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SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
PLANT: HIGH DENSITY POLY ETHYLENE (HDPE)
GALGOTIAS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY DURATION: 26th JUNE to 17th JULY ,2008
Riding the wings of change is a technical skill that professionals in industries have to learn and perfect. To ensure progress for industries in today’s cutthroat industrial arena, engineers need to constantly update themselves from an industrial perspective. To learn from this approach we the students have to avail of the industrial training that is included in our curriculum. I consider myself very lucky that I could gather the required technical skills from HALDIA PETROCHEMICALS LIMITED a pioneer in the petrochemical arena. I thank Mr. P. K. Kundu (Sr. G. M Instrumentation) for making the arrangements so that I can undergo this training in an organized fashion. I am grateful to Ms. Debashree mukherjee(Plant HR and A) Mr. Prahlad Saha (DGM Instrumentation) for assigning me to such an important part of the plant and periodically checking on my performance and enquiring about my problems, if any, despite having a very busy schedule. I also thank Mr. Shantanu Konar (Chief Mgr Instrumentation) ,Mr. Aparesh Jana ( Deputy Mgr Instrumentation) , Mr. Indranil Hatua (Deputy Mgr Instrumentation),Mr. Arghya sengupta (Asst Mgr instrumentation),Mr. Shyamal Bibar (Asst. Mgr) for sharing there knowledge and experiences with me. I also thank the entire loving and caring HPL family who has shared their valuable industrial experiences with me.
I have come from GALGOTIAS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY to Haldia Petrochemicals Limited (HPL) for summer training during 26th JUNE to 17th JULY.I have undergone a vocational training at HDPE (High Density Polyethylene Plant) for last one month. One month long training starts with being familiar with the process of HDPE plant. Especially I have studied on different types of instruments used in HDPE plant.
A few words about HPL
Haldia Petrochemicals Ltd, one of the largest petrochemicals complexes in India and the only one of its kind in the eastern region was commissioned on April 2, 2000. A producer of polymers and chemicals, Haldia Petrochemicals is ushering in an industrial era of plastic processing and ancillary industry that has not been traditionally at hand in this part of the country. The complex produces ethylene, propylene and associated liquid stream products for downstream processing into polymers & chemicals. HPL has a number of plants for the production of world class petrochemical products. The plants are operational and commercial production has already started. The integration process of the plant complex started in October, 2000 and the operations reached the stage of commercial production with effect from August 01, 2001. In the intervening period till date, the company has been able to successfully operate the entire complex, establish several polymer grades as industry benchmarks secure an all India market share of 22% and put in place a sophisticated end-to-end IT enabled supply management system. These achievements recorded over a period of 10 months since commissioning of the Haldia complex, gives Haldia Petrochemicals the confidence to face the challenges ahead. The global over-supply position in polymers, the consequent squeeze on margins for producers, the high debt burden of the Company and a difficult liquidity position are real issues, which are being addressed by the management. While these are indeed challenging times, the Company is fully convinced of the intrinsic strengths of its plants, processes and people, to see it through to its goal of becoming a total petrochemicals solutions provider. Plants & Units: -HPL has a number of plants for the production of world class petrochemical products. The plants are operational and commercial production has already started. In the intervening period till date, the company has been able to successfully operate the entire complex, establish several polymer grades as industry benchmarks secure an all India market share of 22% and put in place a sophisticated end-to-end IT enabled supply management system. HPL has total six units. They are:1.Naphtha Cracking Unit (N.C.U) 2. Naphtha cracking associated unit (N.C.A.U) 3. High Density Polyethylene (H.D.P.E) 4. Linear Low Density Polyethylene (L.L.D.P.E) 5. Polypropylene (P.P.E) 6. Integrated Offset Plant (I.O.P).
. Naphtha Cracker Unit
Capacity (TPA) 466,000
Process License ABB Lummus Global
. Most Halene H HDPE and HMHDPE products are exceptionally tough and impart high mechanicals. The Halene H HDPE offers a wide range of conventional HDPE as well as HMHDPE Grades. This encompasses Extrusion Grades like Films.000 BOO Units : Captive Power Plant Nitrogen Plant 116 MW 9000 NM3 /Hr L&T Praxair BASF IFP Lurgi IFP Montell Montell Mitsui High Density polyethylene Plant About Halene H HDPE: The Halene H HDPE Technology is a new generation Bi modal slurry process.5 Associated Units : Butadiene Extraction Unit PGH Plant Benzene Extraction Unit C4 Hydrogenation Unit Polypropylene Plant LLDPE / HDPE Plant HDPE Plant 82.000 230.000 250.000 85.000 220.000 120. Cable insulation and a wide array of Moulding grades. The Halene H Grades from Shoreline offer very good Impact stiffness balance. Pipes.000 330. Raffia.
954 0.The Halene H HMHDPE and HDPE Grades exhibit exceptional process ability on most Film and specialty Extruders. The Halene H HMHDPE and HDPE Blow Moulding grades have exceptional Impact/Stiffness balance. 0. BMWD High Mechanicals. This is possible due to an unique Bi modal Technology adopted. Process ability of Halene H Resins: . Extrusion Grades . 10-13 7-9 0. High process ability Compliance to PE 80 High ESCR Blow Mould.6 Halene H HMHDPE film Grades have excellent tensile properties and high Whiteness Index.954 0. and the Injection Moulding grades exhibit very good Impact Stiffness balance.956 Applications B 6401 0. GP Films Pipes Moulding Grades .964 0. Blow Moulding up to 20L High Stiffness High Impact.958 0.HDPE & HMHDPE: . . This is a unique USP as converters could substantially save on the cost of process additives.952 Special Features Applications Multi application Grade. .956 0.4 B 5600 0.Stand Alone Insulation Grade for wire & cable industry. Compounds F 5400 F 5600 R 5801/T6 Y 5401 P 5200 0. GP Films. Films.04 0. BMWD Multi application Grade High Tenacity.04 High Impact. The exceptional balances of properties are possible with precise control of Molecular Weight Distribution (MWD) in the Resin. Grade Code E 5201 Melt index HLMI Density 12 0.64 0.80 0. BMWD High Mechanicals. The other HDPE extrusion grades have a wide band of applications like Raffia. 7-9 0.06 . Future Products Planned from Halene H Stable: . GP Pipes Monofilament.07 0. Films and could well be used in Moulding applications. high Whiteness Index -–an USP unmatched by most Domestic Producers of Polymers in India.952 Thin High Strength Films Thin High Strength Films Blow Mould.HDPE & HMHDPE Blow Moulding & Injection Moulding:Grade Code Melt index 12 HLMI Density Special Features . Blow Moulding up to 150 High Stiffness .40 .
HD LX2 M 6007L 18 2. 0. Separation and drawing.83. Blow Moulding up to 240L High Stiffness Good Impact Stiffness Balance Good Impact Stiffness Balance GP In. Crates Process Overview The HDPE plant consists of seven sections.To catalyst is dissolved In Hexane by means of drum agitator. Moulding.960 GP In. 2. Hexane recovery. Catalyst Feeding Section Total five catalysts are fed at the catalyst feeding section. Catalyst Feeding. Slurry of polyethylene and hexane produced. OG catalyst preparation: .7 B 6000 . 3. 0. Polymerization. 5. Reactors: At the reactor 80 o C and 3 kg/cm2 pressure is maintained.960 0. AT catalyst preparation:. It dissolves in Hexane by nitrogen bubbling method. OG.948 High Impact. TE catalyst preparation: . Different procedures are followed for different catalyst preparation. Process auxiliary. PZ catalyst preparation:. Slurry Cooler: - . Propylene 4. Catalyst concentration is made constant with the help of FQ. Catalyst feed:. Bagging and Palletizing. 7. 6.The prepared catalysts are fed into reactor with the help of feed pumps. Ethylene 2. Hexane Polymerize recycled gas: All the gases along with polymerizer recycle gas are fed to reactor through the injection pipes.AT catalyst is transferred by nitrogen pressure from AT container to AT feed drum. AT.AI catalyst is transferred by nitrogen pressure from AI container to AI feed drum. AI catalyst preparation:. Polymerization Section Raw Material and hexane feed to Polymerizes:1. Molding unto 100 L capacity 7 . 4. Then the slurry is passed thorough condenser from where hexane is separated. AI. They are PZ. Palletizing and storage. Hydrogen gas 3. Butene1 5. Meanwhile gas coming from AI catalyst container and feed system is charged into flare system. They are 1.It is transferred by own pressure from a cylinder.PZ catalyst is dissolved In Hexane by means of feed drum agitator. TE. Meanwhile gas coming from AT catalyst container and feed system is charged into flare system.2 . It dissolves in Hexane by nitrogen bubbling method. There the polymerization occurs.
