Cingular_UMTS | 3 G | Duplex (Telecommunications)

3G Technologies Overview

Marconi Wireless

Multiple Access Systems Multiple Access Methods
FDMA TDMA

CDMA p t
Power

Code n Code 3 Code 2 Code 1

f

Marconi Wireless

Depiction of GSM Technology UNITED NATIONS COCKTAIL PARTY
TS2 TS1 TS3 TSn ni haw

F1>

TS4

F2>

MoshiMoshi Mabuti

F3>

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Kamusta?

Marconi Wireless

Depiction of CDMA Technology UNITED NATIONS COCKTAIL PARTY F1 MoshiMoshi ni haw SAM! OVER HERE! Gud’ Day. Mate Wats up? ENGLISH ASIAN EURO Mabuti OK! Kamusta? NOISE FLOOR FILIPINO Marconi Wireless .

3xRTT) EVDO/EVDV AMPS NAMPS CdmaOne D-AMPS IS-136+ (EDGE Compact) IS-136 HS Japan JTACS PDC W-CDMA INODE Marconi Internal Use Only Marconi Wireless .5G Phase II+ GPRS EDGE ? IS-95B? 3G (W-CDMA) UMTS EDGE? Cdma2000 (1xRTT.Cellular System Evolution Technology Roadmap 1G Asia/Pac Americas Europe NMT TACS 2G GSM 2.

Multiple Access Systems 3rd Generation Systems CDMA 2000 Phase 1 1xRTT SR1 .Carrier FORWARD LINK 1 2 3 REVERSE LINK 1 2 3 f CDMA 2000 Phase 2 3xRTT SR3 1 2 3 f UMTS FDD f Marconi Wireless .

TDD) 3GPP2 – 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 CDMA 2000 and related technologies Air Interface Selected by ITU UMTS FDD.Multiple Access Systems 3rd Generation Systems ITU – International Telecommunications Union Program – IMT-2000 (International Mobile Telecommunications 2000) Goals Local (Stationary) rates > 2 Mbps Limited Mobility rates > 384 Kbps Full Mobility rates > 144 Kbps Numerous proposals were submitted and led to two partnership projects 3GPP – 3rd Generation Partnership Project UMTS (FDD. UMTS TDD. CDMA 2000. EDGE/UWC-136 Fast Fact: 25 UMTS Networks Commercially launched 5M Subscribers Marconi Wireless .

Analog Handoff Packet Data QoS Enhanced QoS 14.25MHz Variable .Typical 153.2Kbps (RC4) 1 Mbps (RC9) Digital Modulation. Increased 2.Freq.6Kbps (RC3).5G IS-95B HSPD CDMA 3G 3G IS-2000 IS-2000 CDMA2000 CDMA2000 1XRTT 3XRTT CDMA CDMA HPSK/QPSK HPSK/QPSK (Spreading (Spreading Modulation) Modulation) 1.CDMA Evolution 1G to 3G 2G IS-95A CDMAOne CDMA 2. Reuse = 1 appx.Multiple Access Systems 3rd Generation Systems 1G Technology Multiple Access AMPS FDMA . None None 64Kbps 307. (34CH/Site(34CH/Site-Carrier 80 Voice and Data 200 Voice ad Data 1 Carrier Typical) Typical) -Typical . Variable .4Kbps Ckt Data. Soft Enhanced Coding. Privacy.25MHz x 3 by 1 on reverse (grouped by 3 on link) reverse link) Modulation FM QPSK QPSK Carrier Users/Carrier Packet Data Features Services 1.Freq.4K Data / Fax Capacity and 64K Packet Data (requires modem) Quality WAP. Internet High Speed Data High Speed Data 30KHz Marconi Wireless . Reuse = 1 appx.25MHz (grouped 1.25MHz 1.

