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SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
PLANT: HIGH DENSITY POLY ETHYLENE (HDPE)
GALGOTIAS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY DURATION: 26th JUNE to 17th JULY ,2008
Riding the wings of change is a technical skill that professionals in industries have to learn and perfect. To ensure progress for industries in today’s cutthroat industrial arena, engineers need to constantly update themselves from an industrial perspective. To learn from this approach we the students have to avail of the industrial training that is included in our curriculum. I consider myself very lucky that I could gather the required technical skills from HALDIA PETROCHEMICALS LIMITED a pioneer in the petrochemical arena. I thank Mr. P. K. Kundu (Sr. G. M Instrumentation) for making the arrangements so that I can undergo this training in an organized fashion. I am grateful to Ms. Debashree mukherjee(Plant HR and A) Mr. Prahlad Saha (DGM Instrumentation) for assigning me to such an important part of the plant and periodically checking on my performance and enquiring about my problems, if any, despite having a very busy schedule. I also thank Mr. Shantanu Konar (Chief Mgr Instrumentation) ,Mr. Aparesh Jana ( Deputy Mgr Instrumentation) , Mr. Indranil Hatua (Deputy Mgr Instrumentation),Mr. Arghya sengupta (Asst Mgr instrumentation),Mr. Shyamal Bibar (Asst. Mgr) for sharing there knowledge and experiences with me. I also thank the entire loving and caring HPL family who has shared their valuable industrial experiences with me.
I have come from GALGOTIAS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY to Haldia Petrochemicals Limited (HPL) for summer training during 26th JUNE to 17th JULY.I have undergone a vocational training at HDPE (High Density Polyethylene Plant) for last one month. One month long training starts with being familiar with the process of HDPE plant. Especially I have studied on different types of instruments used in HDPE plant.
A few words about HPL
Haldia Petrochemicals Ltd, one of the largest petrochemicals complexes in India and the only one of its kind in the eastern region was commissioned on April 2, 2000. A producer of polymers and chemicals, Haldia Petrochemicals is ushering in an industrial era of plastic processing and ancillary industry that has not been traditionally at hand in this part of the country. The complex produces ethylene, propylene and associated liquid stream products for downstream processing into polymers & chemicals. HPL has a number of plants for the production of world class petrochemical products. The plants are operational and commercial production has already started. The integration process of the plant complex started in October, 2000 and the operations reached the stage of commercial production with effect from August 01, 2001. In the intervening period till date, the company has been able to successfully operate the entire complex, establish several polymer grades as industry benchmarks secure an all India market share of 22% and put in place a sophisticated end-to-end IT enabled supply management system. These achievements recorded over a period of 10 months since commissioning of the Haldia complex, gives Haldia Petrochemicals the confidence to face the challenges ahead. The global over-supply position in polymers, the consequent squeeze on margins for producers, the high debt burden of the Company and a difficult liquidity position are real issues, which are being addressed by the management. While these are indeed challenging times, the Company is fully convinced of the intrinsic strengths of its plants, processes and people, to see it through to its goal of becoming a total petrochemicals solutions provider. Plants & Units: -HPL has a number of plants for the production of world class petrochemical products. The plants are operational and commercial production has already started. In the intervening period till date, the company has been able to successfully operate the entire complex, establish several polymer grades as industry benchmarks secure an all India market share of 22% and put in place a sophisticated end-to-end IT enabled supply management system. HPL has total six units. They are:1.Naphtha Cracking Unit (N.C.U) 2. Naphtha cracking associated unit (N.C.A.U) 3. High Density Polyethylene (H.D.P.E) 4. Linear Low Density Polyethylene (L.L.D.P.E) 5. Polypropylene (P.P.E) 6. Integrated Offset Plant (I.O.P).
. Naphtha Cracker Unit
Capacity (TPA) 466,000
Process License ABB Lummus Global
Most Halene H HDPE and HMHDPE products are exceptionally tough and impart high mechanicals.000 330. Raffia.000 250. .5 Associated Units : Butadiene Extraction Unit PGH Plant Benzene Extraction Unit C4 Hydrogenation Unit Polypropylene Plant LLDPE / HDPE Plant HDPE Plant 82.000 120. Pipes. This encompasses Extrusion Grades like Films.000 230.000 85. The Halene H HDPE offers a wide range of conventional HDPE as well as HMHDPE Grades. Cable insulation and a wide array of Moulding grades. The Halene H Grades from Shoreline offer very good Impact stiffness balance.000 BOO Units : Captive Power Plant Nitrogen Plant 116 MW 9000 NM3 /Hr L&T Praxair BASF IFP Lurgi IFP Montell Montell Mitsui High Density polyethylene Plant About Halene H HDPE: The Halene H HDPE Technology is a new generation Bi modal slurry process.000 220.
This is a unique USP as converters could substantially save on the cost of process additives.80 0.40 . Process ability of Halene H Resins: .6 Halene H HMHDPE film Grades have excellent tensile properties and high Whiteness Index.4 B 5600 0. Films and could well be used in Moulding applications. 7-9 0.956 Applications B 6401 0.954 0. Films. Compounds F 5400 F 5600 R 5801/T6 Y 5401 P 5200 0. The exceptional balances of properties are possible with precise control of Molecular Weight Distribution (MWD) in the Resin. Future Products Planned from Halene H Stable: . 10-13 7-9 0. Grade Code E 5201 Melt index HLMI Density 12 0. The Halene H HMHDPE and HDPE Blow Moulding grades have exceptional Impact/Stiffness balance. Blow Moulding up to 20L High Stiffness High Impact.06 .964 0.64 0.Stand Alone Insulation Grade for wire & cable industry.04 High Impact. High process ability Compliance to PE 80 High ESCR Blow Mould.954 0. GP Films. BMWD High Mechanicals. BMWD Multi application Grade High Tenacity.952 Thin High Strength Films Thin High Strength Films Blow Mould. . Extrusion Grades . GP Films Pipes Moulding Grades . high Whiteness Index -–an USP unmatched by most Domestic Producers of Polymers in India. BMWD High Mechanicals.952 Special Features Applications Multi application Grade. GP Pipes Monofilament.07 0.04 0. The other HDPE extrusion grades have a wide band of applications like Raffia.HDPE & HMHDPE: . . This is possible due to an unique Bi modal Technology adopted. and the Injection Moulding grades exhibit very good Impact Stiffness balance. 0.958 0.HDPE & HMHDPE Blow Moulding & Injection Moulding:Grade Code Melt index 12 HLMI Density Special Features .956 0. Blow Moulding up to 150 High Stiffness .The Halene H HMHDPE and HDPE Grades exhibit exceptional process ability on most Film and specialty Extruders.
TE catalyst preparation: .To catalyst is dissolved In Hexane by means of drum agitator. 4. There the polymerization occurs.AI catalyst is transferred by nitrogen pressure from AI container to AI feed drum. 6. Different procedures are followed for different catalyst preparation. AT catalyst preparation:. 0. OG. AI. Palletizing and storage. Reactors: At the reactor 80 o C and 3 kg/cm2 pressure is maintained. Then the slurry is passed thorough condenser from where hexane is separated. Molding unto 100 L capacity 7 . Meanwhile gas coming from AI catalyst container and feed system is charged into flare system. Butene1 5. They are PZ. OG catalyst preparation: . Hydrogen gas 3. Crates Process Overview The HDPE plant consists of seven sections. Separation and drawing. Slurry of polyethylene and hexane produced. 3. Ethylene 2.PZ catalyst is dissolved In Hexane by means of feed drum agitator.83. TE. It dissolves in Hexane by nitrogen bubbling method. Process auxiliary. Hexane Polymerize recycled gas: All the gases along with polymerizer recycle gas are fed to reactor through the injection pipes.960 GP In.AT catalyst is transferred by nitrogen pressure from AT container to AT feed drum.7 B 6000 . Bagging and Palletizing. 7. Polymerization. Hexane recovery. HD LX2 M 6007L 18 2.960 0. Blow Moulding up to 240L High Stiffness Good Impact Stiffness Balance Good Impact Stiffness Balance GP In. Propylene 4. Catalyst concentration is made constant with the help of FQ.The prepared catalysts are fed into reactor with the help of feed pumps. Meanwhile gas coming from AT catalyst container and feed system is charged into flare system. AT.2 . Polymerization Section Raw Material and hexane feed to Polymerizes:1. Catalyst Feeding. PZ catalyst preparation:. AI catalyst preparation:. 5. Slurry Cooler: - .It is transferred by own pressure from a cylinder. Catalyst Feeding Section Total five catalysts are fed at the catalyst feeding section. They are 1. 0. 2. Catalyst feed:. Moulding.948 High Impact. It dissolves in Hexane by nitrogen bubbling method.