Liquid stabilizers and W stabilizers fed into feeder y liquid stabilizer feed pump respectively.ED. Low pressure steam is supplied to the steam is supplied to the steam tube.8 Produced slurry of polyethylene is then sent to slurry cooler. the slurry is separated in the dilution drum into liquid and gas phase. After pressurized PW circulation pump then cooler to 70o C by PW cooler. Stabilizer Measuring System: Every kind of solid stabilizer(AB. normal. The pellet which passed the grid is send. Powder bulk loading:From the powder hopper the polymer powder can be transferred by means of pneumatic transport. The solid stabilizer mixture in accordance with the stabilizer recipe predetermined for product type is prepared and discharged Bach wise by gravity.AH.HF.UC & UD) and nine kind of liquid stabilizers(AA. to the powder bulk loading silo. For protection a grid PW strainer is provided to remove any fused blocks of pellet. Stabilizer mixture is metered and fed to the feeder. N2 gas is filter through the bag filter to be recalculated very fine powder entered with N2 gas continuously recovered.HD. it is transferred to the powder separator. after they are drained to the perforated plate screen. Solids are separated so the ate itself can be disposed off as “oily water” . while surplus is discharged to he flare system.EB. Powder and stabilizer feeding system: The powder system which has left the outlet is measured by powder measuring feeder and is fed to feeder. The extruded is cut into pellet by revolving cutter.AK. for which it is reticulated to the cutter box. B) Dryer gas circulation system: The mixed recycled gas containing a small amount of polymer particles goes into dryer.AE. Normal size pellet which flows into the pellet separator hopper are pneumatically conveyed specified silo through the pellet rotary valve by the pellet transfer blower.HB & W) Are automatically weighed and discharged in accordance with the blending ratio for individual product types. The pellet cooling water flows into PW drum. The resin in the pellet from is transferred to the pellet separator.SF. oversize product. Overflow slurry handling: Since the over flow slurry contains bubbles of mixed gas in the polymerizes.AL. The polymer slurry is flashed into he flash drums. which polymer is separated by the centrifugal force. Since the waste water contains the solid particle & stabilizers are suspended or dissolved in it. Pelletizing System: The palletizer is twin screw type continuous mixer with gear pump where PE powder and stabilizers are mixed and kneaded.2% volatile matter (hexane) n its temperature is approx 100 o C. Belo this silo a truck bulk loading station is provided only for LINE1. The noncondensible gas which leaves the out let of the purge gas condenser is pressurized to 3kg/cm2 G by the of gas compressor and part of it is supplied to the gland for flushing. it contains 0. The polymer is discharged from the centrifuge by the screw conveyor provide in the bowl in the form of wet cake containing hexane by approx.EJ. Drying: A) Steam tube rotary drier: Mixed gas consisting of nitrogen and hexane vapor flows through the dryer concurrently with the product. The product which is forwarded by the powder transfer blower is continuously separate in the powder cyclone from n2 & dropped into the powder hopper. 30% wt and fed to he dryer via the wet cake screw feeder.AJ. Storage and packaging section Powder Hopper: The product powder is transferred to the N2 gas pneumatic powder conveying system through the powder rotary valve. Products pellets are classified by pellet vibrating screen into undersize. Pelletizing. Powdery matter sustained in the pellet cooling water is discharged out of the system trough the overflow outlet by continuously feeding DM water through the FC.AD. Slurry cooler pump is used to remove the polymerization heat together with recycled gas system and reactor jacket cooling system. Dryer has 30 minutes of holding time.HA. The fine polymer entrained with mixed gas is collected by the circulation liquid..AF. Molten polymer is pushed towards the die gear pump system then the molten polymer is extruded the die-hole into the cutter box through which pellet cooling water is circulated. Separation and drying section Separation: The slurry is continuously fed to the slurry transfer pump to the horizontal type Centrifuge revolving at high rpm. .
the pellet blending is carried out through transferring the pellet to the bagging hopper. Principal of control valve: Flow rate in process control is usually expressed in volume/unit time. pressure etc. This device is designed for used in process control applications involving liquid gas or vapor Flow rate.9 Pellet blending and transferring system: pellet silo of capacity of 500 m3 each one.The low polymer solution. Mother liquor (crude Hexane is transferred to HE and NaOH separator through HE & NaOH contactor together with DM water and LP steam which is fed into system to maintain to 60o C temperature.P Hexane pump dehydrated to 5ppm or less by Hexane dryer. after removing Hexane is transferred to LP holding drum. Then Hexane is distributed as per process requirement. Control valve The most general type of final control element is control valve. Then caustic soda washed crude Hexane is transferred to HE water separator vessel. Pure Hexane distribution:Purified Hexane with water content of 10ppm or less is pressurized to 12kg/cm2G or higher by the H. Hexane striping:Hexane containing low polymer and crude Hexane from fed drum is feed by the crude Hexane fed pump . West water is continuously discharge from vessel. Then it is sent to Hexane dehydrator. If a mass Flowrate is decided it can be calculated from particular fluid density. Now the hexane layer is saturated with 250ppm water. Vent gas is exhausted to atmosphere with ventilator. Repelleting system: The off-spec material is handled by this system. Hexane purification:Hexane vapor is condensed and cooled in exchanger and flows into stripper receiver gravity.Hexane vapor is generated by depressurized to 0. Low polymer flaking:LP is transferred to the drum flakers where it is cooled with circulating cooled water system. Control valve controls the process variable directly (as flow. level). In order to rectify the fluctuation of quality due to possible variance in operating condition at process control.) or indirectly (as temperature. If a given fluid is delivered through a pipe then the volume Flow rate is: Q=A x V Q = Flowrate (m3/sec) A =pipe area (m2) V =Flow velocity (m/s) . Molten low polymer in Hexane concentrated container is pressurized to 22kg/cm2G and heated up to 120 to 220oC.2kg/cm2G .Then it is condensed and cooled in Hexane overhead condenser . Hexane recovery section Caustic soda washing:Mother liquor which has been separated by separator is washed with caustic soda and process water to decrease ash and chloride contained before being sent to low polymer separation system.
There are three basic types of control valve those relation ship between position (as percentage of full range) and flow rate (as percentage of maximum) is given by 1. Equal percentage valve: A very important type of valve employed in he flow control has characteristics such that a given percentage change In the stem position produce an equivalent change in flow. In the figure below. In general. At the other extreme. the geometrical structure of the delivery system. This Q min represents the minimum flow that one limits of its travel. Use of the Positioner is generally desirable to liberalize the control valve plug position with the control signal. where process dynamic eliminates the use of Positioner. for this type. The control valve characteristics are assigned with the assumption that the stem position indicates the extent of the valve opening and the pressure difference is determined by the valve alone. But because the valve opening does change the Flowrate. The Positioner will improve the performances control valve systems. however.10 A control valve regulates the Flowrate in a fluid delivery system. It represents the ideal situation where the valve control determine the pressure drop . help improve control by accurately positioning a control valve actuator in response to control signal.the relationship expressed as Q/ Q max= S/S max Where Q= Flowrate Q max = maximum Flowrate S=stem position and S max = maximum stem position 3. Now the actual pressure of the entire fluid delivery (and sink) system in which valve is used (and. Linear:This type of valve has a flow rate varies linearly with the stem position. that is. We can show the Flowrate through the constriction is given by Q=K x ( p1-p2) 1/2 K= proportional constant P1-p2=pressure difference. and to some extent. Such a valve for example may allow 90% of flow rate with only a 30% of travel of stem. . Types of control valve A different type of control valve is classified by a relationship between the valve stem position and the flow rate through the valve. Quick opening:This type of valve is predominately for fully on / full off control application. flow rate . open valve. the flow rate) is not a predictable function of the valve opening only. Positioner receives an input signal either pneumatically or electrically and provide output power. the valve allow a flow Q max its maximum. 2. this type of valve not shut off the flow completely in its limit of stem level. the placement of a construction in pipe introduces a pressure difference across the pipe. an equal percentage. to on actuator to assure valve positioning. we define the range ability R as the ratio R= Q max/Q min Control valve accessories:Positioner:Positioners are instruments which. it provides a mechanism of flow control. a close relation exists between the pressure along a pipe and the Flowrate so that if the pressure is changed then the Flowrate is also changed. A control valve change Flowrate by changing the pressure in a flow system because it introduces a constriction in the delivery system. The constant K depends on the size of the valve. hence. on the material flowing through the valve. generally pneumatically. A feed back linkage between valve stem and Positioner is established so that stem position can be noted by the instrument and compared with the position dieted by the control signal. There are situations. Generally.
the switch can be fully integrated or fully adjustable unit with multiple switches or stand alone switch and trip equipments. the gas leak is reduced and the pressure in o/p line increased. the diaphragm motion will move the plug in the body block of the booster. It has a metallic filter that absorbs moisture and dust and cleans the air. activate a control signal. Solenoid valve:It is used for switching application of control valve it provides the over ride equipment and fail safe interlock. the o/p world be 30-150 psi./ or air flow volume by some linearly proportional amount from input signal. Trip valve:It is a special type of valve where a specific actuator action is required when supply pressure fails or goes bellow a specific value. F= forced Many type of pneumatic actuator are available but control valve is the most common. It based on forced-area relationship F=(p1-p2)xA Where p1-p2 = pressure difference. When the pressure goes bellow the specific value the trip valve causes the valve to trip. for i/p of 3-15 psi.e. Auxiliary power is provided for actuator action by pneumatic volume tank. some mechanism must be physically open or closed the valve. This device is designed for used in process control applications involving liquid gas or vapor Flowrate. A =diaphragm area. I to P converter:The current to pressure converter is a very important element in process control . pressure etc.2-1kg/cm2.11 Pneumatic Amplifier:A pneumatic amplifier is also called a relay. Control valve controls the process variable directly (as flow. level). Generally the instrument air supply is 4-7kg/cm2 output of input converter 0. This is accomplished via a regulator i. If the motion is down.) or indirectly (as temperature. This device is shown the reverse acting because a high signal pressure will cause o/p pressure to decrease. Increasing the control pressure applied on the diaphragm scenes the stem position Air filter pressure regulator:The purpose of air pressure regulator is to control air pressure. Pneumatic actuator :If a valve is used to control to fluid flow. Thus if the booster has a pressure gain 10. Volume booster:- . Upon loss in the electrical power the solenoid valve is closed the port of valve Positioner and build the pressure from the diaphragm. As the signal pressure varies. its The most general type of final control element is control valve. often when we want to use the flow level electric current to do work . Limit switch: Electrical power switch are used to provide the operation of alarm signal light relays etc. rise the pressure and .
