure of cell wall, molecular organisation of cell
membranes. 2. Nucleus: Ultrastructure, Nucleic acids - Structure and replication of DNA; types and functions
of RNA. 3. Chromosomes: Morphology, organisation of DNA in a chromosome, Euchromatin and
Heterochromatin. Karyotype. 4. Cell division: Cell cycle and its regulation; mitosis, meiosis and their
significance. Unit - II: Genetics, 6. Mendelism: Laws of inheritance. Genetic interactions - Epistasis,

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complementary, supplementary and inhibitory genes. 7. Linkage and crossing over: A brief account,
construction of genetic maps - 2 point and 3 point test cross data. 8. Mutations: Chromosomal aberrations
- structural and numerical changes; Gene mutations, transposable elements. 9. Gene Expression:
Organisation of gene, transcription, translation, mechanism and regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes
(Lac.and Trp Operons ). 10. Extra nuclear genome: Mitochondrial and plastid DNA, plasmids. Unit - III:
Ecology : 11. Concept and components of Ecosystem. Energy flow, food chains, food webs, ecological
pyramids, biogeochemical cycles - Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus 12. Plants and environment: Ecological
factors - Climatic (light and temperature), edaphic and biotic. Ecological adaptations of plants. 13. Population
ecology: Natality, mortality, growth curves, ecotypes, ecads. 14. Community ecology: Frequency, density,
cover, life forms, biological spectrum, ecological succession (Hydrosere, Xerosere).
15. Production ecology: Concepts of productivity, GPP, NPP, CR (Community Respiration) and secondary
production, P/R ratio and Ecosystems. Unit - IV: Biodiversity and Conservation 16. Biodiversity: Concepts,
Convention on Biodiversity - Earth Summit. Types of biodiversity. 17. Levels, threats and value of Biodiversity.
18. Hot spots of India – Endemism, North Eastern Himalayas, Western Ghats. 19. Agro-biodiversity: Vavilov
centres of crop plants. 20. Principles of conservation: IUCN threat-categories, RED data book - threatened
& endangered plants of India. Role of organisations in the conservation of Biodiversity – IUCN, UNEP, WWF,
NBPGR, NBD. Paper : IV - Physiology, Tissue Culture, Biotechnology, Unit - I: Physiology (Part A) : 1. Water
Relations: Importance of water to plant life, physical properties of water, diffusion, imbibition, osmosis;
water, osmotic and pressure potentials; absorption, transport of water, ascent of sap; transpiration; Stomatal
structure and movements. 2. Mineral Nutrition: Essential macro and micro mineral nutrients and their role;
symptoms of mineral deficiency; absorption of mineral ions; passive and active processes. 3. Enzymes:
Nomenclature, characteristics, mechanism and regulation of enzyme action, enzyme kinetics, factors
regulating enzyme action. 4. Photosynthesis: Photosynthetic pigments, absorption and action spectra; Red
drop and Emerson enhancement effect; concept of two photosystems; mechanism of photosynthetic electron
transport and evolution of oxygen; photophosphorylation; Carbon assimilation pathways: C3, C4 and CAM;
photorespiration. 5. Translocation of organic substances: Mechanism of phloem transport; source-sink
relationships. Unit - II: Physiology (Part B) 6. Respiration: Aerobic and Anaerobic; Glycolysis, Krebs cycle;
electron transport system, mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation, pentose phosphate pathway. 7. Nitrogen
Metabolism: Biological nitrogen fixation, nitrate reduction, ammonia assimilation, amino acid synthesis and
protein synthesis. 8. Lipid Metabolism: Structure and functions of lipids; conversion of lipids to carbohydrates,
â-oxidation. 9. Growth and Development: Definition, phases and kinetics of growth. Physiological effects of
phytohormon- auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ABA, ethylene and brassinosteroids; Physiology of flowering
and photoperiodism, role of phytochrome in flowering. 10. Stress Physiology: Concept and plant responses
to water, salt and temperature stresses. Unit - III: Tissue Culture and Biotechnology : 11. Tissue culture:
Introduction, sterilization procedures, culture media - composition and preparation; explants. 12. Callus
culture; cell and protoplast culture, Somatic hybrids and cybrids. 13. Applications of tissue culture: Production
of pathogen free plants and somaclonal variants, production of stress resistance plants, secondary
metabolites and synthetic seeds. 14. Biotechnology: Introduction, history and scope. 15. DNA technology:
Vectors and gene cloning and transgenic plants. Unit - IV: Seed Technology and Horticulture : 16. Seed:
Structure and types. Seed dormancy; causes and methods of breaking dormancy. 17. Seed storage: Seed
banks, factors affecting seed viability, genetic erosion. Seed production technology; seed testing and
certification. 18. Horticulture techniques: Introduction, Cultivation of ornamental and vegetable crops, Bonsai
and landscaping ,19. Floriculture: Introduction. Importance of green house, polyhouse, mist chamber,
shade nets; Micro irrigation systems. Floriculture potential and its trade in India, 20. Vegetative Propagation
of plants: Stem, root and leaf cuttings. Layering and bud grafting. Role of plant growth regulators in horticulture.
Part - B Paper : II - Anatomy, Embryology, Taxonomy and Medicinal Botany : Unit - I: Anatomy 1. Meristems:
Types, histological organisation of shoot and root apices and theories. 2. Tissues and Tissue Systems:
Simple and complex. 3. Leaf: Ontogeny, diversity of internal structure; stomata and epidermal outgrowths.
4. Stem and root: Vascular cambium - Formation and function. Anamalous secondary growth-General account.
Stem - Achyranthes, Boerhavia, Bignonia, Dracaena; Root – Beta 5. Wood structure: General account. Study
of local timbers – Teak (Tectona grandis), Rosewood, (Albergia latefolia), Red sanders, (Pterocarpus santalinus)
Nallamaddi (Terminalia tomentosa (T. alata)), Yegisa (Pterocarpus marsupiun) and Neem (Azadirachta
indica). Unit - II: Embryology : 6. Introduction: History and importance of Embryology. Anther structure,
Microsporogenesis and development of male gametophyte . 7. Ovule structure and types; Megasporogenesis;
types and development of female gametophyte. 8. Pollination - Types; Pollen - pistil interaction. Fertilization. 9.
Endosperm - Development and types. Embryo - development and types; Polyembryony and Apomixis - an
outline. 10. Palynology: Principles and applications.Unit - III: Taxonomy : 11. Introduction: Principles of
plant systematics, Systematics vs Taxonomy, Types of classification: Artificial, Natural and Phylogenetic. 12.
Systems of classification: Salient features and comparative account of Bentham & Hooker and Engler &
Prantle. An introduction to Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG). 13. Current concepts in Angiosperm Taxonomy:
Embryology in relation to taxonomy, Cytotaxonomy, Chemotaxonomy and Numerical Taxonomy. 14.
Nomenclature and Taxonomic resources: An introduction to ICBN, Vienna code - a brief account. Herbarium:
Concept, techniques and applications. 15. Systematic study and economic importance of plants belong to
the following families: Annonaceae, Capparaceae, Rutaceae, Fabaceae (Faboideae/papilionoideae,
Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae), Cucurbitaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Asclepiadaceae, Lamiaceae,
Amaranthaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Orchidaceae and Poaceae. Unit - IV: Medicinal Botany : 16. Ethnomedicine:
Scope, interdisciplinary nature, distinction of Ethnomedicine from Folklore medicine. Outlines of Ayurveda,
Sidda, Unani and Homeopathic systems of traditional medicine. Role of AYUSH, NMPB, CIMAP and CDRI.
17. Plants in primary health care: Common medicinal plants – Tippateega (Tinospora cordifolia), tulasi
(Oscimum sanctum ), pippallu (Piper longum), Karaka (Terminalia chebula), Kalabanda (Aloe vera), Turmeric

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(Curcuma longa). 18. Traditional medicine vs Modern medicine: Study of select plant examples used in
traditional medicine as resource (active principles, structure, usage and pharmacological action) of modern
medicine: Aswagandha (Withania somnifera), Sarpagandha (Rauvolfia serpentina), Nela usiri (Phyllanthus
amarus), Amla (Phyllanthus emblica) and Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) Monera . 19. Pharmacognosy:
Introduction and scope. Adulteration of plant crude drugs and methods of identification - some examples.
Indian Pharmacopoeia. Evaluation of crude drugs.
Part - C Paper : I - Microbial Diversity, Cryptogams and Gymnosperms : Unit - I: Evolution of Life and Diversity of
Microbes : 1. Origin and evolution of Life - an outline. 2. Viruses: Structure, replication and transmission;
plant diseases caused by viruses and their control. 3. Bacteria: Structure, nutrition, reproduction and
economic importance. An outline of Plant diseases of important crop plants caused by bacteria and their
control. 4. Cyanobacteria: General Account of Cell Structure, thallus organisation and their Prospecting
(uses), Biofertilizers Unit - II: Algae and Fungi 5. Algae: General account, thallus organisation, structure,
reproduction, classification and economic importance. 6. Structure, reproduction, life history and systematic
position of Oedogonium, Coleochaete, Chara, Ectocarpus and Polysiphonia. 7. Fungi: General characters,
classification and economic importance. 8. Structure, reproduction and life history of Albugo, Saccharomyces,
Penicillium, Puccinia, Alternaria,. General account of plant diseases caused by Fungi and their control. 9.
Lichens: Structure and reproduction; ecological and economic importance. Unit - III: Bryophyta and
Pteridophyta 10. Bryophytes: General characters, classification and alternation of generations. 11. Structure,
reproduction, life history and systematic position of Marchantia, Anthoceros and Polytrichum. Evolution of
Sporophyte in Bryophytes. 12. Pteridophytes: General characters, classification, alternation of generations
and evolution of sporophtyte. 13. Structure, reproduction, life history and systematic position of Rhynia,
Lycopodium, Equisetum and Marsilea. 14. Evolution of stele, heterospory and seed habit in Pteridophytes.
Unit - IV: Gymnosperms and Palaeobotany : 15. Gymnosperms: General characters, structure,
reproduction and classification. 16. Morphology of vegetative and reproductive parts, systemic position, life
history of Pinus and Gnetum , 17. Palaeobotany: Introduction, Fossils and fossilization; Geological time
scale; Importance of fossils. 18. Bennettitales: General account

104. CHEMISTRY
Part - A Paper : III - Chemistry : (I) Inorganic Chemistry - III : 1. Coordination Chemistry: IUPAC nomenclature, bonding
theories – review of Werner’s theory and Sidgwick’s concept of coordination, Valence bond theory, geometries
of coordination numbers 4-tetrahedral and square planar and 6-octahedral and its limitations, crystal filed
theory, splitting of d-orbitals in octahedral, tetrahedral and square-planar complexes – low spin and high spin
complexes – factors affecting crystal-field splitting energy, merits and demerits of crystal-field theory. Isomer-
ism in coordination compounds – structural isomerism and stereo isomerism, stereochemistry of complexes
with 4 and 6 coordination numbers. 2. Spectral and magnetic properties of metal complexes: Electronic
absorption spectrum of [Ti(H2O)6]3+ ion. Types of magnetic behavior, spin-only formula, calculation of magnetic
moments, experimental determination of magnetic susceptibility – Gouy method. 3. Reactivity of metal com-
plexes: Labile and inert complexes, ligand substitution reactions – SN1 and SN2, substitution reactions of
square planar complexes – Trans effect and applications of trans effect. 4. Stability of metal complexes:
Thermodynamic stability and kinetic stability, factors affecting the stability of metal complexes, chelate effect,
determination of composition of complex by Job’s method and mole ratio method. 5. Hard and soft acids
bases (HSAB): Classification, Pearson’s concept of hardness and softness, application of HSAB principles –
Stability of compounds / complexes, predicting the feasibility of a reaction. 6. Bioinorganic chemistry : Essen-
tial elements, biological significance of Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and chloride (Cl-). Metalloporphyrins
– hemoglobin, structure and function, Chlorophyll, structure and role in photosynthesis. (II) Organic Chemis-
try - III : 1.Nitrogen compounds, 2. Nitro hydrocarbons: Nomenclature and classification – nitro hydrocarbons
– structure. Tautomerism of nitroalkanes leading to aci and keto form. Preparation of Nitroalkanes. Reactivity
– halogenation, reaction with HONO (Nitrous acid), Nef reaction and Mannich reaction leading to Michael
addition and reduction. Amines (Aliphatic and Aromatic): Nomenclature, Classification into 10, 20, 30 Amines
and Quarternary ammonium compounds. Preparative methods -1. Ammonolysis of alkyl halides 2. Gabriel
synthesis 3. Hoffman’s bromamide reaction (mechanism). 4. Reduction of Amides and Schmidt reaction.
Physical properties and basic character – Comparative basic strength of Ammonia, methyl amine, dimethyl
amine, trimethyl amine and aniline – comparative basic strength of aniline, N-methylaniline and N,N-dimethyl
aniline (in aqueous and non-aqueous medium), steric effects and substituent effects. Use of amine salts as
phase transfer catalysts. Chemical properties: a) Alkylation b) Acylation c) Carbylamine reaction d) Hinsberg
separation e) Reaction with Nitrous acid of 10, 20, 30 (Aliphatic and aromatic amines). Electrophilic substitu-
tions of Aromatic amines – Bromination and Nitration. oxidation of aryl and 30 Amines. Diazotization Cyanides
and isocyanides: Nomenclature (aliphatic and aromatic) structure. Preparation of cyanides from a) Alkyl ha-
lides b) from amides c) from aldoximes. Preparation of isocyanides from Alkyl halides and Amines. Properties
of cyanides and isocyanides, a) hydrolysis b) addition of Grignard reagent iii) reduction iv) oxidation. 3. Hetero-
cyclic Compounds, 4. Introduction and definition: Simple 5 membered ring compounds with one hetero atom
Ex. Furan. Thiophene and pyrrole. Importance of ring system – presence in important natural products like
hemoglobin and chlorophyll. Numbering the ring systems as per Greek letter and Numbers. Aromatic charac-
ter – 6- electron system (four-electrons from two double bonds and a pair of non-bonded electrons from the
hetero atom). Tendency to undergo substitution reactions. Resonance structures: Indicating electron surplus
carbons and electron deficient hetero atom. Explanation of feebly acidic character of pyrrole, electrophillic
substitution at 2 or 5 position, Halogenation, Nitration and Sulphonation under mild conditions. Reactivity of
furan as 1,3-diene, Diels Alder reactions (one example). Sulphonation of thiophene purification of Benzene

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obtained from coal tar). Preparation of furan, Pyrrole and thiophene from 1,4,- dicarbonyl compounds only,
Paul-Knorr synthesis, structure of pyridine, Basicity – Aromaticity – Comparison with pyrrole – one method of
preparation and properties – Reactivity towards Nucleophilic substitution reaction – chichibabin reaction. 5.
Carbohydrates Monosaccharides: All discussion to be confined to (+) glucose as an example of aldo hex-
oses and (-) fructose as example of ketohexoses. Chemical properties and structureal elucidation: Evidences
for straight chain pentahydroxy aldehyde structure (Acetylation, reduction to n-hexane, cyanohydrin formation,
reduction of Tollen’s and Fehling’s reagents and oxidation to gluconic and saccharic acid). Number of optically
active isomers possible for the structure, configuration of glucose based on D-glyceraldehyde as primary
standard (no proof for configuration is required). Evidence for cyclic structure of glucose (some negative
aldehydes tests and mutarotation). Cyclic structure of glucose. Decomposition of cyclic structure (Pyranose
structure, anomeric Carbon and anomers). Proof for the ring size (methylation, hydrolysis and oxidation reac-
tions). Different ways of writing pyranose structure (Haworth formula and chair conformationa formula). Struc-
ture of fructose: Evidence of 2 – ketohexose structure (formation of penta acetate, formation of cyanohydrin its
hydrolysis and reduction by HI to give 2-Carboxy-n-hexane). Same osazone formation from glucose and
fructose, Hydrogen bonding in osazones, cyclic structure for fructose (Furanose structure and Haworth for-
mula). Interconversion of Monosaccharides: Aldopentose to aldo hexose – eg: Arabinose to D-Glucose, D-
Mannose (Kiliani - Fischer method). Epimers, Epimerisation – Lobry de bruyn van Ekenstein rearrangement.
Aldohexose to Aldopentose eg: D-glucose to D-arabinose by Ruff’f degradation. Aldohexose (+) (glucose) to
ketohexose (-) (Fructose) and Ketohexose (fructose) to aldohexose (Glucose) 6. Amino acids and proteins :
Introduction: Definition of Amino acids, classification of Amino acids into alpha, beta, and gama amino acids.
Natural and essential amino acids – definition and examples, classification of alpha amino acids into acidic,
basic and neutral amino acids with examples. Methods of synthesis: General methods of synthesis of alpha
amino acids (specific examples – Glycine, Alanine, valine and leucene) by following methods: a) from haloge-
nated carboxylic acid b) Malonic ester synthesis c) strecker’s synthesis. Physical properties: Optical activity of
naturally occurring amino acids: L-configuration, irrespective of sign rotation, Zwitterion structure – salt like
character - solubility, melting points, amphoteric character , definition of isoelectric point. Chemical properties:
General reactions due to amino and carboxyl groups – lactams from gamma and delta amino acids by heating
peptide bond (amide linkage). Structure and nomenclature of peptides and proteins. 7. Mass Spectrometry:
Basic principles – Molecular ion / parent ion, fragment ions / daughter ions. Theory – formation of parent ions.
Representation of mass spectrum. Identification of parent ion, (M+1), (M+2), base peaks (relative abundance
100%) Determination of molecular formula – Mass spectra of ethylbenzene, acetophenone, n-butyl amine and
1- proponal. (III) Physical Chemistry - III : 1. Chemical kinetics : Rate of reaction, factors influencing the rate
of a reaction-concentration, temperature, pressure, solvent, light, catalyst. Experimental methods to deter-
mine the rate of reaction. Definition of order and molecularity. Derivation of rate constants for first, second, third
and zero order reactions and examples. Derivation for time half change. Methods to determine the order of
reactions. Kinetics of complex reactions (first order only): opposing reactions, parallel reactions, consecutive
reactions and chain reactions. Effect of temperature on rate of reaction, Arrhenius equation, concept of activa-
tion energy. Theories of reaction rates- collision theory-derivation of rate constant for bimolecular reaction. The
transition state theory (elementary treatment). 2. Photochemistry : Difference between thermal and photo-
chemical processes. Laws of photochemistry-Grothus-Draper’s law and Stark-Einstein’s law of photochemi-
cal equivalence. Quantum yield. Ferrioxalate actinometry. Photochemical hydrogen- chlorine, hydrogen-bro-
mine reaction. Jablonski diagram depicting various processes occurring in the excited state, qualitative de-
scription of fluorescence, phosphorescence, non-radiative processes (internal conversion, intersystem cross-
ing). Photosensitized reactions- energy transfer processes (simple example) , 3. Thermodynamics : The first
law of thermodynamics-statement, definition of internal energy and enthalpy. Heat capacities and their rela-
tionship. Joule’s law-Joule-Thomson coefficient. Calculation of w, q, dU and dH for the expansion of perfect
gas under isothermal and adiabatic conditions for reversible processes. State function. Temperature depen-
dence of enthalpy of formation-Kirchoff’s equation. Second law of thermodynamics. Different Statements of the
law. Carnot cycle and its efficiency. Carnot theorem. Thermodynamic scale of temperature. Concept of entropy,
entropy as a state function, entropy changes in cyclic, reversible, and irreversible processes and reversible
phase change. Calculation of entropy changes with changes in V & T and P&T. Entropy of mixing inert perfect
gases. Entropy changes in spontaneous and equilibrium processes.The Gibbs (G) and Hlmholtz (A) ener-
gies. A & G as criteria for thermodynamic equilibrium and spontaneity-advantage over entropy change. Gibbs
equations and the Maxwell relations. Variation of G with P, V and T. Paper : IV - Chemistry and Industry, (I)
Physico Chemical methods of analysis : 1. Separation techniques : 1. Solvent extraction: Principle and
process, Batch extraction, continuous extraction and counter current extraction. Application – Determination of
Iron (III) , 2. Chromatography: Classification of chromatography methods, principles of differential migration
adsorption phenomenon, Nature of adsorbents, solvent systems, Rf values, factors effecting Rf values. a.
Paper Chromatography: Principles, Rf values, experimental procedures, choice of paper and solvent sys-
tems, developments of chromatogram – ascending, descending and radial. Two dimensional chromatogra-
phy, applications. b. Thin layer Chromatography (TLC): Advantages. Principles, factors effecting Rf values.
Experimental procedures. Adsorbents and solvents. Preparation of plates. Development of the chromato-
gram. Detection of the spots. Applications. c. Column Chromatography: Principles, experimental procedures,
Stationary and mobile Phases, Separation technique. Applications, d. High Performance Liquid Chromatogra-
phy (HPLC): Principles and Applications. e. Gas Liquid Chromatography (GLC): Principles and Applications 2.
Spectrophotometry : General features of absorption – spectroscopy, Beer-Lambert’s law and its limitations,
transmittance, Absorbance, and molar absorptivity. Single and double beam spectrophotometers. Application
of Beer-Lambert law for quantitative analysis of : 1. Chromium in K2Cr2O7, 2. Manganese in manganous
sulphate, 3. Iron (III) with thiocyanate. 3. Molecular sectorscopy : (i) Electronic spectroscopy: Interaction of
electromagnetic radiation with molecules and types of molecular spectra. Potential energy curves for bonding

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and antibonding molecular orbitals. Energy levels of molecules (ó,ð, n) . Selection rules for electronic spectra.
Types of electronic transitions in molecules effect of conjugation. Concept of chromophore. (ii) Infra red
spectroscopy : Energy levels of simple harmonic oscillator, molecular vibration spectrum, selection rules.
Determination of force constant. Qualitative relation of force constant to bond energies. Anharmonic motion of
real molecules and energy levels. Modes of vibrations in polyatomic molecules. Characteristic absorption
bands of various functional groups. Finger print nature of infrared spectrum. (iii) Raman spectroscopy :
Concept of polarizavility, selection rules, pure rotational and pure vibrational Raman spectra of diatomic
molecules, selection rules. (iv) Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR)Principles of nuclear
magnetic resonance, equivalent and non-equivalent protons, position of signals. Chemical shift, NMR split-
ting of signals – spin-spin coupling, coupling constants. Applications of NMR with suitable examples – ethyl
bromide, ethanol, acetaldehyde, 1,1,2-tribromo ethane, ethyl acetate, toluene and acetophenone. (v) Spectral
interpretation : Interpretation of IR, UV-Visible, 1H-NMR and mass spectral data of the following compounds 1.
Phenyl acetylene 2. Acetophenone 3.Cinnamic Acid 4. para-nitro aniline. (II) Drugs, formulations, pesticides
and green chemistry : 1. Drugs : 1. Introduction: Drug, disease (definition), Historical evolution, Sources –
Plant, Animal synthetic, Biotechnology and human gene therapy, 2. Terminology: Pharmacy, Pharmacology,
Pharmacophore, Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics (ADME, Receptors –brief teartment) Metabolites
and Anti metabolites. 3. Nomenclature: Chemical name, Generic name and trade names with examples, 4.
Classification: Classification based on structures and therapeutic activity with one example each. 5. Synthe-
sis: Synthesis and therapeutic activity of the following drugs., L-Dopa, Chloroquin, Omeprazole, Albuterol and
ciprofloxacin. 6. Drug Development: Pencillin, Separation and isolation, structures of different pencillins , 7.
HIV-AIDS: Immunity – CD-4 cells, CD-8 cells Retrovirus, replication in human body. Investigation available,
prevention of AIDS. Drugs available – examples with structures: PIS: Indinavir (Crixivan), Nelfinavir (Viracept),
NNRTIS: Efavirenz (Susrtiva), Nevirapine (Viramune) NRTIs: Abacavir (Ziagen), Lamivudine (Epivir, 3TC)
Zidovudine (Retravir, AZT, ZDV), 8. Monographs of drugs: Eg Paracetamol, Sulpha methoxazole (Tablets) , 2.
Formulations : 1. Need of conversion of drugs into medicine. Additives and their role (brief account only), 2.
Different types of formulations 3. Pesticides : 1. Introduction to pesticides – types – Insecticides, Fungicides,
Herbicides, Weedicides, Rodenticides plant growth regulators, Pheremones and Hormones. Brief discus-
sion with examples, Structure and uses. 2. Synthesis and presnt status of the following. DDT, BHC, Malathion,
Parathion, Endrin, Baygon, 2,4-D and Endo-sulphon, 4. Green Chemistry Introduction: Definition of green
Chemistry, need of green chemistry, basic principles of green chemistry, Green synthesis: Evalution of the type
of the reaction i) Rearrangements (100% atom economic), ii) Addition reaction (100% atom economic), Peri-
cyclic reactions (no by-product). Selection of solvent: i) Aqueous phase reactions, ii) Reactions in ionic liquids,
iii) Solid supported synthesis , iv) Solvent free reactions (solid phase reactions) ii) Green catalysts: i) Phase
transfer catalysts (PTC) ii) Biocatalysts Microwave and Ultrasound assisted green synthesis: 1. Aldol con-
densation , 2. Cannizzaro reaction, 3. Diels-Alder reactions, 4. Strecker synthesis , 5. Willaimson synthesis
Dieckmann condensation, (III) Macromolecules, materials Science and catalysis : 1. Macromolecules :
Classification of polymers, chemistry of polymerization, chain polymerization, step polymerization, coordina-
tion polymerization – tacticity. Molecular weight of polymers-number average and weight average molecular
weight, degree of polymerization, determination of molecular weight of polymers by viscometry, Osmometry
and light scattering methods. Kinetics of free radical polymerization, derivation of rate law. Preparation and
industrial application of polyethylene, PVC, Teflon, polyacrylonitrile, terelene and Nylon66. Introduction to bio-
degradability. 2. Materials science : Superconductivity, characteristics of superconductors, Meissner effect,
types of superconductors and applications.Nanomaterials- synthetic techniques, bottom-up-sol-gel method,
top-down- electro deposition method. Properties and applications of nano-materials. Composites-definition,
general characteristics, particle reinforce and fiber reinforce composites and their applications. 3. Catalysis :
Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, comparision with examples. Kinetics of specific acid catalyzed
reactions, inversion of cane sugar. Kinetics of specific base catalyzed reactions, base catalyzed conversion of
acetone to diacetone alcohol. Acid and base catalyzed reactions- hydrolysis of esters, mutarotation of glucose.
Catalytic activity at surfaces. Mechanisms of heterogeneous catalysis. Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism.
Enzyme catalysis: Classification, characteristics of enzyme catalysis. Kinetics of enzyme catalyzed reactions-
Michaelis Menton law, significance of Michaelis constant (Km) and maximum velocity (Vmax). Factors affecting
enzyme catalysis- effect of temperature, pH, concentration and inhibitor. Catalytic efficiency. Mechanism of
oxidation of ethanol by alcohol dehydrogenase.
Part - B Paper : II - Chemistry (I) Inorganic Chemistry - II : I. Chemistry of d-block elements: Characteristics of d-
block elements with special reference to electronic configuration, variable valence, magnetic properties,
catalytic properties and ability to form complexes. Stability of various oxidation states and e.m.f. Comparative
treatment of second and third transition series with their 3d analogues. Study of Ti, Cr and Cu traids in
respect of electronic configuration and reactivity of different oxidation states. II. Chemistry of f-lock elements:
Chemistry of lanthanides – electronic structure, oxidation states, lanthanide contraction, consequences of
lanthanide contraction, magnetic properties, spectral properties and separation of lanthanides by ion exchange
and solvent extraction methods. Chemistry of actinides – electronic configuration, oxidation states, actinide
contraction, position of actinides in the periodic table, comparison with lanthanides in terms of magnetic
properties, spectral properties and complex formation. III. Theories of bonding in metals: Valence bond
theory, Explanation of metallic properties and its limitations, Free electron theory, thermal and electrical
conductivity of metals, limitations, Band theory, formation of bands, explanation of conductors, semiconductors
and insulators. Metal carbonyls and related compounds – EAN rule, classification of metal carbonyls,
structures and shapes of metal carbonyls of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni. Metal nitrosyls and metallocenes (only
ferrocene). (II) Organic Chemistry - II : 1. Halogen compounds : Nomenclature and classification of alkyl
(into primary, secondary, tertiary), aryl, aralkyl, allyl, vinyl, benzyl halides. Chemical Reactivity, formation of
RMgX Nucleophilic aliphatic substitution reaction- classification into SN1 and SN2.Energy profile diagram of