The noncondensible gas which leaves the out let of the purge gas condenser is pressurized to 3kg/cm2 G by the of gas compressor and part of it is supplied to the gland for flushing. The polymer slurry is flashed into he flash drums.EJ. Low pressure steam is supplied to the steam is supplied to the steam tube. Drying: A) Steam tube rotary drier: Mixed gas consisting of nitrogen and hexane vapor flows through the dryer concurrently with the product. Overflow slurry handling: Since the over flow slurry contains bubbles of mixed gas in the polymerizes. The pellet which passed the grid is send. to the powder bulk loading silo.HB & W) Are automatically weighed and discharged in accordance with the blending ratio for individual product types. the slurry is separated in the dilution drum into liquid and gas phase.UC & UD) and nine kind of liquid stabilizers(AA. after they are drained to the perforated plate screen. Products pellets are classified by pellet vibrating screen into undersize. Belo this silo a truck bulk loading station is provided only for LINE1. it contains 0.HF. Stabilizer Measuring System: Every kind of solid stabilizer(AB. Powder and stabilizer feeding system: The powder system which has left the outlet is measured by powder measuring feeder and is fed to feeder. The pellet cooling water flows into PW drum. The extruded is cut into pellet by revolving cutter.AF. normal..HA. Powdery matter sustained in the pellet cooling water is discharged out of the system trough the overflow outlet by continuously feeding DM water through the FC. Pelletizing. . for which it is reticulated to the cutter box. B) Dryer gas circulation system: The mixed recycled gas containing a small amount of polymer particles goes into dryer.8 Produced slurry of polyethylene is then sent to slurry cooler. The polymer is discharged from the centrifuge by the screw conveyor provide in the bowl in the form of wet cake containing hexane by approx. Molten polymer is pushed towards the die gear pump system then the molten polymer is extruded the die-hole into the cutter box through which pellet cooling water is circulated. oversize product. it is transferred to the powder separator. which polymer is separated by the centrifugal force. Dryer has 30 minutes of holding time. while surplus is discharged to he flare system.SF. The resin in the pellet from is transferred to the pellet separator.2% volatile matter (hexane) n its temperature is approx 100 o C.AL. The solid stabilizer mixture in accordance with the stabilizer recipe predetermined for product type is prepared and discharged Bach wise by gravity. Separation and drying section Separation: The slurry is continuously fed to the slurry transfer pump to the horizontal type Centrifuge revolving at high rpm. Normal size pellet which flows into the pellet separator hopper are pneumatically conveyed specified silo through the pellet rotary valve by the pellet transfer blower.HD.EB. Pelletizing System: The palletizer is twin screw type continuous mixer with gear pump where PE powder and stabilizers are mixed and kneaded. Slurry cooler pump is used to remove the polymerization heat together with recycled gas system and reactor jacket cooling system. Liquid stabilizers and W stabilizers fed into feeder y liquid stabilizer feed pump respectively. The product which is forwarded by the powder transfer blower is continuously separate in the powder cyclone from n2 & dropped into the powder hopper.AH.ED. After pressurized PW circulation pump then cooler to 70o C by PW cooler.AJ. Storage and packaging section Powder Hopper: The product powder is transferred to the N2 gas pneumatic powder conveying system through the powder rotary valve. N2 gas is filter through the bag filter to be recalculated very fine powder entered with N2 gas continuously recovered. Solids are separated so the ate itself can be disposed off as “oily water” . For protection a grid PW strainer is provided to remove any fused blocks of pellet.AK. 30% wt and fed to he dryer via the wet cake screw feeder.AE. Since the waste water contains the solid particle & stabilizers are suspended or dissolved in it. The fine polymer entrained with mixed gas is collected by the circulation liquid. Powder bulk loading:From the powder hopper the polymer powder can be transferred by means of pneumatic transport.AD. Stabilizer mixture is metered and fed to the feeder.
Hexane purification:Hexane vapor is condensed and cooled in exchanger and flows into stripper receiver gravity. Then Hexane is distributed as per process requirement. Mother liquor (crude Hexane is transferred to HE and NaOH separator through HE & NaOH contactor together with DM water and LP steam which is fed into system to maintain to 60o C temperature. Molten low polymer in Hexane concentrated container is pressurized to 22kg/cm2G and heated up to 120 to 220oC. Then caustic soda washed crude Hexane is transferred to HE water separator vessel.The low polymer solution. In order to rectify the fluctuation of quality due to possible variance in operating condition at process control.) or indirectly (as temperature. If a given fluid is delivered through a pipe then the volume Flow rate is: Q=A x V Q = Flowrate (m3/sec) A =pipe area (m2) V =Flow velocity (m/s) . Control valve The most general type of final control element is control valve. Low polymer flaking:LP is transferred to the drum flakers where it is cooled with circulating cooled water system.Then it is condensed and cooled in Hexane overhead condenser . Repelleting system: The off-spec material is handled by this system. Now the hexane layer is saturated with 250ppm water. West water is continuously discharge from vessel.9 Pellet blending and transferring system: pellet silo of capacity of 500 m3 each one. after removing Hexane is transferred to LP holding drum. Then it is sent to Hexane dehydrator. Pure Hexane distribution:Purified Hexane with water content of 10ppm or less is pressurized to 12kg/cm2G or higher by the H. pressure etc. Hexane recovery section Caustic soda washing:Mother liquor which has been separated by separator is washed with caustic soda and process water to decrease ash and chloride contained before being sent to low polymer separation system. the pellet blending is carried out through transferring the pellet to the bagging hopper.P Hexane pump dehydrated to 5ppm or less by Hexane dryer.Hexane vapor is generated by depressurized to 0. Control valve controls the process variable directly (as flow. level). Vent gas is exhausted to atmosphere with ventilator. This device is designed for used in process control applications involving liquid gas or vapor Flow rate. Hexane striping:Hexane containing low polymer and crude Hexane from fed drum is feed by the crude Hexane fed pump . If a mass Flowrate is decided it can be calculated from particular fluid density.2kg/cm2G . Principal of control valve: Flow rate in process control is usually expressed in volume/unit time.
We can show the Flowrate through the constriction is given by Q=K x ( p1-p2) 1/2 K= proportional constant P1-p2=pressure difference. Types of control valve A different type of control valve is classified by a relationship between the valve stem position and the flow rate through the valve. and to some extent. A control valve change Flowrate by changing the pressure in a flow system because it introduces a constriction in the delivery system. for this type. the placement of a construction in pipe introduces a pressure difference across the pipe. an equal percentage. a close relation exists between the pressure along a pipe and the Flowrate so that if the pressure is changed then the Flowrate is also changed. A feed back linkage between valve stem and Positioner is established so that stem position can be noted by the instrument and compared with the position dieted by the control signal. But because the valve opening does change the Flowrate. hence. There are situations. the geometrical structure of the delivery system. where process dynamic eliminates the use of Positioner. Use of the Positioner is generally desirable to liberalize the control valve plug position with the control signal. Linear:This type of valve has a flow rate varies linearly with the stem position. . the flow rate) is not a predictable function of the valve opening only. Positioner receives an input signal either pneumatically or electrically and provide output power. The control valve characteristics are assigned with the assumption that the stem position indicates the extent of the valve opening and the pressure difference is determined by the valve alone. In the figure below. At the other extreme. it provides a mechanism of flow control. The Positioner will improve the performances control valve systems. the valve allow a flow Q max its maximum. however. There are three basic types of control valve those relation ship between position (as percentage of full range) and flow rate (as percentage of maximum) is given by 1. In general. on the material flowing through the valve. this type of valve not shut off the flow completely in its limit of stem level. generally pneumatically. open valve. to on actuator to assure valve positioning. 2. that is. The constant K depends on the size of the valve. Generally. Quick opening:This type of valve is predominately for fully on / full off control application. Now the actual pressure of the entire fluid delivery (and sink) system in which valve is used (and. help improve control by accurately positioning a control valve actuator in response to control signal.the relationship expressed as Q/ Q max= S/S max Where Q= Flowrate Q max = maximum Flowrate S=stem position and S max = maximum stem position 3. It represents the ideal situation where the valve control determine the pressure drop .10 A control valve regulates the Flowrate in a fluid delivery system. This Q min represents the minimum flow that one limits of its travel. Equal percentage valve: A very important type of valve employed in he flow control has characteristics such that a given percentage change In the stem position produce an equivalent change in flow. Such a valve for example may allow 90% of flow rate with only a 30% of travel of stem. we define the range ability R as the ratio R= Q max/Q min Control valve accessories:Positioner:Positioners are instruments which. flow rate .
11 Pneumatic Amplifier:A pneumatic amplifier is also called a relay. pressure etc. Upon loss in the electrical power the solenoid valve is closed the port of valve Positioner and build the pressure from the diaphragm. some mechanism must be physically open or closed the valve. the diaphragm motion will move the plug in the body block of the booster. Auxiliary power is provided for actuator action by pneumatic volume tank. F= forced Many type of pneumatic actuator are available but control valve is the most common. A =diaphragm area. activate a control signal. This is accomplished via a regulator i. Solenoid valve:It is used for switching application of control valve it provides the over ride equipment and fail safe interlock. the o/p world be 30-150 psi. the gas leak is reduced and the pressure in o/p line increased. Thus if the booster has a pressure gain 10. This device is designed for used in process control applications involving liquid gas or vapor Flowrate. the switch can be fully integrated or fully adjustable unit with multiple switches or stand alone switch and trip equipments. Trip valve:It is a special type of valve where a specific actuator action is required when supply pressure fails or goes bellow a specific value. Pneumatic actuator :If a valve is used to control to fluid flow. for i/p of 3-15 psi. Control valve controls the process variable directly (as flow. Generally the instrument air supply is 4-7kg/cm2 output of input converter 0. I to P converter:The current to pressure converter is a very important element in process control . When the pressure goes bellow the specific value the trip valve causes the valve to trip. level).2-1kg/cm2. often when we want to use the flow level electric current to do work .e. Increasing the control pressure applied on the diaphragm scenes the stem position Air filter pressure regulator:The purpose of air pressure regulator is to control air pressure. its The most general type of final control element is control valve. If the motion is down.) or indirectly (as temperature. It based on forced-area relationship F=(p1-p2)xA Where p1-p2 = pressure difference. It has a metallic filter that absorbs moisture and dust and cleans the air. Limit switch: Electrical power switch are used to provide the operation of alarm signal light relays etc. rise the pressure and . This device is shown the reverse acting because a high signal pressure will cause o/p pressure to decrease. As the signal pressure varies. Volume booster:- ./ or air flow volume by some linearly proportional amount from input signal.
Ball valve also capable of higher flow rate capacity of glob valve. Bourdon tubes are the most favored mechanical element for measurement of pressure and constitute an important group of primary transducer . Ball valve:The ball valve consist of a spherical ball as sealing element it is an on off valve. The fluid passes to restricted opening and change direction several times. As a result pressure drop is large the glob valve.12 The volume booster is normally used in control valve actuator to increase the stocking speed. Plug valve:It is operated by moving a tapered plug their by varying the gap between the plug and the valve shift. Measurement Pressure Measurement Pressure gauge:In case of process measurement system most commonly use for indicating instruments is pressure gauge. Manual hand wheel: For override control a manual hand wheel is provided for emergency or mal functioning. Ball valve 4. Butterfly valve 5.. Globe valve 3. The devices incorporates a dead band features to adjust their response and eliminates instabilities. The opening increases almost linearly with stem position and wear is evenly distributed around the disk. It has occasional application in flow control. Plug valve Gate valve:In this valve the diameter of the opening through which the fluid passes is nearly same as that of the pipe and direction of the flow does not change as a results wide open gate valve is not used for controlling flow and usually left as fully open or closed. The flow is control by the linear movement of the valve stem. General classifications of valve Valve are generally classified as 1. In this gauge the primary sensing element bourdon tube element. Nearly all actuator are equipped with gear style or screw style hand wheel. Gate valve 2. Globe valve:Globe valve is widely used for controlling flow.