Globe valve:Globe valve is widely used for controlling flow. General classifications of valve Valve are generally classified as 1. Plug valve Gate valve:In this valve the diameter of the opening through which the fluid passes is nearly same as that of the pipe and direction of the flow does not change as a results wide open gate valve is not used for controlling flow and usually left as fully open or closed. The flow is control by the linear movement of the valve stem. Ball valve 4. Gate valve 2. The devices incorporates a dead band features to adjust their response and eliminates instabilities. Ball valve also capable of higher flow rate capacity of glob valve. Nearly all actuator are equipped with gear style or screw style hand wheel. It has occasional application in flow control. Plug valve:It is operated by moving a tapered plug their by varying the gap between the plug and the valve shift. Ball valve:The ball valve consist of a spherical ball as sealing element it is an on off valve. Manual hand wheel: For override control a manual hand wheel is provided for emergency or mal functioning. The fluid passes to restricted opening and change direction several times. As a result pressure drop is large the glob valve.. Butterfly valve 5. In this gauge the primary sensing element bourdon tube element. The opening increases almost linearly with stem position and wear is evenly distributed around the disk. Globe valve 3. Bourdon tubes are the most favored mechanical element for measurement of pressure and constitute an important group of primary transducer . Measurement Pressure Measurement Pressure gauge:In case of process measurement system most commonly use for indicating instruments is pressure gauge.12 The volume booster is normally used in control valve actuator to increase the stocking speed.
having freedom of movement. Mechanical part senses the pressure of line by diaphragm. The specific conditions for measuring a vacuum require using filters to keep the sensing chamber free of contamination. There is no significant difference between this transducer and the conventional capacitive pressure gage. normally closed 3. 2 = diaphragm. Some transducer designs require a high-temperature bake-out of the elements to drive gas molecules out of the surfaces that are in contact with the fluid. Due the pressure difference between the inside and outside of he tube. 5 = evacuated and sealed chamber. So according the movement of the lever a micro switch is made closed or open. c-bourdon Diaphragm The most typical diaphragm-type manometer used for measuring a vacuum is a variable-capacitance transducer with a metal diaphragm deflected by the measured pressure. mechanical part 2. This out gassing is performed prior to measurements. 2. One end of the tube is attached to a rigid base. In the electronic part three type of terminal are there 1. . Pv = vacuum. enabling communication with the source of pressure while the other end is closed an sealed. the cross-section of the tube is deform and the tube bends to acquire a circular cross-section this resulting effect being the displacement of the free tip. electronics part 1. 3 and 4 = electrodes.13 for converting pressure into linear and angular displacement. Incorporating a getter stabilizes the operation of the transducer by absorbing gas molecules in the reference cavities. . Pressure switch It consist of two parts 1. The diaphragm is positioned close to stationary plates. The pressure is measured by sensing the capacitances formed by the diaphragm and plates. common 2. There is also provisions to adjust the set point manually according to the desired pressured by a nut. which is used for measuring absolute or differential pressure. 1 = gas filter. Normally opened. There is an actuator after the diaphragm which moves the liver.
Temperature measurement RTD .In PSL generally common and NO is taken the circuit is made by application pressure that is at normal condition. When the pressure goes to up to set point the actuator goes up and make the circuit close and give rise to the alarm. More accurate and more linear than most thermocouples and generally much more costly and slower responding. Pressured switch high: . Material Platinum Range(oC) -250 to 700 1 Ω/Ω/oC 0.0042 0. The metal used must have the following g properties:• Extremely stable resistance temperature relationship.) 0.0067 ℓ µΩ-cm 9. When the pressured goes down to the set point the actuator comes down and the circuit is open and trips an alarm.28 0.Abbreviation for Resistance Temperature Detector. It is a sensor which operates on the principle that the resistance increases with an increase in temperature at a specific rate. so that neither of Rt.In PSH common and NC is taken.0063 to 0. .14 Pressure switch low: .002 Copper Nickel -200 to 250 -100 to 350 1. cm 0.00385(std.002 In case of platinum’s resistance temperature relation ship is more linear than other.002 0. • Small resistance change due to non-temperature effect(strain. 2 drift with repeated heating & cooling within the specified range of operation. • Specific resistance in Ω/cc must be within limits that will allow fabrication of practical size of element.56 6. The relation ship between resistance of RTD and temperature change is expressed by this series n Rt= Ro(1+∑j(∆t)j ) j=1 In narrow range of operation Rt= Ro(1+(∆t) ) Commonly manufacturers are using a platinum resistance element. 1. grade ) 0.83 Minimum wire dia. contamination) • Large resistance large with temperature higher sensitivity • Material must not undergo change in phase or state within responsible temperature range.00392(ref.
The more sophisticated continuous level sensors can provide complete level monitoring of a system. When temperature increased the free end bends this displacement is transferred to angular displacement which is calibrated. Level Measurement Introduction:Level measurement is an integral part of process control. Point level sensors are used to mark a single discrete liquid height.3. This analog signal from the sensor may be directly linked to a visual indicator or to a process control loop. RTD may be used be 2. forming a level management system. A continuous level sensor. and may be used in a wide variety of industries.A temperature sensor based on the principle that a voltage is produced when two dissimilar metals. as the name implies. Level measurement may be divided into two categories. or as a marker for a low alarm condition. The junction produces a voltage in proportion to the difference in temperature between the measuring junction and the reference junction. .4 wired for different sensitivity. to signal the existence of an overfill condition. single point. Generally. a preset level condition. The continuous level sensor provides an analog output that directly correlates to the level within the containing vessel. In case of switch in a given span it on/off the switch (bimetallic element is most used). point level measurement and continuous level measurement. rather than at a specific. This principle is called Sea beck Effect E J K N T • • • • • Chromel (+) Constantan (-) Iron (+) Constantan (-) Chromel (+) Alumel (-) Nicrosil (+) Nisil (-) Copper (+) Constantan (-) 95-900C 95-760C 95-1260C 650-1260C -200-350C Temperature range must be measured evaluation of operation physically space limitation method of insulation response time Temperature gauge &switch:-In this type of instrument the thermal expansion property is used. measures the fluid level within a measurement range. this type of sensor is used as a high alarm.15 • • Must be commercially available. Thermocouple .
16 Capacitive-Level Sensors: Capacitive level sensors serve as continuous and point-level sensors by measuring the capacitance between two electrodes immersed in the liquid and the electro conductive tank's wall. • Case of powder silo level measurement the sensor position must be at top of vessel. alternately transmitting and receiving pulses that pass along the liquid height and are reflected from the surface back to the tank bottom. One of the crystals transmits ultrasonic waves and the other one receives them. change in capacitance is happened due to change in dielectric media . At level increased. So we can measure the capacitance at zero level and at 100% level and calibrate the transmitter. Wetting the elements causes a decrease in the amplitude. The transmission is intensified when the liquid wets the crystals. In case of non-conducting liquid the immersed electrode does not need to insulate but case of conducting liquid must be insulated the electrode. The increase in the output voltage of the receiving crystal indicates that the level has reached the specific point. ceramic or magnetostrictive elements at an ultrasound frequency have greater amplitude in gas than in liquid. . Point-level or continuous-level sensing is provided by measuring the time lapse between the transmission and reception of the ultrasound pulses generated by ceramic crystals at the bottom/top of the tank. C = (ε l l1 + ε v 2 l ) / [2 ln (r1 / r2)] Ultrasonic Level Measurement Oscillations of quartz. In this type of case the liquid level must not below(case of bottom position of sensor)or above( in case of top position of sensor) Point-level detection is also performed by two piezoceramic crystals oriented toward each other across the inside of a tank. Some constructions contain separate elements for generating and receiving the pulse. providing the detection of the liquid level . Usually one crystal acts.
• In case of DP type level measurement in slurry material their must be purging in both two pipe & no difference in DP. . The float carries a member having a can be actuated by the proximity of the float. g= acceleration due to gravity.g. Float Type Level measurement:In Float type or displacer type measurement Archimedes principle is used . p2=pressure at bottom. ℓ= density of liquid . In the float mechanically links the switching mechanism through the sealing in the wall (e. In which the atmospheric pressure is eliminated. In differential pressure type level measurement take two pressure from top of vessel/tank and bottom of the vessel/tank. The switching system can respond to the restraining force developed by a spring element connected to the float or by an actuator of a force-balance servo system..In a float-type level sensor the buoyancy force holds the float on the surface of the liquid.17 • Must be maintain a suitable distance of sensor and the powder don’t cross the maximum level . p2-p1=∆p=hℓg h=∆p/(ℓg) Where p1=pressure at the top. ∆p= differential pressure . bellows). Differential pressure type level measurement The most commonly used in industry for measuring level of liquid is differential pressure type level measurement. h= height of liquid.
If the air pressure entering the dipper pipe is greater than the hydrostatic head of the process fluid in the tank. plaster cement. probe. Features and benefices:• No calibration • In sensitive to build up • No moving part • Various electronics inserts • Plastic housing cover . the air will bubble out at the bottom of the pipe. Bubbler type level Measurement Vibration type level switch There is a number of level switch designs which keeping to a probe or other element in oscillation or in natural frequency vibration and triggering a relay when the process material in the tank reaches the vibrating element and damped out the vibration. by pressure switch for alarming and transmitter for remote display or monitoring. 120Hz.18 Bubbler type level measurement The operation of a air bubbler is similar to blowing air into a glass of water with straw. The more water is in the glass the harder one needs to blow. plastics granules. Pressure gauge or manometer is used for level indication measure the pressure in the dipped pipe. The dipped pipe is large in diameter (2 inch or 50 inch ) in order to minimize to the pressure drop as the air flows through it. The various version ensures it can be used in wide range of application including zone 10 dust explosion area and food stubs.Soliphant is a ragged limit switch for silos containing powder or fine grained solid including those which with very low bulk density. Typical applications: . Two separate should be made to this pipe.grain. The pipe tip should be kept about 3 inch(75mm)from the bottom of the tank to kept it from clogging by sediment. and the tuning fork vibration are distinguished only in their frequencies of oscillation (reed. Applications:. As liquid level changes. and the other for the level indicating pressure gauge. Bubbler type level sensor has been used for as long as compressed air has.85Hz). The read probe. 200 to 400 Hz . The dipped pipe or tube material must be selected to match the corrosive nature of the process fluid. the air pressure in the dipped pipe also changes. one for the regulated air supply. powder. chalk. tuning fork.
Figure: Orifice Plate The orifice plates are simple. Figure 1 Bernoulli Theorem The most common types of differential pressure flow meters are: 1. The plate obstructing the flow offers a precisely measured obstruction that narrows the pipe and forces the flowing fluid to constrict. The Turndown Rate for orifice plates is less than 5:1. Orifice Plate With an orifice plate. Orifice. A high accuracy depends on an orifice plate in good shape. the fluid flow is measured through the difference in pressure from the upstream side to the downstream side of a partially obstructed pipe.Rota meters 1. where the pressure drop and the further measured signal is a function of the square flow speed. cheap and can be delivered for almost any application in any material. Variable Area . Nozzle and Venturi Meters Venturi Tube . Wear reduces the accuracy.Orifice Plates 2. Their accuracy are poor at low flow rates.19 Flow Measurement The most common principals for fluid flow metering are: 1 Differential Pressure Flow meters 2. Mass Flow meters Differential Pressure Flow meters: In a differential pressure drop device the flow is calculated by measuring the pressure drop over an obstructions inserted in the flow. Venturi Tubes 3. The differential pressure flow meter is based on the Bernoulli’s Equation. with a sharp edge to the upstream side.