Multiple Access Systems 3rd Generation Systems 2G Technology GSM Multiple Access TDMA Frequency Range 450 Band 450.5G/3G ? EDGE TDMA 900 Band 876-915 MHz (UL) 921-960 MHz (DL) DCS 1800 Band 1710-1785 MHz (UL) 1805-1880 MHz (DL) PCS 1900 1850-1910 MHz (UL) 1930-1990 MHz (DL) 8-PSK/GMSK 200 KHz 270.4-467.4-486 (UL) 460.6 Kbps Frequency/TS Features Digital Modulation Adaptive Modulation Load Based / Packet Bandwidth on Demand and Coding Scheduler/ QOS Marconi Wireless .833 Ksps 384 Kbps Frequency/TS 3G UMTS FDD DS CDMA IMT-2000 Band 1920-1980 MHz (UE) 2110-2170 MHz (NB) PCS 1900 Band 1850-1910 MHz (UE) 1930-1990 MHz (NB) PCS 1800 Band 1710-1785 MHz (UE) 1805-1880 MHz (NB) QPSK (Spreading) 5 MHz 3.833 Ksps 9.6 MHz (DL) .5G GPRS TDMA 850 Band 824-849 MHz (UL) 869-894 MHz (DL) Standard 900 Band 890-915 (UL) 935-960 MHz (DL) Extended 900 Band 880-915 MHz (UL) 925-960 MHz (UL) GMSK 200 KHz 270.4 Kbps/ts Frequency/TS 2.05 .GSM Evolution to 3G 2.84 Mcps 384 Kbps / 2Mbps Static Code Modulation Channel Spacing Symbol/Chip Rate Data Rate Planning GMSK 200 KHz 270.833 Ksps 9.21.

2288 Mcps 3.3.2288 Mcps (N=1.Multiple Access Systems 3rd Generation Systems 3GPP Technology Multiple Access Carrier Spacing Chip Rate Modulation Data Spreading Frame Structure (slots/frame) Length (ms) Chanelization Codes UMTS FDD DS-CDMA FDD UMTS TDD DS-CDMA TDD CDMA2000(1X) 3GPP2 CDMA2000(3X) EDGE DS-CDMA / MC-CDMA DS-CDMA / MC-CDMA TDMA 200KHz 5MHz (200KHz Raster) 5MHz (200KHz Raster) 1.9) UL: Dual Channel QPSK / DL: QPSK QPSK 15 10 OVSF QPSK QPSK 15 10 OVSF UL: BPSK / DL: QPSK UL: HPSK / DL: QPSK 16 20 Walsh: 128 Quasi Orthogonal Functions Yes UL: BPSK / DL: QPSK UL: HPSK / DL: QPSK 16 20 Walsh: 256 Quasi Orthogonal Functions Yes 8-PSK/GMSK 8. 64 4.84 Mcps 1.2.25MHz 3.615 Synchronous No No Yes Marconi Wireless .75MHz (600KHz.84 Mcps 3.4MHz) N*1. 16.6.

Multiple Access Systems 3rd Generation Systems BSS .5G GSM BSC + GPRS Base Station Controller Radio Network Controller 3G UMTS RNC RNC Radio Network Controller VLR HLR SGSN AUC GGSN Core Network VLR HLR SGSN MSC AUC GGSN Internet PSTN Marconi Wireless .GSM to UMTS Transition UE User Equipment UTRAN BTS Base Transceiver Station MS Mobile Station BSS BTS Base Transceiver Station Node B Node B 2G GSM BSC Base Station Controller NSS MSC VLR HLR AUC NSS MSC 2.

UMTS Functional Description Mixed 2G and 3G Network GGSN IP Gn Gn 2G MSC/VLR Core Network UTRAN A Gs 2G SGSN Gb 2G BSS Gn 3G SGSN Iu 3G RNC Iu 3G MSC/VLR Air Interface UE Marconi Wireless .

225 measurements control 25.212 traffic Multiplexing and Channel Coding 25.UMTS Functional Description Relationship of Physical Layer Functions by Specification 25.224 procedures 25.215 measurements 25.223 traffic 25.222 FDD TDD Marconi Wireless .213 Spreading and modulation 25.221 25.214 procedures Physical layer procedures control 25.211 Physical channels and mapping of transport channels onto physical channels 25.