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SN1 and SN2 reactions. Stereochemistry of SN2 (Walden Inversion) SN1 (Racemisation). Explanation of both
by taking the example of optically active alkyl halide – 2bromobutane. Ease of hydrolysis – comparision of
alkyl, benzyl, alkyl, vinyl and aryl halides. 2. Hydroxy compounds : Nomenclature and classification of hydroxy
compounds. Alcohols: Preparation with hydroboration reaction, Grignard synthesis of alcohols. Phenols:
Preparation i) from diazonium salt, ii) from aryl sulphonates, iii) from cumene. Physical properties- Hydrogen
bonding (intermolecular and intramolecular). Effect of hydrogen bonding on boiling point and solubilitiy in
water. Chemical properties: a. acidic nature of phenols. b. formation of alkoxides/phenoxides and their
reaction with RX. c. replacement of OH by X using PCl5, PCl3, PBr3, SOCl2 and wit HX/ZnCl2. d. esterification
by acids ( mechanism). e. dehydration of alcohols. f. oxidation of alcohols by CrO3, KMnO4. g.special reaction
of phenols: Bromination, Kolb-Schmidt reaction, Riemer-Tiemann reaction, Fries rearrangement, azocoupling.
Identification of alcohols by oxidation with KMnO4, ceric ammonium nitrate, lucas reagent and phenols by
reaction with FeCl3. Polyhydroxy compounds: Pinacol-Pinacolone rearrangement. 3. Carbonyl compounds
: Nomenclature of aliphatic and aromatic carbonyl compounds, structure of the carbonyl group. Synthesis of
aldehydes from acid chlorides, synthesis of aldehydes and ketones using 1,3-dithianes, synthesis of ketones
from nitriles and from carboxylic acids. Physical properties: absence of hydrogen bonding, keto-enol
tautomerism, reactivity of carbonyl group in aldehydes and ketones. Nucleophilic addition reaction with a)
NaHSO3, b) HCN, c) RMgX, d) NH2OH, e)PhNHNH2, f) 2,4 DNPH, g) Alcohols-formation of hemiacetal and
acetal. Halogenation using PCl5 with mechanism. Base catalysed reactions: a) Aldol, b) Cannizzaro reaction,
c) Perkin reaction, d) Benzoin condensation, e) Haloform reaction, f) Knoevenagel reaction. Oxidation of
aldehydes- Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of ketones. Reduction: Clemmensen reduction, Wolf-Kishner reduction,
MPV reduction, reduction with LiAlH4 and NaBH4. Analysis of aldehydes and ketones with a) 2,4-DNT test, b)
Tollen’s test, c) Fehling text, d) Schiff test, e) Haloform test (with equation). 4. Carboxylic acids and derivatives
: Nomenclature, classification and structure of carboxylic acids. Methods of preparation by a) hydrolysis of
nitriles, amides and esters. b) carbonation of Grignard reagents. Special methods of preparation of aromatic
acids by a) oxidation of side chain. b) hydrolysis by benzotrichlorides. c) Kolbe reaction. Physical properties:
Hydrogen bonding, dimeric association, acidity- strength of acids with examples of trimethyl acetic acid and
trichloroacetic acid. Relative differences in the acidities of aromatic and aliphatic acids. Chemical properties:
Reactions involving H, OH and COOH groups- salt formation, anhydride formation, acid chloride formation,
amide formation and esterification (mechanism). Degradation of carboxylic acids by Huns-Diecker reaction,
decarboxylation by Schimdt reaction, Arndt-Eistert synthesis, halogenation by Hell-Volhard- Zelinsky reaction.
Derivatives of carboxylic acids: Reaction of acid chlorides, acid anhydrides, acid amides, esters (mechanism
of the hydrolysis of esters by acids and bases). 5. Active methylene compounds : Acetoacetic esters:
preparation by Claisen condensation, keto-enol tautomerism. Acid hydrolysis and ketonic hydrolysis.
Preparation of a) monocarboxylic acids. b) dicarboxylic acids. Reaction with urea Malonic ester: preparation
from acetic acid. Synthetic applications: Preparation of a) monocarboxylic acids (propionic acid and n-
butyric acid). b) dicarboxylic acids (succinic acid and adipic acid). c) á,ß-unsaturated carboxylic acids (crotonic
acid). Reaction with urea. 6. Exercises in interconversion, (III) Physical Chemistry - II : 1. Phase rule :
Concept of phase, components, degree of freedom. Derivation of Gibbs phase rule. Phase equilibrium of
one component – water system. Phase equilibrium of two-component system, solid-liquid equilibrium.
Simple eutectic diagram of Pb-Ag system, desilverisation of lead. Solid solutions- compound with congruent
melting point- (Mg-Zn) system, compound with incongruent melting point – NaCl- water system. Freezing
mixtures. 2. Dilute solutions : Colligative properties. Raoult’s law, relative lowering of vapour pressure, its
relation to molecular weight of non-volatile solute. Elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point.
Derivation of relation between molecular weight and elevation in boiling point and depression in freezing
point. Experimental methods of determination. Osmosis, osmotic pressure, experimental determination.
Theory of dilute solutions. Determination of molecular weight of non-volatile solute from osmotic pressure.
Abnormal Colligative properties. Van’t Hoff factor, degree of dissociation and association. 3. Electrochemistry
: Specific conductance, equivalent conductance, measurement of equivalent conductance. Variation of
equivalent conductance with dilution. Migration of ions, Kohlrausch’s law. Arrhenius theory of electrolyte
dissociation and its limitations. Ostwald’s dilution law. Debye-Huckel-Onsagar’s equation for strong
electrolytes (elementary treatment only). Definition of transport number, determination by Hittorf’s method.
Application of conductivity measurements-determination of dissociation constant (Ka) of an acid, determination
of solubility product of sparingly soluble salt, conductometric titrations. Types of reversible electrodes- the
gas electrode, metal-metal ion, metal-insoluble salt and redox electrodes. Electrode reactions, Nernst
equation, single electrode potential, standard Hydrogen electrode, reference electrodes, standard electrode
potential, sign convention, electrochemical series and its significance. Reversible and irreversible cells,
conventional representation of electrochemical cells. EMF of a cell and its measurements. Computation of
cell EMF. Applications of EMF measurements, Calculation of thermodynamic quantities of cell reactions
(DG, DH and K). Determination of pH using quinhydrone electrode, Solubility product of AgCl. Potentiometric
titrations. (IV) General Chemistry - II : 1. Molecular symmetry : Concept of symmetry in chemistry-symmetry
operations, symmetry elements. Rotational axis of symmetry and types of rotational axes. Planes of symmetry
and types of planes. Improper rotational axis of symmetry. Inversion centre. Identity element. The symmetry
operations of a molecule form a group. Flow chart for the identification of molecular point group. 2. Theory of
quantitative analysis : a) Principles of volumetric analysis. Theories of acid-base, redox, complexometric,
iodometric and precipitation titrations, choice of indicators for these titrations. b) Principles of gravimetric
analysis: precipitation, coagulation, peptization, coprecipitation, post precipitation, digestion, filtration and
washing of precipitate, drying and ignition, precipitation from homogenous solutions, requirements of
gravimetric analysis. 3. Evaluation of analytical data. Theory of errors, idea of significant figures and its
importance, accuracy – methods of expressing accuracy, error analysis and minimization of errors, precision
– methods of expressing precision, standard deviation and confidence limit. 4. Introductory treatment to: a)

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Pericyclic Reactions Concerted reactions, Molecular orbitals, Symmetry properties HOMO, LUMO, Thermal
and photochemical pericyclic reactions. Types of pericyclic reactions – electrocyclic, cycloaddition and
sigmatropic reactions – one example each. b) Synthetic strategies . Terminology – Disconnection (dix),
Symbol ( ), synthon, synthetic equivalent (SE), Functional group interconversion (FGI), Linear, Convergent
and Combinatorial syntheses, Target molecule (TM). Retrosynthesis of the following molecules , 1)
acetophenone 2) cyclohexene 3) phenylethylbromide, c) Asymmetric (Chiral) synthesis Definitions-Asymmetric
synthesis, enantiomeric excess, diastereomeric excess. stereospecific reaction, definition, example,
dehalogenation of 1,2-dibromides by I -. stereoselective reaction, definition, example, acid catalysed
dehydration of 1-phenylproponol.
Part - C Paper : I - Chemistry (I) Inorganic Chemistry - I : 1. s-block elements: General characteristics of groups I &
II elements, diagonal relationship between Li & Mg, Be & Al. 2. p-block elements: General characteristics of
elements of groups 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17 , Group – 13: Synthesis and structure of diborane and higher
boranes (B4H10 and B5H9), boron-nitrogen compounds (B3N3H6 and BN), Group – 14: Preparation and
applications of silanes and silicones, graphitic compounds. Group – 15: Preparation and reactions of
hydrazine, hydroxylamine, phosphazenes. Group – 16: Classifications of oxides based on (i) Chemical
behaviour and (ii) Oxygen content. Group – 17: Inter halogen compounds and pseudo halogens , 3.
Organometallic Chemistry : Definition and classification of organometallic compounds, nomenclature,
preparation, properties and applications of alkyls of 1, 2 and 13 group elements. (II) Organic Chemistry
- I : 1. Structural theory in Organic Chemistry : Types of bond fission and organic reagents (Electrophilic,
Nucleophilic, and free radical reagents including neutral molecules like H2O, NH3 & AlCl3 ).Bond polarization
: Factors influencing the polarization of covalent bonds, electro negativity – inductive effect. Application of
inductive effect (a) Basicity of amines (b) Acidity of carboxylic acides (c) Stability of carbonium ions. Resonance
or Mesomeric effect, application to (a) acidity of phenol, and (b) acidity of carboxylic acids. Hyper conjugation
and its application to stability of carbonium ions, Free radicals and alkenes, carbanions, carbenes and
nitrenes. Types of Organic reactions : Addition – electrophilic, nucleophilic and free radical. Substitution –
electrophilic, nucleophilic and free radical. Elimination- Examples (mechanism not required). 2. Acyclic
Hydrocarbons : Alkanes– IUPAC Nomenclature of Hydrocarbons. Methods of preparation: Hydrogenation of
alkynes and alkenes, Wurtz reaction, Kolbe’s electrolysis, Corey- House reaction. Chemical reactivity – inert
nature, free radical substitution mechanism. Halogenation example- reactivity, selectivity and orientation.
Alkenes – Preparation of alkenes (a) by dehydration of alcohols (b) by dehydrohalogenation of alkyl halides
(c) by dehalogenation of 1,2 dihalides (brief mechanism), Saytzev’s rule. Properties: Addition of hydrogen –
heat of hydrogenation and stability of alkenes. Addition of halogen and its mechanism. Addition of HX,
Markonikov’s rule, addition of H2O, HOX, H2SO4 with mechanism and addition of HBr in the presence of
peroxide (anti – Markonikov’s addition ). Oxidation – hydroxylation by KMnO4 , OsO4, peracids (via epoxidation
) hydroboration, Dienes – Types of dienes, reactions of conjugated dines – 1,2 and 1,4 addition of HBr to 1,3
– butadiene and Diel’s – Alder reaction. Alkynes – Preparation by dehydrohalogenation of dihalides,
dehalogenation of tetrahalides, Properties; Acidity of acetylenic hydrogen (formation of Metal acedtylides).
Preperation of higher acetylenes, Metal ammonia reductions Physical properties. Chemical reactivity –
electrophilic addition of X2, HX, H2O (Tautomerism), Oxidation with KMnO4, OsO4, reduction and Polymerisation
reaction of acetylene. 3. Alicyclic hydrocarbons (Cycloalkanes) : Nomenclature, Preparation by Freunds
methods, heating dicarboxylic metal salts. Properties – reactivity of cyclopropane and cyclobutane by
comparing with alkanes, Stability of cycloalkanes – Baeyer’s strain theory, Sachse and Mohr predictions and
Pitzer’s strain theory. Conformational structures of cyclobutane, cyclopentane, cyclohexane. 4. Benzene and
its reactivity : Concept of resonance, resonance energy. Heat of hydrogenation, heat of combustion of
Benezene, mention of C-C bond lengths and orbital picture of Benzene.Concept of aromaticity – aromaticity
(definition), Huckel’s rule – application to Benzenoid (Benzene, Napthalene) and Non – Benzenoid compounds
(cyclopropenyl cation, cyclopentadienyl anion and tropylium cation) Reactions – General mechanism of
electrophilic substitution, mechanism of nitration. Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation. Orientation of
aromatic substitution – Definition of ortho, para and meta directing groups. Ring activating and deactivating
groups with examples (Electronic interpretation of various groups like NO2 and Phenolic). Orientation of (i).
Amino, methoxy and methyl groups (ii). Carboxy, nitro, nitrile, carbonyl and Sulfonic acid groups. (iii).
Halogens (Explanation by taking minimum of one example from each type). 5. Polynuclear Hydrocarbons –
Structure of naphthalene and anthracene (Molecular Orbital diagram and resonance energy) Any two
methods of preparation of naphthalene and reactivity. Reactivity towards electrophilic substitution. Nitration
and sulfonation as examples. (III) Physical Chemistry : I : Gaseous state : Compression factors, deviation
of real gases from ideal behavior. Van der Waal’s equation of state. P-V Isotherms of real gases, Andrew’s
isotherms of carbon dioxide, continuity of state. Critical phenomena. The van der Waal’s equation and the
critical state. Relationship between critical constants and van der Waal’s constants. The law of corresponding
states and reduced equation of states. Joule Thomson effect. Liquefaction of gases: i) Linde’s method and
ii) Claude’s method. II Liquid state : Intermolecular forces, structure of liquids (qualitative description).
Structural differences between solids, liquids and gases. Liquid crystals, the mesomorphic state. Classification
of liquid crystals into Smectic and Nematic. Differences between liquid crystal and solid/liquid. Application of
liquid crystals as LCD devices. II Solid state : Symmetry in crystals. Law of constancy of interfacial angles.
The law of rationality of indices. The law of symmetry. Definition of lattice point, space lattice, unit cell. Bravis
lattices and crystal systems. X-ray diffraction and crystal structure. Bragg’s law. Determination of crystal
structure by Bragg’s method and the powder method. Indexing of planes and structure of NaCl and KCl
crystals. Defects in crystals. Stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric defects. Band theory of semoconductors.
Extrinsic and intrinsic semiconductors, n- and p-type semiconductors and their applications in photo
electrochemical cells. IV Solutions: Liquid-liquid - ideal solutions, Raoult’s law. Ideally dilute solutions,
Henry’s law. Non-ideal solutions. Vapour pressure – composition and vapour pressure-temperature curves.

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Azeotropes-HCl-H2O, ethanol-water systems and fractional distillation. Partially miscible liquids-phenol-
water, trimethylamine-water, nicotine-water systems. Effect of impurity on consulate temperature. Immiscible
liquids and steam distillation.Nernst distribution law. Calculation of the partition coefficient. Applications of
distribution law. V Colloids and surface chemistry : Definition of colloids. Solids in liquids(sols), preparation,
purification,properties -kinetic,optical,electrical. Stability of colloids, Hardy-Schulze law, protective colloid.
Liquids in liquids (emulsions) preparation, properties, uses. Liquids in solids (gels) preparation, uses.
Adsorption: Physical adsoption, chemisorption. Freundlich, Langmuir adsorption isotherms. Applications of
adsorption IV) General Chemistry - I : 1. Atomic Structure and elementary quantum mechanics Blackbody
radiation, Planck’s radiation law, photoelectric effect, Compton effect, de Broglie’s hypothesis, Heisenberg’s
uncertainty principle. Postulates of quantum mechanics. Schrodinger wave equation and a particle in a box,
energy levels, wave functions and probability densities. Schrodinger wave equation for H-atom. Separation
of variables, Radial and angular functions, hydrogen like wave functions, quantum numbers and their
importance. 2. Chemical Bonding : Valence bond theory, hybridization, VB theory as applied to ClF3, BrF5,
Ni(CO)4, XeF2. Dipole moment – orientation of dipoles in an electric field, dipole moment, induced dipole
moment, dipole moment and structure of molecules. Molecular orbital theory – LCAO method, construction
of M.O. diagrams for homo-nuclear and hetero-nuclear diatomic molecules (N2, O2, HCl, CO and NO).
Comparision of VB and MO theories. 3. Stereochemistry of carbon compounds: Molecular representations-
Wedge, Fischer, Newman and Saw-Horse formulae. Stereoisomerism, Stereoisomers: enantiomers,
diastereomers- definition and examples.Conformational and configurational isomerism- definition.
Conformational isomerism of ethane and n-butane. Enantiomers: Optical activity- wave nature of light, plane
polarised light, interaction with molecules, optical rotation and specific rotation. Chiral molecules- definition
and criteria- absence of plane, center, and Sn axis of symmetry- asymmetric and disymmetric molecules.
Examples of asymmetric molecules (Glyceraldehyde, Lactic acid, Alanine) and disymmetric molecules (trans
-1,2-dichloro cyclopropane). Chiral centers: definition- molecules with similar chiral carbon (Tartaric acid),
definition of mesomers- molecules with dissimilar chiral carbons (2,3-dibromopentane). Number of
enantiomers and mesomers- calculation. D,L and R,S configuration for asymmetric and disymmetric
molecules. Cahn-Ingold-Prelog rules. Racemic mixture- racemisation and resolution techniques.
Diastereomers: definition- geometrical isomerism with reference to alkenes- cis, trans and E,Z- configuration.
4. General Principles of Inorganic qualitative analysis: Solubility product, common ion effect, characteristic
reactions of anions, elimination of interfering anions, separation of cations into groups, group reagents,
testing of cations

105. COMPUTER SCIENCE & STATISTICS


Part - A Statistics: Measures of central tendency: Mean, Median and Mode. Measures of Dispersion: Range, Quartile
Deviation, Mean Deviation, Standard Deviation and Coefficient of Variation. Random Experiment, Random
Event, Elementary Events, Exhaustive Events, Mutually Exclusive Events, Independent Events. Classical
definition of Probability-Relative Frequency approach to Probability-Sample Space, Sample Events. Addition
and Multiplication Theorems. Random variable; Distribution functions, Probability density functions, Mean
and Variance of Random Variables. Theoretical discrete distributions like Binomial, Poisson distribution-
Mean and Variance of above distributions(without derivations). Reasoning and Mental Ability: According to
GMAT syllabus.
Part - B Calculus: Differentiation: Definition, Differentiation of a function at a point and on an interval. Derivative of a
function. Differentiation of Sum, Difference, Product and Quotient of function, Derivatives of Composite,
Implicit, Parametric, Inverse circular, Hyperbolic and Inverse Hyperbolic functions, Logarithmic differentiation,
Derivative of a function with respect to another function. Successive differentiation: Leibnitz theorem;
Applications of Leibnitz theorem; Applications of Differentiation: Errors and approximations, geometrical
interpretations of derivative, equations of tangent and normal at a point on the curve ; Lengths of tangent,
normal, subtangent, subnormal at a point; derivative as a rate measure; increasing and decreasing functions;
criteria for maxima and minima of functions in single variable- Partial differentiation of the first and second
orders only. Integral Calculus : Integration as the inverse process of differentiation-Indefinite and definite
integral - standard integral covering algebric, trigonometric, exponential and hyperbolic functions -methods
of integration, substitution methods - integration by parts - evaluation of definite integral, properties of
definite integral. Reduction Formulae. Definition of ordinary differential equations - degree and order of an
ordinary differential equations - formation of differential equation - general and particular solution and premitive
- solution of first order differential equations.
Part - C Matrix Theory : Types of matrices, addition and multiplication of matrices, inverse of a matrix, determinant of
a matrix, determinant of second and third order - singular and non-singular matrices. Solution of
simultaneous linear equations in two and three variables by Cramer's rule - matrix inversion method and
Gauss Jordan method. Trigonometry : Trignometrics ratios in compound angles, trigonometric ratios of
multiple - sub multiple angles. Inverse circular functions, hyperbolic functions. Properties of triangles.
Complex numbers and De Moivre's Theorem.

106. ELECTRONICS
Part -A Paper : III - Digital Electronics and Microprocessor: UNIT-I : Introduction to number systems, Logic gates
OR, AND, NOT, X-OR, NAND, NOR gates - Truth tables – Positive and negative logic – Logic families and their
characteristics – RTL, DTL, ECL, TTL and CMOS.– Universal building blocks NAND and NOR gates. Laws of

:9:
Boolean algebra De Morgan’s Theorems – Boolean identities – Simplification of Boolean expressions–
Karnaugh Maps – Sum of products (SOP) and Product of sums (POS). UNIT-II : Combinational and Sequential
circuits: Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer – Decoder, Half adder, Full adder and Parallel adder circuits. Flip
flops – RS, D, JK and JK Master-Slave (working and truth tables) - Semiconductor memories – Organization
and working- Synchronous and asynchronous binary counters, Up/Down counters- Decade counter (7490)
- working, truth tables and timing diagrams. UNIT-III : Introduction to Microcomputer and Microprocessor:
Intel 8085 Microprocessor – central processing unit CPU – arithmetic and logic unit ALU – timing and control
unit – register organization – address, data and control buses- pin configuration of 8085 and its description.
Timing diagrams- Instruction cycle, machine cycle, fetch and execute cycles. Instruction set of 8085, instruction
and data formats- classification of instructions –addressing modes. Assembly language programming
examples of 8 and 16 bit addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Finding the largest and smallest
in a data array. Programming examples using stacks and subroutines. UNIT-IV : Interfacing peripherals
and applications: Programmable peripheral interface (8255) - D/A and A/D converters and their interfacing to
the Microprocessor. Stepper motor control- seven segment LED. Paper : IV (A) - Embedded Systems and
Applications : Unit– I : The 8051 Microcontroller : Introduction to microcontrollers and embedded systems:
Overview and block diagram of 8051. Architecture of 8051. Program counter and memory organisation. Data
types and directives, Flag bits and PSW Register, Register banks and Stack; Pin diagram, Port organisation,
I/O Programming, Bit manipulation. Interrupts and timer. Unit–II : Addressing modes, instruction set and
assembly language programming of 8051 : Addressing modes and accessing memory using various
addressing modes. Instruction set: Arithmetic, Logical, Single Bit, Jump, Loop and Call Instructions and their
usage. Time Delay Generation and Calculation; Timer/Counter Programming. Programming examples:
Addition, multiplication, subtraction, division, arranging a given set of numbers in ascending / descending
order, picking the smallest / largest number among a given set of numbers, Accessing a specified port
terminal and generating a rectangular waveform. Unit – III : Interfacing of peripherals to Microcontroller :
Interfacing of - PPI 8255, DAC, ADC. Serial communication- modes and protocols Unit – IV : Applications of
Embedded Systems : Temperature measurement, displaying information on a LCD, Control of a Stepper
Motor, Interfacing a keyboard and generation different types of waveforms. Paper : IV (B) - Digital Design
Using VHDL : UNIT – I : Introduction & Behavioural Modeling : Introduction to HDLs: Difference between
HDL and other software languages – Different HDLs in vogue. Overview of digital system design using HDL
Basic VHDL Language Elements: Identifiers, Data objects, scalar and composite data types, Operators
Behavioural Modeling with examples: Entity declaration, Architecture body, Process statement and sequential
statements. Inertial and transport delay models, creating signal waveforms, signal drivers, effect of transport
and inertial delays on signal drivers. UNIT – II : Data Flow and Structural Modeling : Data Flow Modeling
with examples: Concurrent signal assignment statement, Concurrent versus sequential signal assignment,
Delta delays, Multiple drivers, Conditional signal assignment statement, selected signal assignment
statement, concurrent assertion statement. Structural Modeling with examples: Component declaration,
Component instantiation and examples, Direct instantiation of component. UNIT – III : Subprograms and
Packages Subprograms and Overloading: Functions and procedures with simple examples - subprogram
overloading, Operator overloading. Packages and Libraries: Package declaration, package body, design
file, design libraries, order of analysis, implicit visibility, explicit visibility, library clause and use clause.
Advanced Features: Entity statements, Generate statements, Attributes, Aggregate targets, ports and their
behaviour. UNIT – IV : Simulation and Hardware modeling : Model Simulation: Simulation – Writing a Test
Bench for a Half and a Full adder. Hardware Modeling Examples: Modeling entity interfaces, Modeling
simple elements, Different styles of modeling, Modeling regular structures, Modeling delays, Modeling
conditional operations, Modeling a clock divider and a pulse counter.
Part - B Paper : II - Analog Circuits and Communications : UNIT- I : Power Supplies: Rectifiers– Halfwave, fullwave
and bridge rectifiers- Efficiency- Ripple factor- Regulation – Harmonic components in rectified output –
Types of filters- Choke input (inductor) filter- Shunt capacitor filter- L section and ? section filters – Block
diagram of regulated power supply - Series and shunt regulated power supplies – Three terminal regulators
(78XX and 79XX) – Principle and working of switch mode power supply (SMPS). UNIT-II : RC Coupled
Amplifier: Analysis and frequency response of single stage RC coupled CE amplifier. Feedback: Positive
and negative feedback- Effect of feedback on gain, band width, noise, input and output impedances.
Operational Amplifiers: Differential amplifier- Block diagram of Op-Amp- Ideal characteristics of Op-Amp-
Op-Amp parameters- Input resistance- Output resistance- Common mode rejection ratio (CMMR)- Slew
rate- Offset voltages – Input bias current- Basic Op-Amp circuits- Inverting Op-Amp- Virtual ground- Non-
inverting Op-Amp- Frequency response of Op-Amp. Interpretation of Op-Amp data sheets. UNIT-III :
Applications of Op-Amps: Summing amplifier- subtractor- Voltage follower- Integrator-Differentiator -
Comparator- Logarithmic amplifier- Sine wave [Wein Bridge] and square wave [Astable] generators- Triangular
wave generator- Monostable multivibrator- Solving simple second order differential equation. Basic Op-Amp
series regulator and shunt regulator. UNIT-IV : Communications: Need for modulation-Types of modulation-
Amplitude, Frequency and Phase modulation. Amplitude modulation-side bands- modulation index- square
law diode modulator- Demodulation- diode detector. Frequency modulation working of simple frequency
modulator- Ratio detection of FM waves- Advantages of frequency modulation. AM and FM radio receivers
[block diagram approach].
Part - C Paper : I - Circuit Analysis and Electronic Devices : UNIT-I : AC Fundamentals: The Sine wave –Average and
RMS values–The J operator – Polar and rectangular forms of complex numbers – Phasor diagram – Complex
impedance and admittance. Passive networks: Concept of voltage and current sources – KVL and KCL-
Application to simple circuits (AC and DC) consisting of resistors and sources (one or two) - Node voltage
analysis and method of mesh currents. Network theorems (DC and AC): Superposition Theorem–
Thevenin’s Theorem– Norton’s Theorem–Maximum power transfer Theorem–Millman Theorem- Reciprocity

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Theorem – Application to simple networks. UNIT- II : RC and RL Circuits: Transient response of RL and RC
circuits with step input– time constants. Frequency response of RC and RL circuits – Types of Filters: Low
pass filter – High pass filter – frequency response - Passive differentiating and integrating circuits. Resonance:
Series resonance and parallel resonance RLC circuits – Resonant frequency – Q factor – Band width –
Selectivity. UNIT-III : PN Junction: Depletion region – Junction capacitance – Diode equation (no derivation)
– Effect of temperature on reverse saturation current – construction, working, V-I characteristics and simple
applications of i) Junction diode ii) Zener diode iii) Tunnel diode and iv) Varactor diode. Bipolar Junction
Transistor (BJT): PNP and NPN transistors–current components in BJT – BJT static characteristics (Input
and Output) – Early effect- CB, CC,CE configurations (cut off, active, and saturation regions) CE configuration
as two port network – h-parameters – h-parameter equivalent circuit. Experimental arrangement to study
input and output characteristics of BJT in CE configuration. Determination of h-parameters from the
characteristics. Biasing and load line analysis – Fixed bias and self bias arrangement. UNIT-IV : Field Effect
Transistor (FET): Structure and working of JFET and MOSFET – output and transfer characteristics –
Experimental arrangement for studying the characteristics and to determine FET parameters. Application of
FET as voltage variable resistor and MOSFET as a switch – Advantages of FET over transistor. Uni Junction
Transistor (UJT): Structure and working of UJT- Characteristics. Application of UJT as a relaxation oscillator.
Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR): Structure and working of SCR. Two transistor representation,
Characteristics of SCR. Experimental set up to study the SCR characteristics. Application of SCR for power
control. Photo Electric Devices: Structure and operation of LDR, Photo voltaic cell, Photo diode, Photo
transistors and LED.
107. FOODS, NUTRITION & DIETETICS
Part -A Family and Community Nutrition : Meal planning Principles of meal planning and balanced diets for different
age groups – Infancy (Breast and bottle feeds, weaning and supplementary foods) pre-school children,
school going children, adolescent boys and girls, adult, old age, different type of physiological conditions
like pregnancy and lactation, their nutrient requirements. Factors affecting meal plans.Assessment of
nutritional status of the community – Anthropometry, clinical, biochemical and diet survey standards used for
evaluation. National programmes for improving nutrition and Health standards – feeling and Nutrition
education programmes. ICDS, Vita A, Iron & Iodine prophylaxis. International Organisation involved in
nutritional programme FAO, WHO, UNICEF, CARE. Principles of diet in disease : Therapeutic adaptation of
hormal diets – liquid and soft diet – food exchange lists, their use in diet planning. Diet in nutritional
deficiency disease with special reference to vulnerable groups, such as PEM – Kwashiorkor, anaemia, B-
Complex Vitamin deficiency, Vitamin-A and Vitamin-C, deficiency, rickets, guoitre. Dehydration and its correlation
to oral rehydration theraphy. Over nutrition – under nutrition – dietary treatment during obesity and under
weight. Diet in allergy malabsorption of nutrient and tropical and non-tropical sprue. Distrubances in
carbohydrate metabolism, diet in Diabates mellitus. Home Science extension : What is extension – concept,
characteristics, basic philosophy and principles. Role and qualities of extension worket. Motivation – adult
psychology and learning. Communication – concept, scope and principles. Importance of communication in
extension work. Teaching aids – cone of experience – audio-visual and audio-visual teaching side. Principles
of preparation, selection and use of teaching aids. Community – its characteristics urban, rural and tribal.
Principles of Programme Planning: (a) Methods of teaching appropriate for a specific group; (b) Methods to
be used to find out felt and unfelt needs of the community; (c) Planning lessons for a specific groups; (d)
Principles and methods of evaluating individual group performance. Contribution of voluntary organization in
extension. Panchayat Raj system in India (in brief). (Papers 3 & 5 of III year).
Part - B Microbiology : Introduction to microbiology – its history and value relation of microbiology to other sciences.
The Microscopic World – Protists, Algae, Moulds, Actinomycetales, yeasts, Bacteria, Rickettsiae, and viruses,
Classification and general characteristics of micro-organisms morphology, growth, nutrition and reproduction
of the above mentioned micro organisms. Bacterial Physiology – Motillity, growth and death of Bacteria,
growth requirements – temperature, oxyden, PH – Metabolism – Chemical products of Bacteria – Enzymes,
Pigments, toxins and anitibiotics. 9b) Micro-organisms in fermentation and decay; (c) bacterial genetics –
variations, mutations and recombination. Microbiology of special environments: (a) study of Microbes insoil,
water, air, sewage and in plants and animals; (b) Sanitation of drinking water; (c) role of microbes in the
carbon and nitrogen cycles. Sterilization and disinfection – Physical and chemical methods. Microbial
pathogenicity: (a) Important bacterial (Cholera, syphilis, Typhoid, Leprosy, bacillary dysentery. Tuberculosis,
Diphtheria) Pickettsial, (Typhusgroup of the spotted fever group), Viral (Measles, Rabies, encephalitis, influenza,
pliomyelities) and protozoan diseases (amoebiasis and Malerial disinfections of man), (b) Modes of infection,
diagnosis, treatment and control I of infections of the above mentioned diseases, Various types of immunity,
preparation of vaccines and immunization; (c) Allergy. Microbiology of foods and Dairy products: Microbial
spoilage of food, (Cereals, Vegetables, fruits, milk, meat, fish and eggs) food infection, food poisoning and
the causative organism associated with it. Food preservation – Physical and Chemical methods.
Biochemistry : The development of Biochemistry – Some aspects of physical and organic chemistry – Acids,
bases and Buffers – Ph, mole concept, Molar system of concentration – chemical reactions – various types
of bonds ring structures. Chemistry of carbohydrates – chemical characteristics classification isomerism,
(Stereo, geometrical and optical isomeris) – structure of glucose, properties and tests of mono, di and poly
saccharides – colour reactions of carbohydrates. Metabolism of carbohydrates anaerobic and aerobic
metabolism of glucose – Blood sugar level and its control – role of lever, muscles, kidneys and hormones in
carbohydrate metabolism. Chemistry of lipids – classification and properties of lipids, fatty acids – blood
lipids – metabolism and oxidation of fatty acids, biosynthesis of cholesterol, trygolycerides and phospholipids.
Chemistry of proteins – definitions, classification, properties and structure of proteins and aminioacids,
chromatography – reactions of proteins and aninoacids, protein synthesis – deamination, transamination –

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Urea cycle. High energy compounds – released energy and stored energy. Nucleic acids and Nucleproteins
– their role in protein synthesis. Enzymes – definitions, proportions, classifications nature mode of action,
activation, inhibition and functions – coenzymes vitamins and coenzymes in the metabolism of carbohydrates,
fats and proteins. Nutrition : Macro Nutrients such as carbohydrates, lipids and protein their occurrence in
the body, composition, classification, functions, dietary sources and daily recommended allowances. Micro
Nutrients: Vitamins – Water soluble and fact soluble vitamins their chemical nature, functions, sources,
requirement and effect of deficiency. Minerals – Macro Minerals like calcium, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine,
potassium, their functions, deficiency, sources and requirement. Macro minerals – Iron, lodine, Zic, cobalt
etc., their functions, deficiency, source of requirement. Energy requirement – determination of gross energy
value of foods using Bomb calorimeter. Basal metabolism – factors affecting BMR computing Energy
requirements for different age groups based on basal metabolism, specific dynamic action and physical
activity determination of energy output using direct and indirect calorimetry. Importance of water and water
balance Interrelationship between nutrients.
Part - C Food Science : Classification of food – food groups – their structure, composition – nutrients – contribution
of each food groups. Selection of Food – Socio-Economic and Socio cultural factors affecting food selection.
a) Cereals and Cereal products and millets; b) Legumes (Pluses); C) Nuts and oil seeds; d) Milk and milk
products; e) Flesh foods – Meat, Fish and poultry; f) Eggs; g) Fruits and Vegetables; h) Beverages; i) Spices
and condiments; j) Ready to eat foods. Foods sanitation and hygiene – food poisoning. Food spoilage –
causes, prevention of spoilage and methods of food preservation, canning, Freezing and cold storage, use
of chemical, pickling and fermentation, use of high concentration of sugar – food additives, standards for
preserved foods – ISI and FPO. Food Adulteration Adulterants in foods, methods of detecting, harmful Effects
of adulteration; PFA Act. Human Physiology : The circulatory systems – Blood composition – Developments
– Volume – Functions – Anaemia – Clotting of blood – Blood groups. Cardiovascular system – Anatomy of
the heart – Heart rate – Cardiac cycle; Blood prerssure – factors maintaining blood pressure. Respiration –
Structure of the respiratory organs – Mechanism and chemistry of respiration – abnormal types of respiration
– oxygen want – anoxia or hyposia – asphyxia. Digestion and absorption of food, enzymes and their action on
digestion and absorption of food – metabolism – special reference to salivary glands – liver, gall bladder and
pancreas. The excretory system – structure and functions of kidney – blood and nerve supply of the kidney –
composition, volume, formation and micturition of Urine – skin and its role in excretion. a) The nervous
system – Neurons structure – reflex action – spinal cord – brain and their membranes – autonomic nervous
system; b) Special senses – Vision (eye), hearing (ear), perception of taste, smell, and touch. Physiology of
reproduction – anatomy of male and female reproductive organs, puberty changes, processes involved in
reproduction. Endocrine glands and hormones – structure and chemical nature their influence on growth,
metabolism and reproduction. (Papers 1, 3 of I year).