In the Venturi Tube the fluid flow rate is measured by reducing the cross sectional flow area in the flow path. the fluid pass through the pressure recovery exit section. where it breaks Mach 1 or sonic. At this point it's not possible to increase the flow by lowering the downstream pressure. the Venturi Tube flow rate can be reduced to about 10% of its full scale range with proper accuracy. Nozzle and Venturi Meters The Sonic Nozzle . the minimum area. where up to 80% of the differential pressure generated at the constricted area. the velocity increase and the pressure and the gas density decrease. and available for many applications in many materials. The maximum velocity is achieved at the throat. Figure Venturi Tube With proper instrumentation and flow calibrating. accurate. Orifice. Flow Nozzle The flow nozzle is relative simple and cheap. generating a pressure difference.20 Due to simplicity and dependability. the fluid is passes through a pressure recovery exit section. is recovered. The Turndown Rate and accuracy can be compared with the orifice plate. Nozzles and Venturi Meters After the pressure difference has been generated in the differential pressure flow meter.Critical Flow Nozzle When a gas accelerate through a nozzle. . or lower pressure drops. Orifice. This provides a Turndown Rate 10:1. than the orifice plate can provide. After the constricted area. where the differential pressure generated at the constricted area is partly recovered. the Venturi tube flow meter is often used in applications where it's necessary with higher Turndown Rates. This situation is used in many control systems to maintain fixed. repeatable gas flow rates unaffected by the downstream pressure. Nozzle and Venturi Meters Flow Nozzles Flow nozzles are often used as measuring elements for air and gas flow in industrial applications. Recovery of Pressure Drop in Orifices.
The height of the float is an indication of the flow rate. With the ability to measure liquids. and a metering float which is free to move within the tube. viscosity and density. Variable Area Flow meter or Rota meter The Rota meter consists of a vertically oriented glass (or plastic) tube with a larger end at the top. slurries and gases. The float rises until the annular area between the float and tube increases sufficiently to allow a state of dynamic equilibrium between the upward differential pressure and buoyancy factors. the pressure drop in orifice plates are significant higher than in the Venturi tubes. Mass measurement is not sensible to changes in pressure. Coriolis Flow meter Direct mass measurement sets Coriolis flow meters apart from other technologies. Fluid flow uses the float to rise in the tube as the upward pressure differential and buoyancy of the fluid overcome the effect of gravity. . temperature. The Rota meters typically have a Turn down Ratio up to 12:1. The tube can be calibrated and graduated in appropriate flow units. Coriolis flow meters are universal meters. and downward gravity factors.21 As we can see. The accuracy may be as good as 1% of full scale rating. Magnetic floats can be used for alarm and signal transmission functions.
a beam or yoke assembly is used that has several strain gauges mounted so that the application of a force causes a strain in the assembly that is measured by the gauges. one side surface of the beam may experience compression while the other side undergoes tension. by measuring the change in the resistance by Bridge circuit. Due to the Coriolis forces. Practical load cells are made with yoke assemblies designed so that mounted strain gauges cannot be exposed to stresses other than those caused by the compress ional force applied to the cell. In such a case. Generally. measure deformations produced by the force or weight. The fluid to be measured runs through a U-shaped tube that is caused to vibrate in an angular harmonic oscillation. In general.22 Coriolis Mass Flow meter uses the Coriolis Effect to measure the amount of mass moving through the element. better than +/-0. The Coriolis flow meters are in general very accurate. Weight Measurement Load Cell:One important direct application of Strain Gauge is for the measurement of force or weight. The form of load cell considered Figure is fine for illustrating principles. instead of simply compressing.1% with an turndown rate more than 100:1. called load cells. The Coriolis meter can also be used to measure the fluids density. A common application uses one of these devices in support of a hopper or feed of dry or liquid materials. these devices are calibrated so that the force (weight) is directly related to the resistance change. Obviously. this will alter the correct interpretation of the result. The problem is that forces applied to the top of the load cell may cause it to lean or bend. This additional component causes a phase shift on some places of the tubes which can be measured with sensors. but real load cells cannot be made in this simple way. A measure of the weight through a load cell yields a measure of the quantity of material in the hopper. . These transducer devices. Forces as high as 5 MN (approximately 106 Ibo) can be measured with an appropriate load cell. the tubes will deform and an additional vibration component will be added to the oscillation.
which is also integrated in the load cell.23 Digital load cell:- The deflection less Intelligent Digital Load Cell Type IDL-F with “vibrating wire” issued as a weighing module for dynamic weighing in continuous and batch wise gravimetric Brabender metering feeders. The weight value thus determined is dynamically updated and serially transmitted to a microcomputer controller. The wire frequency is almost a parabolic function of the load exerted on the load cell. These are also considered by the microprocessor to correct the weighing result.000. corrective coefficients are stored in an EEPROM.000. which is read in by an integrated microprocessor. . Function: Electric exciters excite a pretensioned wire resulting in resonance Vibration of the wire. The Intelligent Digital Load Cell IDL-F is available as a load cell for installation in weighing systems or as platform scale modules. These coefficients are taken into consideration when the microprocessor computes the weight value. featuring an internal resolution Of 1:1. Three interactive software filters attenuate low frequency vibrations filtering the weight value via several (24 at maximum) eight-stage filters.Load Cell Type IDL-F. The filters can be operated as a statically or dynamically controlled filtering system. The particular feature of the load cell is an additionally integrated filtering system for dynamic electronic vibration attenuation eliminating the influence of ambient vibrations. The only further interferences that require compensation are temperature changes. To optimize the linearity.
spontaneous Reaction. Cathode: O2 + 2H2O + 4 electrons 4(OH)Anode : 2Pb (2Pb++) + 4electrons These electrons cause a current flow through the electrolyte. the magnitude of which is in proportion to the O2 concentration of the electrolyte. By virtue of melt flow index (MFI) we can know about the property of the polymer properly. is proportional to the oxygen concentration in the sample gas.43.24 Analyzers Oxygen Analyzer The oxygen content of the electrolyte is brought into equilibrium with that of the sample . MFI analyzer It is a standard of grading different polymer families. In case of polymer plant it is mandatory to supervise the grade of polymer always.2 psig pressure. The L/D ratio of capillary is made constant where L is the length of the capillary and D be the diameter of the capillary. which results in the cell current that. . No external voltage. Melt flow index is define by the weight of the polymer discharged trough a capillary at 190o C .An external voltage drives This reaction. To analyze the polymer grade continuously MFI analyzer is used. Due to the conductivity of KOH electrolyte the Ions migrate to the anode where they are oxidized back to O2 . The sample gas diffuse through a diffusion barrier to the cathode of the electrochemical cell where it is reduced to hydroxyl ins.
signal to drive the motor. Speed measurement system: the metering pump motor and the tachometer are directly coupled together so tachometer signal is calibrated to read out to the pump.speed control loop: .C. The motor speed control converts the high-level controller signal to a full wave phase control D. The tachometer signal is converted from a pulse strain into a pump shaft frequency. is converted into a +/. The Flowrate is necessary to produce this pressure droop through capillary depends on the polymer viscosity and capillary geometry.C. In the flow passage barrel (measurement head) the melt temperature is regulated by 2 zone of . Motor speed control system. The motor speed control converts the high-level controller signal to a full wave phase control D. Consequently pump speed will be increased if the polymer viscosity decrease.C.10v dc signal are send to the CPU analog to digital converter. In normal operate mode the remote control unit pressure PID loop compare the pressure signal with the loop set point signal and in the motor speed control signal(0-10v D. In the normal operate mode the remote control unit speed PID loop compares the speed signal with the loop set point signal and motor speed control signal 0-10v D. Pump speed is sensed by the digital tachometer located in front of motor. protect the transducer on starter. The temperature control system: . signal to drive the motor.) is send too the motor speed controller to drive the D.C. With this measurement the shear rate / shear stress relationship of a polymer can be determine and converted into melt flow index of apparent viscosity.C. General operation Pressure measurement system : The pressure transducer are located in the measurement rate converted cavity pressure into electrical signal. There is an acceleration circuit in the motor speed controller to protect the transducer. motor. The transducers are bounded strain gauge which makes direct contact with polymer. In the signal conditioning module the pressure(mV signal.C. Change in the cavity pressure produce a stress change in the transducer bridge resistance which result in the electrical signal proportional to the pressure change. Motor speed control system pressure loop : in the analysis mode of operation (closed loop) . The measurement head receives the polymer melt then pumps it through capillary orifice measuring both Flowrate and pressure drop across capillary.In the analysis mode of operation (closed loop system) the required shear rate is developed by control of the pump speed. A large diameter capillary is used to the capillary L/D ratio is decreased. The MSC has a minimum or maximum adjustment.the temperature control system maintain the polymer melt at precise test temperature. motor. There is an acceleration circuit in motor speed controller tip. capillary pressure is sensing by the pressure transducer just above the capillary entrance. the require pressure droop[ across the capillary is developed by the control by the polymer Flowrate (pump speed ).25 schematic diagram of MFI analyzer Introduction MFI analyzer is connected to polymer melt to be tested through the transfer line. is sent to the motor speed controller to drive the D.