Marketing Information 2.5/3G Data Rates Enable a Wide Range of Services
6XRTT
2M
Broadcast Video Conference (High quality) Remote Medical Service (Medical image) Database Access Services Distribution Services

3XRTT384K 1XRTT HSPD 64K
Transmission Speed 32K 16K
Internet

Video Conference (Lower quality)

Video Catalog Shopping

Video on Demand: Sports, News Weather ISDN Karaoke

Image Weather, Traffic, News, Sports, Stock updates Mobile TV

Voice Weather, Traffic, News, Sports, Stock updates Mobile Radio

Electronic Newspaper Electronic Publishing

Pager

2G
9.6K 2.4K 1.2K Bi-Directional BiTelephone (Voice)

Voice Mail

Data Weather, Traffic, News, Sports, Stock updates

E-Mail

Fax

Key: Image Data Voice

Uni-Directional UniPoint-to-Point Point- to-

Multi-Cast MultiMulti-Point Multi-

Source: NTTNote: Data rates shown are maximums (e.g. fixed applications). Data rates decrease as mobility speed increases. Marconi Wireless

Marketing Information Global Market Deployment Update
Europe, Middle East & Africa Country Operator Date
Austria Austria Austria Belguim Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France France Germany Germany Germany Germany Greece Greece Ireland Ireland Ireland Isle of Man 3 May-03 mobilkom austria Apr-03 T-Mobile Proximus VIPnet Eurotel 3 EMT TeliaSonera Orange SFR O2 Vodafone T-Mobile E-Plus Telestet COSMOTE 3 Vodafone O2 Manx Telecom Dec-03 May-04 May-03 Feb-03 Oct-03 Sep-03 Dec-03 Feb-04 May-04 Apr-04 Feb-04 Apr-04 Jun-04 Jan-04 May-04 Oct-03 Jul-04 Dec-03 Dec-01
Italy 3 Vodafone TIM P&T Luxembourg Tango Monaco Telecom KPN Mobile Vodafone Vodafone TMN Mobitel Mar-03 Feb-04 May-04 Jun-03 May-03 Jun-01 Jul-04 Feb-04 Feb-04 Apr-04 Dec-03 Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Trial Trial Trial Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Trial Service Launched 3 website Vodafone website TIM website P&T Luxembourg web site Tango web site Monaco Telecom website KPN Mobile website Vodafone website Vodafone website TMN website Mobitel website Telefónica Móviles España website Vodafone website 3 website Vodafone website Tele2 website Etisalat website 3 website Vodafone website T-Mobile website Orange website

Status
Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Trial Trial Service Launched Trial Trial Trial Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Trial Service Launched Trial Trial

More Information
3 website mobilkom austria website T-Mobile website Proximus website

Italy Italy Luxembourg Luxembourg Monaco Netherlands

Eurotel website 3 website EMT website TeliaSonera website Orange website SFR website O2 website Vodafone website T-Moblie website E-Plus website Telstet website COSMOTE website 3 website Vodafone website O2 website Manx Telecom web site

Netherlands Portugal Portugal Slovenia Spain Spain Sweden Sweden Sweden UAE UK UK UK UK

Telefónica Feb-04 Móviles España Vodafone Feb-04 3 Vodafone Tele2 Etisalat 3 Vodafone T-Mobile Orange May-03 Feb-04 Jun-04 Dec-03 May-03 Feb-04 Feb-04 Jul-04

* Source: UMTS Forum www.umts-forum.org
Marconi Wireless

Marketing Information Global Market Deployment Update
Asia Pacific Country
Australia Hong Kong Japan Japan Malaysia Malaysia Singapore South Korea South Korea

Operator
3 3 NTT DoCoMo Vodafone K.K. Telekom Malaysia Maxis SingTel KTF SKT

Date
Apr-03 Jan-04 Oct-01 Dec-02 Jul-03 Mar-04 Sep-03 Dec-04 Dec-04

Status
Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Service Launched Trial Trial Trial Service Launched Service Launched

More Information
3 website 3 website NTT DoCoMo website Vodafone K.K. website Telekom Malaysia website Maxis website SingTel website KTF website SKT website

* Source: UMTS Forum www.umts-forum.org
Marconi Wireless

org/ GSM Suppliers Association – http://www.org/ Marconi Wireless .gsacom.Industry Bodies Trade Associations • • • • • UMTS Forum – http://www.html Universal Wireless Communications Consortium – http://www.com/index1.cdg.gsmworld.uwcc.org/ GSM Association – http://www.com/home.umts-forum.html CDMA Development Group – http://www.