. enabling communication with the source of pressure while the other end is closed an sealed. Due the pressure difference between the inside and outside of he tube. common 2. 1 = gas filter. Incorporating a getter stabilizes the operation of the transducer by absorbing gas molecules in the reference cavities. . The specific conditions for measuring a vacuum require using filters to keep the sensing chamber free of contamination. electronics part 1.13 for converting pressure into linear and angular displacement. Normally opened. Some transducer designs require a high-temperature bake-out of the elements to drive gas molecules out of the surfaces that are in contact with the fluid. There is no significant difference between this transducer and the conventional capacitive pressure gage. 5 = evacuated and sealed chamber. 2. There is an actuator after the diaphragm which moves the liver. So according the movement of the lever a micro switch is made closed or open. c-bourdon Diaphragm The most typical diaphragm-type manometer used for measuring a vacuum is a variable-capacitance transducer with a metal diaphragm deflected by the measured pressure. In the electronic part three type of terminal are there 1. There is also provisions to adjust the set point manually according to the desired pressured by a nut. normally closed 3. which is used for measuring absolute or differential pressure. One end of the tube is attached to a rigid base. The diaphragm is positioned close to stationary plates. having freedom of movement. 3 and 4 = electrodes. the cross-section of the tube is deform and the tube bends to acquire a circular cross-section this resulting effect being the displacement of the free tip. Mechanical part senses the pressure of line by diaphragm. Pressure switch It consist of two parts 1. This out gassing is performed prior to measurements. mechanical part 2. Pv = vacuum. 2 = diaphragm. The pressure is measured by sensing the capacitances formed by the diaphragm and plates.
cm 0. It is a sensor which operates on the principle that the resistance increases with an increase in temperature at a specific rate. • Specific resistance in Ω/cc must be within limits that will allow fabrication of practical size of element.0042 0.In PSH common and NC is taken.28 0.0067 ℓ µΩ-cm 9.00385(std. Pressured switch high: . so that neither of Rt. Material Platinum Range(oC) -250 to 700 1 Ω/Ω/oC 0.002 In case of platinum’s resistance temperature relation ship is more linear than other.56 6. • Small resistance change due to non-temperature effect(strain. The metal used must have the following g properties:• Extremely stable resistance temperature relationship.14 Pressure switch low: .002 0. 2 drift with repeated heating & cooling within the specified range of operation. . Temperature measurement RTD .) 0.In PSL generally common and NO is taken the circuit is made by application pressure that is at normal condition.83 Minimum wire dia.00392(ref. When the pressured goes down to the set point the actuator comes down and the circuit is open and trips an alarm. The relation ship between resistance of RTD and temperature change is expressed by this series n Rt= Ro(1+∑j(∆t)j ) j=1 In narrow range of operation Rt= Ro(1+(∆t) ) Commonly manufacturers are using a platinum resistance element. More accurate and more linear than most thermocouples and generally much more costly and slower responding. contamination) • Large resistance large with temperature higher sensitivity • Material must not undergo change in phase or state within responsible temperature range. 1.Abbreviation for Resistance Temperature Detector.0063 to 0. grade ) 0. When the pressure goes to up to set point the actuator goes up and make the circuit close and give rise to the alarm.002 Copper Nickel -200 to 250 -100 to 350 1.
A continuous level sensor.15 • • Must be commercially available. measures the fluid level within a measurement range. point level measurement and continuous level measurement. Generally. Point level sensors are used to mark a single discrete liquid height. In case of switch in a given span it on/off the switch (bimetallic element is most used). This analog signal from the sensor may be directly linked to a visual indicator or to a process control loop.A temperature sensor based on the principle that a voltage is produced when two dissimilar metals. and may be used in a wide variety of industries. Level Measurement Introduction:Level measurement is an integral part of process control. rather than at a specific.4 wired for different sensitivity. or as a marker for a low alarm condition. This principle is called Sea beck Effect E J K N T • • • • • Chromel (+) Constantan (-) Iron (+) Constantan (-) Chromel (+) Alumel (-) Nicrosil (+) Nisil (-) Copper (+) Constantan (-) 95-900C 95-760C 95-1260C 650-1260C -200-350C Temperature range must be measured evaluation of operation physically space limitation method of insulation response time Temperature gauge &switch:-In this type of instrument the thermal expansion property is used. as the name implies. RTD may be used be 2. Level measurement may be divided into two categories. Thermocouple . to signal the existence of an overfill condition. this type of sensor is used as a high alarm.3. The junction produces a voltage in proportion to the difference in temperature between the measuring junction and the reference junction. single point. The more sophisticated continuous level sensors can provide complete level monitoring of a system. forming a level management system. When temperature increased the free end bends this displacement is transferred to angular displacement which is calibrated. a preset level condition. . The continuous level sensor provides an analog output that directly correlates to the level within the containing vessel.
The transmission is intensified when the liquid wets the crystals. ceramic or magnetostrictive elements at an ultrasound frequency have greater amplitude in gas than in liquid. alternately transmitting and receiving pulses that pass along the liquid height and are reflected from the surface back to the tank bottom. So we can measure the capacitance at zero level and at 100% level and calibrate the transmitter. Usually one crystal acts. In this type of case the liquid level must not below(case of bottom position of sensor)or above( in case of top position of sensor) Point-level detection is also performed by two piezoceramic crystals oriented toward each other across the inside of a tank. Some constructions contain separate elements for generating and receiving the pulse. change in capacitance is happened due to change in dielectric media . Wetting the elements causes a decrease in the amplitude. In case of non-conducting liquid the immersed electrode does not need to insulate but case of conducting liquid must be insulated the electrode. The increase in the output voltage of the receiving crystal indicates that the level has reached the specific point. providing the detection of the liquid level . . Point-level or continuous-level sensing is provided by measuring the time lapse between the transmission and reception of the ultrasound pulses generated by ceramic crystals at the bottom/top of the tank. At level increased.16 Capacitive-Level Sensors: Capacitive level sensors serve as continuous and point-level sensors by measuring the capacitance between two electrodes immersed in the liquid and the electro conductive tank's wall. C = (ε l l1 + ε v 2 l ) / [2 ln (r1 / r2)] Ultrasonic Level Measurement Oscillations of quartz. • Case of powder silo level measurement the sensor position must be at top of vessel. One of the crystals transmits ultrasonic waves and the other one receives them.
g. In differential pressure type level measurement take two pressure from top of vessel/tank and bottom of the vessel/tank.. In which the atmospheric pressure is eliminated. g= acceleration due to gravity. h= height of liquid.17 • Must be maintain a suitable distance of sensor and the powder don’t cross the maximum level . Float Type Level measurement:In Float type or displacer type measurement Archimedes principle is used . The float carries a member having a can be actuated by the proximity of the float. p2-p1=∆p=hℓg h=∆p/(ℓg) Where p1=pressure at the top. ℓ= density of liquid . Differential pressure type level measurement The most commonly used in industry for measuring level of liquid is differential pressure type level measurement. p2=pressure at bottom. In the float mechanically links the switching mechanism through the sealing in the wall (e. ∆p= differential pressure . The switching system can respond to the restraining force developed by a spring element connected to the float or by an actuator of a force-balance servo system. • In case of DP type level measurement in slurry material their must be purging in both two pipe & no difference in DP.In a float-type level sensor the buoyancy force holds the float on the surface of the liquid. bellows). .
tuning fork. The various version ensures it can be used in wide range of application including zone 10 dust explosion area and food stubs.grain.18 Bubbler type level measurement The operation of a air bubbler is similar to blowing air into a glass of water with straw. Features and benefices:• No calibration • In sensitive to build up • No moving part • Various electronics inserts • Plastic housing cover . Bubbler type level sensor has been used for as long as compressed air has. powder. by pressure switch for alarming and transmitter for remote display or monitoring. Typical applications: . The pipe tip should be kept about 3 inch(75mm)from the bottom of the tank to kept it from clogging by sediment.Soliphant is a ragged limit switch for silos containing powder or fine grained solid including those which with very low bulk density. and the other for the level indicating pressure gauge. Pressure gauge or manometer is used for level indication measure the pressure in the dipped pipe. 200 to 400 Hz . The dipped pipe is large in diameter (2 inch or 50 inch ) in order to minimize to the pressure drop as the air flows through it.85Hz). Applications:. the air pressure in the dipped pipe also changes. 120Hz. Bubbler type level Measurement Vibration type level switch There is a number of level switch designs which keeping to a probe or other element in oscillation or in natural frequency vibration and triggering a relay when the process material in the tank reaches the vibrating element and damped out the vibration. The dipped pipe or tube material must be selected to match the corrosive nature of the process fluid. The read probe. chalk. plastics granules. and the tuning fork vibration are distinguished only in their frequencies of oscillation (reed. the air will bubble out at the bottom of the pipe. If the air pressure entering the dipper pipe is greater than the hydrostatic head of the process fluid in the tank. The more water is in the glass the harder one needs to blow. plaster cement. probe. one for the regulated air supply. As liquid level changes. Two separate should be made to this pipe.