The largely account between the polymer feed and test temperature. proper insulation. (Vp)2 /(2gc) For a compressible perfect gas for which P/( ργ) remains constant during an isentropic change a similar relation emerges Pt – P = Pv = ρ. the velocity is found out The stagnation pressure on a body immersed in a moving liquid is the sum of the static pressure and dynamic pressured. This pulse is used to control a solid-state relay.(capillary transducer area).(Vp) 2 /(2gc) Where γ = ratio of specific heats Assuming isentropic stagnation at the sensing point at the probe Pt VP ∫ dp/ρ =∫ (Vp)dV/(gc) P 0 Where using English unit. which controls the ac voltage to the associated heater. The polymer melt temperature is read by melt thermocouple located opposite the pressure transducer due to the characteristics of the thermocouple RTD probes will e provide more accurate reading to the test temperature. the integration yields at a point Pt – P = Pv = P.(( γ-1)/ γ).10v D. The polymer resident time. the fluid while approaching the object start losing its velocity till directly in front of the body where the velocity is zero. The first control zone is around the metering pump. Thus. thermal mass. By measuring the difference of the pressure between that at normal flow line and at the stagnation point. As the kinematics head is loosed by the fluid it gains a static head. In the signal conditioning module the temperature signal ids converted into +/. ρ = fluid density gc=constant For a liquid of constant density. In the remote control unit the appropriate temperature control Loop compares the temperature signal with a loop set point and time proportional pulse is developed. the energy relation at the isentropic stagnation point of an ideal probe is : Pt VP ∫ dp/ρ =∫ (Vp)dV/(gc) P 0 Vp = the approach velocity at the probe location. The second temperature control. The processor temperature is read by grade "A" three wire RTD. With respect to the static state. signal and send to the CPU A/D converter. Annubar Basic principle:The annubar works upon the basic principal of Pitot tube.C. P = the static pressured of the fluid whether in motion or at rest Pv = the dynamic pressured equal to the kinetic energy of fluid. Vp=velocity of approach (ft/s) P= pressure (lb/ft2) Ρ= fluid density (lbm/ft3) . When a solid body is held centrally and stationary in a pipe line with a fluid streaming down due to the presence of the body. zone regulates the test zone itself. This point is known as stagnation point. Pt = P + Pv Where Pt = total pressure which can be sensed by fixed probe provided the fluid stagnates at the sensing point in an isentropic manner.26 closed loop temperature control.
The Pitot tube measures the fluid flow velocity by converting the kinetic energy of the flow into potential energy. They are inserted into the flow stream across the pipe diameter.(Vp)2 /(2gc) For a compressible perfect gas for which P/( ργ) remains constant during an isentropic Change a similar relation is obtain Pt – P = Pv = ρ. even used in airplanes for the speed measurement. the dynamic pressure can be measured across the velocity profile. The use of the Pitot tube is restricted to point measuring. of 70:1 or more. whence (Pt-P) 0. or multi-orifice pitot probe. With the "annubar". The pressure drop across the sensor is minimal because of its very low restriction to flow.27 gc= 32.(( γ-1)/ γ). and the annubar obtains an averaging effect. How Annubar Works:- Diamond II Annubar flow sensor are patent primary flow sensing element.e proportional to Flow rate .2(lbm/lbf)(ft/s2) if density is constant the integration yields Pt – P = Pv = ρ. These port are connected to dual averaging plenums. The number of port is proportional to pipe diameter. The upstream & down stream ports & plenum produce an average reference pressure.(Vp) 2 /(2gc) γ is the ratio of specific heat in order to compute the point velocities it is necessary to measure both point value of static pressure(P) and total pressure(Pt). especially in air applications as ventilation and HVAC systems. The difference is an accurate & stable DP signal i.5 Vp=C---------------ρ Principle Of Operation:The Pitot tube are one the most used (and cheapest) ways to measure fluid flow. Sensing ports are located are both located in both upstream & down stream side of Annubar primary flow element. .
36SCH10.P equation Liquid volume Rate of flow: 2 C'= Fna x K x D x Fra x Fm x Faa x Fl x √ (1/ Gf) Hw = (qa/c’) 2 Qa = C' x √(hw) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------Description Term value units --------------------------------------------------------------------------------Units Conversion Factor .28 The Annubar primary flow element sensor technology is key to increase performance of the ProBar and mass proBar flow meter.FA8C. Fluid:.GV8SA.CA2S.55 mm Manometer Factor Fm 1 Gauge location Factor Fl 1 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- .0003958 ANNUBAR Flow Coefficient K . The patent shape provides a smooth and stable point of fluid separation between the high and the low side.IHDS. The diamond II shape is the key to accuracy the repeatability. The design of the sensor ensure that plumage of the sensing ports does not occur in particular laden fluid Annubar Calculation Model:-DHF-35.QS1.FA8C.QI1.QE8.HA2. Pipe Size:.VA8SV.6416 Internal Pipe Diameter D 898.Water. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------D.
3 kg/cm2 G @33 C And Temperature 204 C -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------This ANNUBAR provides annual saving upto 17.060 $ in comparison to Orifice Plate.1 Kg/m3 Flowing Spec Gravity Gf 1 Flowing Pressure Pf 4.6 m3/H Do Not Insert Flo-tap above 350 mm H2O Flow al maximum Insert DP 3840 m3/H Natural frequency 73.29 Measuring Max Nor.033 205.9 732.9 CPS Maximum allowable Pressure 99.19 mm H20 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- LIMITS Customer Design P & T: 4. Units Range -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Flowrate Qa 7000 6538 5548 m3/H Calculation Constant C' 205.033 Pipe Reynolds Number Rd 3441200 3236200 2727400 Reynolds Number factor Fra 1 1 1 Flowing Viscosity uf 0.6 1030.033 205.8 Centipoise Flowing Temperature Tf 33 C Thermal Expansion Factor Faa 1 Flowing Density pf 999.7 kg/cm2 G & 33 C Max Allowable DP: 1400 mm H20 @33 C Flow at maximum allowable DP:7671. Annular setup step1:Liquid Service in a Horizontal Pipe:- .7 kg/cm2 G Differential Pressure hw 1165.
4. deburr the hole on the inside of the pipe. Select the location for the hole you are about to drill. Drill a Hole for Opposite-Side Support A second hole must be drilled for the opposite-side support weld coupling if opposite-side support is supplied.30 Install the flow meter within 40 degrees of the vertical axis to prevent air from becoming entrapped within the probe. as shown in Figure. Figure below illustrates the recommended location for the Annubar when used with liquid service. sensor 15/16 25/26 35/36 45/46 Diameter 7/18 7/8 1-5/16 2-1/8 . Remove the wire or string and measure half of the circumference length. Wrap a piece of soft wire or string around the pipe to measure the pipe’s circumference. Determine the diameter of the hole to be drilled. 1. 4. Select a location anywhere around the circumference of the pipe for vertical pipes. Use the following steps to find the location for the second hole: 1. Do not position the Annubar within 50 degrees of the horizontal axis unless full bleeding of air from the probe is possible. This hole must be the same diameter as the first hole. 5. Re-wrap the half-length around the pipe from the center of the first hole. After the hole is drilled. 3. 2. Deburr the drill hole inside of the pipe. Note: Drille the hole 180degree from the first hole from opposite side support module.For horizontal pipes. place it directly opposite the first hole so that the sensor can pass completely through the pipe. Use the chart in Figure 3-7. the hole location depends upon the service for which the Annubar is to be used: • Liquid service: drill the hole along the bottom of the pipe • Gas service: drill the hole along the top of the pipe • Steam service: drill the hole along the bottom of the pipe 3. 2. STEP 2:DRILL THE HOLE IN THE PIPE Follow the steps below to drill the hole in the pipe. Depressurize and drain the pipe. Mark the center of what will become the second hole.
Push the packing ring into the adapter body and against the weld-lock ring. If the tip did not touch the wall. adjust the adapter body until sensor tip touches the wall. 1. Tack weld the fitting(s) to the pipe and remove the Annubar. wrap the factory-supplied heavy aluminum foil around the threads before welding. alternating the location of the packing ring split by 180 degrees. tack welding fitting to the pipe To protect the weld fitting threads from weld splatter. . 5. 2. 3. as shown in Figure Be sure to allow the mounting to cool or serious burns may occur. Repeat this process for the two remaining rings. Insert the Annubar assembly into the factory-supplied weld fitting (with integral support ring). 2. STEP 4: INSERT THE ANNUBAR INTO THE PIPE After the mounting hardware has cooled. or use a thread protector cap. Remove the flowmeter. install the adapter body and support plug (if required). Use a sealant compound rated for use at the process temperature on the threads.31 STEP 3: TACK WELD THE FITTINGS TO THE PIPE Follow these steps to tack weld the fittings to the pipe: 1. 6. and re-install the Annubar. Figure 3-11 illustrates the Annubar insertion process described here. then into the hole. take care not to damage the split packing rings. Insert the flowmeter into the adapter body until the sensor tip contacts the pipe wall (or support plug). 3. 4. Align the head and transmitter so they are parallel with the ground. as shown in Figure in above . Verify that the sensor tip touched the pipe wall. Install the first packing ring on the Annubar between the lock ring and the packing follower. Mark the tip of the Annubar sensor with a marker.
This is critical when installing Annubar models with a sensor size of 15 or 16. go back to step 3. The Pak-Lok nut should be tightened only enough to prevent leakage.32 packing ring insulation Annubar Averaging Pitot Tube NOTE If the Annubar appears to be too long. . Do not overtighten the Pak-Lok nut. NOTE Use a maximum of 1-¼ turns when installing the sensor. 8. damage to the sensor will result. Verify that the adapter body was installed into the weld fitting before the Annubar was installed. 7. With the flow arrow on the Annubar head pointed in the direction of the pipe flow. Use a wrench to tighten the Pak-Lok nut in ¼ turn increments until it has been tightened one full turn. thread the Pak-Lok nut onto the adapter fitting until it is hand tight only.
The measured vapor pressured can be used to determine the weight content of dissolved water with in an organic liquid by Henry’s law which states that the mass of gas dissolved by a given volume of solvent. The concentration of water in the organic liquid . In most cases it is directly proportional o the concentration of dissolve water in the organic liquid. fugacity is means of the tendency of a substance to escape by some chemical process from the phase in which it exists) of the water in the liquid. The aluminum oxide transducer identical values of electrical output. The aluminum base and the gold layer from the two electrodes of what is essentially an aluminum ode capacitor.33 Moisture Analyzer About Al2O3 Analyzer:The aluminum oxide sensor consists of an aluminum strip anodized to provide a porous oxide layer. The number of water molecules absorbed is proportional to the fugacity (in thermodynamics. that is the measure vapor pressure is identical in both phase. In general. admission into the pore cavity is limited to the small molecule such as water. A very thin coating of gold is evaporated over this structure. expressed in part per million by weight of milligram per liter. The number of water molecule absolved determines the probe wall conductivity which influence the value of the sensor’s electrical impedance. T equilibrium conditions. at constant temperature . the fugacity of the water in the liquid are equivalent to the water vapor pressure above the liquid. The surface of aluminum oxide sensor can then be viewed as a semi permeable structure allowing the measurement of water vapor pressure in liquid organic in the some manner as is accomplished in gaseous medium. Water vapor is rapidly transported through the gold layer and absorbed by the pore walls of the sensor. equals the partial pressure of water vapor times constant Cw=KPw The Panametrics aluminum oxide hygrometer has been designed to measure reliably the moisture content of gases and liquid. whether immersed directly in the fluid or pleased in gas space immediately above. The water vapor pressure at the measurement location is the result of not only . Since the pore opening are small in relation of the size of most organic molecule. is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas with which it is in equilibrium.