108. GEOGRAPHY
Part -A Paper : III - Regional Geography of India : UNIT-1:Physical Setting: Locational aspects and advantages –
Major physical divisions – Drainage system - Climate – Mechanism of Indian monsoons – Drought prone
and Flood prone regions – Natural vegetation – Soil types, UNIT-2:Cultural Settings : Racial and ethnic
diversities - Major tribes – Language - Religion and Tradition and Cultural regions Population – Growth,
distribution, Sex-ratio, Age-structure, problems and policies, Literacy rate – Work-force – Migration Settlement
Patterns – Rural and Urban Growth - Urbanisation, UNIT-3:Economic Settings : Resources - Land, Water,
Energy (Coal and Petroleum; Hydel, Thermal, Atomic and wind), Minerals (Iron ore, Manganese, Copper,
Mica) – utilization and conservation; Agriculture - Types (subsistence and commercial; intensive and extensive
and plantation), Irrigation, Land tenure and Land reforms, Cropping pattern and Green revolution, Livestock
and White revolution, Aquaculture, Problems of Indian Agriculture Industry – Study of Iron and Steel, Cotton
textiles, and Oil refineries, and Industrial regions Transport – Road ways, Railways, Water ways, Airways –
Growth and distribution Regional Development: Regions – Sharing of Resources – Efforts of Five Year Plans
, UNIT-4:Andhra Pradesh : Physical aspects – Relief, Drainage, Climate, Vegetation and Soils Resource
base – Fuel and mineral wealth Population – Growth and distribution, Rural and Urban population,
Urbanization Agriculture: Irrigation development, Major irrigation projects, Cropping pattern, Production and
Potentials, Paper : IV - Remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) : UNIT – I : Remote
Sensing : Basics of Remote Sensing: Definition, History, Advantages Aerial Photography and Satellite Remote
Sensing. Components of Remote Sensing System: Energy Source, Energy Atmosphere Interaction, Energy-
Matter Interaction, Platforms, Sensors, Data handling system, Data Users Energy Interaction with Atmosphere
and Surface Materials: Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation –Electromagnetic Radiation Spectrum Interaction
of Electromagnetic Radiation with Atmosphere and with Earth Surface Materials – Spectral Signatures. UNIT
– II : Remote Sensing: Platforms and Sensors and Products : Remote Sensing Platforms: Aircrafts and
Satellites Orbital Characteristics of Sun-synchronous Earth Resource Satellites and Geostationary
Communication – Special Purpose Satilites Remote Sensing Sensors: Types of Sensors: Active and Passive
– Framing Systems (Cameras) – Scanning Systems Sensor Characteristics: Spatial Resolution, Spectral
Resolution, Radiometric Resolution, Temporal Resolution. Cameras: Single Lens, Multiple Lens, Strip and
Digital – Films and Filters Scanners: Cross-track Vs. Along-track – Mono-Spectral Vs. Multi-Spectral Scanners
Products: Visual and Digital Remote Sensing in India: Development and Growth – Satellites UNIT – III:
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) : GIS: Definition – Contributing Disciplines – Functions – Data
Capture/Input, Data Storage, Data Retrieval, Data Analysis, Data Output Components of Geographic
Information Systems: Hardware Components, Software Components, Brain-ware Components and
Organizational set up Data Input and Editing: Data Types: Spatial and Attribute data – Raster and Vector
Sources of GIS data Methods of Data input (Keyboard Entry, Digitizing, Scanning) – GPS and Its Application

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UNIT - IV : Geographic Information Systems : Data Base Management System: Definitions and Functions
Data Analysis and Modeling: Data Conversion (Format, Structure, and Medium Conversion) Spatial
Measurements (Counting, Measuring lengths and Areas) Reclassification, Buffering (Point, Line, Area,
Doughnut), Overlay Analysis, Modeling Surfaces (DTMs),Modeling Networks,Remote Sensing and GIS:
Integration – GIS Application (Urban / Agricultural / Landform Studies)
Part - B Paper : II - Human and Economic Geography : Unit-1:Perspectives : Nature and Objectives of Human and
Economic Geography , Man and Environment: Physical and Cultural environment , Human activities – Primary
– Secondary – Tertiary – Quaternary Resources: Classification, Conservation and Management, Sustainbility
, Unit-2:Population and Settlement : Human Races: Origin, Classification, Characteristics and Distribution.
Cultural Realms of the World, Population: World population – growth and distribution – Demographic
Transition Human Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences of Migration, Indian Diaspora Human
Settlements: Forms, Structure, Functions and Patterns – Rural and Urban settlements – Urbanisation –
Impacts of Urbanisation, Unit-3:Resources Agriculture: Landuse and Special Economic Zones, Crop Pattern
and Production, Location Model of Von Thunen Livestock: Development and Distribution – Dairying, Meat
and Woolen Fisheries: Major Fishing grounds of the World – Production and Trade Forest: Types, Distribution
and Forest Products – Wild Life Minerals: Metallic (Iron Ore, Copper) – Non-metallic (Limestone and Mica)
– Fuels (Coal and Petroleum) – Locations and Potentials – Mining and Trade, Unit-4:Industry, Transport
and Trade : Industry: Locational Factors, Industrial location theory of Weber – Major industries (Iron and
Steel, Cotton and Textile, Ship building) – Industrial Regions of the World Transport: Roadways, Railways,
Waterways and Airways Trade: International Trade, Major Exports and Imports, Balance of Trade – WTO and
Developing Countries
Part - C Paper : I - Fundamentals of Physical Geography : Unit-1:Earth Dynamics : Land and Sea: Formation and
distribution; Theories: Isostasy, Continental Drift, Plate Tectonics, Interior of Earth, Earthquakes, Volcanoes,
Rocks, Weathering and Mass-wasting, Unit-2:Geomorphology : Processes and Landform Development,
River: Flow and Work – erosion, transportation, deposition – landforms, Wind: Air flow and Work - erosion,
transportation, deposition – landforms – desert formations, Marine: Waves and Currents and Work - erosion,
transportation, deposition – shoreline and landforms, Karst: Flow of Underground water and Work – solutions
– erosion and deposition – landforms, Glacial: Types, Movements and Work – erosion, transportation and
deposition - landforms, Unit-3:Climatology : Weather and Climate, Elements of Weather , Atmosphere:
Structure and Composition , Insolation: Factors influencing the incidence and distribution, Temperature:
Horizontal and Vertical Distribution Pressure: Influencing factors – High and Low Pressure Areas, Global
Pressure Belts, Winds: Local, Periodic and Planetary , Cyclones – Formation, Distribution and Impacts:
Tropical and Temperate , Humidity: Absolute and Relative, Clouds: Types, Formation and Potentials,
Precipitation: Types, Formation, Distribution, Unit-4:Oceanography, Submarine Relief: Continental Shelf,
Continental Slope, Abyssal Plain, Ocean Deeps and Trenches, Mid-Oceanic ridges, Temperature: Horizontal
and Vertical Distribution , Salinity: Factors and Distribution Waves and Tides: Types and Formation Ocean
Currents: Types and Factors Responsible - Currents of Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans

109. GEOLOGY
Part - A Paper : III -Paleontology, Indian Geology and Economic Geology. : Palaeontology : Definition of palaeontology,
conditions of fossilization, modes of preservation and uses of fossils. Phylum Echinodermata and Phylum
Brachiopod, Phylum Mollusca and Phylum Arthropoda, Phylum Hemichordata, Phylum Coelenterata. Study
of the following fossils with respect to their classification, morphology and geological distribution. Cidaris,
Micraster, Holaster, Hemiaster, Terebratula, Spinifer, Rhynchonella, Productus, Turritella, Murex, Cypraea,
Natica, Voluta, Pecten, Gryphaea, Arca, Cardita, Exogyra, Nautilus, Ammonoids, Belemnites, Calymene,
Paradoxide, Corals and Graptolites. Plant fossils : Glossopteris, Gangam Operas, Ptylophyllum. Indian
Geology : Definition of stratigraphy, principles of stratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, standard geological timescale.
Physiographic divisions of India with their stratigraphic and structural characteristics. Dharwar System,
Cuddapah System, Vindhyan System, Kurnool System and Gondwana System. Triassic of Spiti, Jurssic of
Kutch, Cretaceous of Tiruchirapalli, Deccan Traps and their Age, Siwaliks with vertebrate fossils. Geology of
Andhra Pradesh. Stratigraphic contacts – boundaries between Archaean and Proterozoic; and Cretaceous
and Tertiary. Economic Geology : Definition of Economic Geology, Global tectonics and metallogeny – mineral
resources and mineral deposits, Importance of economic minerals and rocks, ore minerals, gangue minerals
(gangue). Ore, industrial minerals, tenor and grade; Syngenetic deposits, epigenetic deposits. Classification
of mineral deposits – Bateman’s classification modified by Jenson. Processes of formation of mineral
deposits; endogenetic and exogenetic processes. Study of ore deposits of gold, copper, lead, zinc, aluminium,
iron, manganese, chromium, uranium and thorium with respect to their mineralogy, uses, mode of occurrence,
origin and distribution in India. Distribution of industrial minerals in India for the following industries :
abrasives, cement, ceramics, glass, fertilizers and chemicals, and insulators. Fossils fuels : Coal, it’s
origin and types of coal – Coal deposits of India. Oil and Natural Gas : Origin, migration and entrapment and
distribution in India, Use of micropaleontology in oil exploration, Gemstones and Dimensional Stones.
Atomic minerals : Uraninite, pitchblende, coffenite; Beach sands : monazite, ilmenite, rutile, zircon and their
uses. Mineral resources of Andhra Pradesh.
Part - B Paper : II -Petrology and Structural Geology : Nature and scope of Petrology – Definition of rock, classification
of rocks into igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic. Distinguishing features of the three types of rocks.
Igneous rocks : Classification into plutonic, hypabyssal and volcanic rocks; Forms – Lava flows, intrusions,
sills, laccolith, lopolith, dykes, ring dykes, cone sheets, volcanic necks, phacoliths and batholiths. Structures
: vescicular, amygdaloidal, block lava, ropy lava, pillow lava, flow, jointing and sheet structures. Platy, columnar
and prismatic structures. Textures – Definition of texture, micro-structure, devitrification. Allotriomorphic,

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hypidiomorphic, panidiomorphic, porphyritic, poikilitic, ophitic, intergranular, intersertal, trachytic, graphic
and micro-graphic. Reaction structures – Corona, myrmekitic, orbicular, spherulitic, perlitic. Classification
of igneous rocks – CIPW and Tyrrell tabular classification. Descriptive study of the following rocks types :
granite, granodiorite, syenite, nepheline syenite, diorite, pegmatite, aplite, gabbro, anorthosite, peridotite,
pyroxenite, dunite, dolerite, rhyolite, obsidian, trachyte, andesite and basalt. Composition and constitution of
magma – Crystallization of magma, unicomponent and binary systems, eutectic and solid solutions. Origin
of igneous rocks – Bowen’s reaction principle, differentiation and assimilation. Sedimentary rocks: Sources
of sediments – mechanical and chemical weathering, modes of transportation, stratification. Sedimentary
structures : types of bedding, surface marks, deformed bedding and solution structures. Classification of
sedimentary rocks : Clastic – rudaceous, arenaceous, and argillaceous; Non-Clastic – calcareous,
carbonaceous, ferruginous, phosphatic, and evaporates. Descriptive study of the following sedimentary
rocks – conglomerate, breccia, sandstone, grit, arkose, greywacke, shale, limestone, and shelly limestone.
Metamorphic rocks: Definition of metamorphism, agencies of metamorphism, types of metamorphism,
grades and zones of metamorphism. Metamorphic minerals – stress and antistress minerals – Structures
of metamorohic rocks – Cataclastic, maculose, schistose, granulose and gneissose. Textures of
metamorphic rocks – crystalloblastic, palimpset, xenoblastic and idioblastic. Classification of metamorphic
rocks - concept of metamorphic facies. Cataclastic metamorphism of argillaceous and arenaceous rocks.
Thermal metamorphism of argillaceous, arenaceous and calcareous rocks. Dynamothermal metamorphism
of argillaceous, arenaceous and basic igneous rocks. Plutonic metamorphism, metasomatism and additive
processes. Definition of anatexis and palingenesis. Descriptive study of the following metamorphic rocks
: gneiss, schist, slate, phyllite, quartzite, marble, granulite, eclogite, amphibolite, migmatite, charnockite and
khondalite. Structural Geology: Definition of structural geology, aim and objectives of structural geology;
Importance of study of structures, primary and secondary structures; Outcrops, attitude of beds; Strike, dip
and apparent dip, and Use of clinometer. Primary structures. Folds – description, nomenclature and
recognition in the field. Joints – geometrical and genetic classification. Faults – geometrical and genetic
classification and recognition in the field. Effects of faults on the outcrops. Unconformities – definition,
types, and recognition in the field. Distinguishing the faults from unconformities. Definitions of overlap,
offlap, outlier, cleavage, schistosity, foliation and lineation.
Part - C Paper : I -Physical Geology, Crystallography and Mineralogy : Physical Geology : General aspects, definition
of geology – Basic assumptions of Geology – Its relationship with other sciences – Branches of geology –
Aim and applications of Geology. Earth as a planet – It’s shape, size, density – movements and their effects.
Origin and age of the earth. Geological processes – exogenic and endogenic. Definition of weathering –
types of weathering of rocks – physical and chemical. Definition of erosion and denudation, cycle of erosion,
transportation and deposition, agents of erosion. Rivers : erosion, transportation and deposition of river
(fluvial) cycle in different stages – Development of typical landforms by river erosion and deposition. V-
shaped valley, waterfall, alluvial fan, meander, ox-bow lake, flood plane, natural plane, peneplain and delta.
Types of rivers. Glaciers : Definition of a glacier – types – development of typical landforms by glacial erosion
and deposition – cirque, U-shaped valley – changing valley; Rocks – monadrocks, morains, drum-line,
kama, eskors and varves, characteristic features of glaciated regions. Groundwater : starage of ground
water – porosity, permeability, acquifer, water table – zone of saturation, artesian well, spring, geysers –
development of typical landforms by erosion and deposition by groundwater (Karst topography), sinkhole,
cavern, stalactites and stalagmites. Seas : Offshore profile – landforms of sea – marine deposits and coral
reefs. Lacustrine deposits, atmospheric circulation, weather and climatic changes, land-air-sea interaction.
Earth’s heat budget and global climatic changes. Wind : Development of characteristic features by winds
(arid cycle), erosion and deposition – pedestal rock – mushroom topography – Incelberg – Ventifacts – locus
and sand dunes. Earth movements : definition of diastrophism, epirogenic and orogenic movements –
mountains, geosyncline. Basic concepts of isostasy, continental drift and plate tectonics. Earthquakes :
causes, kinds of earthquake waves, mode of propagation, intensity of earthquakes, Richter’s scale,
seismograph and seismogram. Effects of earthquakes, earthquake zones, interior of the earth. Volcanoes
: origin and products. Crystallography : Definition of crystal – amorphous and crystalline states – morphology
of crystals – face, edge, solid angle and interfacial angle. Forms : simple, combination, closed and open
forms. Symmetry : Plane, axis, centre, crystallographic axes, parameters, indices, crystallographic notation –
Parameter system of Weiss, Index system of Miller. Classification of Crystals into ‘7’ systems. Morphological
study of the following classes of symmetry : a) Cubic system – Normal (Galena) type, b) Tetragonal system –
Zircon type, c) Hexagonal system – Beryl type, d) Trigonal system – Calcite type, e) Orthorhombic system –
Barytes type, f) Monoclinic system – Gypsum type, and g) Triclinic system – Axinite type. Twinning in crystals –
definition of twin, twin plane, twin axis and composition plane. Mineralogy : Definition of a mineral –
Classification of minerals into rock forming and ore forming minerals. Physical properties of minerals –
colour, streak, play of colours, opalescence, asterism, transparency, luster, luminescence, fluorescence,
form, hardness, tenacity, cleavage, parting, fracture, specific gravity, magnetic properties, electrical properties,
pyro- and piezo-electricity. Modes of mineral formation : Occurrence and association of minerals. Chemical
properties of minerals – isomorphism – solid solution – polymorphism – allotropy, pseudomorphism,
radioactivity, silicate structure. Descriptive Mineralogy : Study of physical and chemical properties and
mode of occurrence of the following mineral groups : Nesosilicate – Olivine, garnet and aluminium silicates;
Sorosilicate – epidote; Cyclosilicate – beryl; Inosilicate – pyroxene and amphibole; Phyllosilicate – mica,
hydrous magnesium silicate; Tektosilicate – feldspars, feldspathoids and quartz; Miscellaneous – staurolite,
tourmaline, zircon, calcite, corundum and apatite. Optical Mineralogy : Optical properties of minerals –
Isotropic and Anisotropic – Polarized light, refractive index – Double refraction, Uniaxial and Biaxial minerals
– Nicol Prism and it’s construction, Concept of crossed nicols. Petrological (Polarizing) Microscope – Its
mechanical and optical p[arts – behaviour of isotropic ancd anisotropic mineral between crossed nicols –
extinction, pleochroism, interference colour. Optical properties of important minerals.

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110. HUMAN GENETICS
Part - A Paper : III -Human Population Genetics : 1. Measures of central tendency – mean, median and mode. 2.
Measures of disperson – range, meandeviation, variance and standard deviation. 3. probability – law of
addition and Law of multiplication. 4. Fundamental factors of population Genetics – mating patterns, Mendelian
population, mutations, selection, migration and genetic drift. 5. Consequences of random mating – Hardy-
Weinberg Law, considering 2 alleles at a locus and multiple alleles – Gene, genotype and phenotype
frequencies with examples of Autosomal diallelic and multiple allelic characters. 6. Interoduction to Genetic
Counselling – Scope of Genetic Couselling. 7. Indentification of Genetic defects – prenatal methods
amniocentesis, chorionic villai sampling – fetoprotein – postnatal methods, clinical observation, Biochemical
studies, Cytogenetics studies, Serological studies and Molecular studies. 8. Importance of mutation, genetic
heterogeneity, pleiotropism phenocopy, Pehetrance and expressivity. 9. Pedigree analysis and Indentification
of mode of inheritance. 10. The process of counseling – Educating the counselee, presenting the risks and
options and guidance.
Part - B Paper : II -Basics of Human Biology : 1. Man’s place in Animal Kingdom – Order primates, 2. Theories of
Evolution: Lamarckism, Darwinism, New-Darwinism. 3. Fossil evidence for Human Evolution.
Australopithecines, Pithecanthro pithecines; Neanderthals and Cro-Magnon. 4. Theories regarding the origin
of Man. 5. Human Variation – Physical variation – Somatic characters. 6. Genetic variation – Blood group
polymorphism – ABO, RH, MN, 7. Genetic demography – mortality rates – crude mortality rate, age and sex
specific mortality rate – Fertility rates, crude fertility rate, Age and sex specific fertility rate and general fertility
rate. 8. Introduction to Anatomy and physiology. 9. Body fluids. 10. Muscular and Circulatory system. 11.
Reproductive and Urinary system. 12. Endocrine and Nervous system. 13. Articulations and sketetal system.
Part - C Paper : I -Elements of Human Genetics and Molecular Genetics : 1. Physical Basis of Heredity. 2. Mitosis
and Meiosis. 3. D.N.A., R.N.A., Proteins, Genetic code; gene enzyme hypothesis. 4. Mutations. 5. Mendel’s
law of Inheritance. 6. Genic Action: Genes and characters; one character from many genes; many characters
from one gene; Inherited syndromes; phenocophy; Genes and alloles; Heterozygotes and henozygotes;
Intermediateness; codominanced; Genotype and Phenotype; Inborn errors of metabolism. 7. Simple single
factor inheritance-dominant and recessive characters. 8. Genetic ratios. 9. Linkage and crossing over. 10.
Sex determination. 11. Sex linked, sex influenced and sex limited characters. 12. Multiple alleles and polygenes
13. Heredity and Environment – Twin studies. 14. Tools of Human Molecular Genetics; Restriction enzymes;
Southern blot; Northern and Western blots; In situ hybridization; Labelling nucleic acid probes; Polymerage
chain reaction.

111. MARINE LIVING RESOURCES


Part - A Animal Physiology, Behaviour and Ecology
I – Animal Physiology pertaining to: Nutrition: Types of nutrition in animals, autotrophic – Heterotrophic,
vitamins and minerals. 2. Digestion in Mammals 3. Respiration: Brief account of types of respiratory
mechanism, respiratory pigments, gas transport with reference to mammals. 4. Circulation: Composition
and functions of blood, co-agulation of blood. Blood pressure and its role and exchange of materials in
capillaries. 5. Osmo-regulation: Pertaining to aquatic animals only. 6. Excretion: (i) Classification of animals
based on end products of excretion, (2) Formation of nitrogen waste. (3) Nephron: Structure and Function. 7.
Nervous transmission: Structure of neuron, actionpotential, production and propagations of nerve impulse
and synaptic transmission. 8. Muscle contraction. 9. Endocrine glands of Mammals: Pineal body, Hypophysis,
Hypothalamus, mammals Thyroid, Parathyroid, Thymus, Adrenal, Gut, Pancreas, Testis and ovary. 10. Concept
of Homeostasis. Animal Behaviour : Biological rhythms – circadian, Animal Ecology 1. Physico-chemical
factors of the animal Environment: Temperature, light, pressure, atmospheric gases i.e., oxygen and
carbon dioxide, biogeochemical cycles; nitrogen, carbon and phosphorus cycles. 2. Animal community and
Animal population: Ecosystems (Ecological succession, Ecological pyramids, energy flow in an eco system)
– Animal associations (Parasitism Commensalism, Symbiosis, Environments and adaptive features of
animals inhabiting, deep sea, cave, and desert. 3. Environmental pollution. 4. Wild life, wild life sanctuaries
and national parks of India. II – Principles of Aquatic Biology: Water as medium: Anamolous properties of
water and their sig-nificance. Factors affecting the availability of light and its effect on biota. Annual temperature
cycle and types of stratification. Dis-solved gases (oxygen and Corbon dioxide) and pH. 2. Soil: Classification
of soils, soil fertility. 3.Productivity: Estimation of primary productivity, classification of aquatic bodies based
on productivity. 4. Fresh water environment: Classification, Lentic and lotic waters and their biota (plankotn,
nekton and benthos). Weeds and their control. 5.Estuaries: Types of estuaries, physical and chemical
features, fauna and flora and their adaptations. 6.Marine Environment: Classification of marine environment
and the salient features of different zones. Types of shores; Rocky, muddy and sandy. Faunal composition
and adaptations (Plankotn and Nekton).
Part - B I – Biology of Chordates, Genetics:
1. General characters and outline classification upto the level of order. 2.Protochordata: (a) Structure and
Affinities of Amphioxus; (b) Structure Life history of an Ascidian. 3. Cyclostomata: General characters of
cyclostomes and differences between Myxin & Petromyzon. 4. Comparative study of the following systems
with reference to Scoliodon (pisces), Rana (Amphibia) calotes (Reptilia), Columba (Aves) and Lagomorpha
(Mammalia) – (a) Skletal system: skull and Girdles; (b) Respiratorysystem; (c) Circulatory system: Heart and
aortic arches; (d) Nervous system – Brain. 5. General Topics: (i) Parental care in Amphibia; (ii) Dentition in
Mammals. 6. Developmental Biology: (i) Gastrulation in Amphioxus, Frog and Chick; (ii) Development of
chick upto 24 hrs., (iii) Foetal membranes of chick, (iv) Placmenta in Mammals (Formation and types).
Genetics & Evoluation: 1. (i) Gene interaction with 3 examples, (ii) Sex determination, (iii)Sex linked inheritance,