Rota meters 1. The Turndown Rate for orifice plates is less than 5:1. Figure 1 Bernoulli Theorem The most common types of differential pressure flow meters are: 1. where the pressure drop and the further measured signal is a function of the square flow speed. Orifice. with a sharp edge to the upstream side. A high accuracy depends on an orifice plate in good shape. the fluid flow is measured through the difference in pressure from the upstream side to the downstream side of a partially obstructed pipe.Orifice Plates 2. The plate obstructing the flow offers a precisely measured obstruction that narrows the pipe and forces the flowing fluid to constrict. Mass Flow meters Differential Pressure Flow meters: In a differential pressure drop device the flow is calculated by measuring the pressure drop over an obstructions inserted in the flow. Nozzle and Venturi Meters Venturi Tube . The differential pressure flow meter is based on the Bernoulli’s Equation. Variable Area . Their accuracy are poor at low flow rates. Wear reduces the accuracy. Orifice Plate With an orifice plate.19 Flow Measurement The most common principals for fluid flow metering are: 1 Differential Pressure Flow meters 2. Figure: Orifice Plate The orifice plates are simple. cheap and can be delivered for almost any application in any material. Venturi Tubes 3.
than the orifice plate can provide.Critical Flow Nozzle When a gas accelerate through a nozzle. where it breaks Mach 1 or sonic. The Turndown Rate and accuracy can be compared with the orifice plate.20 Due to simplicity and dependability. In the Venturi Tube the fluid flow rate is measured by reducing the cross sectional flow area in the flow path. This situation is used in many control systems to maintain fixed. Nozzles and Venturi Meters After the pressure difference has been generated in the differential pressure flow meter. is recovered. After the constricted area. repeatable gas flow rates unaffected by the downstream pressure. Figure Venturi Tube With proper instrumentation and flow calibrating. the Venturi Tube flow rate can be reduced to about 10% of its full scale range with proper accuracy. Orifice. At this point it's not possible to increase the flow by lowering the downstream pressure. where up to 80% of the differential pressure generated at the constricted area. and available for many applications in many materials. The maximum velocity is achieved at the throat. or lower pressure drops. Orifice. the Venturi tube flow meter is often used in applications where it's necessary with higher Turndown Rates. . Nozzle and Venturi Meters Flow Nozzles Flow nozzles are often used as measuring elements for air and gas flow in industrial applications. the velocity increase and the pressure and the gas density decrease. Recovery of Pressure Drop in Orifices. This provides a Turndown Rate 10:1. the fluid is passes through a pressure recovery exit section. accurate. the minimum area. Nozzle and Venturi Meters The Sonic Nozzle . where the differential pressure generated at the constricted area is partly recovered. generating a pressure difference. Flow Nozzle The flow nozzle is relative simple and cheap. the fluid pass through the pressure recovery exit section.
The accuracy may be as good as 1% of full scale rating. Variable Area Flow meter or Rota meter The Rota meter consists of a vertically oriented glass (or plastic) tube with a larger end at the top. the pressure drop in orifice plates are significant higher than in the Venturi tubes. viscosity and density. The height of the float is an indication of the flow rate. Magnetic floats can be used for alarm and signal transmission functions. and a metering float which is free to move within the tube. . The tube can be calibrated and graduated in appropriate flow units. and downward gravity factors. temperature. Mass measurement is not sensible to changes in pressure. Coriolis Flow meter Direct mass measurement sets Coriolis flow meters apart from other technologies. With the ability to measure liquids. Fluid flow uses the float to rise in the tube as the upward pressure differential and buoyancy of the fluid overcome the effect of gravity. The float rises until the annular area between the float and tube increases sufficiently to allow a state of dynamic equilibrium between the upward differential pressure and buoyancy factors.21 As we can see. slurries and gases. The Rota meters typically have a Turn down Ratio up to 12:1. Coriolis flow meters are universal meters.
These transducer devices. but real load cells cannot be made in this simple way.22 Coriolis Mass Flow meter uses the Coriolis Effect to measure the amount of mass moving through the element. called load cells. A measure of the weight through a load cell yields a measure of the quantity of material in the hopper. Weight Measurement Load Cell:One important direct application of Strain Gauge is for the measurement of force or weight. The fluid to be measured runs through a U-shaped tube that is caused to vibrate in an angular harmonic oscillation. measure deformations produced by the force or weight. The problem is that forces applied to the top of the load cell may cause it to lean or bend. better than +/-0. In such a case. Generally. In general. The Coriolis flow meters are in general very accurate. Forces as high as 5 MN (approximately 106 Ibo) can be measured with an appropriate load cell. by measuring the change in the resistance by Bridge circuit. Obviously. The form of load cell considered Figure is fine for illustrating principles. Practical load cells are made with yoke assemblies designed so that mounted strain gauges cannot be exposed to stresses other than those caused by the compress ional force applied to the cell. the tubes will deform and an additional vibration component will be added to the oscillation. A common application uses one of these devices in support of a hopper or feed of dry or liquid materials. this will alter the correct interpretation of the result. instead of simply compressing. . these devices are calibrated so that the force (weight) is directly related to the resistance change. a beam or yoke assembly is used that has several strain gauges mounted so that the application of a force causes a strain in the assembly that is measured by the gauges. one side surface of the beam may experience compression while the other side undergoes tension. This additional component causes a phase shift on some places of the tubes which can be measured with sensors.1% with an turndown rate more than 100:1. The Coriolis meter can also be used to measure the fluids density. Due to the Coriolis forces.
These are also considered by the microprocessor to correct the weighing result.000. These coefficients are taken into consideration when the microprocessor computes the weight value. The weight value thus determined is dynamically updated and serially transmitted to a microcomputer controller. The particular feature of the load cell is an additionally integrated filtering system for dynamic electronic vibration attenuation eliminating the influence of ambient vibrations.Load Cell Type IDL-F.23 Digital load cell:- The deflection less Intelligent Digital Load Cell Type IDL-F with “vibrating wire” issued as a weighing module for dynamic weighing in continuous and batch wise gravimetric Brabender metering feeders. . corrective coefficients are stored in an EEPROM. which is read in by an integrated microprocessor.000. Function: Electric exciters excite a pretensioned wire resulting in resonance Vibration of the wire. The filters can be operated as a statically or dynamically controlled filtering system. The only further interferences that require compensation are temperature changes. The wire frequency is almost a parabolic function of the load exerted on the load cell. To optimize the linearity. Three interactive software filters attenuate low frequency vibrations filtering the weight value via several (24 at maximum) eight-stage filters. which is also integrated in the load cell. The Intelligent Digital Load Cell IDL-F is available as a load cell for installation in weighing systems or as platform scale modules. featuring an internal resolution Of 1:1.
The L/D ratio of capillary is made constant where L is the length of the capillary and D be the diameter of the capillary. the magnitude of which is in proportion to the O2 concentration of the electrolyte. By virtue of melt flow index (MFI) we can know about the property of the polymer properly. In case of polymer plant it is mandatory to supervise the grade of polymer always. is proportional to the oxygen concentration in the sample gas. Melt flow index is define by the weight of the polymer discharged trough a capillary at 190o C .2 psig pressure. The sample gas diffuse through a diffusion barrier to the cathode of the electrochemical cell where it is reduced to hydroxyl ins. . To analyze the polymer grade continuously MFI analyzer is used. spontaneous Reaction. which results in the cell current that. Cathode: O2 + 2H2O + 4 electrons 4(OH)Anode : 2Pb (2Pb++) + 4electrons These electrons cause a current flow through the electrolyte.An external voltage drives This reaction. MFI analyzer It is a standard of grading different polymer families.43.24 Analyzers Oxygen Analyzer The oxygen content of the electrolyte is brought into equilibrium with that of the sample . Due to the conductivity of KOH electrolyte the Ions migrate to the anode where they are oxidized back to O2 . No external voltage.
motor. With this measurement the shear rate / shear stress relationship of a polymer can be determine and converted into melt flow index of apparent viscosity. Motor speed control system.C. The MSC has a minimum or maximum adjustment. In the flow passage barrel (measurement head) the melt temperature is regulated by 2 zone of .speed control loop: . capillary pressure is sensing by the pressure transducer just above the capillary entrance. There is an acceleration circuit in motor speed controller tip. In normal operate mode the remote control unit pressure PID loop compare the pressure signal with the loop set point signal and in the motor speed control signal(0-10v D. is converted into a +/.In the analysis mode of operation (closed loop system) the required shear rate is developed by control of the pump speed.the temperature control system maintain the polymer melt at precise test temperature.C. A large diameter capillary is used to the capillary L/D ratio is decreased. There is an acceleration circuit in the motor speed controller to protect the transducer. The measurement head receives the polymer melt then pumps it through capillary orifice measuring both Flowrate and pressure drop across capillary.C.C.C. is sent to the motor speed controller to drive the D. In the signal conditioning module the pressure(mV signal. the require pressure droop[ across the capillary is developed by the control by the polymer Flowrate (pump speed ). The tachometer signal is converted from a pulse strain into a pump shaft frequency. The transducers are bounded strain gauge which makes direct contact with polymer. Motor speed control system pressure loop : in the analysis mode of operation (closed loop) .) is send too the motor speed controller to drive the D. The motor speed control converts the high-level controller signal to a full wave phase control D. signal to drive the motor. Change in the cavity pressure produce a stress change in the transducer bridge resistance which result in the electrical signal proportional to the pressure change. The temperature control system: .C. motor. The motor speed control converts the high-level controller signal to a full wave phase control D. signal to drive the motor. protect the transducer on starter. Speed measurement system: the metering pump motor and the tachometer are directly coupled together so tachometer signal is calibrated to read out to the pump. In the normal operate mode the remote control unit speed PID loop compares the speed signal with the loop set point signal and motor speed control signal 0-10v D. General operation Pressure measurement system : The pressure transducer are located in the measurement rate converted cavity pressure into electrical signal. The Flowrate is necessary to produce this pressure droop through capillary depends on the polymer viscosity and capillary geometry. Consequently pump speed will be increased if the polymer viscosity decrease.25 schematic diagram of MFI analyzer Introduction MFI analyzer is connected to polymer melt to be tested through the transfer line. Pump speed is sensed by the digital tachometer located in front of motor.10v dc signal are send to the CPU analog to digital converter.