The response time of the Panametrics standard M-series is very rapid . The sampling system containing the sensor must be pre dried with an inert gas prior to passage of the corrosive steam 3. These precautions and condition are follows:1. Assuming the . If the above effects are noted then they are almost always the result of a system . A. C. The only precaution should be observed is that it is recommended that the ambient temperature should be +10oC. D. Effects of contaminants Industrial gases and liquid often contain particulate matter such as carbon particles . The moisture content of the corrosive gases must be 10ppm or less @1 atmosphere or concentration of the corrosive species must be 10ppm or less @1 atms.34 the moisture content of the fluid entering into the system but also due to deception of the moisture from associated piping. Cl2 . in drying photographic film Under a particular set of operating condition the sensor meter reading can be calibrated versus solids with more moisture contain (Flowrate temperature and pressure ). No copper solder or epoxy is used in the construction of the sensor. C. Corrosive gases and liquids M-series sensor have been designed to minimize the affect of corrosive gases and liquids. Corrosive particulate: . the element is designed for directly with in the region to be measured The most frequent question associated with the moisture measurement system occurs when:1. SO2.In general non conductive liquid particulate condensing is not seriously hindering the performance of the sensor. The dew point changes as the flow rate changes. This technique has been successfully for example. leaks in the piping system.The hygrometer is insensitive to temperature. These condition and precautions have led to successful application in such cases as HCl . The system must be purged with dry inert gases prior to the removal of sensor 4.e. 2. Material which should be avoided are rubber elastomers and related compound . One advantage of this hygrometer is that it can be used for measurement i. salt . The point changes as the temperature changes 4. On rare occasion it may become logged under the contact arm of the sensor. 3. dust molecular sieve for alumina dust .Br2 Solid applications A.The Panametrics Hygrometer will measure the dew point of a system at all pressure from a few micron of Hg vacuum pressure to 5000 psig . This minimizes wall effects and will result in higher dew point with subsequent increased sensitivity . Temperature: .An increasing flow rate and temperature can decrease response time of whole system . and other is directly measured.The Panametrics hygrometer is insensitive to Flowrate changes. Inline measurement The sensor can be used in line continuously monitor in drying process. B. rust particles .chemical liquid droplets .can be present . polymerized substances . Conductive particulate: . a decrease in resistance decrease will cause an increasing in meter reading . The Panametrics hygrometer is very rapid . Pressure:. It is generally advantageous to operate at the highest pressure especially at very low moisture concentration . Response time is very slow.The preferred material of construction especially for any sampling system are SS. Employ the lowest possible pressure. The moisture content of the gases as H2O. Nonconductive particulate: . cyanide containing gases acetic acid vapor.Their effect on the operation of the Panametrics sensor is given bellow A. Thus conductive particulate across the sensor leads or on the sensor surface can leave to reduce the impedance with an erroneous high dew point. The maximum velocity limitation is 5000 cm/sec is limitation of mechanical stability rather than the Flowrate sensitivity.Since the hygrometer reading is inversely proportional to the impedance.The material that will corrode the Al deleteriously affect the operation of the sensor. is insensitive to temperature and flow rate and measure the vapor pressure of water only .SO2. 2.The sensor is expose to pressure changes the measured dew point will be related to the vapor pressure of water . When two sensor read the same or almost same dew point then drying process is complete. The parts per million value changes as the total gas pressure changes. Flowrate: . B. Response Time:.
Care fully replace the probe's protective shield. Panametrics recommends return of the flow or the factor for analysis and re calibration. Evolved moisture is passed through a chamber of known volume containing calibrated sensor. nichrome. (equilibrium must be established). Take a dew point measurement in ambient atmosphere and record it. are completely miscible with water (e. make sure you do not to touch the probe sensor. Carefully unscrew the protective shield covering the sensor.dioxane) or the conductive (isopropyl alcohol) . glass . for such liquid a calibration of due point of hygrometer reading versus solution of water contents is most satisfactory. oven . 1. A Henry law type calibration is not applicable for those liquids for which with exhibit a high saturation value (2% by wt. 3. the ambient moisture measurement will be incorrect. Turn on stirrer. the number of moles of water can be calculated and related to the %/weight in volume Aluminum Oxide Probe Maintenance Little or no probe maintenance is required. 4. Check probe calibration from time to time. Al2O3.35 condition are relatively constant the sensor meter reading can be curve over the desired range has been developed. or by adding known amount of water to a known amount of the dry organic liquid.g. taking care not to touch the sensor inside. Repeat step 3. 9.set at 48oC to 52 oC for 24 hrs.The maximum concentration of one can measure depends to on the liquid itself. 5. Preliminary:Probe must be treated gently and can not be cleaned in anything which will attack the components. Close Valve. The increase in a moisture content of hydrocarbon can then be used to calculate directly the moisture content of the sample The lower limit of sensitivity of sensor is -110oC dew point this dew point can correspond to 10-6 in a liquid or a less depending on the saturation value . Take a dew point measurement in same ambient atmosphere as in step 1. 10.. The Al steel is fragile and can be easily bent or destroyed so do not permit anything to touch it. Compare this dew point reading and check to see that the reading after cleaning is amore accurate value for a dew point of the ambient atmosphere. Remove sensor from the distilled water and let soak in hexane o toluene for 10 minutes. The material of constructors are Al . If for some unexplainable reason. 300ml of reagent hexane toluene • Approx. the absolute moisture content is based determined by empirical calibration. Laboratory procedure 1. Instructions for used apparatus H-2 used for with Karl-Fischer Analysis. 6. an electrically conductive liquid or any other temporary contaminants is on the Al2O3 sensor. Generally it becomes insensitive in excess of 1% of weight .4. Fill glasses bottle with sample liquid. 7. 2. Empirical Calibration For those liquid =s in which a henry's law type analysis is not applicable. 2. Once is done sensor can be used to monitor the moisture contain of solid continuously B. If time does not allow this the cleaning of the probe can be attend by a qualified technician or chemist in a laboratory. Of water). Probe Cleaning Procedure Before bringing the probe cleaning procedures you will need following item:• Approx. . . Remove sensor from the hexane or toluene and place in low temp. If the probe is determined to be in proper calibration( 2 oC accuracy) reinstall the probe in the sample cell and proceed with normal operation if the probe is determined not be in the proper calibration repeat step 1 through 8 using the time interval of 5 times the length of previous cleaning. Such calibration can be conducted with the aid of Karl-Fischer analysis. A small amount of sample can be dissolve in a suitable hydrocarbon. To clean the Al2O3 probe:1.. 300ml of distilled water(not DM) • Two glass container to hold above contaminants (do not use a metal container. From the volume and the measured vapor pressure of water . 2. gold SS. Connect the probe to the probe cable.5 for protective shield. 8.). A. 11. and viton A. 3. Soak the sensor in distilled water for 10 minutes.
10. Smart transmitter features:1. Wet up to dry the liquid by bubbling wet N2 or dry N2 respectively through the liquid. Because of this.x 106 = PPMw Total weight of Liquid 10. 2. Weigh the apparatus 3. Characteristics:Another characteristic of a smart transmitter is its ability to act as a stand-alone transmitter. or Thermistor. Using a syringe withdraw sample for Karl-Fischer Analysis through the rubber system 8. When equilibrium is reached and meter indication is stable record the meter reading . pascals. 11. or kilopascals. or a hand-held device. In such a capacity. Repeat steps 4 through 7 to obtain the measurement. 1. For instance. Signal conditioning:- . level of wetness or dryness turn off N2 inlet by exhaust valve. Instructions for use apparatus H2 for adding known amount of H2O. a programmable logic controller (PLC). bars. Monitor liquid sample with probe and continue drying until dew point become some minimum value 6. Repeat step 8 & 9 until several point have been plotted. A communicator allows the operator to interface with the smart transmitter. psi. they reduce the need for a large number of specific replacement devices. Weigh the apparatus including the liquid to determine the weigh of liquid 8.36 4. 3. using a communicator. inches of mercury. The operator does need to use a communicator. the operator can determine ahead of time whether to use inches of water. Configuration:- Smart transmitters can be configured to meet the demands of the process in which they are used. the operator can change from a 100 ohm RTD to a type-J thermocouple just by reprogramming the transmitter. For example. Construct typical apparatus H2 2. Turn on hygrometer and monitor reading of probe.glass bottle and remainder of system to come to equilibrium to come with Room temperature 5. The transmitter responds immediately and changes from measuring resistance to measuring millivoltage. Re-ranging:The range that the smart transmitter functions under can be easily changed from a remote location. Add a known weight of H2O and continue stirring until completely dissolved in the liquid . 9. When meter indicates approx. Fill the glass bottle with liquid sample 4. Weight of H2O ----------------------. There is a wide range of inputs that a smart transmitter will accept. Turn off supply of dry N2 7. it sends the output signal to a or a PLC 4. millibars. The communicator could be a PC. The technician or the operator has access to any smart device in the loop and does not even have to be at the transmitter to perform the change. RTD. B. Smart transmitter The smart transmitter is an intelligence transmitter. 6. Open exhaust valve. the same transmitter can be set up to read almost any range or type of thermocouple. with pressure units. Permit time for sample liquid . for example by the technician in a control room. Bubble dry N2 gas through SS tube while magnetic stirrer is operating 5. Re-ranging is simple with the smart transmitter. For instance. however. 9. 7.