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(iv) Blood group inheritance, (v) Fine structure of gene, Operon, concept, Cloning, Lethal genes,
(vi)Chromosomal Abberation and human diseases. 2. Modern synthetic theory of Evolution, Mutations, Genetic
basis of Evolution, Genetic Drift (Hardy Weinberg’s Law), Isolaltion and speciation. 3. Characteristics of the
following Zoogeographic regions and their fauna: (i) Oriental regions, (ii) Ethiopian Region, (iii) Australian
Region. II – Capture Fisheries: 1. Fish production of the world both inland and marine, contribution of
different countries, position of India in the last two decades. General account of the distribution, biology and
fishery of important fishes and other aquataic animals of India. 2. Riverine Fishery: Different riverine systems
in India, and their fishery: The Ganga river system, the Brahmaputra river system, the East Coast river
system, the West Coast river system, River Jhelum of the Indus river system; Fisheries of trout and Mahaseer:
Problems and man-agement. 3. Reservoir fishery (Lacustrine fishery): Lakes (origin, classifi-cation) Different
reservoirs of River systems in India with special reference to Govindasagar, Rihand, Nagarjunasagar, Stanley,
Transition from riverine to Lacuatrine Ecology - Initial fertility to trophic depression. 4. Estuarine fishery:
Definition of an estuary, origin and classi-fication; divergent estuaries in India, their location and species
composition - Hoogly - Matla estuary, Mahanadi estuary, Godavary estuary, Krishna estuary, Vellor estuary
and Killai back waters, Chilka lake, Kerala back waters. 5. Marine Fishery: Marine fishery resources in India:
Pelagic fishery resources. Taxonomy general description, distribution, food and feeding habits, reproduction,
craft and gear, fishery utilization of the following: Sardines, Bombay duck, mackerels, hilsa, mullets, sharks
and rays, tuna and seer fish and prawns. Main types of traditional craft and gear employed in marine and
freshwater fisheries of Andhra Pradesh (a) Canoes, catemaran, Masula type boats. (b) Cast nets, gill nets,
shore seines, boat seines. 6. Fishery Management: Principles of conservation, and management.
Part - C I - Biology of Invertebrates and Cell Biology
1. General characters and classification of Major Invertebrate phyla with examples upto orders. 2. Protozoa:
(i) Polystomella – type study, (ii) Trypanosoma life cycle only. 3. Porifera: Canal system, Histology & Spicules.
4. Coelentereta: (i) obelia type study, (ii) Polymorphism in Siphonophora, (iii) Corals and Coral reef formation.
5. Helminthes – Fasciola – Detailed type Study. 6. Annelida: (i) Metomorphism – Comparative study of the
following systems of Leeach and Nereis – External Characters – Digestive system – Reproductive system
– Coelom and Ceolomoducts. 7. Arthropoda: Comparative study of External features – Appandages –
Respiration – Circulation – Excretion of Palaemon and Scorpion – Peripatus structure and affinities. 8.
Mollusca: (i) External Characters of Pila and Fresh Water Mussel (Shell, Mantle complex and Foot –
Comparative study), (ii) Pearl formation, (iii) Torsion in gastropoda. 9. Echinodermata: Starfish – detailed
study 10. Hemichordata: Balanoglossus – External Features, Tornaria larva – Affinities of Hemichoradata.
11. Important Invertebrate larval forms: (a) Amphiblastula, (b) Ephyralarva, (c) Trochophore, (d) Nauplius,
Zoea, Mysis, (e) Veliger, Glochidium, (f) Echinopluteus, Ophiopluteus, Auricularia and Doliolaria. 12. Ultra
structure of Animal Cell 13. Structure and function of the following cell organelles: (i) Plasma Membrane:
Membrane, Transport of small molecules, Cell Junctions, Cell adhesion, (ii) Cytoskeleton, (iii) Golgi Complex,
(iv) Lysosomes, (v) Role of mitochondria in cellular energy energy transactions, (vi) Chromosomes – Structure
and type, Salivary gland chromosomes. 14. Microscopic techiniques for the study of cells – fixation, sectioning,
staining and preparation of micro slide. II – Principles of Biochemistry: Amino acids - classification, properties
and chemical reactions, peptide bond, proteins - classification, isolation and purification physico-chemical
properties and denaturation, structure of proteins. 2. Nucleic acids - Structure and properties of purine and
pyrimi-dine bases, nucleotides, cellular localization, isolation, estimation, structure and properties of RNA
and DNA. 3. Carbohydrates - Classification, chemical reactions and properties of ribose, glucose, fructose,
sucrose, maltose, lactose, structure and configuration of glucose, structure and properties of starch, cellulose
and glycogen.
112. MATHEMATICS
Part - A Paper : III - Linear Algebra and Vector Calculus
I) Linear Algebra : Unit-I: Vector spaces, General properties of vector spaces, Vector subspaces, Algebra
of subspaces, linear combination of vectors. Linear span, linear sum of two subspaces, Linear independence
and dependence of vectors, Basis of vector space, Finite dimensional vector spaces, Dimension of a vector
space, Dimension of a subspace. Linear transformations, linear operators, Range and null space of linear
transformation, Rank and nullity of linear transformations, Linear transformations as vectors, Product of
linear transformations, Invertible linear transformation. Unit-II: The adjoint or transpose of a linear
transformation, Sylvester’s law of nullity, characteristic values and characteristic vectors , Cayley- Hamilton
theorem, Diagonalizable operators. Inner product spaces, Euclidean and unitary spaces, Norm or length of
a vector, Schwartz inequality, Orthogonality, Orthonormal set, complete orthonormal set, Gram - Schmidt
orthogonalisation process. (II) Multiple integrals and Vector Calculus : Unit-III: Multiple integrals : Introduction,
the concept of a plane, Curve, line integral- Sufficient condition for the existence of the integral. The area of
a subset of R 2 , Calculation of double integrals, Jordan curve , Area, Change of the order of integration,
Double integral as a limit, Change of variable in a double integration. Unit-IV: Vector differentiation. Ordinary
derivatives of vectors, Space curves, Continuity, Differentiability, Gradient, Divergence, Curl operators, Formulae
involving these operators. Vector integration, Theorems of Gauss and Stokes, Green’s theorem in plane and
applications of these theorems.
Part -B Paper : II - Abstract Algebra & Real Analysis : (I) Groups : Binary operations- Definitions and properties,
Groups—Definition and elementary properties, Finite groups and group composition tables, Subgroups
and cyclic subgroups. Permutations—Functions and permutations ,groups of permutations, cycles and
cyclic notation, even and odd permutations, The alternating groups. Cyclic groups - Elementary properties
,The classification of cyclic groups , sub groups of finite cyclic groups. Isomorphism - Definition and elementary
properties, Cayley’s theorem, Groups of cosets, Applications, Normal subgroups - Factor groups , Criteria
for the existence of a coset group, Inner automorphisms and normal subgroups, factor groups and simple

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groups, Homomorphism- Definition and elementary properties, The fundamental theorem of
homomorphisms, applications. (II) Rings : (III) Real Numbers : The Completeness Properties of R, Applications
of the Supremum Property. Sequences and Series - Sequences and their limits, limit theorems, Monotonic
Sequences, Sub-sequences and the Bolzano-Weirstrass theorem,The Cauchy’s Criterion, Properly divergent
sequences, Introduction to series, Absolute convergence, test for absolute convergence, test for non-absolute
convergence. Continuous Functions—continuous functions, combinations of continuous functions,
continuous functions on intervals, Uniform continuity. (IV) Differentiation and Integration : The derivative,
The mean value theorems, L’Hospital Rule, Taylor’s Theorem. Riemann integration - Riemann integral ,
Riemann integrable functions, Fundamental theorem.
Part - C Paper : I - Differential Equations & Solid Geometry : Differential equations of first order and first degree :
Linear differential equations; Differential equations reducible to linear form; Exact differential equations;
Integrating factors; Change of variables; Simultaneous differential equations; Orthogonal trajectories. Dif-
ferential equations of the first order but not of the first degree: Equations solvable for p; Equations
solvable for y; Equations solvable for x; Equations that do not contain x (or y); Equations of the first degree in
x and y - Clairaut’s equation. Higher order linear differential equations Solution of homogeneous linear
differential equations of order n with constantcoefficients. Solution of the non-homogeneous linear differen-
tial equations with constant coefficients by means of polynomial operators. Method of undetermined coeffi-
cients; Method of variation of parameters; Linear differential equations with non-constant coefficients; The
Cauchy-Euler equation, System of linear differential equations: Solution of a system of linear equations
with constant coefficients; An equivalent triangular system. Degenerate Case: p1(D) p4(D)-p2(D) p3(D) = 0.
SOLID GEOMETRY, The Plane Equation of plane in terms of its intercepts on the axis, Equations of the plane
through the given points, Length of the perpendicular from a given point to a given plane, Bisectors of angles
between two planes, Combined equation of two planes, Orthogonal projection on a plane. The Line: Equa-
tions of a line, Angle between a line and a plane, The condition that a given line may lie in a given plane, The
condition that two given lines are coplanar, Number of arbitrary constants in the equations of a straight line.
Sets of conditions which determine a line, The shortest distance between two lines. The length and equa-
tions of the line of shortest distance between two straight lines, Length of the perpendicular from a given
point to a given line, Intersection of three planes, Triangular Prism. The Sphere: Definition and equation of
the sphere, Equation of the sphere through four given points, Plane sections of a sphere. Intersection of two
spheres; Equation of a circle. Sphere through a given circle; Intersection of a sphere and a line. Power of a
point; Tangent plane. Plane of contact. Polar plane, Pole of a plane, Conjugate points, Conjugate planes;
Angle of intersection of two spheres. Conditions for two spheres to be orthogonal; Radical plane. Coaxial
system of spheres; Simplified from of the equation of two spheres. Cones, Cylinders and conicoids: Defi-
nitions of a cone, vertex, guiding curve, generators. Equation of the cone with a given vertex and guiding
curve. Enveloping cone of a sphere. Equations of cones with vertex at origin are homogenous. Condition that
the general equation of the second degree should represent a cone. Condition that a cone may have three
mutually perpendicular generators Intersection of a line and a quadric cone. Tangent lines and tangent
plane at a point. Condition that a plane may touch a cone. Reciprocal cones. Intersection of two cones with
a common vertex. Right circular cone. Equation of the right circular cone with a given vertex, axis and semi-
vertical angle. Definition of a cylinder. Equation to the cylinder whose generators intersect a given conic and
are parallel to a given line, Enveloping cylinder of a sphere. The right circular cylinder. Equation of the right
circular cylinder with a given axis and radius. The general equation of the second degree and the various
surfaces represented by it; Shapes of some surfaces. Nature of Ellipsoid. Nature of Hyperboloid of one
sheet. I) Differential euations of first order and first degree, (II) Differential equations of first order but not of
the first degree, (III) Higher order linear differential equations, (IV) Solid Geometry, System of linear differen-
tial equations - plane, the line, the sphere (V) Cones, Cylinders and conicoids.
113. MICROBIOLOGY
Part - A Paper : III - Immunology and Medical Microbiology ; UNIT – I : History of Immunology and Immune System
Development of immunology. Types of immunity – innate and acquired; active and passive; humoral and
cell-mediated immunity. Primary and secondary organs of immune system – thymus, bursa fabricus, bone
marrow, spleen and lymph nodes.Cells of immune system. Identiification and function of B and T lympho-
cytes, null cells, monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils. UNIT – II : Basics of
Immunology Antigens – types, chemical nature, antigenic determinants, haptens. Factors affecting antige-
nicity. Antibodies – basic structure, types, properties and functions of immunoglobulins. Components of
complement and activation of complement.Types of antigen-antibody reactions – agglutination, blood groups,
precipitation, neutralization, complement fixation. Labeled antibody based techniques – ELISA, RIA and
Immunofluroscence. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies – production and applications. Types of hyper-
sensitivity – immediate and delayed. Autoimmunity and its significance. UNIT – III : Clinical Microbiology :
History of medial microbiology. Normal flora of human body. Definition of infection, non-specific defense
mechanisms, mechanical barriers, antagonism of indigenous flora. Anti-bacterial substances – lysozyme,
complement, properdin, antiviral substances, phagocytosis. General principles of diagnostic microbiology.
Collection, transport and processing of clinical samples. General methods of laboratory diagnosis – cul-
tural, biochemical, serological and molecular methods.Tests for antimicrobial susceptibility. Antiviral agents
– interferon and base analogues. Host-pathogen interactions. Bacterial toxins, virulence and attenuation.
UNIT – IV : Microorganisms and Diseases ; Elements of chemotherapy – therapeutic drugs. Drug resis-
tance. Mode of action of penicillin and sulpha drugs, and their clinical use. Preventive control of diseases –
active and passive immunization. Vaccines–natural and recombinant. General account of the following
diseases – causal organisms, pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention and control of: Air-borne

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diseases - Tuberculosis, Influenza, Food and water-borne diseases - Cholera, Typhoid, Hepatitis- Poliomy-
elitis, Amoebiasis, Insect-borne diseases - Malaria, Filariasis, Dengue fever, Contact diseases - Syphilis,
Gonorrhoea, Zoonotic diseases - Rabies, Anthrax, Blood-borne diseases - Serum hepatitis, AIDS General
account of nosocomial infections. Paper : IV - Applied Microbiology :UNIT - I Agricultural Microbiology :
Physical and chemical characteristics of soil. Rhizosphere and phyllosphere. Plant growth-promoting mi-
croorganisms -mycorrhizae, rhizobia, Azospirillum, Azotobacter, cyanobacteria, Frankia and phosphate-
solubilizing microorganisms. Outlines of biological nitrogen fixation (symbiotic, non-symbiotic). Biofertilizers
- Rhizobium. Concept of disease in plants. Symptoms of plant diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, and
viruses. Plant diseases caused by fungi (groundnut rust), bacteria (angular leaf spot of cotton) and viruses
(tomato leaf curl). Principles of plant disease control. Biological control of plant diseases. Biopesticides –
Bacillus thuringiensis, Nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV), Trichoderma. UNIT – II : Environmental Microbiol-
ogy : Microorganisms of environment (soil, water and air). Role of microorganisms in nutrient cycling (car-
bon, nitrogen, sulphur). Microbial interactions – mutualism, commensalism, antagonism, competition, para-
sitism, predation. Microbiology of potable and polluted waters. E. coli and Streptococcus faecalis as indica-
tors of water pollution. Sanitation of potable water. Sewage treatment (primary, secondary and tertiary).
Outlines of biodegradation of environmental pollutants – pesticides. Solid waste disposal – sanitary land
fills, composting. Microbiology of air and air sampling methods. UNIT – III : Food Microbiology : Microorgan-
isms of food spoilage and their sources. Spoilage of different food materials - fruits, vegetables, meat, fish.
Canned foods. Food intoxication (botulism and staph poisioning), food-borne diseases (salmonellosis
and shigellosis) and their detection. General account of food preservation. Microbiological production of
fermented foods – bread, cheese, yogurt. Biochemical activities of microbes in milk. Microorganisms as
food – SCP, edible mushrooms (white button, oyster and paddy straw) Concept of probiotics. UNIT – IV :
Industrial Microbiology : Microorganisms of industrial importance – yeasts, moulds, bacteria, actinomycetes.
Screening and isolation of industrially-important microorganisms. Outlines of strain improvement. Types of
fermentation – aerobic, anaerobic, batch, continuous, submerged, surface, solid state. Design of a stirred
tank reactor fermentor. Fermentation media. Industrial production of alcohols (ethyl alcohol), beverages
(beer), enzymes (amylases), antibiotics (penicillin), amino acids (glutamic acid), organic acids (citric acid),
vitamins (B12), biofuels (biogas - methane)
Part - B Paper : II - Microbial Physiology and Genetics : UNIT – I : Nutrition, Growth and Enzymes : Microbial nutrition
- nutritional requirements and uptake of nutrients by cells. Nutritional groups of microorganisms - autotro-
phs, heterotrophs, mixotrophs, methylotrophs. Growth media - synthetic, nonsynthetic, selective, enrich-
ment and differential media. Microbial growth - different phases of growth in batch cultures. Factors
influencing microbial growth. Synchronous, continuous, biphasic growth. Methods for measuring microbial
growth – Direct microscopy, viable count estimates, turbiodometry, biomass. Enzymes - properties and
classification, enzyme unit. Biocatalysis - induced fit, and lock and key model, coenzymes, cofactors, factors
affecting catalytic activity of enzymes. Inhibition of enzyme activity - competitive, noncompetitive, uncompetitive
and allosteric. UNIT – II : Intermediary Metabolism : Aerobic respiration - Glycolysis, HMP pathway, ED
pathway, TCA cycle, electron transport, oxidative and substrate-level phosphorylation. Anaplerotic reactions.
â-Oxidation of fatty acids. Glyoxylate cycle. Anaerobic respiration (nitrate, sulphate respiration). Fermentation
- Common microbial fermentations with special reference to alcohol and lactic acid fermentations. Photo-
synthetic apparatus in prokaryotes. Outlines of oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis in bacteria. UNIT –
III Microbial Genetics : Fundamentals of genetics - Mendelian laws, alleles, crossing over, and linkage. DNA
and RNA as genetic materials. Structure of DNA – Watson and Crick model. Extrachromosomal genetic
elements – Plasmids and transposons. Replication of DNA – Semiconservative mechanism. Outlines of
DNA damage and repair mechanisms. Mutations – spontaneous and induced, base pair changes, frame
shifts, deletions, inversions, tandem duplications, insertions. Various physical and chemical mutagens.
Brief account on horizontal gene transfer among bacteria – transformation, transduction and conjugation.
UNIT – IV : Gene Expression and Recombinant DNA Technology : Concept of gene – Muton, recon and
cistron. One gene-one enzyme, one gene-one polypeptide, one gene-one product hypotheses. Types of RNA
and their functions. Outlines of RNA biosynthesis in prokaryotes. Genetic code. Structure of ribosomes and
a brief account of protein synthesis. Types of genes – structural, constitutive, regulatory. Operon concept.
Regulation of gene expression in bacteria – lac operon. Basic principles of genetic engineering - restriction
endonucleases, DNA polymerases and ligases, vectors. Outlines of gene cloning methods. Genomic and
cDNA libraries. General account on application of genetic engineering in industry, agriculture and medicine.
Part - C Paper : I - Introductory Microbiology : UNIT – I : History of Microbiology and Microscopy : Meaning, definition
and history of Microbiology. Contributions of Antony von Leeuwenhoek, Edward Jenner, Louis Pasteur,
Robert Koch, Iwanowsky, Beijerinck, Winogradsky and Alexander Fleming. Importance and applications of
Microbiology. Principles of microscopy – bright field, dark field, phase-contrast, fluorescent and electron
microscopy (SEM and TEM). Ocular and stage micrometers. Size determination of microorganisms.
Principles and types of stains - Simple stain, differential stain, negative stain, structural stains - spore,
capsule, flagella. Hanging-drop method. UNIT – II : Microbiological Techniques : Sterilization and disinfection
techniques. Principles and methods of sterilization. Physical methods - autoclave, hot-air oven, pressure
cooker, laminar air flow, filter sterilization. Radiation methods - UV rays, gamma rays, ultrasonic methods.
Chemical methods - Use of alcohols, aldehydes, fumigants, phenols, halogens and hypochlorites. Phenol
coefficient. Isolation of pure culture techniques -Enrichment culturing, dilution-plating, streak-plate, spread-
plate and micromanipulator. Preservation of microbial cultures - subculturing, overlaying cultures with mineral
oils, lyophilization, sand cultures, storage at low temperature. UNIT – III : Biology of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic
Microorganisms : Outline classification of living organisms: Heckel, Whittaker and Carl Woese systems.
Place of microorganisms in the living world. Differentiation of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Prokaryotes -

: 18 :
General characteristics of bacteria, archaebacteria, rickettsias, mycoplasmas, cyanobacteria and
actinomycetes. Outline classification for bacteria as per the second edition of Bergey’s Manual of Systematic
Bacteriology (up to order level). Ultrastructure of a bacterial cell: Invariant components - cell wall, cell
membrane, ribosomes, nucleoid. Variant components - Capsule, flagella, fimbriae, endospore and storage
granules. General characteristics and classification of viruses. Morphology and structure of TMV and HIV.
Structure and multiplication of lambda bacteriophage. Eukaryotes - General characteristics and classification
(up to the order level) of eukaryotic microorganisms - Protozoa, microalgae, molds and yeasts. UNIT – IV :
Biomolecules : Biomolecules of microorganisms. Outline classification and general characteristics of
carbohydrates (monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides). General characteristics of amino
acids and proteins. Structure of nitrogenous bases, nucleotides, nucleic acids. Fatty acids (saturated and
unsaturated) and lipids (spingolipds, sterols and phospholipids). Hydrogen ion concentration in biological
fluids, pH measurement. Types of buffers and their use in biological reactions. Principle and application of
colorimerty and chromatography (paper and thin-layer).

114. PHYSICS
Part - A Paper : III - Electricity, Magnetism and Electronics
Unit – I : 1. Electrostatics : Gauss law and its applications-Uniformly charged sphere, charged cylindrical
conductor and an infinite conducting sheet of charge. Deduction of Coulmb’s law from Gauss law Mechanical
force on a charged conductor Electric potential – Potential due to a charged spherical conductor, , electric
field strength from the electric dipole and an infinite line of charge. Potential of a uniformly charged circular
disc. 2. Dielectrics: An atomic view of dielectrics, potential energy of a dipole in an electric field. Polarization
and charge density, Gauss’s law for dielectric medium– Relation between D,E, and P. Dielectric constant,
susceptibility and relation between them. Boundary conditions at the dielectric surface. Electric fields in
cavities of a dielectric-needle shaped cavity and disc shaped cavity. 3. Capacitance : Capacitance of concentric
spheres and cylindrical condenser, capacitance of parallel plate condenser with and without dielectric.
Electric energy stored in a charged condenser – force between plates of condenser, construction and
working of attracted disc electrometer, measurement of dielectric constant and potential difference. Unit – II
: 1. Magnetostatics Magnetic shell – potential due to magnetic shell – field due to magnetic shell – equivalent
of electric circuit and magnetic shell – Magnetic induction (B) and field (H) – permeability and susceptibility
– Hysteresis loop. 2. Moving charge in electric and magnetic field Hall effect, cyclotron, synchrocyclotron
and synchrotron – force on a current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field, force and torque on a
current loop, Biot –Savart’s law and calculation of B due to long straight wire, a circular current loop and
solenoid. 3. Electromagnetic induction Faraday’s law –Lenz’s law – expression for induced emf – time
varying magnetic fields – Betatron –Ballistic galvanometer – theory – damping correction – self and mutual
inductance, coefficient of coupling, calculation of self inductance of a long solenoid – toroid – energy stored
in magnetic field – transformer – Construction, working, energy losses and efficiency. Unit – III 1. Varying and
alternating currents Growth and decay of currents in LR, CR and LCR circuits – Critical damping. Alternating
current relation between current and voltage in pure R,C and L-vector diagrams – Power in ac circuits. LCR
series and parallel resonant circuit – Q-factor. AC & DC motors-single phase, three phase (basics only). 2.
Maxwell’s equations and electromagnetic waves A review of basic laws of electricity and magnetism –
displacement current – Maxwell’s equations in differential form – Maxwell’s wave equation, plane
electromagnetic waves – Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves, Poynting theorem, production of
electromagnetic waves (Hertz experiment) Unit – IV : 1. Basic Electronics Formation of electron energy
bands in solids, classification of solids in terms of forbidden energy gap. Intrinsic and extrinsic
semiconductors, Fermi level, continuity equation – p-n junction diode, Zener diode characteristics and its
application as voltage regulator. Half wave and full wave rectifiers and filters, ripple factor (quantitative) – p
n p and n p n transistors, current components in transistors, CB,CE and CC configurations – transistor
hybrid parameters – determination of hybrid parameters from transistor characteristics – transistor as an
amplifier –– concept of negative feed back and positive feed back – Barkhausen criterion, RC coupled
amplifier and phase shift oscillator (qualitative). 2. Digital Principles : Binary number system, converting
Binary to Decimal and vice versa. Binary addition and subtraction (1’s and 2’s complement methods).
Hexadecimal number system. Conversion from Binary to Hexadecimal – vice versa and Decimal to
Hexadecimal vice versa. Logic gates: OR,AND,NOT gates, truth tables, realization of these gates using
discrete components. NAND, NOR as universal gates, Exclusive – OR gate, De Morgan’s Laws – statement
and proof, Half and Full adders. Parallel adder circuits. Paper : IV - Modern Physics : Unit – I : Atomic
Spectra: Introduction – Drawbacks of Bohr’s atomic model - Sommerfeld’s elliptical orbits – relativistic
correction (no derivation). Stern & Gerlach experiment Vector atom model and quantum numbers associated
with it. L-S and j-j coupling schemes. Spectral terms, selection rules, intensity rules. Spectra of alkali atoms,
doublet fine structure. Alkaline earth spectra, singlet and triplet fine structure. Zeeman Effect, Paschen-Back
Effect and Stark Effect (basic idea). Molecular Spectroscopy: Types of molecular spectra, pure rotational
energies and spectrum of diatomic molecule, determination of internuclear distance. Vibrational energies
and spectrum of diatomic molecule. Raman effect, Classical theory of Raman effect. Experimental
arrangement for Raman effect and its applications. Unit – II: Quantum Mechanics: Inadequacy of classical
Physics: (Discussion only) Spectral radiation – Planck’s law. Photoelectric effect – Einstien’s photoelectric
equation. Compton’s effect (quantitative) experimental verification. Stability of an atom – Bohr’s atomic
theory. Limitations of old quantum theory. Matter Waves: de Broglie’s hypothesis – wavelength of matter
waves, properties of matter waves. Phase and group velocities. Davisson and Germer experiment. Double
slit experiment. Standing de Brogile waves of electron in Bohr orbits. Uncertainty Principle: Heisenberg’s
uncertainty principle for position and momentum (x and px), Energy and time (E and t). Gamma ray microscope.

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Diffraction by a single slit. Position of electron in a Bohr orbit. Particle in a box. Complementary principle of
Bohr. Schrodinger Wave Equation: Schrodinger time independent and time dependent wave equations.
Wave function properties – Significance. Basic postulates of quantum mechanics. Operators, eigen functions
and eigen values, expectation values. Application of Schrodinger wave equation to particle in one and three
dimensional boxes, potential step and potential barrier. Unit – III : Nuclear Physics: Nuclear Structure:
Basic properties of nucleus – size, charge, mass, spin, magnetic dipole moment and electric quadrupole
moment. Binding energy of nucleus, deuteron binding energy, p-p and n-p scattering (concepts), nuclear
forces. Nuclear models – liquid drop model, shell model. Alpha and Beta Decays: Range of alpha particles,
Geiger – Nuttal law. Gammow’s theory of alpha decay. Geiger – Nuttal law from Gammow’s theory. Beta
spectrum – neutrino hypothesis, Fermi’s theory of β-decay (qualitative).Nuclear Reactions: Types of nuclear
reactions, channels, nuclear reaction kinematics. Compound nucleus, direct reactions (concepts). Nuclear
Detectors – GM counter, proportional counter, scintillation counter, Wilson cloud chamber and solid state
detector, Unit – IV : Solid State Physics Crystal Structure: Crystalline nature of matter. Cystal lattice, Unit
Cell, Elements of symmetry. Crystal systems, Bravais lattices. Miller indices. Simple crystal structures
(S.C., BCC, CsCl, FCC, NaCl diamond and Zinc Blends) , X-ray Diffraction: Diffraction of X –rays by crystals,
Bragg’s law, Experimental techniques - Laue’s method and powder method. Nanomaterials: Introduction,
nanoparticles, metal nanoclusters, semiconductor nanoparticles, carbon clusters, carbon nanotubes,
quantum nanostructures – nanodot, nanowire and quantum well. Fabrication of quantum nanostructures.
Bonding in Crystals: Types of bonding in crystals – characteristics of crystals with different bindings. Lattice
energy of ionic crystals – determination of Medelung constant for NaCl crystal, calculation of Born coefficient
and repulsive exponent. Born – Haber cycle. Magnetism: Magnetic properties of dia, para and ferromagnetic
materials. Langevin’s theory of paramagnetism. Weiss’ theory of ferromagnetism –Concepts of magnetic
domains, antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism ferrites and their applications.Superconductivity: Basic
experimental facts – zero resistance, effect of magnetic field, Meissner effect, persistent current, Isotope
effect Thermodynamic properties, specific heat, entropy. Type I and Type II superconductors. Elements of
BCS theory-Cooper pairs. Applications. High temperature superconductors (general information)
Part - B Paper : II - Thermodynamics and Optics : Unit – I : 1. Kinetic theory of gases: Introduction – Deduction of
Maxwell’s law of distribution of molecular speeds, Experimental verification Toothed Wheel Experiment,
Trans port Phenomena – Viscosity of gases – thermal conductivity – diffusion of gases. 2. Thermodynamics:
Introduction – Reversible and irreversible processes – Carnot’s engine and its efficiency – Carnot’s theorem
– Second law of thermodynamics, Kelvin’s and Claussius statements – Thermodynamic scale of temperature
– Entropy, physical significance – Change in entropy in reversible and irreversible processes – Entropy and
disorder – Entropy of universe – Temperature- Entropy (T-S) diagram – Change of entropy of a perfect gas-
change of entropy when ice changes into steam. 3. Thermodynamic potentials and Maxwell’s equations:
Thermodynamic potentials – Derivation of Maxwell’s thermodynamic relations – Clausius-Clayperon’s
equation – Derivation for ratio of specific heats – Derivation for difference of two specific heats for perfect gas.
Joule Kelvin effect – expression for Joule Kelvin coefficient for perfect and Vanderwaal’s gas. Unit – II : 4. Low
temperature Physics: Introduction – Joule Kelvin effect – liquefaction of gas using porous plug experiment.
Joule expansion – Distinction between adiabatic and Joule Thomson expansion – Expression for Joule
Thomson cooling – Liquefaction of helium, Kapitza’s method – Adiabatic demagnetization – Production of
low temperatures – Principle of refrigeration, vapour compression type. Working of refrigerator and Air
conditioning machines. Effects of Chloro and Fluro Carbons on Ozone layer; applications of substances at
low- temperature. 5. Quantum theory of radiation: : Black body-Ferry’s black body – distribution of energy in
the spectrum of Black body – Wein’s displacement law, Wein’s law, Rayleigh-Jean’s law – Quantum theory
of radiation - Planck’s law – deduction of Wein’s law, Rayleigh-Jeans law, from Planck’s law - Measurement
of radiation – Types of pyrometers – Disappearing filament optical pyrometer – experimental determination
– Angstrom pyroheliometer - determination of solar constant, effective temperature of sun. 6. Statistical
Mechanics: : Introduction to statistical mechanics, concept of ensembles, Phase space, Maxwell-Boltzmann’s
distribution law, Molecular energies in an ideal gas, Bose-Einstein Distribution law, Fermi-Dirac Distribution
law, comparison of three distribution laws, Black Body Radiation, Rayleigh-Jean’s formula, Planck’s radiation
law, Weins Displacement, Stefan’s Boltzmann’s law from Plancks formula. Application of Fermi-Dirac
statistics to white dwarfs and Neutron stars. Unit III : 7 The Matrix methods in paraxial optics: Introduction,
the matrix method, effect of translation, effect of refraction, imaging by a spherical refracting surface. Imaging
by a co-axial optical system. Unit planes. Nodal planes. A system of two thin lenses. 8 Aberrations:
Introduction – Monochromatic aberrations, spherical aberration, methods of minimizing spherical aberration,
coma, astigmatism and curvature of field, distortion. Chromatic aberration – the achromatic doublet – Removal
of chromatic aberration of a separated doublet. 9 Interference: : Principle of superposition – coherence –
temporal coherence and spatial coherence – conditions for Interference of light Interference by division of
wave front: Fresnel’s biprism – determination of wave length of light. Determination of thickness of a
transparent material using Biprism – change of phase on reflection – Lloyd’s mirror experiment. Interference
by division of amplitude: Oblique incidence of a plane wave on a thin film due to reflected and transmitted
light (Cosine law) – Colours of thin films – Non reflecting films – interference by a plane parallel film
illuminated by a point source – Interference by a film with two non-parallel reflecting surfaces (Wedge
shaped film) – Determination of diameter of wire-Newton’s rings in reflected light with and without contact
between lens and glass plate, Newton’s rings in transmitted light (Haidinger Fringes) – Determination of
wave length of monochromatic light – Michelson Interferometer – types of fringes – Determination of
wavelength of monochromatic light, Difference in wavelength of sodium D1,D2 lines and thickness of a thin
transparent plate. Unit IV: 10 Diffraction: Introduction – Distinction between Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffraction
Fraunhoffer diffraction:- Diffraction due to single slit and circular aperture – Limit of resolution – Fraunhoffer
diffraction due to double slit – Fraunhoffer diffraction pattern with N slits (diffraction grating) Resolving Power