With respect to the static state. In the remote control unit the appropriate temperature control Loop compares the temperature signal with a loop set point and time proportional pulse is developed. The second temperature control. the energy relation at the isentropic stagnation point of an ideal probe is : Pt VP ∫ dp/ρ =∫ (Vp)dV/(gc) P 0 Vp = the approach velocity at the probe location. proper insulation.(( γ-1)/ γ).(Vp) 2 /(2gc) Where γ = ratio of specific heats Assuming isentropic stagnation at the sensing point at the probe Pt VP ∫ dp/ρ =∫ (Vp)dV/(gc) P 0 Where using English unit. This point is known as stagnation point. Annubar Basic principle:The annubar works upon the basic principal of Pitot tube. The polymer melt temperature is read by melt thermocouple located opposite the pressure transducer due to the characteristics of the thermocouple RTD probes will e provide more accurate reading to the test temperature. the fluid while approaching the object start losing its velocity till directly in front of the body where the velocity is zero. The largely account between the polymer feed and test temperature. The polymer resident time. Vp=velocity of approach (ft/s) P= pressure (lb/ft2) Ρ= fluid density (lbm/ft3) . thermal mass. which controls the ac voltage to the associated heater. The processor temperature is read by grade "A" three wire RTD. Thus. the integration yields at a point Pt – P = Pv = P. The first control zone is around the metering pump.(capillary transducer area). zone regulates the test zone itself. In the signal conditioning module the temperature signal ids converted into +/. P = the static pressured of the fluid whether in motion or at rest Pv = the dynamic pressured equal to the kinetic energy of fluid. Pt = P + Pv Where Pt = total pressure which can be sensed by fixed probe provided the fluid stagnates at the sensing point in an isentropic manner. signal and send to the CPU A/D converter.C. the velocity is found out The stagnation pressure on a body immersed in a moving liquid is the sum of the static pressure and dynamic pressured. This pulse is used to control a solid-state relay. ρ = fluid density gc=constant For a liquid of constant density.26 closed loop temperature control. When a solid body is held centrally and stationary in a pipe line with a fluid streaming down due to the presence of the body. By measuring the difference of the pressure between that at normal flow line and at the stagnation point.10v D. As the kinematics head is loosed by the fluid it gains a static head. (Vp)2 /(2gc) For a compressible perfect gas for which P/( ργ) remains constant during an isentropic change a similar relation emerges Pt – P = Pv = ρ.
How Annubar Works:- Diamond II Annubar flow sensor are patent primary flow sensing element. Sensing ports are located are both located in both upstream & down stream side of Annubar primary flow element. The pressure drop across the sensor is minimal because of its very low restriction to flow. They are inserted into the flow stream across the pipe diameter. The Pitot tube measures the fluid flow velocity by converting the kinetic energy of the flow into potential energy. The upstream & down stream ports & plenum produce an average reference pressure.5 Vp=C---------------ρ Principle Of Operation:The Pitot tube are one the most used (and cheapest) ways to measure fluid flow. the dynamic pressure can be measured across the velocity profile. especially in air applications as ventilation and HVAC systems. whence (Pt-P) 0.27 gc= 32. The number of port is proportional to pipe diameter. The difference is an accurate & stable DP signal i. With the "annubar". The use of the Pitot tube is restricted to point measuring. of 70:1 or more. These port are connected to dual averaging plenums. and the annubar obtains an averaging effect. even used in airplanes for the speed measurement.(( γ-1)/ γ).(Vp) 2 /(2gc) γ is the ratio of specific heat in order to compute the point velocities it is necessary to measure both point value of static pressure(P) and total pressure(Pt).2(lbm/lbf)(ft/s2) if density is constant the integration yields Pt – P = Pv = ρ.e proportional to Flow rate . . or multi-orifice pitot probe.(Vp)2 /(2gc) For a compressible perfect gas for which P/( ργ) remains constant during an isentropic Change a similar relation is obtain Pt – P = Pv = ρ.
HA2. The diamond II shape is the key to accuracy the repeatability.QS1.VA8SV. Pipe Size:.IHDS.FA8C.0003958 ANNUBAR Flow Coefficient K . The design of the sensor ensure that plumage of the sensing ports does not occur in particular laden fluid Annubar Calculation Model:-DHF-35.GV8SA.FA8C. Fluid:.Water.QI1.P equation Liquid volume Rate of flow: 2 C'= Fna x K x D x Fra x Fm x Faa x Fl x √ (1/ Gf) Hw = (qa/c’) 2 Qa = C' x √(hw) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------Description Term value units --------------------------------------------------------------------------------Units Conversion Factor . The patent shape provides a smooth and stable point of fluid separation between the high and the low side.55 mm Manometer Factor Fm 1 Gauge location Factor Fl 1 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- . --------------------------------------------------------------------------------D.36SCH10.QE8.CA2S.28 The Annubar primary flow element sensor technology is key to increase performance of the ProBar and mass proBar flow meter.6416 Internal Pipe Diameter D 898.
7 kg/cm2 G & 33 C Max Allowable DP: 1400 mm H20 @33 C Flow at maximum allowable DP:7671.6 1030.6 m3/H Do Not Insert Flo-tap above 350 mm H2O Flow al maximum Insert DP 3840 m3/H Natural frequency 73.29 Measuring Max Nor.1 Kg/m3 Flowing Spec Gravity Gf 1 Flowing Pressure Pf 4. Units Range -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Flowrate Qa 7000 6538 5548 m3/H Calculation Constant C' 205. Annular setup step1:Liquid Service in a Horizontal Pipe:- .033 205.060 $ in comparison to Orifice Plate.9 CPS Maximum allowable Pressure 99.3 kg/cm2 G @33 C And Temperature 204 C -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------This ANNUBAR provides annual saving upto 17.033 205.7 kg/cm2 G Differential Pressure hw 1165.9 732.19 mm H20 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- LIMITS Customer Design P & T: 4.8 Centipoise Flowing Temperature Tf 33 C Thermal Expansion Factor Faa 1 Flowing Density pf 999.033 Pipe Reynolds Number Rd 3441200 3236200 2727400 Reynolds Number factor Fra 1 1 1 Flowing Viscosity uf 0.
For horizontal pipes. Determine the diameter of the hole to be drilled. 1. sensor 15/16 25/26 35/36 45/46 Diameter 7/18 7/8 1-5/16 2-1/8 . 2. Note: Drille the hole 180degree from the first hole from opposite side support module. Select the location for the hole you are about to drill. Drill a Hole for Opposite-Side Support A second hole must be drilled for the opposite-side support weld coupling if opposite-side support is supplied. Use the chart in Figure 3-7. STEP 2:DRILL THE HOLE IN THE PIPE Follow the steps below to drill the hole in the pipe. deburr the hole on the inside of the pipe. Remove the wire or string and measure half of the circumference length. Do not position the Annubar within 50 degrees of the horizontal axis unless full bleeding of air from the probe is possible. 2. Figure below illustrates the recommended location for the Annubar when used with liquid service. Re-wrap the half-length around the pipe from the center of the first hole. 5. After the hole is drilled. as shown in Figure. 4. the hole location depends upon the service for which the Annubar is to be used: • Liquid service: drill the hole along the bottom of the pipe • Gas service: drill the hole along the top of the pipe • Steam service: drill the hole along the bottom of the pipe 3. This hole must be the same diameter as the first hole. Mark the center of what will become the second hole. Depressurize and drain the pipe. Wrap a piece of soft wire or string around the pipe to measure the pipe’s circumference. Deburr the drill hole inside of the pipe. 3. Use the following steps to find the location for the second hole: 1. place it directly opposite the first hole so that the sensor can pass completely through the pipe. 4. Select a location anywhere around the circumference of the pipe for vertical pipes.30 Install the flow meter within 40 degrees of the vertical axis to prevent air from becoming entrapped within the probe.
wrap the factory-supplied heavy aluminum foil around the threads before welding. Install the first packing ring on the Annubar between the lock ring and the packing follower. Align the head and transmitter so they are parallel with the ground. then into the hole. 3. 2. 1. Insert the flowmeter into the adapter body until the sensor tip contacts the pipe wall (or support plug). If the tip did not touch the wall. 3. tack welding fitting to the pipe To protect the weld fitting threads from weld splatter. Use a sealant compound rated for use at the process temperature on the threads. Repeat this process for the two remaining rings. alternating the location of the packing ring split by 180 degrees. take care not to damage the split packing rings. Insert the Annubar assembly into the factory-supplied weld fitting (with integral support ring). Mark the tip of the Annubar sensor with a marker. 5. Tack weld the fitting(s) to the pipe and remove the Annubar. and re-install the Annubar. or use a thread protector cap. 4. 6. 2. STEP 4: INSERT THE ANNUBAR INTO THE PIPE After the mounting hardware has cooled. as shown in Figure Be sure to allow the mounting to cool or serious burns may occur. as shown in Figure in above . adjust the adapter body until sensor tip touches the wall. Figure 3-11 illustrates the Annubar insertion process described here. Remove the flowmeter. . install the adapter body and support plug (if required). Push the packing ring into the adapter body and against the weld-lock ring.31 STEP 3: TACK WELD THE FITTINGS TO THE PIPE Follow these steps to tack weld the fittings to the pipe: 1. Verify that the sensor tip touched the pipe wall.
. Use a wrench to tighten the Pak-Lok nut in ¼ turn increments until it has been tightened one full turn. go back to step 3. NOTE Use a maximum of 1-¼ turns when installing the sensor. damage to the sensor will result. The Pak-Lok nut should be tightened only enough to prevent leakage. With the flow arrow on the Annubar head pointed in the direction of the pipe flow. thread the Pak-Lok nut onto the adapter fitting until it is hand tight only. This is critical when installing Annubar models with a sensor size of 15 or 16. 7. Do not overtighten the Pak-Lok nut.32 packing ring insulation Annubar Averaging Pitot Tube NOTE If the Annubar appears to be too long. Verify that the adapter body was installed into the weld fitting before the Annubar was installed. 8.
The measured vapor pressured can be used to determine the weight content of dissolved water with in an organic liquid by Henry’s law which states that the mass of gas dissolved by a given volume of solvent. The number of water molecules absorbed is proportional to the fugacity (in thermodynamics. In general. The aluminum base and the gold layer from the two electrodes of what is essentially an aluminum ode capacitor. fugacity is means of the tendency of a substance to escape by some chemical process from the phase in which it exists) of the water in the liquid. Water vapor is rapidly transported through the gold layer and absorbed by the pore walls of the sensor. In most cases it is directly proportional o the concentration of dissolve water in the organic liquid. T equilibrium conditions. The concentration of water in the organic liquid . The number of water molecule absolved determines the probe wall conductivity which influence the value of the sensor’s electrical impedance. The water vapor pressure at the measurement location is the result of not only . The surface of aluminum oxide sensor can then be viewed as a semi permeable structure allowing the measurement of water vapor pressure in liquid organic in the some manner as is accomplished in gaseous medium. the fugacity of the water in the liquid are equivalent to the water vapor pressure above the liquid. equals the partial pressure of water vapor times constant Cw=KPw The Panametrics aluminum oxide hygrometer has been designed to measure reliably the moisture content of gases and liquid. whether immersed directly in the fluid or pleased in gas space immediately above. A very thin coating of gold is evaporated over this structure. admission into the pore cavity is limited to the small molecule such as water.33 Moisture Analyzer About Al2O3 Analyzer:The aluminum oxide sensor consists of an aluminum strip anodized to provide a porous oxide layer. that is the measure vapor pressure is identical in both phase. at constant temperature . The aluminum oxide transducer identical values of electrical output. is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas with which it is in equilibrium. Since the pore opening are small in relation of the size of most organic molecule. expressed in part per million by weight of milligram per liter.