Signals can also be delayed (dampened) so that the response does not fluctuate. Gauge India Pyroelectric Pyroelectric TATA Honeywell G-gauge. scanning the average signal and eliminating any "noise" spikes.37 Smart transmitters can also perform signal conditioning. vendors Level measurement DP type Capacitance type Displeasure type Ultra sonic type Bubblier type Level switch vibration type Temperature measurement Gauge Thermocouple RTD Pressure measurement Pressure transmitter Pressure gauge Flow measurement Orifice Venturi Rotameters Mass flow meter Annubar Weight Load cell Vibration Load cell I/P converter ON/OFF valve Control valve V ball Excantric rotary Globe valve Mmicroflow valve Analyzer Oxygen Moisture MFI Endress Houser Goa industries. it can report on a circuit board which is not working properly. Self diagnosis:Finally. For example. Borden India TATA Honeywell TATA Honeywell Tokyokisko Rosemound ( micromotion ) Dietrich standard Yama Qta Brabander ABB Choil Masoline TATA Honeywell Endress Houser Tokyokeiso Endress Houser TATA Honeywell Panametric Panametric Dynsco . a smart transmitter can diagnose itself and report on any problems in the process. 5. This is especially useful with a rapidly changing process.
2. ENGINEERING STATION (9. 1.10) OPERATING STATION (1TO 8) .38 DCS ARCHITECTURE SUPERVISOR NETWORK GUS AM HM HG EPLCG LCN A LCNB NIM HPM LCN =LOCAL COMMUCATION NETWORK SM PRO CESS NETWORK UCN A UCN B * UCN = UNIVERSAL COMMUNICATION NETWORK • GUS = GLOBLE UNIVERSAL STATION • HM = HISTORY MODULE • EPLC= ENHANCED PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROL • NIM= NETWORK INTERFACE MODULE • HPM = HIGH PERFORMANCE PROCESS MANAGER • SM = SAFETY MANAGER GUS IS TWO CONSOLE .
load images and other data require any time modules are reloaded or personalities are changed. HM :The HM(history module) is available with redundant drives and different storage capacity makes possible storage of. • On process information of maintenance and analysis. AM:Application module is used for special type of complex system. LCN:The back bone of every TPS system is a communication network known as local control network (LCN) the LCN directly links those devices to provide the following function. standard hardware and software contributes to the interface to satisfy variety of interface a number of hardware station are available. • Human interface. GUS:The TPS system provides and integrated the process and the operator . • File server history storage and analysis. and quick assesses to large quantities of data: • History of process alarm. operator massage system status change system error and system maintenance. • Interface to UCN distributed control. NIM:The NIM interconnects the LCN with the UCN network. HG:Hiway gateway interconnects Honeywell data hiway with the LCN. It also provides the function such as polling alarm scanning and time synchronization for the hiway based devices EPLC:Enhanced PLC gateway provide efficient interface for non Honeywell programmable controller they do so by supporting the defecate industry sub system protocol of Allen Bradley and Mod Bus. making the transition from the transmission technique and protocol of the LCN transmission technique and protocol to the hiway. • Interface to computers. In control room environment several station are typically combined into process operator control. There is a programmable interface to configure as per process requirement. • Interface between multiple LCN. • Interface to process network. • Extensive advanced control. UCN:- . • System file of all type. It can be small system with just handful of device or it may be highly complex system with several devices and several kinds of communication. The UCN interrogates Honeywell's most advanced process connected device into TPS. operator changes.39 Overview: Total plant solution is a data acquisition and control system that can be tailored to meet your specific requirement. • Interface to UNIX/X window system.
When the process is going out of the track then an override control is used to save the system from several damage. This section describes Fault tolerance and lists the main features offered by the TRICON system. THEORY OF OPERATION:- . Its control processor is programmed using ladder logic and which continuously and rapidly exacted as long as the control processor is in the RUN mode. Advanced process manager:The APM adds new functions and capacity to those available with the process manager it offers increased integration of discrete control with the device control point. It consists of a powerful control processor that performs regulatory logic and sequencing function coupled with up to 40 selectable intelligent I/O processor. The UCN is a high speed . Connection with the DCS system:The PLC system is connected to the DCS system through the EPLC module of the LCN network of DCS. The PLC system:In this system PLC system Single Chassis Version 9 TRICON Systems is used. A process oriented programming language is available for implementation of batch and hybrid applications as well as computational capability needed to some continuous control task. Logic manager:The LM integrates the high speed logic function into the architecture of UCN. Safety manager:SM provides a family of nodes on the UCN that consist of a SM interface card and SM that provides the safety functions. There are two safety manager is available. It provides the interface for the rest of the TPS system to access a variety of data point types. A tool box function can be configure and programmed to needs the data acquisition and advanced process requirement. It also supports flexible subsystem integration with the array point and serial I/O processor and new types of control point. As DCS system is little bit slow system so PLC is used for ESD (Emergency shutdown) or other override systems. It is peer to peer communication capability allows for easy sharing of process data. Process manager: PM is highly flexible data acquisition and control device that provided a complete range of capabilities. The PLC system Introduction:The PLC system is used for emergency purpose.40 It is design to be compatible with IEEE and ISO standards. The number and type of control functions to be implemented along with the smart transmitter and supports bi-directional digital communications. For R510 offers safety manager for the fail safe control (FSC) system. For this particular system. In addition separate communication and I/O interface processor assure high speed flow of information both internal and external to the PM. High performance process manager:The HPM represent an evolution of PM and APM its duel 68040 platform offers a wide range of capabilities for present feature process requirement. making it convenient to implement sophisticated control scheme.The TRICON is a state-of-the-art programmable logic and process controller that provides a high level of system fault tolerance.high security process network. The HPM performance is significantly 5 times better than the PM and APM. The R500 safety manager is for the Triconex Tricon version 8.
The TRIBUS uses a direct memory access Programmable device to synchronize. compares Output data. A Triplicated I/O bus. During this transfer. The Main Processors put corrected data into the control program. The input data is assembled into a table in the Main Processor and is stored in memory for use in the hardware voting process. As each input module is polled. and sends copies of analog input data to each Main Processor. In addition to voting the input data. the Main Processors synchronize and communicate with their Neighbors over the TRIBUS. The hot-spare position is also used for on-line system repairs. located on the chassis backplane. . Hardware voting takes place. The 32-bit main microprocessor and a math coprocessor execute the control program in parallel with the neighboring Main Processor modules. the system can support an optional hot-spare module.41 Triple-Modular Redundant (TMR) architecture (shown in Figure 1–2) ensures Fault tolerance and provides error-free. vote and compare data among the three Main Processors. transmit. the signal value found in two out of three tables prevails. The I/O communication processor on each Main Processor Manages the transmission of output data to the output modules by means of the I/O bus. The Main Processors execute the control program and send outputs generated by The control program to the output modules. Each leg on the input modules reads the process data and passes that information to its Respective Main Processor. This is done on the output modules as close to the field as possible to detect and compensate for any errors that could occur Between the TRIBUS voting and the final output driven to the field. For each I/O module. The three Main Processors communicate with Each other using a proprietary high-speed bus system called the TRIBUS. Each controls a Separate leg of the system and operates in parallel with the other two Main Processors A dedicated I/O communication processor on each Main Processor manages The data exchanged between the Main Processor and the I/O modules. Triplicated Architecture of the TRICON Controller Once per scan. the hot-spare takes control if a fault is detected on the primary module During operation. Each Main Processor maintains data about necessary corrections in local memory. If Present. extends from chassis to Chassis by means of I/O bus cables. Main Processor Modules:A TRICON system contains three Main Processor modules. and the third table is corrected accordingly. One-time differences Which result from sample timing variations are distinguished from a pattern of differing data. The TRICON votes the output data. The individual input table in each Main Processor is transferred to its neighboring Main Processors over the TRIBUS. If a disagreement occurs. Every I/O module houses the circuitry for three independent legs. The control program generates a table of output values which are based on the table of input values according to customer-defined rules built into the application. The TRIBUS votes digital input data. the appropriate leg of the I/O bus transmits new input data to the Main Processor. uninterrupted control in the presence of either hard failures of components or transient faults from internal or External sources. Any disparity is flagged and used at the end of the scan by the TRICON’s built-in fault analyzer routines to determine whether a fault exists on a particular module.
The Main Processor modules receive power from the dual Power Modules and power rails in the Main Chassis. Two positions in the chassis tie together as one logical slot. This ensures the same data is received by the upstream processor and downstream Processor. Main Processor A transmits the appropriate table to Leg A of each output module over I/O Bus A. Each connection extends from the termination module to both active and hot-spare I/O modules. Each I/O module transfers signals to or from the field through its associated field termination assembly. Then each Main Processor sends its data to its upstream and downstream neighbors. both the active module and the hotspare module receive the same information from the field termination wiring. Termination cables are tied to panel connectors at the top of the backplane. data. Therefore. SOE1 data. The 375 Kbaud triplicated I/O bus transfers data between the I/O modules and the Main Processors. while model #3007 Main Processors Provide 1 Megabyte SRAM each for Single Chassis V9 TRICON Systems only. The model #3006 Main Processors provide 2 Megabytes SRAM each for fully expandable V9 TRICON Systems. each corresponding to an individual output module in the system. The I/O bus is carried along the bottom of the backplane. The I/O communication processor manages the data exchanged between the Main Processors and the communication modules using the communication bus which supports a broadcast mechanism. A failure on one Power Module or power rail does not affect system performance. It synchronizes the Main Processors at the beginning of a scan. and the communication bus. the I/O bus. the SRAM is protected by batteries which reside on the backplane of the Main Chassis. The SRAM is used for the user-written control program. diagnostics and communication buffers. Bus Systems & Power Distribution:Three triplicated bus systems are etched on the chassis backplane: the TRIBUS. diagnostic and communication data – Transfers and votes digital input data – Compares data and flags disagreements for the previous scan’s output Data and control program memory An important feature of TRICON architecture is the use of a single transmitter to send data to both the upstream and downstream Main Processors. the batteries maintain the integrity of the program and the retentive variables for a minimum of six months.42 Architecture of a Main Processor Using the table of output values.In the event of an external power failure. For example. the I/O communication processor generates smaller tables. The TRIBUS takes the following actions: – Transfers analog. The TRIBUS consists of three independent serial links operating at 4 Mbaud. The I/O bus extends between chassis using set of three I/O control. The first position holds the active I/O module and the second position holds the hot-spare I/O module. Each leg of the I/O bus runs between one Main Processor and the corresponding legs on the I/O module. In the absence of power to the TRICON. Each small table is transmitted to the appropriate leg of the corresponding output module over the I/O bus. The 2 Mbaud . The transmittal of output data has priority over the routine scanning of all I/O modules.