Industry Bodies Standards Groups • 3GPP – UMTS FDD and TDD – Standards Development – http://www.3gip.org/ Marconi Wireless • • .3gpp2.org/ 3GIP – promoting all-IP solution for 3GPP Release 2000 – Mobile Wireless internet Forum – IP Core Network – http://www.org/ 3GPP2 – cdma2000 – Standards Development – http://www.3gpp.

gov/ ITU International Telecommunications Union – http://www.ero.dk/ FCC (USA) Federal Communications Commission – http://www.gov.radio.uk/ Marconi Wireless .itu.Industry Bodies Radio Regulatory • • • • ERO (EU) European Radio Office – http://www.int/ RA (UK) Radiocommunications Agency – http://www.fcc.

or.etsi.cwts.org/ TTA (Korea) Telecommunications Technology Association – http://www.ttc.org/ T1 (USA) – Creates network interconnections and interoperability standards – http://www.t1.kr/ TTC (Japan) Telecommunications Technology Committee – http://www.php ETSI (EU) European Telecommunications Standard Institute – http://www.Industry Bodies 3GPP Member Organizations • • • • ARIB (Japan) Association of Radio Industries and Businesses – http://www.or.or.org/english/index.jp/e/ • • Marconi Wireless .tta.jp/arib/english/ CWTS (China) China Communications Standards Association – http://www.arib.

UMTS Systems Overview .

SYSTEM OVERVIEW General Definition UTRA Mode of Operation Spectrum Characteristics Architecture Interface Channels Spreading and Modulation Codes Frames Handover Power Control UMTS Standards .

2b) is 80 MHz Marconi Internal Use Only . It only becomes official when published by the partner organizations.2a) is 190 MHz FDD (25101-3b0 subclause 5.84 Mcps Channel Spacing is 5 MHz Channel Raster is 200 KHz UTRA Mode of Operation FDD – Frequency Division Duplex TDD – Time Division Duplex – TX-RX Separation FDD (25101-3b0 subclause 5.General UMTS – Universal Mobile Telecommunications System 3GPP Specifications and reports by themselves have no legal standing.FOMA UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) • Air Interface is W-CDMA (Wideband-CDMA) – – – – Chip Rate is 3. ETSI – UMTS ARIB/TTC .

General UTRA Mode of Operation FDD: A duplex method whereby uplink and downlink transmissions use two separated radio frequencies. In the TDD. * Source 25201-340 Marconi Internal Use Only . each uplink and downlink uses the different frequency band. TDD: A duplex method whereby uplink and downlink transmissions are carried over same radio frequency by using synchronised time intervals. Information on uplink and downlink are transmitted reciprocally. In the FDD. A pair of frequency bands which have specified separation shall be assigned for the system. time slots in a physical channel are divided into transmission and reception part.

General Spectrum .UE 1900 1920 Unpaired 20 MHz Paired uplink 60 MHz 1980 2010 2025 Unpaired 15MHz 2110 Paired downlink 60 MHz 2170 2200 MHz • FDD (Frequency Division Duplex) – Uplink: 1920 – 1980 MHz (60 MHz) – Downlink: 2110 – 2170 MHz (60 MHz) • FDD (Frequency Division Duplex) – Region 2 (USA) – Uplink: 1850 – 1910 MHz (60 MHz) – Downlink: 1930 – 1990 MHz (60 MHz) * Node B frequency Band is just the reverse Marconi Internal Use Only .

UE • TDD (Time Division Duplex) – Uplink/Downlink: 1900 – 1920 MHz (20 MHz) – Uplink/Downlink: 2010 – 2025 MHz (15 MHz) • TDD (Time Division Duplex) – Region 2 – Uplink/Downlink: 1850 – 1910 MHz (60 MHz) – Uplink/Downlink: 1930 – 1990 MHz (60 MHz) • TDD (Time Division Duplex) – Region 2 – Uplink/Downlink: 1910 – 1930 MHz (20 MHz) Marconi Internal Use Only .General Spectrum .