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of grating – Determination of wave length of light in normal and oblique incidence methods using diffraction
grating. Fresnel diffraction:- Fresnel’s half period zones – area of the half period zones –zone plate –
Comparison of zone plate with convex lens – Phase reversal zone plate – diffraction at a straight edge –
difference between interference and diffraction. 11 Polarization Polarized light : Methods of Polarization,
Polarizatioin by reflection, refraction, Double refraction, selective absorption , scattering of light – Brewsters
law – Malus law – Nicol prism polarizer and analyzer – Refraction of plane wave incident on negative and
positive crystals (Huygen’s explanation) – Quarter wave plate, Half wave plate – Babinet’s compensator –
Optical activity, analysis of light by Laurent’s half shade polarimeter. 12 Laser, Fiber Optics and Holography:
: Lasers: Introduction – Spontaneous emission – Stimulated emission – Population inversion . Laser principle
– Einstein coefficients – Types of Lasers – He-Ne laser – Ruby laser – Applications of lasers. Fiber Optics :
Introduction – Optical fibers – Types of optical fibers – Step and graded index fibers – Rays and modes in an
optical fiber – Fiber material – Principles of fiber communication (qualitative treatment only) and advantages
of fiber communication. Holography: Basic Principle of Holography – Gabor hologram and its limitations,
Holography applications.
Part - C Paper : I - Mechanics and Waves and Oscillations : Unit – I : 1. Vector Analysis : Scalar and vector fields,
gradient of a scalar field and its physical significance. Divergence and curl of a vector field and related
problems. Vector integration, line, surface and volume integrals. Stokes, Gauss and Greens theorems-
simple applications. 2. Mechanics of Particles : Laws of motion, motion of variable mass system, motion of
a rocket, multi-stage rocket, conservation of energy and momentum. Collisions in two and three dimensions,
concept of impact parameter, scattering cross-section, Rutherford scattering , 3. Mechanics of rigid bodies
Definition of Rigid body, rotational kinematic relations, equation of motion for a rotating body, angular
momentum and inertial tensor. Eulers equation, precession of a top, Gyroscope, precession of the equinoxes,
Unit – II : 4 Mechanics of continuous media Elastic constants of isotropic solids and their relation, Poisson’s
ratio and expression for Poisson’s ratio in terms of y, n, k. Classification of beams, types of bending, point
load, distributed load, shearing force and bending moment, sign conventions, simple supported beam
carrying a concentrated load at mid span, cantilever with an end load, 5 Central forces : Central forces –
definition and examples, conservative nature of central forces, conservative force as a negative gradient of
potential energy, equation of motion under a central force, gravitational potential and gravitational field,
motion under inverse square law, derivation of Kepler’s laws, Coriolis force and its expressions. 6 Special
theory of relativity : Galilean relativity, absolute frames, Michelson-Morley experiment, Postulates of special
theory of relativity. Lorentz transformation, time dilation, length contraction, addition of velocities, mass-
energy relation. Concept of four vector formalism. Unit – III : 7 Fundamentals of vibrations : Simple harmonic
oscillator, and solution of the differential equation– Physical characteristics of SHM, torsion pendulum, -
measurements of rigidity modulus , compound pendulum, measurement of ‘g’, combination of two mutually
perpendicular simple harmonic vibrations of same frequency and different frequencies, Lissajous figures,
8 Damped and forced oscillations: Damped harmonic oscillator, solution of the differential equation of
damped oscillator. Energy considerations, comparison with undamped harmonic oscillator, logarithmic
decrement, relaxation time, quality factor, differential equation of forced oscillator and its solution, amplitude
resonance, velocity resonance, 9 Complex vibrations: Fourier theorem and evaluation of the Fourier
coefficients, analysis of periodic wave functions-square wave, triangular wave, saw-tooth wave, Unit – IV: 10
Vibrations of bars: Longitudinal vibrations in bars- wave equation and its general solution. Special cases
(i) bar fixed at both ends ii) bar fixed at the mid point iii) bar free at both ends iv) bar fixed at one end.
Transverse vibrations in a bar- wave equation and its general solution. Boundary conditions, clamped free
bar, free-free bar, bar supported at both ends, Tuning fork. 11 Vibrating Strings : Transverse wave propagation
along a stretched string, general solution of wave equation and its significance, modes of vibration of
stretched string clamped at both ends, overtones, energy transport, transverse impedance 12. Ultrasonics
: Ultrasonics, properties of ultrasonic waves, production of ultrasonics by piezoelectric and magnetostriction
methods, detection of ultrasonics, determination of wavelength of ultrasonic waves. Velocity of ultrasonics
in liquids by Sear’s method. Applications of ultrasonic waves. NOTE: Problems should be solved at the end
of every chapter of all units.

115. STATISTICS
Part - A Paper III - Applied Statistics : Unit – I : Design of Sample Surveys:Concepts of population, sample, sampling
unit, parameter, statistic, sampling errors, sampling distribution, sample frame and standard error. Principal
steps in sample surveys - need for sampling, census versus sample surveys, sampling and non- sampling
errors, sources and treatment of non-sampling errors, advantages and limitations of sampling.Types of
sampling: Subjective, probability and mixed sampling methods. Methods of drawing random samples with
and without replacement. Estimates of population mean, total, and proportion, their variances and the
estimates of variances in the following methods. (i) SRSWR and SRSWOR , (ii) Stratified random sampling
with proportional and Neyman allocation, and (iii) Systematic sampling when N= nk. Comparison of relative
efficiencies. Advantages and disadvantages of above methods of sampling. Unit – II : Analysis of Variance
and Design of Experiments ANOVA – one-way, two-way classifications with one observation per cell –
concept of Gauss-Markoff linear model, statement of Cochran’s theorem, concept of fixed effect model and
random effect model. Expectation of various sums of squares, Mathematical analysis, importance and
applications of design of experiments. Principles of experimentation, Analysis of Completely randomized
Design (C.R.D), Randomized Block Design (R.B.D) and Latin Square Design (L.S.D) including one missing
observation, expectation of various sum of squares. Comparison of the efficiencies of above designs. Unit
– III : Time series: -Time series and its components with illustrations, additive, multiplicative and mixed
models. Determination of trend by least squares, moving average methods. Growth curves and their fitting-

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Modified exponential, Gompertz and Logistic curves. Determination of seasonal indices by Ratio to moving
average, ratio to trend and link relative methods. Index Numbers: -Concept, construction, uses and limitations
of simple and weighted index numbers. Laspeyer’s, Paasche’s and Fisher’s index numbers, criterion of a
good index numbers, problems involved in the construction of index numbers. Fisher’s index as ideal index
number. Fixed and chain base index numbers. Cost of living index numbers and wholesale price index
numbers. Base shifting, splicing and deflation of index numbers. Official Statistics: - Functions and
organization of CSO and NSSO. Agricultural Statistics, area and yield statistics. National Income and its
computation, utility and difficulties in estimation of national income. Unit –IV : Vital statistics: Introduction,
definition and uses of vital statistics. Sources of vital statistics, registration method and census method.
Rates and ratios, Crude death rates, age specific death rate, standardized death rates, crude birth rate, age
specific fertility rate, general fertility rate, total fertility rate. Measurement of population growth, crude rate if
natural increase- Pearl’s vital index. Gross reproductive rate sand Net reproductive rate, Life tables,
construction and uses of life tables and Abridged life tables. Demand Analysis: Introduction. Demand and
supply, price elastics of supply and demand. Methods of determining demand and supply curves, Leontief’s
,Pigous’s methods of determining demand curve from time series data, limitations of these methods Pigou’s
method from time series data. Pareto law of income distribution curves of concentration.
Part - B Paper II - Statistical Methods and Inference : Unit – I : Population correlation coefficient and its properties.
Bivariate data, scattered diagram, sample correlation coefficient, computation of correlation coefficient for
grouped data. Correlation ratio, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient and its properties. Principle of least
squares, simple linear regression, correlation verses regression, properties of regression coefficients.
Fitting of quadratic and power curves. Concepts of partial and multiple correlation coefficients (only for three
variables). Analysis of categorical data, independence and association and partial association of attributes,
various measures of association (Yule’s) for two way data and coefficient of contingency (Pearson and
Tcherprow), coefficient of colligation. Unit – II : Concepts of population, parameter, random sample, statistic,
sampling distribution and standard error. Standard error of sample mean(s) and sample proportion(s).
Exact sampling distributions- Statement and properties of χ2, t and F distributions and their interrelationships.
Independence of sample mean and variance in random sampling from normal distributions. Point estimation
of a parameter, concept of bias and mean square error of an estimate. Criteria of good estimator- consistency,
unbiasedness, efficiency and sufficiency with examples. Statement of Neyman’s Factorization theorem,
derivations of sufficient statistics in case of Binomial, Poisson, Normal and Exponential (one parameter
only) distributions. Estimation by method of moments, Maximum likelihood (ML), statements of asymptotic
properties of MLE. Concept of interval estimation. Confidence intervals of the parameters of normal population
by Pivot method. Unit –III : Concepts of statistical hypotheses, null and alternative hypothesis, critical region,
two types of errors, level of significance and power of a test. One and two tailed tests, test function (non-
randomized and randomized). Neyman-Pearson’s fundamental lemma for Randomized tests. Examples in
case of Binomial, Poisson, Exponential and Normal distributions and their powers. Use of central limit
theorem in testing. Large sample tests and confidence intervals for mean(s), proportion(s), standard
deviation(s) and correlation coefficient(s). Unit – IV : Tests of significance based on χ2, t and F. χ2-test for
goodness of fit and test for independence of attributes. Definition of order statistics and statement of their
distributions. Non-parametric tests- their advantages and disadvantages, comparison with parametric tests.
Measurement scale- nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. One sample runs test, sign test and Wilcoxon-
signed rank tests (single and paired samples). Two independent sample tests: Median test, Wilcoxon –
Mann-Whitney U test, Wald Wolfowitz’s runs test.
Part - C Paper I- Descriptive Statistics and Probability Distributions : Unit –I : Descriptive Statistics: Concept of
primary and secondary data. Methods of collection and editing of primary data. Designing a questionnaire
and a schedule. Sources and editing of secondary data. Classification and tabulation of data. Measures of
central tendency (mean, median, mode, geometric mean and harmonic mean) with simple applications.
Absolute and relative measures of dispersion (range, quartile deviation, mean deviation and standard
deviation) with simple applications. Importance of moments, central and non-central moments, and their
interrelationships, Sheppard’s corrections for moments for grouped data. Measures of skewness based on quartiles
and moments and kurtosis based on moments with real life examples. Probability: Basic concepts in probability—
deterministic and random experiments, trail, outcome, sample space, event, and operations of events, mutually
exclusive and exhaustive events, and equally likely and favourable outcomes with examples. Mathematical,
statistical and axiomatic definitions of probability with merits and demerits. Properties of probability based
on axiomatic definition. Conditional probability and independence of events. Addition and multiplication
theorems for n events. Boole’s inequality and Bayes’ theorem. Problems on probability using counting
methods and theorems. UNIT-II : Random Variables: Definition of random variable, discrete and continuous
random variables, functions of random variables, probability mass function and probability density function
with illustrations. Distribution function and its properties. Transformation of one-dimensional random variable
(simple 1-1 functions only). Notion of bivariate random variable, bivariate distribution and statement of its
properties. Joint, marginal and conditional distributions. Independence of random variables. Mathematical
Expectation: Mathematical expectation of a function of a random variable. Raw and central moments and
covariance using mathematical expectation with examples. Addition and multiplication theorems of
expectation. Definition of moment generating function (m.g.f), cumulant generating function (c.g.f), probability
generating function (p.g.f) and characteristic function (c.f) and statements of their properties with applications.
Chebyshev’s , and Cauchy-Schwartz’s inequalities and their applications. Statement and applications of
weak law of large numbers and central limit theorem for identically and independently distributed (i.i.d)
random variables with finite variance. UNIT-III : Discrete distributions: Uniform, Bernoulli, Binomial, Poisson,
Negative binomial, Geometric and Hyper-geometric(mean and variance only) distributions. Properties of

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these distributions such as m.g.f ,c.g.f., p.g.f., c.f., and moments up to fourth order and their real life
applications. Reproductive property wherever exists. Binomial approximation to Hyper-geometric, Poisson
approximation to Binomial and Negative binomial distributions. UNIT – IV : Continuous distributions:
Rectangular and Normal distributions. Normal distribution as a limiting case of Binomial and Poisson
distributions. Exponential, Gamma, Beta of two kinds (mean and variance only) and Cauchy (definition and
c.f. only) distributions. Properties of these distributions such as m.g.f., c.g.f., c.f., and moments up to fourth
order, their real life applications and reproductive productive property wherever exists.

116. ZOOLOGY
Part - A Paper : III - Animal Physiology, Genetics & Evolution : UNIT I : 1.0. Physiology of Digestion , 1.1. Definition of
digestion and types of digestion – extra and intracellular. 1.2. Digestion of Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and
cellulose digestion. 1.3. Absorption and assimilation of digested food materials. 1.4. Gastrointestinal hormones-
control of digestion. 2.0. Physiology of respiration: 2.1. Types of respiration – external and internal respiration.
2.2. Structure of mammalian lungs and gaseous exchange. 2.3. Transport of oxygen – formation of oxyhaemoglobin
and affinity of haemoglobin for Oxygen, Oxygen dissociation curves. 2.4. Transport of CO2 – Chloride shift, Bohr
effect. 2.5. Cellular respiration – Main steps of glycolysis, Kreb’s cycle, electron transport, Oxidative phosporylation
and ATP production (Chemosmotic theory). 3.0. Physiology of Circulation : 3.1. Open and closed circulation.3.2.
Structure of mammalian heart and its working mechanism- Heartbeat and cardiac cycle. Myogenic and neurogenic
hearts. 3.3. Regulation of heart rate – Tachycardia and Bradycardia. 4.0. Physiology of Excretion: 4.1. Definition
of excretion. 4.2. Forms of nitrogenous waste material and their formation; classification of animals on the basis
of excretory products. 4.3. Gross organization of mammalian excretory system and structure of kidney. 4.4.
Structure and function of Nephron – Counter current mechanism. UNIT II : 1.0. Physiology of muscle contraction
1.1. General structure and types of muscles.1.2. Ultra structure of skeletal muscle. 1.3. Sliding filament mechanism
of muscle contraction. 1.4. Chemical changes during muscle contraction – role of calcium, ATP utilization and its
replenishment.2.0. Physiology of nerve impulse :2.1. Structure of nerve cell. 2.2. Nature of nerve impulse –
resting potential and action potential. Properties of nerve impulse – threshold value, refractory period, all or none
response. 2.3. Conduction of nerve impulse along an axon – local circuit theory and saltatory conduction theory.
2.4. Structure of synapse, mechanism of synaptic transmission – electrical and chemical transmissions.3.0.
Physiology of Endocrine system: 3.1. Relationship between hypothalamus and pituitary gland. 3.2. Hormones
of hypothalamus. 3.3. Hormones of Adenohypophysis and Neurohypophysis. 3.4. Hormones of pineal gland,
thyroid gland, parathyroid, thymus, adrenal and pancreas. 3.5. Endocrine control of mammalian reproduction –
Male and female hormones – Hormonal control of menstrual cycle in humans. 4.0. Physiology of Homeostasis
4.1. Concept of Homeostasis and its basic working mechanism. 4.2. Mechanism of Homeostasis – giving three
illustrations viz., Hormonal control of glucose levels, Water and ionic regulation by freshwater and marine animals
and temperature regulation in man. UNIT III : 1.0. Genetics : 1.1. Mendel’s laws – Law of segregation and
independent assortment; Genetic interactions – Incomplete dominance, codominance and epistasis. 1.2.
Identification of DNA as the genetic material –Griffith’s experiment and Hershey – Chase experiment. 1.3. Central
dogma of molecular biology – Brief account of DNA replication (Semi-conservative method), Replication fork
(Continous and discontinous synthesis); Transcription– Brief account of initiation, elongation and termination in
eukaryotes; Translation; Genetic code; gene regulation asexemplified by lac operon. 1.4. Human karyotyping,
barr bodies and Lyon hypothesis and Amniocentesis chromosomal disorders – Autosomal and sex chromosomes
2.0. Organic Evolution : 2.1. Genetic basis of Evolution, Gene pool and gene frequencies, Hardy-Weinberg’s
Law, Force of destabilization, natural selection, genetic drift, Mutation, Isolation and Migration. 2.2. Speciation –
Allopatry and sympatry. Paper : IV - Applied Zoology :UNIT I : 1.0. Fisheries and Aquaculture 1.1. Capture
fisheries – Introduction, 1.2. Types of fisheries, Fishery resources from Freshwater, Brackish water and Marine
habitats. 1.3. Freshwater, Brackish water and Mariculture. 1.4. Site selection criteria. 1.5. Aquaculture systems.
1.6. Induced breeding. 1.7. Hatchery design and Management, 1.8. Larval rearing – Nursery ponds, rearing and
grow out ponds , 1.9 Shrimp and prawn culture, 1.10 Preservation and processing – Freezing, solar drying,
Canning, salting, smoking. UNIT II: 2.0. Clinical Science: 2.1. Hematology , 2.1.1. Blood composition and functions,
2.1.2. Blood groups and transfusion problems, 2.1.3. Blood diseases – Anemia, Leukemia, Leucocytosis,
Leucopaenia, 2.1.4. Biopsy and autopsy – clinical importance, 2.2. Immunology , 2.2.1. Types of immunity –
Innate and acquired, 2.2.2. Antigens – Haptenes and epitopes and their properties, 2.2.3. Structure and biological
properties of human immunoglobulin G (IgG), 2.2.4. Hypersensitivity – immediate and delayed 2.3. Important
Human Parasites, 2.3.1. Blood Parasites (Structure and Clinical significance of Plasmodium) 2.3.2. Intestinal
parasites – Structure and clinical significance Entamoeba, 2.4 Addition – 2.4.1. Cholesterol and its significance
in Cardiovascular problems, 2.4.2. Blood Sugar levels and Diabetes, UNIT III : 3.0. Animal Biotechnology: 3.1.
Animal Biotechnology: Scope of Biotechnology, Cloning vectors - Characteristics of vectors, Plasmids. 3.2. Gene
Cloning –Enzymatic cleavage of DNA, Restriction enzymes (Endonucleases) and Ligation. 3.3.
Transgenesis and Production of transgenic animals (Fish and Goat). 3.4. Application of Stem Cell technology in
cell based therapy (Diabetes and Parkinson’s diseases)
Part - B Paper : II - Biology of Chordates, Embryology, Ecology and Zoogeography. UNIT I : 1.0. Protochordata to Amphibia
1.1. Protochordates: Salient features of Urochordata and Cephalochordata Structure and Life - history of
Herdmania, Significance of retrogressive Metamorphosis. 1.2. General organization of Chordates, 1.3. General
characters of Cyclostomes,1.4. General characters of fishes, classification up to sub-class level with examples
1.4.1. Type study - Scoliodon : Morphology, respiratory system, circulatory system, excretory system, nervous
system and sense organs. 1.4.2. Migration in fishes and types of scales, 1.5. General characters and classification
of Amphibia up to order level.1.5.1. Type study - Rana : Morphology, respiratory system, circulatory system and
reproductive system. 1.5.2. Parental care in amphibians, UNIT II : 2.0. Reptilia to Mammalia: 2.1. General
characters and classification of Reptilia up to order level. .1.1. Type study – Calotes : Morphology, digestive

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system, respiratory system, circulatory system, urinogenital system and nervous system. 2.2. General characters
and classification of Aves up to order level with examples. 2.2.1. Type study - Pigeon (Columbia livia) :
Exoskeleton, respiratory system, circulatory system and excretory system. 2.2.2. Significance of migration in
birds, 2.2.3. Flight adaptation in birds, 2.3. General characters and classification of Mammalia up to order
levelwith examples. 2.3.1. Dentition in Mammals. UNIT III : 3.0. Embryology: 3.1. Spermatogenesis, Oogenesis
and Fertilization. 3.2. Types of eggs , 3.3. Types of cleavages, 3.4. Development of frog up to gastrulation and
formation of primary germ layers, 3.5. Foetal membranes and their significance, 3.6. Placenta : types and
functions 3.7. Regeneration with reference to Turbellarians and Lizards UNIT IV : 4.0. Ecology 4.1.
Biogeochemical cycles or nutrient cycles - Gaseous cycles of Nitrogen and Carbon; Sedimentary cycle-
phosphorus. 4.2. Definition of Community- Habitat and ecological niche 4.2.1. Community interactions :
Brief account on Competition, predation, mutualism,commensalism and parasitism. 4.2.2. Ecological
succession: Primary and secondary, seral stages, climax community with examples, 4.3. Population ecology
: Density and dispersions of animal populations 4.3.1. Growth curves and growth of animal populations- r-
selected and k-selected species 4.3.2. Population regulation mechanisms – both biotic and abiotic 4.3.3.
Growth of human population and its control, 4.3.4. Future of human population, 4.4 Zoogeography (Addition),
Fauna of Oriental Realm 2. Fauna of Australian Realm
Part - C Paper : I - Biology of Invertebrates and Cell Biology: 1.0 Protozoa to Annelida : 1.1. Phylum Protozoa:
General characters and outline classification up to classes. Type study: Paramecium. 1.2. Phylum Porifera
: General characters and outline classification up to classes. Type study: Sycon; Canal system in Sponges.
1.3. Phylum Coelenterata: General characters and outline classification up to classes. Type study: Obelia;
Polymorphism in Coelenterates; Corals and Coral reef formation. 1.4. Phylum Platyhelminthes: General
characters and outline classification up to classes. Type study: Fasciola hepatica. 1.5. Phylum
Nemathelminthes: General characters and outline classification up to classes. Type study: Ascaris
lumbricoides. 1.6. Phylum Annelida: General characters and outline classification up to classes Type study:
Leech; Coelom and coelomoducts in Annelids. UNIT II : 2.0. Arthropoda to Hemichordata : 2.1. Phylum
Arthropoda: General characters and outline classification of up to classes Typestudy: Prawn; Penouy monedon
(Type Study) Crustacean larvae; Peripatus- Characters and Significance. 2.2. Phylum Mollusca: General
characters and outline classification of up to classes Type study: Pila; Pearl formation in Molluscs. 2.3.
Phylum Echinodermata: General characters and outline classification of up to classes. Type study: Star fish.
2.4. General characters of Hemichordata : Structure and affinities of Balanoglossus. UNIT III : 3.0. Cell
Biology : 3.1. Cell theory : 3.2. Ultra structure of Animal cell : 3.3. Structure of Plasma membrane - Fluid-
mosaic model. Transport functions of Plasma membrane- Passive transport, active transport (Antiport,
symport and uniport) and bulk transport. 3.4. Structure and functions of Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi body,
Ribosomes, lysosomes and Mitochondrion. 3.5.Chromosomes - nomenclature types and structure. Giant
chromosomes – Polytene and Lampbrush chromosomes. 3.6. Cell division - Cell-cycle stages (G1, S, G2,
and M phases), Cell-cycle check points and regulation. Mitosis; Meiosis - and its significance. UNIT IV : 4.0.
Biomolecules of the cell: 4.1. Carbohydrates: 4.1.1. Classification of Carbohydrates, 4.1.2. Structure of
Monosaccharides (Glucose and Fructose) 4.1.3. Structure of Disaccharides (Lactose and Sucrose), 4.1.4.
Structure of Polysaccharides (Starch, Glycogen and Chitin) , 4.2. Proteins: 4.2.1. Amino acids: General
properties, nomenclature, classification and structure. 4.2.2. Classification of proteins based on functions,
chemical nature and nutrition, peptide bond and structure (Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary
structures) 4.3. Lipids: 4.3.1. Classification. Structure of Fatty acids (Saturated and unsaturated). 4.3.2.
Triacylglycerols, Phospolipids (Lecithin and cephalin) and Steroids (Cholesterol). 4.4. Nucleic acids: 4.4.1.
Structure of purines, pyrimidines, ribose and deoxyribose sugars. 4.4.2. Watson and Crick model of DNA-
Nucleoside, Nucleotide, Chargaff’s rule.Structure of RNA, Types of RNA - rRNA, tRNA and mRNA.

117.GEOINFORMATICS
Part - A Geology: Paleontology; Indian Geology; Economic Geology; Petrology; Structural Geology; Physical Geology;
Crystallography and Mineralogy. Geography: Social and Economic Geography; Principles of Physical Geography;
Regional Geography of India; Regional Geography of Asia.
Part - B Mathematics: Linear Algebra, Rings & Fields, Analysis and Groups, Differential Equations, Real Numbers,
Sequences and series.Computer Science: Programming in C; Data Structures; Systems Software; OS,
Loaders, Linkers, Macros & compilers; Windows and Unix; Programming in C++; DBMS; Numerical
Methods; Internet Technologies and Webb Commerce; Computer Graphics; Software Engineering Data
communications & computer Net Works; Visual Basic, programming in Java and HTML. Statistics:
Applied Statistics; Statistical methods & Inferences; Probability and Distribution.
Part - C Physics: Electromagnetic & Electronics; Modern Physics, Thermodynamics and Optics; Mechanics, Waves
and Oscillations. Chemistry: Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Organic Chemistry. Agriculture
Forestry
118. COMPUTER SCIENCE
Part - A Paper : III - Database Management Systems Unit-1 : Database Systems Introduction and Fundamentals :
Database Systems: Introducing the database and DBMS, Why the database is important, Historical Roots: Files
and File Systems, Problems with File System Data Management, Database Systems.Data Models: The impor-
tance of Data models, Data Model Basic Building Blocks, Business Rules, The evaluation of Data Models,
Degree of Data Abstraction. The Relational Database Model: A logical view of Data, Keys, Integrity Rules, Rela-
tional Set Operators, The Data Dictionary and the system catalog, Relationships with in the Relational Database,
Data Redundancy revisited, Indexes, Codd’s relational database rules.(Chapters:1: 1.2 to 1.6,2,3) Unit-2 : Data
Modeling and Normalization : Entity Relationship Model: The ER Model, Developing ER Diagram, Database

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Design Challenges: Conflicting Goals.Advanced Data Modeling: The Extended Entity Relationship Model,
Entity clustering, Entity integrity: Selecting Primary keys, Design Cases: Learning Flexible Database
Design.Normalization of database tables: Database Tables and Normalization, The need for Normalization,
The Normalization Process, Improving the design, Surrogate Key Considerations, High level Normal Forms,
Normalization and database design, denormalization.(Chapters: 4,6,5) Unit-3 : Interaction with Databases
and Construction of Information System : Introduction to SQL: Data Definition Commands, Data Manipula-
tion Commands, Select queries, Advanced Data Definition Commands, Advanced Select queries, Virtual
Tables, Joining Database Tables. Advanced SQL: Relational Set Operators, SQL Join Operators, Subqueries
and correlated queries, SQL Functions, Oracle Sequences, Updatable Views, and Procedural SQL. Data-
base Design: The Information System, The Systems Development Life Cycle, The Database Life Cycle,
Database Design Strategies, Centralized Vs Decentralized design. (Chapters: 7,8(8.1 to 8.7),9) Unit-4 :
Transaction Management in DBMS Environment. Transaction Management and Concurrency Control: What
is transaction, Concurrency control, Concurrency control with locking Methods, Concurrency control with
time stamping methods, concurrency control with optimistic methods, database recovery management.
Distributed Database Management Systems: The evolution of Distributed Database Management Systems,
DDBMS advantages and Disadvantages, Distribution Processing and Distribution Databases, Characteris-
tics of Distributed database management systems, DDBMS Components, Levels of Data and Process
distribution, Distributed database Transparency Features, Distributed Transparency, Transaction Transpar-
ency, Performance Transparency and Query Optimization, Distributed Database Design, Client Server VS
DDBMS. (Chapters: 10, 12) Unit-5 : Data Warehouse Concepts and Database Administration. The Data
Warehouse: The need for data analysis, Decision support systems, The data warehouse, Online analytical
processing, Star schemas, Data mining, SQL extension for OLAP. Database Administration: Data as a
Corporate asset, The need for and role of databases in an organization, The evolution of the database
administration function, The database environment’s Human Component, Database administration Tools,
The DBA at work: Using Oracle for Database Administration. (Chapter: 13:13.1 to
3.5,13.7,13.8,15:15.1,15.2,15.4,15.5,15.6,15.8)
Part - B Paper : II - Object Oriented Programming with Java and Data Structures : Unit – 1: Java Fundamentals :
Fundamentals of Object Oriented programming : Object Oriented paradigm – Basic concepts of Object
Oriented Programming – Benefits of OOP – Applications of OOP. Java Evolution : Java Features – How Java
differs from C and C++ - Java and Internet – Java and World Wide Web – Web Browsers – Hardware and
Software Requirements – Java Environment. Overview of Java Language: Simple Java Program – Java
Program Structure – Java Tokens- Java Statements – Implementing a Java Program – Java Virtual Machine
– Command Line Arguments. Constants, Variables and Data types: Constants – Variables – Data types –
Declaration of Variables-Giving Values to variables- Scope of Variables-Symbolic Constants-Type Casting.
(Chapters : 1,2,3,4 ) Unit – 2: Oops Concepts in Java: Operators and Expressions: Arithmetic Operators –
Relational Operators- Logical Operators – Assignment Operators – Increment and Decrement Operators –
Conditional Operators – Bitwise Operators – Special Operators – Arithmetic Expressions – Evaluation of
Expressions – Precedence of Arithmetic Operators – Operator Precedence and Associativity. Decision Mak-
ing and Branching: Decision Making with If statement – Simple If Statement-If else Statement-Nesting If Else
Statement- the ElseIf Ladder-The switch Statement – The ?: operator. Decision Making and Looping: The
while statement – The do statement – The for statement – Jumps in Loops. Class , Objects and Methods:
Defining a Class – Fields Declaration – Methods Declaration – Creating Objects – Accessing class mem-
bers – Constructors – Methods Overloading – Static Members – Nesting of Methods – Inheritance – Overrid-
ing Methods – Final Variables and Methods – Final Classes – Abstract Methods and Classes – Visibility
Control. (Chapters : 5,6,7,8 ): Unit – 3: Packages and Interfaces in Java: Arrays, Strings and Vectors: One-
dimensional Arrays-creating an Array – Two dimensional Arrays – Strings – Vectors – Wrapper Classes –
Enumerated Types. Interfaces: Multiple Inheritance : Defining Interfaces – Extending Interfaces – Implement-
ing Interfaces – Accessing Interface Variables. Packages: Java API Packages – Using system Packages –
Naming Conventions – Creating Packages – Accessing a Package – Using a Package – Adding a Class to
a Package – Hiding Classes – Static Import. (CHAPTERS : 9,10,11 ) UNIT – 4: Multithreaded programming and
Applets. Multithreaded Programming: Creating Threads – Extending the Thread Class – Stopping and
Blocking a Thread – Life Cycle of a Thread – Using Thread Methods – Thread Exceptions – Thread Priority –
Synchronization. Managing Errors and Exceptions: Types of Errors – Exceptions – Syntax of Exception Han-
dling Code – Multiple Catch Statements – Using Finally Statement – Throwing our own Exceptions – Using
Exceptions for debugging. Applet Programming: How Applets differ from Applications – Preparing to write
Applets – Building Applet Code – Applet Life Cycle – Creating an executable Applet – Designing a WebPage
– Applet Tag – Adding Applet to HTML file – Running the Applet – More about Applet Tag – Passing parameters
to Applets – Aligning the display – More about HTML tags – Displaying Numerical Values – Getting Input from
the user. (Chapters : 12, 13, 14 ) Unit – 5: Data Structures: Sorting: Bubble Sort – Selection Sort – Insertion
Sort – Quick Sort-Stacks and Queues: Stacks – Queues – Circular Queue – Deques - Priority Queue –
Parsing Arithmetic Expressions – Linked List: Simple Linked List – Finding and Deleting Specified Links –
Double Ended Lists – Abstract Data types – Sorted Lists – Doubly Linked Lists – Advanced Sorting : Quick
Sort - Binary Trees : Tree Terminology – Finding a Node – Inserting a Node – Traversing the Tree – Finding
Maximum and Minimum values – Deleting a Node – Efficiency of Binary Trees – Trees Represented as
Arrays – Graphs: Introduction to Graphs – Searches – Minimum Spanning Tree – Topological Sorting with
Directed Graphs – Connectivity in Directed Graphs. (Chapters : 3,4,5,7 (Only Quick Sort), 8,13)
Part - C Paper : I - PC Software & Programming in ‘C’ : Unit – 1 : Fundamentals of Computers: 1. Computer
definition – Types of Computer – Logical Organization of a Digital Computer – Memory: Main Memory : RAM,
ROM and Cache – Secondary Memory : Magnetic type, Floppy disk, Hard disk, Compact disk – Input devices