For example. B and C). force the measured input value to the safe state.43 communication bus runs between the Main Processors and the communication modules. Each leg conditions signals independently and provides optical isolation between the field and the TRICON. This voter circuitry is based on parallel-series paths which pass power if the drivers for Legs A and B. Each of the three input legs asynchronously measures the input signals from each point on the input termination module.1 TMR Digital Input Modules Each digital input module houses the circuitry for three identical legs (A. they are completely isolated from each other and operate independently. except the dual DC modules. a switch within the input circuitry is closed to allow a zero input (OFF) to be read by the optical isolation circuitry. Digital Output Modules There are four basic types of digital output modules: – Supervised digital output modules – DC voltage digital output modules – AC voltage digital output modules – Dual DC digital output modules Every digital output module houses the circuitry for three identical. Main Processor A interrogates Input Table A over I/O Bus A.3. All of the digital output modules. 1. or Legs . detection of a fault in the input circuitry forces to OFF (the de-energized state) the value reported to the Main Processors by each leg. On single modules. The last data reading is frozen in the I/O communication processor while the test is running. Each of the three input legs independently measures the input signals by means of a non-triplicated set of signal conditioners. Each input table is regularly interrogated over the I/O bus by the I/O communication processor located on the corresponding Main Processor module. Although the legs reside on the same module. B and C). Each leg determines the states of the points and places their values into input tables A. There are four sets of power regulators on each input and output board: one set for each leg (A. and places the values into input tables A. Digital Input Modules:The TRICON supports two basic types of digital input modules: TMR and single. The intelligent control circuitry consists of an 8-bit microprocessor called the I/O communication processor which handles communication with its corresponding Main Processor. On TMR modules. Main Processor A interrogates Input Table A over I/O Bus A. A fault on one leg cannot pass to another. Single modules are optimized for those safety-critical applications where low cost is more important than maximum availability.) A fault on one leg cannot pass to another. To test for “stuck ON” inputs. Single Digital Input Modules Each digital input module houses the intelligent control circuitry for three identical legs (A.3. B. Because the TRICON is optimized for de-energize-to-trip applications. only those portions of the signal path which are required to ensure safe operation are triplicated. This is done for each point on the input termination module. B and C Respectively. Each input table is regularly interrogated over the I/O bus by the I/O communication microprocessor located on the corresponding Main Processor module. Special self-test circuitry is provided to detect all stuck-ON and stuck-OFF fault conditions within the non-triplicated signal conditioners in less than 500 milliseconds. use special quadruplicated output circuitry which votes on the individual output signals just before they are applied to the load. Since most safety systems are set up with a “de-energize-to-trip” capability. and C) and one set for the status indicators. Each leg includes an I/O microprocessor which receives its output table from the I/O communication processor on its corresponding Main Processor. determines the respective states of the input signals. For example. the ability to detect OFF points is an important feature. which must detect all faults in a timely manner and upon detection of an input fault. each leg contains an 8-bit microprocessor called the input/output (I/O) communication processor which handles communication with its corresponding Main Processor. Although the legs reside on the same module. (The model #3504E High-Density Digital Input Module with 64 points is an exception—it has no isolation. all critical signal paths are 100% triplicated for guaranteed safety and maximum availability. B and C respectively. isolated legs. they are completely isolated from each other and operate independently. Power for the chassis is distributed across two independent power rails and down the center of the backplane. In addition. Each module in the chassis draws power from both power rails through dual power regulators. This is a mandatory feature of a fail-safe system. DC models of the digital input modules can self-test to detect “stuck ON” conditions where the circuitry cannot tell whether a point has gone to the OFF state.
a faulty switch identified by the OVD process will cause the output signal to transition to the opposite state for a maximum of half an AC cycle. Each of the three input tables is passed to its associated Main Processor module using the corresponding I/O bus. 2-out-of-3 drivers voted ON. In general. 0-10 VDC. T and E). Analog input modules and termination modules are available to support a wide variety of analog inputs. Dual digital output modules provide a single parallel or series path. each of the three legs asynchronously measures the input signals and places the results into a table of values. that leg is declared faulty. guaranteeing safety and maximum availability.) A supervised digital output module provides both voltage and current loop back. In addition. the average is used. and the input table in each Main Processor is corrected accordingly. the module discontinues further iterations of OVD. a supervised digital output module verifies the presence of the field load by doing continuous circuit-continuity checks. the mid-value data is used by the control program. Termination Modules For field wiring of the V9 TRICON chassis. the output signal transition normally occurs during OVD execution. Any loss of field load is annunciated by the module. thereby permitting removal or replacement of the input or output module without disturbing field wiring. with the 2-out-of-3 voting process applied individually to each switch. The quadruplicated output circuitry provides multiple redundancy for all critical signal paths. you can use either Triconex-supplied termination assemblies or provide your own termination cables that match the TRICON’s panel connectors. The dual output module provides just enough redundancy to ensure safe operation. thermocouples (types K. If a fault occurs in the driving leg. The OVD strategy for a DC voltage digital output module ensures full fault coverage even if the commanded state of the points never changes. during OVD execution the commanded state of each point is momentarily reversed on one of the output drivers. Analog Output Modules The analog output module receives three tables of output values. but is guaranteed to be less than 2. In TMR mode. OVD on both AC and DC voltage digital output modules can be disabled. A termination module merely passes input signals from the field to an input module or passes signals generated by an output module directly to field wiring. J. The designation of “driving leg” is rotated among the legs so that all three legs are tested. A DC voltage digital output module is specifically designed to control devices which hold points in one state for long periods of time. Dual modules are optimized for those safety-critical applications where low cost is more important than maximum availability. Each point on an AC voltage digital output module requires periodic cycling to both the ON and OFF states to ensure 100% fault coverage. A field termination module is an electrically passive circuit board to which field wiring is easily attached.44 B and C.0 milliseconds (500 microseconds is typical) and is transparent to most field devices. On this type of module. Once a fault is detected. One of the three legs is selected to drive the analog outputs. The middle value is selected by each Main Processor. allowing complete fault coverage for both energized-to-trip and de-energized-to-trip conditions. Each leg has its own digital-to-analog converter (DAC). . or Legs A and C command them to close—in other words. Each type of digital output module executes a particular type of Output Voter Diagnostic (OVD) for every point. Loop-back on the module allows each microprocessor to read the output value for the point to determine whether a latent fault exists within the output circuit. 4-20 mA. one for each leg from the corresponding Main Processor. This transition may not be transparent to all field devices. The output is continuously checked for correctness by “loop-back” inputs on each point which are read by all three microprocessors. (For devices that cannot tolerate a signal transition of any length. Analog Input Modules On an analog input module. one after another. and a new leg is selected to drive the field device. Each analog input module is automatically calibrated using multiple reference voltages read through the multiplexer. On an AC voltage digital output module. in both isolated and non-isolated versions: 0-5 VDC. These voltages determine the gain and bias required to adjust readings of the analog-to-digital converter. in duplex mode. The input table in each Main Processor module is transferred to its neighbors across the TRIBUS. and resistive thermal devices (RTDs).
and each feeds a separate power rail on the chassis backplane.3 networks. The circuitry includes but is not limited to I/O loop back. The SMM appears to the TDC-3000 as a safety node on the Universal Control Network (UCN). The HIM allows redundant BNC connections directly to the Data Hiway and has the same functional capacity as up to four extended Data Hiway Port (DHP) addresses. allowing the TRICON to manage process-critical points within the overall I/A DCS environment.45 Communication Modules:By means of the communication modules described in this section. The SMM transmits all TRICON aliased data and diagnostic information to TDC-3000 operator workstations in display formats that are familiar to Honeywell operators. Fault-monitoring circuitry in each module helps fulfill this requirement. or both. other TRICONs in Peer-to-Peer networks.2 Kbaud. the TRICON can interface with Modbus masters and slaves. System Diagnostics & Status Indicators The TRICON incorporates integral on-line diagnostics. such as computers and operator workstations. The ACM transmits all TRICON aliased data and diagnostic information to I/A operator workstations in display formats that are familiar to Foxboro operators. Data is typically refreshed every scan. Safety Manager Module (SMM) — This module acts as an interface between a TRICON controller and Honeywell’s Universal Control Network (UCN).3 networks using a high-speed 10 Megabit/second data link. A short on a leg disables the power regulator rather than affecting the power bus .2. The Power Modules have built-in diagnostic circuitry which checks for out-ofrange voltages and over-temperature conditions. slaves. and so on. as shown in Table 1–3. The Main Processors broadcast data to the communication modules across the communication bus. Advanced Communication Module (ACM) — This module acts as an interface between a TRICON controller and Foxboro’s Intelligent Automation (I/A) Series DCS. Availability of the ACM depends on Foxboro’s schedule for Version 4. external hosts running applications over 802. Enhanced Intelligent Communication Module (EICM) — Supports RS-232 and RS-422 serial communication with external devices at speeds up to 19.2 of the I/A Series Software. The ACM appears to the Foxboro system as a safety node on the I/A Series Nodebus. Availability of the SMM depends on Honeywell’s schedule for Release 500 and future releases. . The module also provides a Centronics-compatible parallel port. Probable failure modes are anticipated and made detectable by specialized circuitry. including those that use TCP-IP/UDP-IP protocol. Each can support the power requirements for all the modules in the chassis in which it resides. and Honeywell and Foxboro Distributed Control Systems (DCS). or a TriStation. it is never more than two scan-times old. dead man timers. Each module derives power from the backplane and has independent power regulators for each leg. The HIM can also interface with Honeywell’s older TDC-2000 control system by means of the Data Hiway. Hiway Interface Module (HIM) — This module acts as an interface between a TRICON controller and Honeywell’s TDC-3000 control system by means of the Hiway Gateway and Local Control Network (LCN). loss-of-power sensors. Network Communication Module (NCM) — This module allows the TRICON to communicate with other TRICONs and with external hosts over 802. This EICM provides four serial ports which can interface with Modbus masters. The HIM enables higher-order devices on the LCN or Data Hiway. This aspect of the system design enables the TRICON to reconfigure itself and perform limited self-repair according to the health of each module and leg. Power Modules Each TRICON chassis houses two Power Modules arranged in a dual-redundant configuration. to communicate with the TRICON. allowing the TRICON to manage process-critical points within the overall TDC3000 environment. one of three principal networks of the TDC-3000 DCS. The NCM supports a number of Triconex protocols and applications as well as user-written applications.