Corrosive particulate: . The moisture content of the gases as H2O. Effects of contaminants Industrial gases and liquid often contain particulate matter such as carbon particles .chemical liquid droplets . The sampling system containing the sensor must be pre dried with an inert gas prior to passage of the corrosive steam 3. Corrosive gases and liquids M-series sensor have been designed to minimize the affect of corrosive gases and liquids. This minimizes wall effects and will result in higher dew point with subsequent increased sensitivity . This technique has been successfully for example. Inline measurement The sensor can be used in line continuously monitor in drying process. Employ the lowest possible pressure. a decrease in resistance decrease will cause an increasing in meter reading . the element is designed for directly with in the region to be measured The most frequent question associated with the moisture measurement system occurs when:1.In general non conductive liquid particulate condensing is not seriously hindering the performance of the sensor. Temperature: . cyanide containing gases acetic acid vapor. 2. Thus conductive particulate across the sensor leads or on the sensor surface can leave to reduce the impedance with an erroneous high dew point.e. dust molecular sieve for alumina dust . Assuming the . Material which should be avoided are rubber elastomers and related compound . If the above effects are noted then they are almost always the result of a system . Conductive particulate: .The preferred material of construction especially for any sampling system are SS.Since the hygrometer reading is inversely proportional to the impedance.The material that will corrode the Al deleteriously affect the operation of the sensor.34 the moisture content of the fluid entering into the system but also due to deception of the moisture from associated piping.The response time of the Panametrics standard M-series is very rapid . The Panametrics hygrometer is very rapid . The moisture content of the corrosive gases must be 10ppm or less @1 atmosphere or concentration of the corrosive species must be 10ppm or less @1 atms.Their effect on the operation of the Panametrics sensor is given bellow A. Pressure:. A. SO2.The sensor is expose to pressure changes the measured dew point will be related to the vapor pressure of water . It is generally advantageous to operate at the highest pressure especially at very low moisture concentration . B. The only precaution should be observed is that it is recommended that the ambient temperature should be +10oC. The system must be purged with dry inert gases prior to the removal of sensor 4.An increasing flow rate and temperature can decrease response time of whole system . The point changes as the temperature changes 4. in drying photographic film Under a particular set of operating condition the sensor meter reading can be calibrated versus solids with more moisture contain (Flowrate temperature and pressure ).Br2 Solid applications A. C. Cl2 . Nonconductive particulate: . rust particles . B. and other is directly measured.SO2. These precautions and condition are follows:1. Flowrate: . On rare occasion it may become logged under the contact arm of the sensor. leaks in the piping system.The Panametrics hygrometer is insensitive to Flowrate changes. C.The hygrometer is insensitive to temperature. salt . When two sensor read the same or almost same dew point then drying process is complete.The Panametrics Hygrometer will measure the dew point of a system at all pressure from a few micron of Hg vacuum pressure to 5000 psig . Response Time:. These condition and precautions have led to successful application in such cases as HCl . No copper solder or epoxy is used in the construction of the sensor. Response time is very slow. is insensitive to temperature and flow rate and measure the vapor pressure of water only . polymerized substances . One advantage of this hygrometer is that it can be used for measurement i.can be present . The maximum velocity limitation is 5000 cm/sec is limitation of mechanical stability rather than the Flowrate sensitivity. 3. 2. The parts per million value changes as the total gas pressure changes. The dew point changes as the flow rate changes. D.
set at 48oC to 52 oC for 24 hrs. The increase in a moisture content of hydrocarbon can then be used to calculate directly the moisture content of the sample The lower limit of sensitivity of sensor is -110oC dew point this dew point can correspond to 10-6 in a liquid or a less depending on the saturation value . Care fully replace the probe's protective shield. Once is done sensor can be used to monitor the moisture contain of solid continuously B. A. Panametrics recommends return of the flow or the factor for analysis and re calibration. Take a dew point measurement in same ambient atmosphere as in step 1. nichrome. or by adding known amount of water to a known amount of the dry organic liquid.The maximum concentration of one can measure depends to on the liquid itself. 2.4. Remove sensor from the distilled water and let soak in hexane o toluene for 10 minutes. 6. If time does not allow this the cleaning of the probe can be attend by a qualified technician or chemist in a laboratory. Turn on stirrer. 2. Connect the probe to the probe cable. Evolved moisture is passed through a chamber of known volume containing calibrated sensor. 9. Close Valve. an electrically conductive liquid or any other temporary contaminants is on the Al2O3 sensor. 5.5 for protective shield. Repeat step 3. (equilibrium must be established). . oven . Al2O3. taking care not to touch the sensor inside. Soak the sensor in distilled water for 10 minutes.dioxane) or the conductive (isopropyl alcohol) . Take a dew point measurement in ambient atmosphere and record it. Of water). 7. make sure you do not to touch the probe sensor. 300ml of reagent hexane toluene • Approx. 10.. The Al steel is fragile and can be easily bent or destroyed so do not permit anything to touch it. 4. Probe Cleaning Procedure Before bringing the probe cleaning procedures you will need following item:• Approx. Preliminary:Probe must be treated gently and can not be cleaned in anything which will attack the components. . and viton A. for such liquid a calibration of due point of hygrometer reading versus solution of water contents is most satisfactory. glass . Such calibration can be conducted with the aid of Karl-Fischer analysis. If for some unexplainable reason. Carefully unscrew the protective shield covering the sensor.. 300ml of distilled water(not DM) • Two glass container to hold above contaminants (do not use a metal container. the absolute moisture content is based determined by empirical calibration. 1. the ambient moisture measurement will be incorrect. Empirical Calibration For those liquid =s in which a henry's law type analysis is not applicable. A Henry law type calibration is not applicable for those liquids for which with exhibit a high saturation value (2% by wt. Fill glasses bottle with sample liquid. Generally it becomes insensitive in excess of 1% of weight . To clean the Al2O3 probe:1. From the volume and the measured vapor pressure of water . The material of constructors are Al . are completely miscible with water (e. 11. Instructions for used apparatus H-2 used for with Karl-Fischer Analysis. 3.35 condition are relatively constant the sensor meter reading can be curve over the desired range has been developed. the number of moles of water can be calculated and related to the %/weight in volume Aluminum Oxide Probe Maintenance Little or no probe maintenance is required. 3. 2. gold SS. Laboratory procedure 1. Check probe calibration from time to time.).g. Compare this dew point reading and check to see that the reading after cleaning is amore accurate value for a dew point of the ambient atmosphere. 8. A small amount of sample can be dissolve in a suitable hydrocarbon. Remove sensor from the hexane or toluene and place in low temp. If the probe is determined to be in proper calibration( 2 oC accuracy) reinstall the probe in the sample cell and proceed with normal operation if the probe is determined not be in the proper calibration repeat step 1 through 8 using the time interval of 5 times the length of previous cleaning.
for example by the technician in a control room. however.x 106 = PPMw Total weight of Liquid 10. Permit time for sample liquid . When meter indicates approx. The technician or the operator has access to any smart device in the loop and does not even have to be at the transmitter to perform the change.36 4. Fill the glass bottle with liquid sample 4. Characteristics:Another characteristic of a smart transmitter is its ability to act as a stand-alone transmitter. level of wetness or dryness turn off N2 inlet by exhaust valve. or kilopascals. Re-ranging is simple with the smart transmitter. Signal conditioning:- . Open exhaust valve. the operator can change from a 100 ohm RTD to a type-J thermocouple just by reprogramming the transmitter. Smart transmitter features:1. Construct typical apparatus H2 2. with pressure units. Monitor liquid sample with probe and continue drying until dew point become some minimum value 6. 2. Instructions for use apparatus H2 for adding known amount of H2O. psi. 3. the operator can determine ahead of time whether to use inches of water. Add a known weight of H2O and continue stirring until completely dissolved in the liquid . Turn off supply of dry N2 7. There is a wide range of inputs that a smart transmitter will accept. or Thermistor. millibars. 10. B. The operator does need to use a communicator. 7.glass bottle and remainder of system to come to equilibrium to come with Room temperature 5. RTD. When equilibrium is reached and meter indication is stable record the meter reading . it sends the output signal to a or a PLC 4. The transmitter responds immediately and changes from measuring resistance to measuring millivoltage. 6. Repeat steps 4 through 7 to obtain the measurement. 1. or a hand-held device. For instance. The communicator could be a PC. Wet up to dry the liquid by bubbling wet N2 or dry N2 respectively through the liquid. inches of mercury. Because of this. Bubble dry N2 gas through SS tube while magnetic stirrer is operating 5. Using a syringe withdraw sample for Karl-Fischer Analysis through the rubber system 8. using a communicator. the same transmitter can be set up to read almost any range or type of thermocouple. For example. Smart transmitter The smart transmitter is an intelligence transmitter. Repeat step 8 & 9 until several point have been plotted. bars. A communicator allows the operator to interface with the smart transmitter. For instance. Configuration:- Smart transmitters can be configured to meet the demands of the process in which they are used. 11. they reduce the need for a large number of specific replacement devices. In such a capacity. 9. Weight of H2O ----------------------. Weigh the apparatus including the liquid to determine the weigh of liquid 8. pascals. Turn on hygrometer and monitor reading of probe. a programmable logic controller (PLC). Weigh the apparatus 3. 9. Re-ranging:The range that the smart transmitter functions under can be easily changed from a remote location.
a smart transmitter can diagnose itself and report on any problems in the process. Borden India TATA Honeywell TATA Honeywell Tokyokisko Rosemound ( micromotion ) Dietrich standard Yama Qta Brabander ABB Choil Masoline TATA Honeywell Endress Houser Tokyokeiso Endress Houser TATA Honeywell Panametric Panametric Dynsco . For example.37 Smart transmitters can also perform signal conditioning. 5. Signals can also be delayed (dampened) so that the response does not fluctuate. it can report on a circuit board which is not working properly. Self diagnosis:Finally. This is especially useful with a rapidly changing process. Gauge India Pyroelectric Pyroelectric TATA Honeywell G-gauge. scanning the average signal and eliminating any "noise" spikes. vendors Level measurement DP type Capacitance type Displeasure type Ultra sonic type Bubblier type Level switch vibration type Temperature measurement Gauge Thermocouple RTD Pressure measurement Pressure transmitter Pressure gauge Flow measurement Orifice Venturi Rotameters Mass flow meter Annubar Weight Load cell Vibration Load cell I/P converter ON/OFF valve Control valve V ball Excantric rotary Globe valve Mmicroflow valve Analyzer Oxygen Moisture MFI Endress Houser Goa industries.