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– Output devices – Operating system : Definition, functions of an operating system, Types of Operating
systems : Brief details of batch processing, Multi Programming, multi tasking, time sharing, real time oper-
ating systems - Introduction to DOS, DOS internal commands, DOS External Commands – Introduction to
Windows, Desktop, File, Folder, My Computer, My documents, Recycle bin, Internet Explorer, Windows Ex-
plorer – Types of Programming Languages. Unit - 2: MS Word and MS Power Point: 2. Word Basics : Starting
word, Creating a new document, Opening preexisting document, The parts of a word window, Typing text,
Selecting text, Deleting text, Undo, Redo, Repeat, Inserting text, Replacing text, Formatting text, Cut, Copy,
Paste – Printing, 3. Formatting Your Text and Documents : Auto format, Line spacing, Margins, Borders and
Shading. 4. Working with Headers and Footers: Definition of headers and footers, creating basic headers
and footers, creating different headers and footers for odd and even pages. 5. Tables : Creating a simple
table, Creating a table using the table menu, Entering and editing text in a table, selecting in table, adding
rows, changing row heights, Deleting rows, Inserting columns, Deleting columns, changing column width
.6. Graphics : Importing graphics, Clipart, Insert picture, Clip Art Gallery, using word’s drawing features,
drawing objects, text in drawing. 7. Templates : Template types, using templates, exploring templates,
modifying templates. 8. Macros : Macro, Recording macros, editing macros, running a macro. 9. Mail Merge
: Mail Merge concept, Main document, data sources, merging data source and main document. Overview of
word menu options word basic tool bar. 10. Power Point : Basics, Terminology, Getting started, Views 11.
Creating Presentations : Using auto content wizard, Using blank presentation option, Using design tem-
plate option, Adding slides, Deleting a slide, Importing Images from the outside world, Drawing in power
point, Transition and build effects, Deleting a slide, Numbering a slide, Saving presentation, Closing pre-
sentation, Printing presentation elements. Unit - 3 : MS Excel and MS Access: MS Access : 12. Creating a
Simple Database and Tables: Creating a contacts Databases with the wiz, The Access Table Wizard, Creat-
ing Database Tables without the wizard, Field Names, Data Types and Properties, Adding, deleting fields,
renaming the fields in a table. 13. Forms: The Form Wizard, Saving Forms, Modifying Form, 14. Entering and
Editing Data: Adding Records, Duplicating previous entries without Retyping, Undo, Correcting Entries,
Global Replacements, Moving from Record to Record in a table. 15. inding, Sorting and Displaying Data:
Queries and Dynasets, Creating and using select queries, Returning to the Query Design, Multilevel Sorts,
Finding incomplete matches, Showing All Records after a Query, Saving Queries, Crosstab Queries.16.
Printing Reports : Simple table, Form and Database printing, Defining advanced Reports, Manual Reporting,
properties in Reports, Saving Reports. 17. Relational Databases: Flat Versus Relational, Types of Relation-
ships, Viewing Relationships, Defining and Redefining Relationships, Creating and Deleting Relation-
ships. MS Excel 18. Excel Basics: Overview of Excel features, Getting started, Creating a new worksheet,
Selecting cells, Entering and editing text, Entering and editing Numbers, entering and editing Formulas,
Referencing cells, moving cells, copying cells, sorting cell data, inserting rows, inserting columns, Inserting
cells, Deleting parts of a worksheet, clearing parts of a worksheet. 19. Formatting : Page setup, changing
column widths and Row heights, auto format, changing font sizes and Attributes, centering text across
columns, using border buttons and Commands, changing colors and shading, hiding rows and columns.
20. Introduction to functions: Parts of a functions, Functions Requiring Add-ins, The Function Wizard. Ex-
amples functions by category: Data and time functions, Engineering functions, Math and Trig functions,
Statistical functions, Text functions. 21. Excel Charts: Chart parts and terminology, Instant charts with the
chard wizard, creation of different types of charts, printing charts, deleting charts – Linking in Excel 22. Excel
Graphics: Creating and placing graphic objects, Resizing Graphics, Drawing Lines and Shapes. Unit - 4 :
C Language fundamentals : 23. Introduction – ‘C’ Fundamentals : Programming – High Level Languages –
compiling programs – Integrated Development Environments – Language Interpreters – Compiling your
first program – Running your program – understanding your first program – comments – variables, Data
types, and Arithmetic Expressions : working with variables – Understanding Data types and constants –
working with Arithmetic Expressions – The Assignment operators – The printf function – The scanf function
- Decision making : The if statement – the if else construct – Nested if statements – The else if construct –
The switch statement – Boolean variables – The conditional operator – program looping : The for statement
– Relational operators – Nested for loops – The while statement – The do statement – The break statement
– The continue statement – working with Arrays : Defining an array – Initializing Arrays – character Arrays –
The const Qualifier – Multidimensional arrays- variable length Arrays. 24. Working with Functions : Defining
a Function-Arguments and Local variables – Returning Function Results – Function calling – Declaring
Return Types and Argument types – Top Down programming – Functions and Arrays – global variables –
Automatic and static variables – Recursive Functions. Unit - 5 : Programming in C: 25. Working with
structures : Defining structure – Functions and structures – Initializing structures – Array of structures-
structures containing structures – structures containing Arrays – Structure variants – Character strings : Array
of characters – variable length character strings – Escape characters – character strings, structures and
arrays - character operations.: 26. Pointers : Defining a pointer variable – using pointers in Expressions –
pointers and structures (Exclude Linked List) – Pointers and Functions – pointers and Arrays – operations on
pointers – pointers and Memory address.27. Operations on Bits : Bit operators – Bit fields , 28. The prepro-
cessor : The # define statement – The # # operator – The #include statement – conditional compilation. 29.
More on Data Types : Enumerated Data Types – The typedef statement – Data Type conversions , 30. Input
and Output Operations in “C” : Character I/O – formatted I/O – Input and Output Operations with Files –
Special functions for working with Files.Miscellaneous and Advanced features: The Goto Statement, the null
statement, working with unions- the comma operator-type qualifiers.
201. COMMERCE
Part - A FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING : Need and scope of accounting - Book keeping and Accounting - Branches of
Accounting. Accounting cycle-Accounting equation-classification of accounts-rules of double entry book

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keeping. Subsidiary Books Bank Reconciliation Statement. Trial Balance Profit & Loss Accounting and
Balance Sheet. Errors - Rectification - Suspense Account. Effect of Errors on Profit. Rectification of errors
using computers. Depreciation - Provisions and Reserves. Consignment and joint Ventures. COST &
MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING : Cost Accounting: definitions, features, objectives, functions, scope, advantages
and limitations. Management Accounting: definitions, features, objectives, functions, scope, advantages
and limitations. Relationship between cost, management and financial accounting. Cost concepts-Cost
classification -preparation of cost sheet. Relationship of costing department with other departments. Material
Cost: direct and indirect material cost, Inventory control techniques-stock levels, EOQ,ABC analysis. Issue of
materials to production- pricing methods-FIFO, LIFO with base stock, average methods. Labor cost: direct
and indirect labor cost- methods of payment of wages including incentive plans –Halsey and Rowan plans,
Tailors Piece Rate method. Overheads: features, classification, methods of allocation and apportionment of
overheads. Methods of Costing - Single or Output Costing, job and contract costing : Features, costing
process- computation of cost. Process Costing: features, treatment of normal and abnormal losses,
preparation of process cost accounts Marginal Costing-Break Even Analysis-Cost Analysis for short term
and long term decisions. Budget Standard Costing-Material and labour Variances Financial statements-
features, limitations. Need for, Meaning, objectives, and process of financial statement analysis-Methods
and techniques of analysis (Theory Only) Fundsflow Analysis and Cashflow Analysis (as per AS-3 ) Ratio
Analysis. Calculation of liquidity, solvency, profitability and turnover ratios- Interpretation of ratios , AUDITING:
Introduction to Auditing - Auditing: Meaning-Definition-Evolution-Objectives-Importance. Types of audit: Based
on ownership (Proprietorship, Partnership, Companies, Trusts, Cooperative Societies, Government
Departments) -Based on time (Interim, Final, Continuous, Balance Sheet)- Based on objectives (Independent,
Financial, Internal, Cost, Tax, Government, Secretarial). Planning of Audit and Control - Auditor: Qualifications
and disqualifications – Qualities - Appointment and Reappointment – Remuneration – Removal – Rights –
Duties – Liabilities. Audit planning: - Engagement letter - Audit programme -Audit note book -Audit papers -
Audit work book - Audit contents - Audit markings - Internal check- Internal control –(Sales-Purchases-Fixed
assets-Cash-Bank-Pay Roll) - Accounting controls and Sampling in audit. Vouching and Audit of Financial
Statements - Vouching: Meaning- Vouching of cash and trading transactions –Investigation, Verification and
Valuation of assets and liabilities- Differences between vouching, investigation, verification and valuation.
Audit of Financial Statements: Receipts – Payments – Sales – Purchases -Fixed assets – Investments -
Personal ledger – Inventories - Capital and Reserves - Other assets - Other liabilities. Audit of institutions -
Partnership - Manufacturing and Other Companies -Non-trading concerns. Audit Report: Contents - Preparation
of audit report – Fair report - Qualified report. Report Writing - Business Correspondence and Report writing:
Basic principles – Business letters. Business reports: Structure – Preparation of Routine reports and
special reports.
Part - B (i) Business Organization and Management: Concepts of business, trade, industry and commerce-
Business – features of business, Trade – Classification- Aids to Trade – Industry- Classification – Commerce-
Relationship between trade, industry and commerce- Business Organization-Concept- – Functions of
Business. Entrepreneur – Meaning-Characteristics of Entrepreneurs – Types of Entrepreneurs – Functions
of an entrepreneur - Steps to start Enterprise– Sources of finance –Long Term-Short Term Forms of
Organization, Sole Proprietorship, Partnership and Joint Hindu Family: Business Organization – Forms of
Business Organization – Classification – Factors influencing the choice of suitable form of organization.
Sole Proprietorship -Meaning –Characteristics – Advantages and disadvantages – suitability. Partnership –
Meaning –Characteristics –Kinds of partners- Registration of partnership – Partnership deed – Rights and
obligations of partners - Joint Hindu Family Business – Characteristics – Advantages and limitations. Lab
work: The students are expected to go through partnership deed and prepare a simple partnership deed.
Joint Stock Company – Meaning – Characteristics –Advantages - Kinds of Companies – Difference between
private and public companies –Promotion of A Company: Promotion –Stages-Promoters –Characteristics –
Registration –Capital subscription – Commencement of Business – Preparation of Important documents –
Memorandum of Association – Significance – Clauses – – Articles of Association – Contents –– Prospectus
– Contents – Statement in lieu of Prospectus. Management, Planning and Decision Making Management-
Meaning – Significance- Management Vs Administration – Functions of management – Levels of Management
– Skills of management –Leadership-Leader Vs Manager-Traits of successful Leaders- Scientific
Management – features- Fayol’s Principles of Management . Planning – Meaning – Significance –Types of
Plans – Decision making – Steps in Process Decision making process Organizing – meaning - Organization
– Features – the process of organization – principles of organization- Elements of organizations –organization
chart Delegation of authority – meaning - Elements – Principles – Types – Difficulties in delegation –
Guidelines for making delegation effective Centralization – Decentralization –Meaning – Differences between
delegating and decentralization, (ii) Financial Services - Banking & Insurance : Meaning of Financial Services,
Structure of Indian Financial System Importance of Financial system for the economic development. Functions
of Commercial Banks and Reserve Bank of India. Meaning of Insurance and reinsurance, Principles of
Insurance, kinds of Insurance, advantages of insurance, globalization of insurance and insurance sector
reforms in India. Banking Systems – Branch banking, Unit Banking, Correspondent banking, Group banking,
Deposit banking, Mixed banking and Investment banking. An overview of banking; Banking Sector Reforms
with special reference to Prudential Norms: capital adequacy norms, income recognition norms, classification
of assets and NPAs; Innovations in Banking-ATMs, E-Banking, Credit cards, Online & Offshore Banking, etc.
Regional Rural banks, Cooperative banks, Micro Finance, Priority Sector Lending, Indigenous banking, Role
of NABARD, Development Financial institutions – SFC,SIDBI. Banker and customer definition and their
relationship, types of customers and modes of operations, procedure and precaution for opening an account,
pass book & its features, Rights, duties and obligations of the banker. Promissory Note and Bills of Exchange
and Cheque, differences between them, types of crossing the cheque, payment of cheque and consequences

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of wrongful dishonor, collection of local and upcountry cheques, responsibilities and liabilities of collecting
banker and statutory protection to the collecting banker. Types of loans and advances, principles of sound
lending policies, credit appraisals of various forms of loans and advances- modes of creating charges- lien,
pledge ,mortgage and hypothecation. Indian Money Market- Characteristics, Structure, composition (call and
notice money, market, treasury bills market, CDs, CPs, short term bill market, MMMFs and DFHI) problems
and reforms in Indian money markets Indian capital market-composition and growth of primary and secondary
markets, differences between primary and secondary markets, capital market reforms and NBFCs in
capital markets; Stock Exchanges, NSE, OTCEI, Online Trading and role of SEBI. Financial intermediaries
and services : Merchant bankers, Mutual funds, Leasing companies, Venture Capital Funds, Forfaiting, Loan
Syndication, Factoring, Custodial Services, Depository Services, and Depository Participants. Life Insurance
– Practical aspects of Life Insurance, procedure for issuing a life insurance policy, issue of duplicate policies,
nomination, surrender value, policy loans, assignment, revivals and claim settlement. Non Life Insurance-
Types of products and scope of Fire Insurance, Marine Insurance, Health Insurance, Social Insurance and
Rural Insurance. Regulation of Insurance in India- Insurance Act,1938 and IRDA 1999. (iii) Business Law:
Contract Act : Agreement and Contract: Definition and meaning - Essentials of a valid contract – types of
contracts. Offer and Acceptance: Definition – Essentials of a valid offer and acceptance – communication
and revocation of offer and acceptance. Consideration: Definition and importance – Essentials of valid
consideration – the Doctrines of ‘Stranger to Contract’ and ‘No Consideration – No Contract’ – Capacity to
contract – special rules regarding minor’s agreements. Consent: Free Consent – Flaw in Consent: Coercion
– Undue influence – Fraud – Misrepresentation and Mistake. Discharge of a Contract: Legality of object and
consideration:– illegal and immoral agreements – agreements opposed to public policy. Agreements
expressly declared to be void – wagering agreements and contingent contracts. Discharge of a contract –
various modes of discharge of a contract – performance of contracts. Breach of a contract – types – remedies
for breach of a contract Sale of Goods Act: Contract of sale: Definition - features – definition of the term goods
– types of goods – rules of transfer of property in goods – differences between sale and agreement to sell.
Rights of an unpaid seller. Conditions and warranties – meaning and distinction – express and implied
conditions and warranties – sale by non-owners – auction sale. Consumer Protection Act and Intellectual
Property Rights Definitions of the terms consumer, unfair trade practices, restrictive trade practices and
complainant – rights of consumers – consumer protection councils – consumer redressal agencies –
penalties for violation. Intellectual Property Rights: Meaning - Need and objectives-Meaning of the terms
industrial property, literary property, copy right, patents, trade marks, trade names, trade secrets, industrial
designs, geographical indications. Information Technology Act, 2000: aims and objectives – a brief overview
of the Act. Company Law : Doctrine of ultra vires and its effects – doctrine of constructive notice – doctrine of
indoor management – exceptions. Management of companies – directors – qualifications – disqualifications
– appointment – removal – rights and duties – company meetings and resolutions - appointment of a
company secretary. Winding up of companies – various modes – compulsory winding up- powers and
duties of official liquidator – members and creditors voluntary winding up – winding up subject to the
supervision of the court –dissolution.
Part - C English vocabulary, English reading comprehension, numerical ability & data analysis.

202. ECONOMICS
Part - A Paper : III : INDIAN ECONOMY : Module 1: CONCEPTS OF DEVELOPMENT: Meaning of Economic growth and
development – Measures of Economic Development – GNP, PCL, PQLI and HDI, Factors influencing Economic
development-Sustainable development-Balanced and Unbalanced growth – Choice of Techniques, Labour
intensive and capital intensive methods. Module 2: STRUCTURE OF THE INDIAN ECONOMY : Basic features
- Natural Resources –Land, Water and Forest resources, Basic demographic features – Size and growth of
the population – Age and Sex composition, Rural and Urban population – Occupational distribution –
Population policy, National income in India – Trends and Composition – Poverty, Inequalities and
unemployment Causes and consequences – Current Five Year Plan – Objectives, Mobilization and Allocation
of Resources – New Economic Reforms – Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization in India – Inclusive
Growth.Module 3: INDIAN AGRICULTURE: Nature and importance, Trends in agricultural Production and
Productivity: factors determining productivity. Rural Credit – Micro Finance and Self Help Groups (SHGs)
Agricultural price policy, Crop insurance, Agricultural Infrastructure and food security. Agricultural Marketing
in India, Land reforms in India, Provision of Agricultural credit to the tenants. : Module 4: INIDAN INDUSTRY
AND SERVICES: Structure and Growth of Indian Industry-Industrial policies of 1956 and 1991, Growth and
problems of Small Scale industry. Foreign Exchanges Management Act (FRMA) : Disinvestment policy in
India – Foreign Direct Investment – Growing importance of Service Sector in India – Banking, Insurance,
information Technology, Education and Health. Module 5 : ANDHRA PRADESH STATE ECONOMY: GSDP-
Sectoral Contribution and Trends ; Human Resources – Population Trends, Regional Differentials –
Demographic Dividend, Agricultural Sector – Land use and Cropping pattern – Impact of land reforms in A.P
. Income and employment in Agricultural Sector. Industrial sector, SEZs; Service Sector- Growth of income
and employment in the service, Information Technology (IT).
Part - B Paper : II : MACRO ECONOMICS : Module 1: NATIONAL INCOME : Meaning, Definition and importance of
Macro Economics – National Income: Meaning, Definitions: National Income, GNP & NDP, Personal Income
(PI), Disposable Income (Di), Per Capita Income (PCI), Real National Income (RNI) - Methods of Estimation
of National Income (NI) - Measurement of National Income in India. Module 2: THEORIES OF EMPLOYMENT
: Classical theory of employment – Say’s law of markers – Keynesian theory of employment – Consumption
function – APC, MPC, factors influencing consumption function-Investment function- MEC and Rate of Interest
and the concept of Multiplier-Accelerator –Applicability of the Keynesian theory to the developing countries.
Module 3: MONEY AND THEORIES OF MONEY: Meaning, functions and classification of Money-Gresham’s

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Law – R.B.I Classification of Money, - M1, M2, M3, M4 Theories of Money – Fisher’s quantity theory of Money,
Cambridge approach (Marshall, Pigou, Robertson and Keynes). Module 4: TRADE CYCLES AND INFLATION:
Trade cycles- Meaning and definition – Phases of a trade cycle- Inflation-Definition – Types of Inflation –
Causes and effects of inflation- Measures to control inflation. Module 5: BANKING, STOCK MARKET AND
INSURANCE: Functions of commercial banks – The process of credit creation – Concept of Non Banking
Financial Companies (NBFCs) – Concept of SEBI, Stock Market- Meaning , functions and importance of
Stock Market – Primary and Secondary Markets, Concepts of Debentures, Insurance – Types of Insurance
– Life Insurance and General Insurance – Functions of the Reserve bank of India- Methods of credit control
– Quantities and Qualitative Methods.
Part - C Paper : I : MICRO ECONOMICS : Module 1: INTRODUCTION : Nature, Definition and scope of Economics,-
Methodology in Economics – Micro and Macro, Static and Dynamic, Normative and Positive- Indicative and
Deductive Analysis – Partial and General Equilibrium – Choice as an economic problem. Module 2:
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR: Utility Analysis – Cardinal and ordinal approaches – Law of Diminishing marginal
utility, Law of Equi-marginal utility, Indifference curves – Properties of indifference curves – Price (Budget)
line- Equilibrium of the consumer with the help of indifference curves. Demand Analysis – Law of demand
– Elasticity of Demand – Price, Income and cross elasticity’s, Demand forecasting – Meaning and factors
influencing demand forecasting – Consumer Surplus – Engel curve. Module 3: THEORY OF PRODUCTION
AND COSTS: Objectives of a firm – Production function – Concept of Cobb – Douglas production function –
Isoquant- Factor substitution – Law of variable proportions, law of Returns of Scale – Expansion path-
Different Concepts – Of Revenue and Costs and their interrelation – Equilibrium of the firm – Break – Even
analysis. Module 4: MARKET STRUCTURE: Market forms – Perfect and Imperfect markets. Price Determination
and Equilibrium of a firm and industry under perfect competition – Monopoly – Price determination under
monopoly – Price discrimination – Monopolistic competition – Price determination. Oligopoly (Kinky demand
curve). Module 5: FACTOR PRICING: Marginal productivity theory of distribution – Theories of wage
determination-Wages and collective bargaining: Minimum Wage _ Rent- Scarcity rent, Differential rent –
Quasi rent. Interest – Classical, Neo-classical and Keynesian theories – Profit – Dynamic, Innovations, Risk
and Uncertainty theories.

203. ADULT & CONTINUING EDUCATION


Part - A Paper II - Indian History and Culture (of B.A.History) from 1526 to 1964 AD; Paper III - Regional Geography
of India (of B.A. Geography)
Part - B Paper III - Political thought (of B.A. Politics) Paper I - Economic Theory (of B.A. Economics)
Part - C Educational Philosophy: Meaning of Education - Aims of Education - Types of Education - Great Educators:
Plato, Gandhiji, Tagore, Vivekananda, Rousseau, Pestalozzi, Froebel, Montessorri, John Dewey,
Constitutional Provisions. Educational Psychology: Nature and Functions of Educational Psychology -
Individual and Needs - Learning process - Laws and theories of learning - mental hygiene - Intelligence
tests - Personality test. Educational Trends: Democracy and Education-socialism and Education -
Universalisation of elementary Education (UEE)-Operation Black Board (OBB) - Andhra Pradesh Primary
Education Project (APPEP) - District Primary Education Project (DPEP) - (EGS) - Barefoot Teachers -
Sarvasiksha Abiyan - Child Centred Approach - Activity based teaching - Joyful learing - Community
Participation - Community Mobilization.
204. ENGLISH
Part - A Literary terms, genres , Literary Movements and Trends, Critical concepts.
Part - B Verb, Verb patterns and structures, phrasal verbs, Concord, Active and Passive Voice, Prepositions, question
tags, Articles, Synonyms and antonyms, one word substitutes, Note taking, confusables.
Part - C Comprehension - unknown poem and passage, Letter Writing, Idioms and phrases.

205. FINE ARTS


1. Theory : General Knowledge in History of Arts (30 minutes - 50 marks)
2. Practical : (a) Painting (90 minutes - 50 marks); (b) Drawing(90 minutes - 50 marks);
(c) Sculpture (90 minutes - 50 marks)
Note : The Department of Fine Arts will provide only Paper for drawing & painting and clay for sculpture
tests. Candidates are instructed to bring their own pencils, erasers, water colours, brushes, tumbler,
drawing board/pad and some instruments to work with clay. Practical Tests will be conducted on the same
day after the theory examination.

206. HINDI
Part - A History of Hindi Literature-General trends of Old, Medieval and Modern periods
Part - B 1. Hindi Gadya Sanchayan:- (i)Atma Nirbharata (ii) Mitrata (iii) Padosi (iv) Bharat Ekhai (v) Samay per
Milnevale. 2.Hindi Katha Setu:-(i) Dipti Collecteri (ii) Sakh (iii) Chief Ki dawat (iv) Kafan (v) Rasapriya. 3. Hindi
Kavya Kusum:- (i) Kabir Sakhis - (from 1-10) (ii) Surdas (Bala Leela only) (iii) Rahim (1-10 dohas) (iv)
Mithilishanan Gupta - Mathru Bhoomi (v) Sumitra-nandam Pant - Sukh-Dukh (vi) Harivamsh Rai Bachhan -
Madhushala (vii) Girijakumar Mathur - Itihas, Vikrut Satya (viii) Dharma Veer Bharati - Thake Huae Kalakar Se.
Part - C Translation of sentences - Change of Number - Tense - gender - Correction of Sentences - usage of 'Nae',
'Mat', 'Chahiye', Ka, Ke,Ki, Construction of Sentences, in Hindi. Phrases - their meanings.