2.10) OPERATING STATION (1TO 8) . 1. ENGINEERING STATION (9.38 DCS ARCHITECTURE SUPERVISOR NETWORK GUS AM HM HG EPLCG LCN A LCNB NIM HPM LCN =LOCAL COMMUCATION NETWORK SM PRO CESS NETWORK UCN A UCN B * UCN = UNIVERSAL COMMUNICATION NETWORK • GUS = GLOBLE UNIVERSAL STATION • HM = HISTORY MODULE • EPLC= ENHANCED PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROL • NIM= NETWORK INTERFACE MODULE • HPM = HIGH PERFORMANCE PROCESS MANAGER • SM = SAFETY MANAGER GUS IS TWO CONSOLE .
The UCN interrogates Honeywell's most advanced process connected device into TPS. • On process information of maintenance and analysis. • System file of all type. UCN:- . standard hardware and software contributes to the interface to satisfy variety of interface a number of hardware station are available. • Human interface. AM:Application module is used for special type of complex system. • Interface to UNIX/X window system.39 Overview: Total plant solution is a data acquisition and control system that can be tailored to meet your specific requirement. LCN:The back bone of every TPS system is a communication network known as local control network (LCN) the LCN directly links those devices to provide the following function. load images and other data require any time modules are reloaded or personalities are changed. HM :The HM(history module) is available with redundant drives and different storage capacity makes possible storage of. • Interface between multiple LCN. operator changes. • Interface to process network. HG:Hiway gateway interconnects Honeywell data hiway with the LCN. • File server history storage and analysis. • Interface to UCN distributed control. In control room environment several station are typically combined into process operator control. operator massage system status change system error and system maintenance. GUS:The TPS system provides and integrated the process and the operator . It also provides the function such as polling alarm scanning and time synchronization for the hiway based devices EPLC:Enhanced PLC gateway provide efficient interface for non Honeywell programmable controller they do so by supporting the defecate industry sub system protocol of Allen Bradley and Mod Bus. It can be small system with just handful of device or it may be highly complex system with several devices and several kinds of communication. • Interface to computers. NIM:The NIM interconnects the LCN with the UCN network. making the transition from the transmission technique and protocol of the LCN transmission technique and protocol to the hiway. and quick assesses to large quantities of data: • History of process alarm. • Extensive advanced control. There is a programmable interface to configure as per process requirement.
Logic manager:The LM integrates the high speed logic function into the architecture of UCN. In addition separate communication and I/O interface processor assure high speed flow of information both internal and external to the PM. For this particular system.40 It is design to be compatible with IEEE and ISO standards. It also supports flexible subsystem integration with the array point and serial I/O processor and new types of control point. A process oriented programming language is available for implementation of batch and hybrid applications as well as computational capability needed to some continuous control task. For R510 offers safety manager for the fail safe control (FSC) system. It consists of a powerful control processor that performs regulatory logic and sequencing function coupled with up to 40 selectable intelligent I/O processor. Connection with the DCS system:The PLC system is connected to the DCS system through the EPLC module of the LCN network of DCS. THEORY OF OPERATION:- . When the process is going out of the track then an override control is used to save the system from several damage. It is peer to peer communication capability allows for easy sharing of process data. As DCS system is little bit slow system so PLC is used for ESD (Emergency shutdown) or other override systems. It provides the interface for the rest of the TPS system to access a variety of data point types. The R500 safety manager is for the Triconex Tricon version 8. There are two safety manager is available. A tool box function can be configure and programmed to needs the data acquisition and advanced process requirement. The PLC system Introduction:The PLC system is used for emergency purpose. making it convenient to implement sophisticated control scheme.The TRICON is a state-of-the-art programmable logic and process controller that provides a high level of system fault tolerance. The number and type of control functions to be implemented along with the smart transmitter and supports bi-directional digital communications. Process manager: PM is highly flexible data acquisition and control device that provided a complete range of capabilities. Safety manager:SM provides a family of nodes on the UCN that consist of a SM interface card and SM that provides the safety functions. The PLC system:In this system PLC system Single Chassis Version 9 TRICON Systems is used. Its control processor is programmed using ladder logic and which continuously and rapidly exacted as long as the control processor is in the RUN mode.high security process network. High performance process manager:The HPM represent an evolution of PM and APM its duel 68040 platform offers a wide range of capabilities for present feature process requirement. The HPM performance is significantly 5 times better than the PM and APM. Advanced process manager:The APM adds new functions and capacity to those available with the process manager it offers increased integration of discrete control with the device control point. The UCN is a high speed . This section describes Fault tolerance and lists the main features offered by the TRICON system.
If a disagreement occurs. the signal value found in two out of three tables prevails. As each input module is polled. Any disparity is flagged and used at the end of the scan by the TRICON’s built-in fault analyzer routines to determine whether a fault exists on a particular module. The TRICON votes the output data. One-time differences Which result from sample timing variations are distinguished from a pattern of differing data. uninterrupted control in the presence of either hard failures of components or transient faults from internal or External sources. If Present. located on the chassis backplane. transmit. This is done on the output modules as close to the field as possible to detect and compensate for any errors that could occur Between the TRIBUS voting and the final output driven to the field. Hardware voting takes place. Each controls a Separate leg of the system and operates in parallel with the other two Main Processors A dedicated I/O communication processor on each Main Processor manages The data exchanged between the Main Processor and the I/O modules. and the third table is corrected accordingly. Main Processor Modules:A TRICON system contains three Main Processor modules. vote and compare data among the three Main Processors. The Main Processors put corrected data into the control program. The 32-bit main microprocessor and a math coprocessor execute the control program in parallel with the neighboring Main Processor modules. The input data is assembled into a table in the Main Processor and is stored in memory for use in the hardware voting process. During this transfer. For each I/O module. The three Main Processors communicate with Each other using a proprietary high-speed bus system called the TRIBUS. The hot-spare position is also used for on-line system repairs. and sends copies of analog input data to each Main Processor. In addition to voting the input data. The individual input table in each Main Processor is transferred to its neighboring Main Processors over the TRIBUS. compares Output data. Each leg on the input modules reads the process data and passes that information to its Respective Main Processor. Each Main Processor maintains data about necessary corrections in local memory. the Main Processors synchronize and communicate with their Neighbors over the TRIBUS. The I/O communication processor on each Main Processor Manages the transmission of output data to the output modules by means of the I/O bus. Every I/O module houses the circuitry for three independent legs.41 Triple-Modular Redundant (TMR) architecture (shown in Figure 1–2) ensures Fault tolerance and provides error-free. A Triplicated I/O bus. The TRIBUS uses a direct memory access Programmable device to synchronize. the appropriate leg of the I/O bus transmits new input data to the Main Processor. The control program generates a table of output values which are based on the table of input values according to customer-defined rules built into the application. Triplicated Architecture of the TRICON Controller Once per scan. the hot-spare takes control if a fault is detected on the primary module During operation. The Main Processors execute the control program and send outputs generated by The control program to the output modules. . The TRIBUS votes digital input data. extends from chassis to Chassis by means of I/O bus cables. the system can support an optional hot-spare module.
In the absence of power to the TRICON. Each small table is transmitted to the appropriate leg of the corresponding output module over the I/O bus. diagnostic and communication data – Transfers and votes digital input data – Compares data and flags disagreements for the previous scan’s output Data and control program memory An important feature of TRICON architecture is the use of a single transmitter to send data to both the upstream and downstream Main Processors.In the event of an external power failure. Bus Systems & Power Distribution:Three triplicated bus systems are etched on the chassis backplane: the TRIBUS. Each connection extends from the termination module to both active and hot-spare I/O modules. diagnostics and communication buffers. and the communication bus. Main Processor A transmits the appropriate table to Leg A of each output module over I/O Bus A. the I/O bus. A failure on one Power Module or power rail does not affect system performance. The transmittal of output data has priority over the routine scanning of all I/O modules. The I/O bus is carried along the bottom of the backplane. The 375 Kbaud triplicated I/O bus transfers data between the I/O modules and the Main Processors. The TRIBUS takes the following actions: – Transfers analog. This ensures the same data is received by the upstream processor and downstream Processor. The model #3006 Main Processors provide 2 Megabytes SRAM each for fully expandable V9 TRICON Systems. It synchronizes the Main Processors at the beginning of a scan. The I/O communication processor manages the data exchanged between the Main Processors and the communication modules using the communication bus which supports a broadcast mechanism. The SRAM is used for the user-written control program. The 2 Mbaud .42 Architecture of a Main Processor Using the table of output values. SOE1 data. each corresponding to an individual output module in the system. The I/O bus extends between chassis using set of three I/O control. the I/O communication processor generates smaller tables. Each leg of the I/O bus runs between one Main Processor and the corresponding legs on the I/O module. Termination cables are tied to panel connectors at the top of the backplane. Then each Main Processor sends its data to its upstream and downstream neighbors. both the active module and the hotspare module receive the same information from the field termination wiring. Each I/O module transfers signals to or from the field through its associated field termination assembly. The first position holds the active I/O module and the second position holds the hot-spare I/O module. the SRAM is protected by batteries which reside on the backplane of the Main Chassis. while model #3007 Main Processors Provide 1 Megabyte SRAM each for Single Chassis V9 TRICON Systems only. Two positions in the chassis tie together as one logical slot. Therefore. data. the batteries maintain the integrity of the program and the retentive variables for a minimum of six months. The TRIBUS consists of three independent serial links operating at 4 Mbaud. For example. The Main Processor modules receive power from the dual Power Modules and power rails in the Main Chassis.