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207. HISTORY
Part - A Paper : III : History of Modern Europe (1789-1960 AD) : 1. Introduction: Brief outlines of Renaissance,
Reformation, Geographical Discoveries, Rise of Nation States. 2. French Revolution: Causes-course-
Constitutional Assembly-National Convention – Directory – Effects of the revolution. 3. Emergence of Napoleon
Bonaparte – Expansion – consolidation and downfall. 4. Vienna Congress – Concert of Europe – Matternich
– Revolutions of 1830-1849. 5. The Industrial Revolution – its effects. 6. Second Republic in France-Napoleon
III – Paris commune – The rise of III French Republic. 7. National Movements: Unification of Italy – Unification
of Germany. 8. Liberalism and Democracy in Britain. 9. The Eastern Question – Crimean War – Berlin
Congress. 10 Revolution in Turkey – Balkan Wars. 11. Scramble for African and Asian colonies – Theories
and mechanisms of imperialism. 12. Power blocks in Europe – Imperial Rivalry – causes and system. 13.
First world war – causes and effects – Treaty of Versailles. 14. Russian Revolution 1917 – Causes and
Significance. 15. World under economic crisis – Great Depression and recovery. 16. Rise of Fascism and
Nazism. 17. League of Nations – Achievements and failures. 18. Second World War – causes, course and
effects. 19. Post Second War developments – U.N.O. – Cold war – Rise of Third Block.
Part - B Paper : II : History of India (1526 – 1964 AD) : Later Medieval India: 1. A Survey of sources – Moghul and
Modern periods. 2. Advent of Moghuls – Second Afghan empire. 3. Administration – Economic and
Technological Developments. 4. Consolidation, Expansion and Diplomacy under Moghul empire upto 1707.
5. Moghul Administration and institutions: Administrative structure – Land revenue – Munsabdari and Jagirdari
systems. 6. General conditions under Moghul rule. (a) Social conditions: Ulemas- Nobility-Zamindars-
Peasantry-Artisans-Slaves and Status of women. (b) Economic Conditions: Agriculture, Trade and
Commerce. 7. Religious policies of Akbar and Aurangazeb – Revivalist movements and composite culture
(with special reference to Marathas and Sikhs). 8. Decline and disintegration of Moghul empire. 9. Study of
Art, Architecture, Literature, Education and Fine Arts (1526 – 1761 AD). 10. Rise, growth and decline of
Marathas – Administration of Sivaji. 11. Advent of European Powers, Portugese, French and English. 12.
Expansion and consolidation of British empire. (1) Ideologies of expansion: Mercantilism, Orientalism;
Utilitarianism and Evanogelicalism. (2) Tools of expansion; war and Diplomacy – Carnatic, Bengal, Mysore,
Marathas Rohillas, Awadh, Central India and Punjab – Subsidiary Alliance and Doctrine of Lapse. (3) Growth
of Colonial administrative apparatus, ideological influences; Central, Provincial, District and Judicial
administration. 13. Economic changes: (a) Land revenue settlements; Permanent settlement, ryotwari and
mahalwari: condition of peasants; rural indebtedness and recurrent famines. (b) Nature of colonial Economy;
Commercialization of Agriculture and its effects. Decline of cottage industries – Causes for poverty in India.
14. Social changes. (a) Spread of Western Education. (b) Rise of professional classes and the emerging
intelligentsia. (c) Growth of the Press; English and in Indian Languages. (d) Indian renaissance. (e) Socio-
Religious movements. (f) Status of Women. 15. Popular resistance to Company rule. (a) Peasant and Tribal
movements (a brief survey) (b) Revolt of 1857. Causes, nature and results. 16. National Movement. (a)
Emergence of Indian national movement – Indian National Congress – Moderates, Extremists and
Revolutionaries. (b) Constitutional Development upto 1919. (c) Impact of First World War. (d) Rise of Gandhi
– Nature of Gandhian Movements. (e) Revolutionary left – wing Movements – Peasants and workers’
movements – Depressed class movements. (f) Govt. of India Act of 1935. (g) Indian polity (1939-1945) – Quit
India Movement. (h) Subhas Chandra Bose and Indian National Army (i) Emergence of communal trends –
communal politics and partition. 17. India 1947-1964 (a) Integration of the Indian States. (b) Making of the
constitution. (c) Foreign policy.
Part - C Paper : I: Paper-I: History of India upto 1200 AD : 1. Survey of the sources, influence of Geography on Indian
History. 2. Pre historic, Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic culture. 3. Harappan civilization – Origin, extent,
urban planning – Nature of Polity and economic organization. 4. Vedic civilization – Early Vedic and Later
Vedic civilizations. 5. Post Vedic Period – Social development – Varna, Jati, Property relations 16 Sanskaras
and 4 Purusharthas. 6. Rise of new Religious Movements – Jainism and Buddhism in 6th century B.C. 7. 16
Mahajanapadas – Rise and expansion of Magadha. Rise of Republic - Monarchies. 8. Alexander’s invasion
and its effects. 9. The Mauryan empire – Ashoka’s dharma its nature and propagation, Mauryan administration
State, Economy, Art and Architecture. 10. Post – Mauryan period, Socio –Cultural developments special
reference to Satavahanas and Kushans. 11. Sangam Age, Literature, Society and Culture. 12. Developments
in Gupta period Administrative system – Society – Economy. Art, Architecture, Literature, Philosophy, Science
and Technology. 13. Post Gupta Period in North India upto 647 AD. 14. Chalukyan period – Vatapi Chalukyas
– Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi – Rastrakutas – Development of Society, Economy and Culture – Religious
Movements. 15. Pallavas and their contribution to Society and Culture – Art and Architecture. 16. Cholas,
Administration, Art and Culture – India’s Cultural contacts with South, East Asia and Srilanka.
208. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Part - A Paper : III : Industrial Relations and Industrial Law : 1. Concept of industrial relations, Dunlop’s model of
industrial relations. – Evolution of industrial relations in India. 2. a. Legislation on working conditions and
Employment: Relevant areas of the Indian legislation on: Factories Act 1948, Contract Labour Act, Industrial
Employment Standing Orders Act. b. Grievance Management: Grievance handling, model grievance procedure,
section 9C, of chapter II B of ID Act 1947 – Employee counseling. 1. Industrial conflicts causes, manifestations
and effects. 2. Employers and Employees associations and Industrial Relations: a) Trade Unionism –
Concept, profile, functioning, problems and measures to improve functioning of trade unions. – the Trade
Unions Act 1926 (Sections on objectives, registration and functioning of unions) – recognition of bargaining
agent. b) Managerial and Employers Associations in India – Role in Industrial relations. c) Workers participation
in management, Works Committee (ID Act), other schemes for participation. 3. a) Prevention and settlement
of disputes – Study of relevant sections of Industrial Disputes Act 1947 b) Collective bargaining – Conciliation

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process, role an obligations of unions, management and government,. Levels of CB Settlements, National
joint consultation models in steel, banking, ports and docks. c) Arbitration and adjudication. 4. Employee
discipline – Causes and consequences of indiscipline-Disciplinary procedure-Industrial Employment sanding
Orders Act 1946 and supreme Court directions. 5. Industrial disputes Act 1947:Objectives of the Act, Scope
and applications, Definitions, sections on: Authorities under the Act, Notice of change, Strikes, lockouts,
layoff, retrenchment, closure. 6. State of unionism, Industrial Relations and Collective bargaining. Paper : IV
(I) Employee Welfare, Social Security and Legislation, (II) Information Technology & Human Resource
Management, (III) Labour Legislation & Rules in Andhra Pradesh.
Part - B Paper : II : 1. Human Resource Management: Meaning of HRM – Evolution of HRM-Role of HRM in the
Organization – Personnel Management and HRM Functions of HRM (Managerial & Substantive) – HR scenario
in India – Role of HR Practitioner – Contemporary challenge in HRM. 2. Human Resource Planning –
meaning: Evolution – Need and objective of HRP – Process of HRP – Human Resource Planning in India. 3.
Recruitment an Selection: Need – Objectives – Sources of Recruitment – (Internal and External)-e-Recruitment
– Outsourcing – Selection Methods – Tests, Group Discussions, Interviews – Legal and constitutional
framework relating to recruitment. 4. Induction, Training and Development: Definitions – Introduction to the
Company and Workplace – Methods of training – On the Job Training an Off –Job Training – Human Resource
Development. 5. Employee Compensation: Influencing factors –Fixation of Wages and Salary – Fringe
Benefits – Employee Welfare – Wage Legislation and Pay Commissions. 6. Employee Separation:
Redundancy – Outplacement – Downsizing – Voluntary Leavers – Retirement. 7. Performance Management:
Definition – Importance – Methods of performance Appraisal – use of 360 degree feedback. 8. International
HRM – Definition – International HRM Models – Issues. 9. Strategic HRM – Meaning – Aims – Approaches.
10. Talent Management: Definition – Elements of talent management – creating a great place to work –
Attraction Strategies – Retention Strategies – Talent management in practice. 11. Knowledge Management
– Definition – Purpose and Significance – Role of HR in knowledge Management. Business Ethics and
Corporate Social responsibility.
Part - C Paper : I : GENERAL MANAGEMENT & ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR : Business- Management – Introduction
to management: definition – Description of management functions- Nature, Role and principles of
management approaches, application and limitations – Scientific Management, Behavioral approach, Human
relations movement, Management science approach, systems approach to management process. Functions
of Managers Management and Society, Challenges of management, Social responsibilities and ethics –
International Management and Multinational Corporations. The process of management: Planning –
Management by Objectives (MBO), Decision Making – steps in decision making. Strategic planning.
Organizing, nature, Enterpreneuring and Reengineering – Organization structure – Empowerment and
Decentralization. Direction: Motivation, Communication and leadership, Control mechanism Organizational
climate, Culture and Managing Change through Manger and Organization Development. Organization
Behavior- Models of Organization behavior, Individual and Interpersonal behavior Informal and formal Groups
– Teams and Team Building- Organizational Conflict – Management of conflict and Organizational
performance. Change and its effect, managing Change, Stress and Counseling – Organizational Behavior
across Cultures.

209. HUMAN RIGHTS & DUTIES


Part - A Social and Philosophical conceptions of individual property, freedom, justice and rights; Slavery, feudalism,
capitalism, socialism and globalisation; Law, society, custom, social justice; Indian constitution and Human
Rights. Indian society : Ethnic and social diversity; Religion, caste and tribe; Villages : Social and Economic
civilisation; Cities, migration, urbanization and slums.
Part - B Problems of poverty and unemployment; Social inequalities in India: Role of class, caste, race, culture,
gender and age; concept of weaker sections : SC's, Backward classes, ST's and minorities; protective
discrimination and state intervention through law and administration.
Part - C Problem of women, aged, children, tenants, agri-cultural workers and industrial workers; Problems of
Ecological imbalance and environment; Deforestation, tribal and alienation, Development & Environment,
Social Action and Social movements.

210. JOURNALISM & MASS COMMUNICATION


Part - A General Knowledge : Mass Media related events-Origin and growth of different media i.e., Press-Radio-
Television-Cinema-Advertising-Popular authors and Books.
Part - B Current Affairs : Regional - National -International significant events and issues.
Part - C Language efficiency and skills

211. M.L.I.Sc.
Part - A Different types of libraries and their uses, Newspapers & Periodicals, Books - Their subjects and authors;
Popular technical terms in various fields, abbreviations etc., Basics of Computer components - History -
Basics of internet.
Part - B National and International awards; famous persons and their fields of activities; Sports and Games; Inventions,
discoveries and explorations.
Part - C International and National events; Geographical names Cities, Countries, Rivers, Mountains, Parks etc.;
Current Social, Political & Economic affairs.

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212. M.Ed.
Part - A Teacher and Education in Emerging Indian Society; School Management
Part - B Educational Psychology and Statistics
Part - C Education Technology & Computer Education.

213. PHILOSOPHY
Part - A Paper III -LOGIC, SCIENTIFIC METHOD AND COMPUTER APPLICATIONS : (i) Traditional Logic : 1. The definition,
nature, scope and uses of Logic – The distinction between truth and validity.’ 2. The Laws of Thought. 3.
Propositions: Nature and definition of propositions – Traditional Classification of propositions. 4. Syllogism
: Categorical, Hypothetical and Disjunctive – Rules and Fallacies – Figures and Moods. (ii) Modern Logic 1.
Modern Classification of propositions – Simple, Compound and general 2. The distinction between traditional
logic and symbolic logic – The advantages of Symbolic logic over that of traditional logic. 3. Basic Truth –
Tables (Negation, Conjunction, Implication and Disjunction): their construction and use – Tautology,
Contradiction and Contingent. (iii) Scientific Method 1. The definition of Science – Its reliance on inductive
method – Observation, Hypothesis, Verification and Proof – The place of analogy in scientific investigation. 2.
The Methodology in Experimental Sciences – Mill’s Experimental Methods. 3. Methodology in Social Sciences
: Method of Correlation, Method of Case history, Method of Questionnaire, Method of Field Investigation.
ETHICS : 1. Definition, Nature and Scope of Ethics. 2. Basic Moral Concepts : Good, Right, Ought, Duty,
Obligation, Justice and Freedom. 3. Ethical Theories. I : Western (a) Hedonism : J.S. Mill and J. Bentham.
(b) Intuitionism : G.E. Moore (c) Formalism : Immanuel Kant (d) Emotivism : R.L. Stevenson and A.J. Ayer. II –
Indian : (e) Bhagavad Gita : Niskamakarma (f) Buddhism : The Eight Fold path (g) Jainism : Mahavratas and
Anurvatas. 4. Theories of Punishment: (a) Retributive, Deterrent and Reformative. (b) Views of Manu on
punishment. 5. Medical Ethics : Views of Caraka, Susruta and Hippocrates – Moral Responsibility of Medical
Practioners.
Part - B Paper II - WESTERN PHILOSOPHY : (ii) CLASSICAL : 1. The problems of substance and change in pre-
Socratic Philosophy- The Age of Sophists - Socrates : his problem and method. 2. Plato : Doctrine of Ideas
– Concept of Soul – Concept of State. 3. Aristotle : Criticism of Plato’s doctrine of Ideas – His theory of
Causation. (ii) MODERN 4. Rationalism: (a) Descartes : His method (cogito ergo sum) – “Body – Mind
problem” – Proofs for the existence of God. (b) Spinoza : Concept of substance – “Body - Mind Relation”. (c)
Leibnitz: Pre-established harmony – doctrine of Monodology. 5. Empiricism : (a) John Locke : Refutation of
the doctrine of Innate Ideas – Origin, validity and limits of knowledge. (b) Berkeley : Subjective idealism. (c)
David Hume : His conception of substance and theory of Causation. German Idealism and Marxian Materialism:
Kant’s transcendental idealism – Hegel’s Dialectical idealism- Karl Marx’s dialectical materialism.
Part - C Paper I - INDIAN PHILOSOPHY : 1. Introduction : Definition of Philosophy – Branches of Philosophy – The
Nature and Characteristics of Indian Philosophy, 2. Philosophical Speculations of Vedas and Upanishads –
Polytheism, Henotheism, Monotheism, and Monism – The Concepts of Rta, Brahman and Atman. 3. The
Central doctrines of Heterodox Systems: (a) Carvaka School : Epistemology and Metaphysics (b) Jainism :
Nature and destiny of jiva, Syadvada (c) Buddhism : Four Noble Truths, Nairatma–Vada, Pratitya
Samutpadavada 4. Central doctrines of Orthodox Systems: (a) Nyaya – Vaisesika : Pramanas – Categories
– Theory of Causation – Atomism – God, soul and its destiny. (b) Sankhya-Yoga : Prakrti and Purusa –
Satkaryavada – Theory of Evolution – Eight Limbs of Yoga – Idea of God. (c) Mimamsa : Karma, Dharma and
Apurva. (d) Vedanta (i) Advaita : Nirguna Brahman – Relation between Brahman and Atman – Mayavada -
Moksa. (ii) Visistadvaita : Saguna Brahman – Relation between Brahman, Atman and World – Bhakti and
Prapatti as means to moksa. (iii) Dwaita : Nature of Reality – Panchabheda – Nature and Classification of
Jivas – Bhakti as a means to Moksa. ISLAMIC PHILOSOPHY : 1. Growth and Development of Islamic
Thought. 2. Life and Ministry of Prophet Mohammed. 3. Two Schools of Kalam, Mutazilism and Asharism. (e)
Divine Unity and Attributes. (f) Determinism and Indeterminism. (g) Reason and Revelation. 4. Al-Kindi, Al-
Farabi, Ibn-Sina and Ibn Rushd. (a) Theories of Creation. (b) The Doctrine of Intellect. (c) Problem of
reconciliation between Religion and Philosophy. 5. Al-Ghazzali. (a) Reaction against Philosophers. (b)
Importance of Personal Experience. (c) Al-Ghazzali as a mystic.

214. POLITICAL SCIENCE AND PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION


Part - A INDIAN GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS : 1. Salient Features of Indian Constitution a Comparative Perspective
with the Constitutions of UK, USA and Switzerland. 2. Evolution of Indian Constitution - Nationalist Movement
and Philosophical Foundations. 3. Indian Federation - Centre-State Relations - Recent Trends. 4. Fundamental
Rights and Duties, Constitutional Remedies with special reference to Writes - Directive Principals of state
policy. 5. President - Election, Powers and Functions - Prime Minister and Council of Ministers. 6. Parliament
- Composition, Powers and Functions. 7. Judiciary - Supreme Court, Composition, Powers, Functions and
Judicial Review - Judicial Activism. 8. Party System : National and regional Parties; Coalitional Politics. 9.
Election Commission - Electoral Reforms and voting Behavior. 10. State Government - Governor, Chief
Minister and Council of Ministers - Powers and Functions. 11. Social and Economics Factors - Language,
Religion, Caste and Regional identities. 12. Social movements : Agrarian, Working class, Women, Tdribal,
Dalit and Environmental. 13. Challenges to National Integration - Communalism and Terrorism. 14. Local
Government Institutions - 73rd & 74th Constitutional Amendments.
Part - B Public Administration : Block I : Historical Background : 1. Evolution of Indian Administration - Ancient,
Medieval and British Periods - Continuity and Change in Indian Administration after Independence. 2. Context

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of Indian Administration - Social, Economic and Political. Block II : Central Administration : 3. Union Government
and Administration - President, Prime Minister, Council of Ministers, Central Secretariat, Cabinet Secretariat,
Cabinet Committees and Prime Minister Office. 4. Union and State Relations and Agencies - Administrative
Relations - Inter State Council, Finance Commission, All Inida Services, Planning Commission, National
Development Council. 5. Public Enterprises in India : a) Forms of Public Enterprises : (b) Privatization and
Disinvestment. Block III : 6. State Government and Administration : Governor, Chief Minister, Council of
Ministers, Secretariat & Directorates, General Administration Department and Chief Secretary. 7. District
Administration : Changing Role of District Collector, Mandal and Village Administration in Andhra Pradesh. 8.
Local Governments - Rural and Urban - Structure and functions - 73rd and 74th Constitutional amendments.
Block IV : 9. Control over Administration : (a) Legislative and Judicial Control, (b) Lok Pal, Lokayukta and
Centdral Vigilance Commission, (c) Consumer Protection Forums, (d) Right to Information Act (RTI), (e)
National and State Human Rights Commissions. 10. Administration of Welfare Programmes for Weaker
Sections - SCs, STs, BCs Women and Minorities. Block V : Emerging Issues : 11. Administrative Reforms,
Recommendations of important Commissions and Second ARC. 12. Mechanims for Disaster Management.
13. Governance and e-Governance Applications in Indian Administration. 14. Public Private Partnerships
and Voluntary Sector.
215. PSYCHOLOGY
Part - A Paper III - (IV) : Child and Adolescent Psychology : Chapter - I: Meaning, Nature and importance of
Developmental psychology : A. Concept of growth and development – Principles of development. Stages of
human life span. Methods of studying human development. Importance of developmental Psychology. B.
Factors influencing growth and development: Heredity and environment. Chapter - II: Early Stages of
development : A. Prenatal Period: Characteristics. importance of conception. prenatal stages, factors
influencing prenatal development –Hazards. B. Infancy: Characteristics - adjustments in infancy – conditions
influencing postnatal life (Pre maturity, multiple births, post maturity) – physical development- activities –
sensitivities- and capacity for learning - emotions of the infants – Hazards. C. Babyhood: Characteristics –
developmental tasks – physical development – physiological functioning- muscle control – speech
development – emotional behavior – social responses – play interests – development of understanding and
morality – sex role typing and family relations - personality development- Hazards. Chapter - III: Early
childhood : General characteristics – developmental tasks- physical development – skills of early childhood-
speech development – emotional patterns – patterns of early socialization and sex- role typing – play
interests – development of understanding and morality – family relationships- personality development.-
Hazards. Chapter - IV: Late childhood : General characteristics– developmental tasks- skills of late childhood-
speech development – emotional expression – social behavior and sex role typing in late childhood - play
interests – development of understanding and moral attitudes- family relationships – personality changes-
Hazards, Chapter - V: Puberty : General characteristics– developmental tasks- criteria causes and age of
puberty- puberty growth spurt - body changes in puberty – effects of pubertal changes – common concerns
during puberty – Hazards. Chapter - VI: Adolescence : General characteristics – developmental tasks-
physical changes – emotionality during adolescence – social changes- interests in adolescence – changes
in morality – sex interest and sex behavior during adolescence –family relationships – personality development
- Hazards. Chapter - VII: Introduction to Theories of Development : Freud’s Psychosexual stages, Erikson’s
psychosocial stages of development, Piaget’s Cognitive development (ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY (Theory)
Chapter I: Introduction to Abnormal Psychology : Defining abnormality. Abnormal psychology – past and
present – views and treatments. Approaches to psychopathology – psychodynamic, behavioural, cognitive-
behavioural, existential and biological. Chapter II: Classification and Causes of Abnormality Classification
of disorders Etiological factors in abnormality Stress, coping and the ego-defense mechanisms. Chapter III:
Anxiety Disorder – Nature and Symptom Generalized anxiety disorder Phobias Panic and panic disorders
Obsessive-compulsive disorder Post-traumatic stress disorder. Chapter IV: Somatoform Disorders – Nature
and Symptoms Conversion disorders- with motor/sensory symptoms or deficits, with seizures. Pain disorders
– headache, migraine, low back pain, etc. Acute versus chronic pain, cognitive perception of pain, individual
differences in reaction to pain. Hypochondriasis. Chapter V: Dissociative Disorders – Nature and Symptoms
Amnesia and fugue Dissociative identity disorder. Chapter VI: Psychotic Disorders: Nature and Symptoms
Schizophrenia and its subtypes – paranoid type, catatonic type, hebephrenic type Mood disorders – unipolar
and bipolar disorders Chapter VII: Developmental Disorders: Nature and Symptoms. Disruptive behaviour
– Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Conduct disorder. Habit disorders – Eating disorders Emotional
disorders - anxiety disorder (separation anxiety, avoidant disorder, and overanxious disorder). Childhood
depression. Specific developmental disorder – learning disabilities. Pervasive developmental disorder –
autism. Mental Retardation. Chapter VIII: Personality Disorders – Nature and Symptoms Antisocial personality
disorder. Paranoid personality disorder. Dependent personality disorder. Histrionic personality disorder.
Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Chapter IX: Addictive Disorders -Nature and Symptoms
Alcoholism Nicotine dependence Psychoactive drugs Chapter X: Treatment of Disorders Psychodynamic
approach Behavioural approach Humanistic-existential approach Cognitive approach
COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY (Theory) Chapter I: Introduction to Counselling Definition, nature and scope
of counseling, need for and Goals of counseling. Counselling and Psychotherapy, Counselling and Clinical
Psychology Chapter II: Counselling process Preparation for counseling, Pre-counselling interview, process
of counseling – Physical setting, establishing the relationship, conducting counseling interview, problems
involved in counseling interview, Termination of the counseling. Chapter III: Counselling skills Pre-helping
skills – Attending and listening skills; Stage-I Skills – Primary level empathy, genuineness, respect and
concreteness; Stage – II skills – Advanced level accurate empathy, Self-disclosure, Immediacy and
confrontation Stage-III Skills – Action Programmes. Chapter IV: Counselling children and adolescents
Counselling children with behavioral and emotional problem, Counselling children with special needs,
Chapter V: Counselling adolescents Counselling adolescents with behavioral and emotional problems

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Educational and Career Counselling Chapter VI: Counseling for Special groups Counselling clients with
chronic illnesses, Family and marital counseling, Employee Counselling. Geriatric Counselling. Chapter
VII: Ethical issues in Counselling Confidentiality, Counselling relationship, Transference and the Counselling
relationship, Competence, Client autonomy and client protection. Educational Psychology (Theory) Chapter
I: Educational Psychology : Nature , Scope and importance Definition & Scope, importance and methods of
educational psychology. Chapter II: Growth and development during childhood and adolescence –
educational Implications General nature and principles of growth and development – physical growth and
motor development and mental development – emotional development – social development - development
of attitudes, interests, values and personality. Chapter III: The nature of learning process Nature of
learning – learning and maturation – the process of learning - learning curves - plateaus in learning
Theories and laws of learning and their educational implications: trial and error learning - learning by
conditioning – learning by insight Learning of skills Role of motivation , attention and interest in learning –
kinds of motivation : extrinsic and intrinsic, achievement motivation -methods of motivating pupils to learn.
Chapter IV: Transfer of Learning Forms of transfer – theories of transfer of learning – factors influencing
transfer of learning. Chapter VI: Memory and forgetting Types and methods of memorization – factors
influencing retention. What is forgetting? – Curves of forgetting – kinds of forgetting – theories of forgetting.
Chapter VII: Thinking , problem solving and creativity Nature, tools and kinds of thinking – training in
thinking. Definition of problem solving – steps in problem solving. Nature and characteristic of creativity –
steps in the process of creative thinking - development of creativity in children. Chapter VIII: Educational
Measurement Definitions of achievement, intelligence, and aptitude. Characteristics and uses of teacher-
made tests and standardized tests of achievement – Types of intelligence and aptitude tests. Chapter IX:
Needs of differently challenged (exceptional) children The gifted: definition – characteristics – teaching
strategies. Mentally challenged – definition - characteristics – types – preventive and remedial measures.
Physically and sensorially challenged – definition – characteristics - types – remedial measures. Learning
disabled – definition – characteristics and types – remedial measures. Socially disadvantaged –
definition – characteristics - types – remedial measures. Chapter X: Guidance and counseling in Educational
Institutions Definition – need of guidance – types of guidance. Guidance needs of primary and secondary
school pupils- (in relation to the individual, family, the institution and the society) Guidance needs of adolescent
pupils- ((in relation to the individual, family, the institution and the society) Need and status of guidance
services in Indian schools and colleges, Industrial-Organizational Psychology Chapter I: Introduction to
Industrial-Organizational Psychology Definition, scope and historical development of I-O psychology.
Pioneers on personnel selection. World War I and the testing movement. Hawthorne studies and motivational
issues. World War II and Engineering Psychology. Chapter II: Challenges for I-O Psychology Virtual
workplace, Virtual employees, Worker Involvement. Changing Technology and skills Chapter III:Employee
Selection The Recruitment process. Sources of Recruiting. Recruiter characteristics. Campus recruitment.
Selection process: Job and worker analysis. Definition and purpose. Techniques of analysis. Interviews,
Questionnaires, Observation. Activity logs, critical incidents Use of biographical data – application blanks –
Reference letters – Interviews Types of interviews – structured, situational and online Chapter IV: Psychological
Tests in Personnel selection Administration of tests – individual, group, speed, power – Type of tests -
abilities, interests, aptitudes, motor, personality Chapter V: Personnel Training Principles of learning and
training – Methods of training – Evaluation of training Chapter VI:Work motivation Theories of work motivation
– Need Hierarchy theory, Equity theory, Two Factor theory, Expectancy theory. Motivational theories in practice
–Goal setting – Participation in decision making – Incentive system Chapter VII: Job Satisfaction and Work
Attitudes Importance of work attitudes and opinions in industry – Job satisfaction and its influence on work
behaviour – Measurement of job satisfaction and work attitudes Chapter VIII: Leadership Types of leaders
– Theories of leadership – (specify theory from each Trait theories, behaviour theories and contingency
theories) Theory X and Theory Y (Mc Gregor), Contingency Theory (Fiedler), Path Goal Theory (House).
Chapter IX: Work environment Physical working conditions – illumination, noise, color, music, temperature
and humidity. Work schedules – working hours, shift work, Rest pauses Accidents and Safety: causes of
accidents – Individual factors – Adjustment factors – Situational factors – Prevention of accidents
Part - B Paper II - SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY : Chapter – I: Nature and scope of Social Psychology : Definition, Nature
and Scope. Methods of Social Psychology – Observation method, Survey method, Correlational method,
Field study and Experimental method Chapter – II: Social Perception – Understanding Others Attribution –
Theories of Attribution – Theory of Correspondent Influence, Errors in Attribution – Fundamental Attribution
Error, Actor – Observer effect, Self Serving Bias Impression formation and Impression Management -
Techniques of Impression Management Chapter – III: Communication Definition, nature and types of
communication. Barriers to effective communication. Rumors and propaganda. Chapter – IV: Attitudes
Definition - Distinctive features of Attitudes, Formation of Attitudes, Measurement of Attitudes - Likert method
of Summated ratings, Bogardus method of Social Distance, Thurstone’s Equal appearing intervals method.
Cognitive Dissonance, Reducing Dissonance Chapter – V: Prejudice Prejudice and Discrimination – Nature
and Origin of Prejudice, Techniques of reducing Prejudice Definition, Determinants of Human Aggression –
Social, Personal, and Situational factors – Theoretical Perspectives on Aggression – Biological Perspective
– Drive Theories, General Affective Aggression model, Prevention and Control of Aggression. Chapter – VI:
Groups and Individuals Definition and Types of Groups, Group functions – Roles, Status, Norms, Cohesiveness
and Conformity. Groups and Individual performance,- Social facilitation, Social loafing. Decision making by
Groups Chapter – VII: Leadership Definition – Traits of a Leader, Types of Leaders – Autocratic, Democratic
and Charismatic Leaders. Classic studies on leadership, leader behavior – initiating structure and
consideration.
Part - C Paper I - GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY : Chapter – I: Introduction : A] Historical Foundations of Psychology –
Definition and Scope of Psychology, Fields of Psychology, Schools of Psychology, B] Methods of Psychology
– Introspection, Observation, Case Study, Interview, Survey and Experimental method, Chapter – II: Biological
Basis of Behaviour A] Hormonal basis of behavior - the major endocrine glands and their functions B]
Mechanisms of heredity – Chromosomes and genes. Influence of heredity and environment on behavior ,

: 34 :
Chapter – III: Attention and Perception Attention - Span, division and distraction. Perception – Perecptual
constancy – Illusions Internal and External factors influencing Perceptual. Chapter – IV: Motivation and
Emotion Definition and functions of Motives. Types of Motives – Physiological and Psycho-Social motives.
Unconscious motivation. Maslow’s theory of Motivation. Emotion – Definition and nature of emotions.
Theories of emotion – James-Lange, Cannon-Bard and Schachter-Singer, Chapter – V: Learning A]
Definition – Maturation and Learning. Classical and Instrumental Conditioning. Learning by Insight and
Observation, Latent learning B] Role of Motivation. Reward and Punishment in Learning, Learning curves,
Efficient methods of learning, Transfer of Learning Chapter – VI: Memory and Forgetting Meaning of memory,
Types of memory, Methods of measuring memory, Information Processing model of memory, curve of forgetting
and causes of forgetting, Methods of Improving Memory, Chapter - VII: Personality – Nature and Definition
Approaches to Personality – Type, Behaviouristic, Humanistic and Psychosexual approaches. Chapter -
VIII: Intelligence Intelligence – Concept of IQ, Types of Intelligence tests, Variations in Intellectual ability –
Intellectually gifted and retarded, Factors influencing individual differences in intelligence – Heredity and
Environment
217. SANSKRIT
Part - A Alankaras from the Chandraloka: 1. Upama, 2. Ananvaya, 3.Utpreksa, 4.Dipaka, 5.Aprastutaprasamsa, 6.
Drustanta, 7. Arthantaranyasa, 8. Virodhabhasa, 9. Ullekha, 10.Svabhavokti. Sarvanamasabdas: Asmad,
Yusmad, Idam, Tad, Yad, Etad and Kim. Dhatus: In Lat, Lan, Lrt, Lot and Vidhilin only Bhu, Gaml, Stha, Drusir,
Tru, Labh, Mud, Bhash, Ramu, Vadi, As, Divu Yudh, Santush, Pravis, Mucl, Ish, Lish, Dukruy, Kriy, Cur and
Kath. Krt pratyayas: Ktva, Lyap, Tumum, Kta, Ktavatu, Satru, Sanac and Tavya.
Part - B 1.Saranagathi, 2. Raghoh Audaran, 3. Cikroda Katha, 4. Computeryantram. Topics from the History of
Sanskrit Literature: Bharata Muni, Bharavi, Panini, Kantilya, Magha, Sriharsa, Sankaracharya.
Ajantasabdas: Deva, Bhanu, Pitru,Ramaa, Mati, Nadi, Tanu, Vadhu, Matru, Phala, Vari, Madhu. Sandhis:
Sandhibhedah, Savarnadeergha, Ayavayava, Guna, Vruddhi, Yanadesa, Scutva, Stutva, Gamudagama,
Anunasika, Latva, Jastva sandhis and types of the Visargasandhi.
Part - C 1. Pratimagrham, 2. Bharatasamskrtemulam, 3. Sukanasopadesa, 4. Bhojasya Kavya Sushama.
Halatansabdas: Jalamuc, Vac, Marut, Bhagavt, Bhavat, Pacat, Rajan, Naaman, Gunin, Vidvas and Manas.
Samasas: Avyayibhava, Tatpurusha, Karmadhraya, Dvigu, Dvandva and Bahuvrihi.