B and C). only those portions of the signal path which are required to ensure safe operation are triplicated. Although the legs reside on the same module. Because the TRICON is optimized for de-energize-to-trip applications. B and C). except the dual DC modules.3. detection of a fault in the input circuitry forces to OFF (the de-energized state) the value reported to the Main Processors by each leg. Each input table is regularly interrogated over the I/O bus by the I/O communication microprocessor located on the corresponding Main Processor module.3. B. For example. Digital Input Modules:The TRICON supports two basic types of digital input modules: TMR and single. A fault on one leg cannot pass to another. isolated legs. Although the legs reside on the same module. This is a mandatory feature of a fail-safe system. use special quadruplicated output circuitry which votes on the individual output signals just before they are applied to the load. Each module in the chassis draws power from both power rails through dual power regulators. Single Digital Input Modules Each digital input module houses the intelligent control circuitry for three identical legs (A. On TMR modules. which must detect all faults in a timely manner and upon detection of an input fault. The last data reading is frozen in the I/O communication processor while the test is running. Digital Output Modules There are four basic types of digital output modules: – Supervised digital output modules – DC voltage digital output modules – AC voltage digital output modules – Dual DC digital output modules Every digital output module houses the circuitry for three identical. The intelligent control circuitry consists of an 8-bit microprocessor called the I/O communication processor which handles communication with its corresponding Main Processor. In addition. All of the digital output modules.43 communication bus runs between the Main Processors and the communication modules. 1. each leg contains an 8-bit microprocessor called the input/output (I/O) communication processor which handles communication with its corresponding Main Processor. This is done for each point on the input termination module. Each leg includes an I/O microprocessor which receives its output table from the I/O communication processor on its corresponding Main Processor. Single modules are optimized for those safety-critical applications where low cost is more important than maximum availability. On single modules. (The model #3504E High-Density Digital Input Module with 64 points is an exception—it has no isolation.1 TMR Digital Input Modules Each digital input module houses the circuitry for three identical legs (A. Each leg conditions signals independently and provides optical isolation between the field and the TRICON. This voter circuitry is based on parallel-series paths which pass power if the drivers for Legs A and B. the ability to detect OFF points is an important feature. Each leg determines the states of the points and places their values into input tables A. Main Processor A interrogates Input Table A over I/O Bus A. they are completely isolated from each other and operate independently. Since most safety systems are set up with a “de-energize-to-trip” capability. B and C respectively. and C) and one set for the status indicators. There are four sets of power regulators on each input and output board: one set for each leg (A. all critical signal paths are 100% triplicated for guaranteed safety and maximum availability. For example. DC models of the digital input modules can self-test to detect “stuck ON” conditions where the circuitry cannot tell whether a point has gone to the OFF state. and places the values into input tables A. Each of the three input legs asynchronously measures the input signals from each point on the input termination module. Main Processor A interrogates Input Table A over I/O Bus A. determines the respective states of the input signals. To test for “stuck ON” inputs. Each input table is regularly interrogated over the I/O bus by the I/O communication processor located on the corresponding Main Processor module. force the measured input value to the safe state.) A fault on one leg cannot pass to another. Special self-test circuitry is provided to detect all stuck-ON and stuck-OFF fault conditions within the non-triplicated signal conditioners in less than 500 milliseconds. a switch within the input circuitry is closed to allow a zero input (OFF) to be read by the optical isolation circuitry. B and C Respectively. they are completely isolated from each other and operate independently. Power for the chassis is distributed across two independent power rails and down the center of the backplane. Each of the three input legs independently measures the input signals by means of a non-triplicated set of signal conditioners. or Legs .
On an AC voltage digital output module. In general. but is guaranteed to be less than 2. Analog input modules and termination modules are available to support a wide variety of analog inputs. The designation of “driving leg” is rotated among the legs so that all three legs are tested. A DC voltage digital output module is specifically designed to control devices which hold points in one state for long periods of time. each of the three legs asynchronously measures the input signals and places the results into a table of values.) A supervised digital output module provides both voltage and current loop back.0 milliseconds (500 microseconds is typical) and is transparent to most field devices. The dual output module provides just enough redundancy to ensure safe operation. If a fault occurs in the driving leg. 0-10 VDC. and resistive thermal devices (RTDs). The input table in each Main Processor module is transferred to its neighbors across the TRIBUS. These voltages determine the gain and bias required to adjust readings of the analog-to-digital converter. In addition. The quadruplicated output circuitry provides multiple redundancy for all critical signal paths. a supervised digital output module verifies the presence of the field load by doing continuous circuit-continuity checks. guaranteeing safety and maximum availability. with the 2-out-of-3 voting process applied individually to each switch. A termination module merely passes input signals from the field to an input module or passes signals generated by an output module directly to field wiring. you can use either Triconex-supplied termination assemblies or provide your own termination cables that match the TRICON’s panel connectors. Each point on an AC voltage digital output module requires periodic cycling to both the ON and OFF states to ensure 100% fault coverage. On this type of module. Analog Input Modules On an analog input module. . The OVD strategy for a DC voltage digital output module ensures full fault coverage even if the commanded state of the points never changes. a faulty switch identified by the OVD process will cause the output signal to transition to the opposite state for a maximum of half an AC cycle. T and E). Each type of digital output module executes a particular type of Output Voter Diagnostic (OVD) for every point. (For devices that cannot tolerate a signal transition of any length. the average is used. Analog Output Modules The analog output module receives three tables of output values. This transition may not be transparent to all field devices. Loop-back on the module allows each microprocessor to read the output value for the point to determine whether a latent fault exists within the output circuit. Each analog input module is automatically calibrated using multiple reference voltages read through the multiplexer. Dual digital output modules provide a single parallel or series path. the output signal transition normally occurs during OVD execution. allowing complete fault coverage for both energized-to-trip and de-energized-to-trip conditions. that leg is declared faulty. and a new leg is selected to drive the field device. during OVD execution the commanded state of each point is momentarily reversed on one of the output drivers. OVD on both AC and DC voltage digital output modules can be disabled. or Legs A and C command them to close—in other words.44 B and C. thermocouples (types K. The middle value is selected by each Main Processor. the mid-value data is used by the control program. in duplex mode. Once a fault is detected. and the input table in each Main Processor is corrected accordingly. J. A field termination module is an electrically passive circuit board to which field wiring is easily attached. one for each leg from the corresponding Main Processor. Each leg has its own digital-to-analog converter (DAC). Dual modules are optimized for those safety-critical applications where low cost is more important than maximum availability. The output is continuously checked for correctness by “loop-back” inputs on each point which are read by all three microprocessors. one after another. In TMR mode. in both isolated and non-isolated versions: 0-5 VDC. 2-out-of-3 drivers voted ON. One of the three legs is selected to drive the analog outputs. thereby permitting removal or replacement of the input or output module without disturbing field wiring. Termination Modules For field wiring of the V9 TRICON chassis. the module discontinues further iterations of OVD. 4-20 mA. Each of the three input tables is passed to its associated Main Processor module using the corresponding I/O bus. Any loss of field load is annunciated by the module.
allowing the TRICON to manage process-critical points within the overall TDC3000 environment. The NCM supports a number of Triconex protocols and applications as well as user-written applications.2. Availability of the ACM depends on Foxboro’s schedule for Version 4. The ACM transmits all TRICON aliased data and diagnostic information to I/A operator workstations in display formats that are familiar to Foxboro operators. and Honeywell and Foxboro Distributed Control Systems (DCS). Safety Manager Module (SMM) — This module acts as an interface between a TRICON controller and Honeywell’s Universal Control Network (UCN). as shown in Table 1–3. Each can support the power requirements for all the modules in the chassis in which it resides. A short on a leg disables the power regulator rather than affecting the power bus . Power Modules Each TRICON chassis houses two Power Modules arranged in a dual-redundant configuration. loss-of-power sensors. to communicate with the TRICON. The module also provides a Centronics-compatible parallel port. The circuitry includes but is not limited to I/O loop back. The Power Modules have built-in diagnostic circuitry which checks for out-ofrange voltages and over-temperature conditions. including those that use TCP-IP/UDP-IP protocol. Enhanced Intelligent Communication Module (EICM) — Supports RS-232 and RS-422 serial communication with external devices at speeds up to 19. slaves.45 Communication Modules:By means of the communication modules described in this section. other TRICONs in Peer-to-Peer networks. dead man timers. The SMM appears to the TDC-3000 as a safety node on the Universal Control Network (UCN). The SMM transmits all TRICON aliased data and diagnostic information to TDC-3000 operator workstations in display formats that are familiar to Honeywell operators. Availability of the SMM depends on Honeywell’s schedule for Release 500 and future releases. Each module derives power from the backplane and has independent power regulators for each leg.2 Kbaud. Probable failure modes are anticipated and made detectable by specialized circuitry. or a TriStation. external hosts running applications over 802. The HIM enables higher-order devices on the LCN or Data Hiway. it is never more than two scan-times old. Advanced Communication Module (ACM) — This module acts as an interface between a TRICON controller and Foxboro’s Intelligent Automation (I/A) Series DCS. such as computers and operator workstations. Data is typically refreshed every scan. This aspect of the system design enables the TRICON to reconfigure itself and perform limited self-repair according to the health of each module and leg. the TRICON can interface with Modbus masters and slaves. and so on. . The ACM appears to the Foxboro system as a safety node on the I/A Series Nodebus. System Diagnostics & Status Indicators The TRICON incorporates integral on-line diagnostics. The HIM can also interface with Honeywell’s older TDC-2000 control system by means of the Data Hiway. This EICM provides four serial ports which can interface with Modbus masters. one of three principal networks of the TDC-3000 DCS. Hiway Interface Module (HIM) — This module acts as an interface between a TRICON controller and Honeywell’s TDC-3000 control system by means of the Hiway Gateway and Local Control Network (LCN). The Main Processors broadcast data to the communication modules across the communication bus.2 of the I/A Series Software. Network Communication Module (NCM) — This module allows the TRICON to communicate with other TRICONs and with external hosts over 802. Fault-monitoring circuitry in each module helps fulfill this requirement.3 networks. or both. The HIM allows redundant BNC connections directly to the Data Hiway and has the same functional capacity as up to four extended Data Hiway Port (DHP) addresses. allowing the TRICON to manage process-critical points within the overall I/A DCS environment. and each feeds a separate power rail on the chassis backplane.3 networks using a high-speed 10 Megabit/second data link.
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