218. SOCIAL WORK


Part - A Paper III - Social Work Intervention-Auxiliary Methods : Social Action: Meaning, scope, principles, various
techniques and stages of social action. Social work research: Meaning, scope, difference between social
work research and social research. Stages of social work research. Sampling – meaning; probability and
non-probability sampling, types of sampling limitations. Tools of data collection - Questionnaire, Interview
Schedule and observation. Development Administration: Meaning and nature. Principles – planning,
organization, staffing, recording and budgeting. Basic requisites of forming a NGO: Constitution, By-laws,
Memorandum of association; Registration of organization. (IV)(a) Management of Non Governmental
Organisations : Non-Governmental Organizations: Concept, Meaning and Types Promotion and formation
of NGOs - steps involved; A.P.Societies Registration Act – 2001. Management of the NGOs - General Body,
Executive Committee; Roles and functions. Financial Management: Sources of Finance – Governmental
and Non-Governmental; Methods of resource mobilization. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Project
Management: Formulating a project, Preparing an organizational Budget, Significance. Communication in
an organization – essential components, types, barriers, Decision making levels and methods. (IV)(b)
Social work with HIV/AIDS : HIV/AIDS – Definition; prevalence in the world, India and AP; symptoms of HIV/
AIDS, Causes. HIV/AIDS - Public health implications - Role of prevention – importance of communication;
treatment approaches; services - VCTC, PPTCT and related services. Psycho-social implications of HIV on
infected and affected persons with special reference to women and children; stigma and its implications for
marginalisation of PLWHA; Community based care and support programmes. Role of Social Worker: in
working with persons infected/affected with HIV/AIDS; Social worker as a counselor; ethical issues in
counseling. Government and Non-Governmental Organisations: Role of UNAID, NACO, APSACS, NGOs
and media in the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS. Examination of 3 research studies covering awareness,
stigma, psycho-social implications. (IV)(c) Social work with Elderly and Challenged : Elderly - Concept and
definition. Problems of elderly - socio-economic and health problems; elder abuse and neglect Provisions
and Services: Constitutional and legislative provisions for elderly; Institutional and Non-Institutional services
for elderly. Challenged: Concept and classification - Blind, deaf-dumb, and orthopaedically handicapped,
mentally challenged, mentally ill - causes and consequences. Governmental and Non – Governmental
Efforts: Governmental and Non-governmental programmes and services for different types of challenged.
Social work Practice with Elderly and Challenged: use of social work methods while working with elderly
and challenged. (IV)(a) Social work with Women and Children : Role and Status of Women in India:
Changing perspectives of the role and status of women in India – Their status in the context of family,
marriage, religion and economy; concept of gender. Constitutional Provisions: Constitutional provisions
pertaining to women and children Violence against women: Domestic violence, female foeticide and
infanticide, dowry related violence: Relevant legislations such as (a) Dowry Prohibition Act: 1961 (Amended
– 1984) (b) Prevention of domestic violence Act – 2005, (c) Pre-natal diagnostic techniques (regulation and
prevention of misuse) Act. 1994. Child - concept, definition; influence of heredity and environment – family,
peer group, neighbourhood and school. Children in Difficult Circumstances – Street children, child labour,
neglected and abused children; Institutional and non-institutional services for children. Role of professional
social worker and Programmes for Women and Children: ICDS, CHILDLINE, SHGs, Role of Social Worker
in Family counseling centers, marital counseling centers and child guidance clinics.

: 35 :
Part - B Paper II - Social Work Intervention - Basic Methods : Working with individuals – case work as a method of
social work, definition, relevance; historical Development; Principles of case work; components of social
case work – Person, Place, Problem, Professional and Process – study, diagnosis and treatment. Practice
in different settings such as hospitals, schools, industry, correctional institutions and family. Techniques,
Skills and recording : Techniques of case work – communication, listening, use of self with awareness, and
professional relationships. Qualities of a helping relationship and a helping professional; skills in working
with individuals –rapport establishment, interviewing, enabling, facilitation, resource mobilization, training,
reflective thinking and analysis. Recording - principles, types. Discussion of a case record. Groups:
Significance of group, group dynamics - Leadership, isolation, decision making, contagion, conflict,
communication and relationships. Working with the groups – Group work as a method; historical
development, values & Principles, skills in group work. Group work process, techniques of group work, use
of group work in different fields of social work – hospitals, correctional settings, schools and communities,
recording in group work. Discussion of a group record. Community – Problems of Communities, Community
organization – Definition and scope as a method in relation to other methods of social work. Principles,
Skills and use of Community Organization: Principles of community organization; Skills of community
organization practitioner - problem analysis, resource mobilization, conflict resolution, organizing meetings,
writing and documentation and networking. Use of community organization in different settings - rural,
urban, tribal and coastal.
Part - C Paper I - Social Work Profession, Philosophy and Basic Social Science Concepts : Social Work Profession,
Philosophy and Basic Social Science Concepts Social Work: Definition, Nature & Scope, Origin of social
work Profession in US and India. Religious roots of humanity, charity and philonthropy. Goals of social work
– Developmental and radical; Generic Principles of Social Work, social work values and ethics; concepts of
social work - social welfare, social service, social services, social development and social change;
Fundamental Rights and directive principles of state policy in Indian Constitution. Social Reform Movements
and Social Work Profession with special reference to Brahma Samaj, Arya Samaj and, Movements for
widow-remarriage in A.P. Groups and Communities: Definition of group, characteristics, types of groups and
communities; social stratification; social inequality and social exclusion. Understanding Human Behaviour:
Stages of human development Heredity, Environment; Motivation and Perception. Personality -Definition;
factors influencing personality. New economic order in contemporary India - Liberalization, privatization
and globalization. Changing role of the state and NGOs.

219. SOCIOLOGY
Part - A Paper - III : MODERN INDIA: SOCIAL CHANGE; DEVELOPMENT AND ISSUES : 1. Social Change : Meaning,
definition and nature of social change-Factors affecting social change- Overview of theories of social change:
evolutionary, structural and modernization 2. Development and Underdevelopment : Concepts of Development
and Underdevelopment- Indicators of development and Human Development Indices - Concepts of Economic
Development, Social Development and Sustainable Development - Globalization and consequences
3. British Rule and Social Change Changes in administrative, Judiciary, agrarian (land revenue/ownership),
educational institutional structure and their social impact (modernization) 4. Social Movements : a. Social
reform movements: Abolition of Sathi and child marriage; Widow remarriages- Arya Samaj, Bramho Samaj.
b. Protest & Self respect movements: Non-Brahmin Movement, Backward Class and Dalit movements c.
Agrarian Movements and Peasant movements 5. Independent India and Trends of Social Change : Salient
feature of constitution of India - Community development and Democratic decentralization- Land reforms-
Constitutional Safeguards for weaker sections (SC, ST, BC, Women, Differentially abled and children) 6.
Planned development : Meaning of planned development- Overview of objectives and achievement of Five
Year Plans -Green revolution , 7. Intervention Programmes: Poverty reduction programmes – Education,
Health and Skills promotion- Social Exclusion & Inclusive Policies 8. Social Issues and Challenges : Population
explosion -Migration & urbanization -Gender Issues: Domestic Violence, Trafficking; Empowerment -
Development induced displacement -Problem of the elderly; Violation of Human Rights. APPLICATIONS OF
SOCIOLOGY : Objectives: To understand the community and to make situational analysis. To enable the
students to equip themselves for a career in Social Welfare agencies. Applications of Sociology : Introduction
to applied sociology – sociology and social problems – sociology and social change – sociology and social
policy and action – sociology and development – sociology and professions. 1. Participatory Development
: Promoting Participatory Development: Need for Social Participation, Community Development and the
Community Oor sing Strategies. Action - Capacity rganization – Principles and Steps – Group Formation and
Social Action – Capacity Building Strategies. 2. Participatory Development Techniques : Participatory
development – Meaning, Techniques of Participatory Development, PRA techniques. 3. Counseling : Meaning;
need; Types of counseling, Methods of counseling. 4. Field Survey & Report Writing : Need, Meaning of
survey, types of survey Steps in conducting survey; Data collection methods ;Salient features of report writing
Part - B Paper - II: SOCIETY IN INDIA : 1. Structure of Indian Society : Diversity and Unity; Religious, Linguistic,
Cultural and Regional diversities of Indian society – Basic tenets of Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism,
Jainism, and Zoroastrianism- Hindu Social Organization: Purusharthas, Varnashrama dharma. 2. Social
Institutions : Forms of Marriage, Family and Kinship among Hindus, Muslims and Christians and their
changing trends. Decline of Joint family: causes and consequences , 3. Economy : Land ownership and
land distribution- Agrarian structure and relations and decline of Jajmani system - Present occupational
structure- Features of Tribal economy; Urban Economy; Industrial, Service and Informal Sectors. 4.
Stratification : Varna and Jati - Definition, features and functions of Caste system; Caste and Class; Class
in India: Agrarian and Non Agrarian classes, Emergence of middle class- Dominant Caste; changing trends
in caste system. 5. Polity : System of governance – Nation, State and Local Governance: Access to politics:
Caste, Religion, Language and Region – Differential access to political power. 6. Education: Traditional
Educational System – Emergence of modern formal education system in India- Differential access to education
in India- Education and Social Mobility. 7. Communities : Tribal Community, Rural community and Urban
Community: Distribution of population - Difference between rural and urban communities- Village settlement

: 36 :
patterns - Growth of urban centres, types of urban communities. 8. Problems of Indian Society : a. Tribal
Society: Exploitation of Tribes, Land alienation and displacement and Problems of Health and Nutrition, b.
Rural Society: Poverty and Unemployment, Indebtedness and farmers’ suicides and Illiteracy, c. Urban
Society: Housing and civic services, Pollution, Crime and Juvenile Delinquency and HIV/AIDS.
Part - C Paper - I : SOCIOLOGY: BASIC CONCEPTS AND PERSPECTIVES : 1. Introduction to Sociology : Definition of
Sociology – Nature and Scope of Sociology –Origins and development of Sociology – Founding fathers and
their contributions: Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer, Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim and Max Weber –Sociology
and other social sciences – Sociology in India – Importance of Sociology. 2. Human Society and Culture :
Human society, Definition, characteristics and functions – Individual and society- Culture and Personality-
Heredity and Environment. 3. Structure of Human Society : Social groups and its major types – Community
– Association – Institution – Status and Role – Norms, Values and Customs – Power and Authority-
Concepts of State, Nation and Society and their differences. 4. Basic Social Institutions : Marriage, Family
and Kinship, Religion, Economy, Education, Polity and Law 5. Socialization and Social Control : Concept of
Socialization – Theories of development of ‘Self’ of G.H. Mead, C.H. Cooley and Sigmund Freud – Agencies
of Socialization: Family, School, Religion, Peer group, Community and Government- Social Control: Concepts
of Anomie, Deviance and Social Control – Means of Social Control: Formal and Informal means.6. Social
Stratification : Social Differentiation – Social Stratification: Theories of social stratification; Functional and
Conflict theories – Dimensions of Social Stratification; Class, Caste, Power and Gender. 7. Social Interaction
and Processes : Social Interaction – Social Processes: Cooperation, Competition, Conflict, Accommodation
and Assimilation – Social Disorganization 8. Sociological Perspectives : Functional perspective b. Conflict
perspective C.Symbolic Interacti perspective and nd informal meansl: Concepts of anomie and deviance
and social control - Means onist Perspective

220. TELUGU
Part - A ‘Ó\T>∑T uÛ≤cÕ #·]Á‘· ` yê´ø£s¡D+ : 1. Á<ë$&É uÛ≤wü\T ` e´eVü≤s¡Ô\T ` ÁbÕ+‘ê\T. 2. Ä+Á<Ûä+ ` ‘ÓqT>∑T ` ‘Ó\T>∑T ` |ü⁄≥Tº |ü⁄s√«‘·Ôsê\T ` yêì yê´|æÔ,
3. ÁbÕvïqïj·T j·TT>∑ uÛ≤cÕ dü«s¡÷|ü+. 4. <Ûä«qT\ e÷s¡TŒ\T : es¡í düMTø£s¡D+, es¡í $uÛÒ<ä+, es¡í e´‘·´j·T+, es¡í kÕeT´+, ‘ê\M´ø£s¡D+, XÊ«dü‘· `
Hê<ä‘·. 5. ns¡ú$|ü]D≤eT+ : ns¡ú dü+ø√#·+, ns¡úyê´ø√#·+, düuÛÀ´øÏÔ, eTè<ä÷øÏÔ, ns¡úÁ>±eT´‘·, \øå±´sêú\T. 6. nq´<˚XÊ´\T 7. Ä<ëq Á|ü<ëHê\T, 8.
e÷+&É*ø£ uÛÒ<ë\T ` |ü]#·j·T+. yê´ø£s¡D+ : 1. dü+C≤„ |ü]#˚ä<ä+, dü+~Û |ü]#˚ä<ä+, düe÷dü |ü]#˚ä<ä+ ` u≤\ yê´ø£s¡D+, ‘Ó\T>∑T kÕVæ≤‘·´ #·]Á‘· : 1.
ÁbÕ»„qïj·T j·TT>∑+ ` kÕVæ≤‘·´ $ø±dü+, 2. qqïj·T, 3. •eø£$ j·TT>∑+ : qHÓï#√&ÉT&ÉT, |ü+&ç‘êsê<ÛäT´&ÉT, bÕ\Tÿ]øÏ k˛eTq, ~«|ü<ä ø±e´ dü+Á|ü<ëj·T+
4. ‹ø£ÿq, 5. lHê<∏äT&ÉT ` b˛‘·q, 6. |ü<ä kÕVæ≤‘·´+ ` nqïeTj·T´, πøåÁ‘·j·T´, ‘ê´>∑j·T´, 7.Á|üã+<Ûäj·TT>∑+ ` Á|üã+<Ûä \ø£åD≤\T : ô|<ä›q, ‹eTàq, lø£èwüí
<˚esêj·T\T, <Ûä÷s¡®{Ï, sêeTsê»uÛÑ÷wüDT&ÉT, |æ+>∑[ dü÷s¡q, yÓTT\¢. 8. Hêj·Tø£ sêE\ bÕ\q˝À kÕVæ≤‘·´+ : j·Tø£å>±Hê\T, e#·q ø±yê´\T, X¯‘·ø±\T
(düTeT‹, y˚eTq), #˚eT≈£Ls¡ y˚+ø£≥ ø£$ ` $»j·T $˝≤dü+. kÕVæ≤‘·´ $eTs¡Ù : 1. ø±e´ Á|üø£s¡D+ : (m) ø±e´ ìs¡«#·q+, (_). ø±e´ \ø£åD≤\T, (dæ) ø±e´
ùV≤‘·Te⁄\T, (&ç) ø±e´ uÛÒ<ë\T 2. s¡dü Á|üø£s¡D+ : (m) s¡dü dü«s¡÷|ü+, (_) qes¡kÕ\T, (dæ) s¡düìwü˜, 3. s¡÷|üø£ Á|üø£s¡D+ : (m) <äX¯$<Ûäs¡÷|üø±\T, (_)
kÕe÷q´ Hê≥ø£ \ø£åD≤\T, 4. Ä<ÛäTìø£ Á|üÁøÏj·T\T : (m) ø£<∏ëìø£, (_) qe\, (dæ) yê´dü+, 5. kÕVæ≤‘·´ $eTs¡Ù ` Á|üjÓ÷»q+ : (m) ñ‘·ÔeT $eTs¡Ù
\ø£åD≤\T,
Part - B >∑<ä´uÛ≤>∑+ : 1. >±*yêq ` bÕ\>∑T$Tà |ü<äàsêE, 2. Äø£* ` Ä#ês¡´ ø=\ø£\÷] ÇHêø˘, 3. qeTT≈£îqï H˚\ ` Ä#ês¡´ πø‘·T $X¯«Hê<∏ä¬s&ç¶, 4. C…’\T `
bı≥¢|ü*¢ sêe÷sêe⁄, 5. ‘Ó\T>∑T uÛ≤cÕ ` Ä#ês¡´ >∑T»®s¡¢eT÷&ç ø£èbÕ#ê], 6. e´øÏÔ‘·« $ø±dü+ ` Ä#ês¡´ sê#·bÕfiË+ #·+Á<äX‚Ks¡ ¬s&ç¶, 7.e÷<Ûä´e÷\≈£î
sêj·T&É+ ` Ä#ês¡´ mdt.C….&ç. #·+Á<äX‚KsY, 8. n_Ûe´øÏÔ HÓ’|ü⁄D≤´\T ` &܈ˆ |æ.$. düTu≤“sêe⁄ yê´ø£s¡D+ : dü+<ÛäT\T : dües¡í Bs¡È, >∑TD, j·TD≤<˚X¯, eè~∆,
Á‹ø£, >∑dü&É<äyê<˚X¯, s¡T>±>∑eT, ≥T>±>∑eT, ÄÁy˚T&ç‘·, n‘·« dü+<ÛäT\T. düe÷kÕ\T : ‘·‘·TŒs¡Twü, ø£s¡à<Ûës¡j·T, <ä«+<ä«, ~«>∑T, ãVüQÁMVæ≤ düe÷kÕ\T.
n\+ø±sê\T : ñ|üeT, s¡÷|üø£, ñÁ‘˚Œø£å, dü«uÛ≤y√øÏÔ, nsêú+‘·s¡Hê´dü, <äècÕº+‘· n‹X¯jÓ÷øÏÔ n\+ø±sê\T. #·+<ädüT‡ : ñ‘·Œ\e÷\, #·+|üø£e÷\, XÊs¡÷›\+,
eT‘˚ÔuÛÑ+, Ä≥yÓ\~, ‘˚≥^‹, ø£+<ä+, d”dü+
Part - C ÁbÕNq |ü<ä´ uÛ≤>∑+ : 1. >∑+>± X¯+‘·qT\ ø£<∏ä ` qqïj·T, 2. eT÷wæø£ e÷sê®\ eè‘êÔ+‘·+ ` ‹ø£ÿq, 3. Vü≤+d” #·Áø£yêø£ dü+yê<ä+ ` n\¢kÕì ô|<ä›q, 4.
miTø£‘· ` ‘·]>=+&É yÓ+>∑e÷+ã, 5. yêeTHêe‘ês¡eTT ` b˛‘·q, 6. XÊ*yêVü≤q $»j·TeTT ` ø=i$ >√|üsêE, 7. Á^wüàs¡TÔe⁄ ` s¡|òüTHê<∏äHêj·T≈£î&ÉT,
Ä<ÛäTìø£ ø£$‘·«+ : 1. e÷ ø=B› ‘Ó\¢ <=s¡‘·qeTT ` >∑]yÓTfi¯fl dü‘·´Hêsêj·TD, 2. eTVü‰Á|ükÕúq+ ` l.l., 3. eTTkÕ|òüs¡T\T ` >∑TÁs¡+ C≤wüße, 4.
y˚T|òüT<ä÷‘·eTT ` |ü⁄≥º|ü]Ô Hêsêj·TD≤#ês¡T´\T, 5. Vü≤]»q X¯‘·ø£eTT ` ≈£îdüTeT <Ûäs¡àqqï, 6. <Ûäs¡à dü+yê<äeTT ` |æ+>∑[, ø±≥÷], 7. ã‘·ø£e÷à ! Áã‘·T≈£î
` ø±fiÀõ Hêsêj·TDsêe⁄, 8. eTìwæ ` n+<Ól, 9. sêj·T\d”eT ` >∑+õπø+Á<äeTT ` u…fi¯Sfl] lìyêdüeT÷]Ô, 10. e+{Ï\T¢ ` $eT\.
221. M.P.Ed.
1) Anatomy, Physiology and Physiology of Exercise; 2) Principles, Psychology and Methods of Physical
Education; 3) Organization and Administration of Physical Education and Health Education; 4) Kinesiology;
5) Officiating and Coaching of Physical Education; 6) Test and Measurements; 7) Rules and Regulations of
various Games and Sports, current sports events and some general questions related to Physical Education
and Sports.

223. M.A. RURAL DEVELOPMENT - B.R.A.U.


Part - A : Economics of Development: Meaning and definition of economic development, Measures of economic
development – GNP, PQLI and HDI – Factors affecting development; Capital formation and Labour; growth of
population, poverty and income inequalities in developing economies, Technology and Environment, resource
depletion and pollution, concept of sustainable development, Balanced and unbalanced models of growth,
the role of choice of goods and techniques in economic development. Current Structure of the Indian
Economy and Economic Planning: Basic features, natural resources-Land, Water and Forest resources;
Broad demographic features-Population size and growth rates, sex composition, rural urban migration,
Occupational distribution; Population policy, infrastructure development, National Income – Trends,
composition and structure in India. Poverty Inequalities and unemployment – Causes and consequences,

: 37 :
Current Five Year Plan-Objective; allocations and targets; New economic reforms – Liberalization, Privatization
and globalization in India. Indian Agriculture: Nature and Importance; Trends in agriculture production and
productivity; Factors determining productivity, New Agricultural strategy and green revolution, Rural Credit,
Agricultural Marketing, Agricultural price policy, Agricultural infrastructure and Food security. Indian Industry
and Services: Present structure and growth of Indian Industry since Independence; Industrial Policy of 1956
and 1991, FEMA, Growth and Problems of small scale industries. Role of Public, private and Foreign sector
enterprises in India’s industrialization, Disinvestment policy in India. Growing importance of Social Sector in
India. Environment and Ecology: Environment economy linkage, Environment as a necessity and luxury
population – environment linkage; Environmental use and environmental disruption as an allocation problem;
Market failure for environmental goods; Environment as a public good; The commons problem; property
right approach to environmental problem; Valuation of environmental damages; Land, water, air and forest,
prevention, control and abatement of pollution.
Part - B : Community Development:- Meaning, Concept, Philosophy, Objectives; Rural Development:- Meaning,
Concept, Scope, Features; Rural Issues: Rural poverty, Profile, Causes , Indicators, Dimensions; Rural
Social Structure:- Family, Marriage, Caste System; Rural Economy:- Evolution, Effects, Changing trends,
Rural indebtedness; Rural Education:- Literacy rates, Educational institutions, Formal & Non formal Education,
Rural Migration; Rural Health:- Problems, Provisions, Maternal And Child health;
Part - C : Rural Development in Indian Context:- Before British Period, During British Period, After independence;
Rural local self Government:- Origin and development; Panchayat Raj System:- 73rd Constitutional
amendment, Panchayat Raj Act; Rural Development Programs- Central & State Governments. Rural
Agriculture:- Changes, Dimensions; Rural Industry:- Cottage and Village Industries; Rural Empowerment:-
Self Help groups; Origin, growth SHG Models; Rural Credit System:- NABARD, Cooperative Societies,
Commercial Banks, Rural Banks, Lead Banks; New Economic Policy; New Agricultural Policy; Voluntary
Action:- Concept, Need, Role.

224. B.ED. SPECIAL EDUCATION (MENTAL RETARDATION) - B.R.A.U.


Part - A : (a) Special Education – concept, meaning and scope. (b). Disability – concept, types, social benefits and
legislative measures. (c) Mental Retardation – types, characteritiscs, causes and prevention.
Part - B : (a) Quantitative Aptitude: The objective of this part is to measure candidate’s quantitative ability. It includes
calculation of simple arithmetic, numerical calculations and interpretation and data analysis type of ques-
tions. (b) Reasoning and Problem solving: The objective of this part is to examine the candidate’s ability in
reasoning. It includes testing of candidate’s logical and deductive approaches for simple to complex situa-
tions Covering Sequences and series; Coding and decoding Problems; Date, Time and arrangement Prob-
lems. (c) General Awareness: The objective of this part is to examine the candidate’s knowledge in the area
of general awareness. It includes current affairs, general knowledge in economic, political, social and
geography.
Part - C : (a) Correct use of noun, verb , adjective, preposition and articles. (b) Vocabulary. (c) Correction of sentences
(d) Comprehension.

225. MASTER OF FINANCE & CONTROL


Part - A : Communication Ability & Numerical Ability : Communication Ability : Part 1. Vocabulary : English vocabulary
of critical words, Synoyms and Antonyms. Part 2. Reading Comprehension : A Passage in English is to be
given with Ten questions. Numerical Ability : Part 1. Arithmetical Ability : Simple sums of indices, ratios,
proportions, Percentages, time, distance & work and Mensuration Frequency distributions, Mean, Median,
Mode, Standard Deviations Correlation, Simple Problems on Probability. Part 2. Data Analysis : The data
given in a Table, Graph Bar diagram, Pie Chart, or a Passage Is to be analyzed and the questions pertaining
to the Data are to be answered.
Part - B : Fundamentals of Financial Accounting, Cost & Management Accounting & Taxation : Part 1. : Financial
Accounting : Concept of Capital and Revenue distinction - Concepts of Income, expenditure, profit and Loss
- Concepts of Assets & Liabilities. Types of Accounts - Rules of Double Entry - Journal - Subsidiary books -
Cash Book Ledger & Trial Balance Bank Reconciliation Statement - Rectification of Errors - Preparation of
Trading, Profit & Loss Account - Preparation of Balance Sheet - Adjustments for Depreciation - Bad and
Doubtful Debts - Distintion between Cash Profit and Net Profit. Part 2. : Cost & Management Accounting.
Cost Elements - Meterial cost - Labour Cost - Overheads - Direct and Indirect costs - Different types of
Overheads - Preparation of Cost sheet - Methods of Costing - Job Costing Vs Process Costing. Cost
concepts for Decision Making - Opportunity Cost Vs out of Pocket cost - Controllable Vs Uncontrollable Cost
Fixed Vs Variable Costs - Semi Variable Costs - Historical Vs Estimated costs - Incremental Cost. Cost -
Volume - Profit Analysis - Break - Even Point. Calculation - Break - even Chart - Margin of Safety - Funds flow
Analysis - Ration Analysis. Part 3. : Basic Concepts of Income Tax - Previous Year - Assessment Year -
Types of Assesses : Individual - Hindu Undivided Family - partnership firm - Company - Residential Status
- Gross Total Income - Exemptions - Deductions - Different heads of Income - Computation of Income from
Salaries - Income from House Property - Income from profit & Gains of Business or Profession - Income
from other sources - Set off and carry forward of Losses - Computation of income tax - preparation of Income
tax return for individuals - Self Assessment.
Part - C : Fundamentals of Banking & Finance : Part 1. Currency & Banking : Currencies of Different Countries -
Indian Money Market - Call Money Market - Treasury Bill Market - Repo Market - Commercial Paper Market -
Money Market Mutual Funds - Nationalization of Commercial Banks - Regional Rural Banks - Investment
Banking - Non - Performing Assets - Role of Reserve Bank of India. Negotiable instruments - Payments and
Collection of Cheques - concepts of endorsement and crossing - e-banking - New Technologies in Banking
- Electronic Money Transfer devices - Automated Teller Machines - Debit Cards - Credit Cards - Smart Cards.

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Part 2. Finance & Capital Markets : Profit Maximization Vs Wealth Maximization - Concepts of Present Value
& Future Value of Money - Net Present Value Payback period - Concept of Dividend - stock Dividend Vs. Cash
Dividend - Concepts of Risk and Return - Spectulation Vs. Investment - BSF Sensex - Sensex as a barometer
of Capital Market - Concepts of Share Value - Book Value Vs Intrinsic Value Vs Market Value Fundamental
Analysis - Technical Analysis. Concept of Portfolio - Concept of Mutual Fund - Types of Mutual Funds - Growth
Funds - Balanced Funds - Debt Funds - Money Market Funds - Sect oral Funds - Index Funds.

5 YEAR INTEGRATED PG PROGRAMES IN SCIENCES


Test No. 501.
i. M.S. Applied Chemistry ii. M.S. Geology iii. M.S. Mathematics & Computing.
iv. M.S. Petroleum Exploration. v. M.S. Biotechnology. vi. M.S. Microbiology.
Part - A : Mathematics syllabus prescribed for Intermediate course by Board of Intermediate Education, Andhra Pradesh.
(30 Q).
Part - B : Physics syllabus prescribed for Intermediate course by Board of Intermediate Education, Andhra Pradesh.
(30 Q)
Part - C : Chemistry syllabus prescribed for Intermediate course by Board of Intermediate Education, Andhra Pradesh.
(30 Q)
Part - D : Biology syllabus prescribed for Intermediate course by Board of Intermediate Education, Andhra Pradesh.
(30 Q)

502 - M.S. ECONOMICS


Part - A : Economics The candidate may choose to answer any three
Part - B : Civics parts. Syllabus prescribed for Intermediate
Part - C : Commerce course by Board of Intermediate Education,
Part - D : History Andhra Pradesh will be followed for these sub-
jects. (Each part consists of 30 questions)
Part - E : Mathematics

511 - 5 - YEAR INTEGRATED DUAL (B.E.+M.E / B.TECH+M.TECH)


DEGREE PROGRAMMES IN ENGINEERING
i) B.Tech. + M.Tech. Software Engineering (ii) B.Tech. + M.Tech. Computer Science & Information Technology (iii) B.E.
+ M.E. Electrical & Electronics Engineering. (iv) B.E + M.E. Civil Engg (V) B.E. + M.E. Mechanical Engg, (VI) B.E+M.E.
Electronics & Communications Engineering.

Part - A : Mathematics syllabus prescribed for Intemediate course by Board of Intermediate Education, Andhra Pradesh.
(30 Q)
Part - B : Physics syllabus prescribed for Intermediate course by Board of Intefrmediate Education, Andhra Pradesh. (30 Q)
Part -C : Chemistry syllabus prescribed for Intermediate course by Board of Intefrmediate Education, Andhra Pradesh. (30 Q)

512. TWINNING PROGRAMME


i) B.Engg. Air Craft Engineering (ii) B.E. Electro Mechanical Engineering.
Part - A : Articles / Prepositions, verb forms, words often confused, structures, correction of sentences, phrasal verbs. (15
Q)

Part - B : Mathematics syllabus prescribed for Intermediate course by Board of Intermediate Education, Andhra Pradesh.
(25 Q)

Part - C : Physics syllabus prescribed for Intermediate course by Board of Intermediate Education, Andhra Pradesh.
(25 Q)

Part - D : Chemistry syllabus prescribed for Intermediate course by Board of Intermediate Education, Andhra Pradesh.
(25 Q)

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