5 +1 +3 + 1.5 .84 MHz Ior -106 dBm/3.5 0 .001 Parameter Level DPCH_Ec -117 dBm/3. 2.5 Receiver Reference Sensitivity Level The BER shall not exceed 0.84 MHz Marconi Internal Use Only .General FDD .0.1.5 .0.5 + 1.1.0 .UE Characteristics Transmitter Power Class 1 + 33 dBm 2 + 27 dBm 3 + 24 dBm 4 + 21 dBm Power Control The UE shall have the capability to change the output power by 1.5 .5 .5 + 4.1 -3 .5 + 0.0.5 + 0.5 + 0.5 .4.5 -1 . or 3 dB step size TPC Command 1dB step size 2dB step size 3dB step size L U L U L U +1 + 0 .

5 dB optional TPC Command 0.5 .2 Kbps Level -121 dBm Marconi Internal Use Only .001 Channel Data Rate 12.5 + 1.General FDD – Node B Characteristics Transmitter The Node B shall have the capability to change the output power by 1 dB mandatory and 0.0.0.5 Receiver Reference Sensitivity Level The BER shall not exceed 0.25 .1.5 0 .75 + 0.0.75 .5 dB step size 1 dB step size L U L U 1 + 0.25 + 0.

TDD • UL: 1850-1910. 80MHz • 3. DL: 1930-1990.General Q&A • What are the two UTRA mode of operation? • What is the UMTS uplink and downlink UE frequency range and TX-RX separation for USA? • What is the chip rate for UMTS? • FDD.84 Mcps Marconi Internal Use Only .

UMTS ARCHITECHTURE Marconi Internal Use Only .

Architecture General Architecture IP GGSN HLR PSTN IWF Gn SGSN MSC/VLR TC Iu Core Network UTRAN RNC RNC Node B cells Node B Node B Node B Node B UE Marconi Internal Use Only .

Architecture General Architecture Non-Access Stratum (NAS) GC Nt DC GC Nt DC L3 Upper L3 Lower end AS entity Access Stratum (AS) end AS entity Relay GC Nt DC GC Nt DC GC Nt DC GC Nt DC RRC L2/L1 UE Uu Stratum (UuS) RRC L2/L1 UTRAN Iu Stratum Radio (Uu) Core Network Iu * Source 25301-3b0 Marconi Internal Use Only .

etc. Examples of which are: coordination of radio resources. protocols for transferring radio information. The architecture is depicted in terms of its entities. The three main entities are: UE (User Equipment) UTRAN (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network) CN (Core Network) The high level functional groupings are: AS (Access Stratum) Pertains to the protocols specific to the access technique. NAS (Non Access Stratum) Refers to core network related signaling and services. Marconi Internal Use Only .Architecture General Architecture The figure shown is a high level architecture of UMTS.

Architecture General Architecture Node B Radio Network Controller Mobile Switching Centre Gateway MSC PSTN UMTS SIM Terminal Equipment AIR INTERFACE Node B RNC MSC/VLR GMSC USIM TE Home Location Register HLR UEs Node B Node B Radio Network Controller Serving GSN Gateway GSN RNC SGSN GGSN Packet Network UTRAN Marconi Internal Use Only CN .

Architecture General Architecture UE (User Equipment) The user’s radio terminal used to access the UMTS system via the UMTS air interface USIM (UMTS Subscriber Identity Module) – similar to GSM SIM that holds subscriber specific information such as subscriber number. It serves as the access point to the Core Network Node B – Radio Base Station. and access point to the core network RNC (Radio Network Controller) – Similar to BSC in GSM and CDMAOne. and services (applications) available. It provides radio coverage on the UMTS system Marconi Internal Use Only . UTRAN (Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network) UTRAN provides radio coverage. it provides radio management of radio resources and Node B management (ie. encryption keys. radio management. Alarms). Terminal Equipment – User’s human interface to the radio network where high level applications can be displayed and accessed.

It holds all UMTS subscriber database (HLR.Switch and interface to the external circuit switched network (ie POTS) SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node) – A router for packet switched information and services GGSN (Gateway GPRS Support Node) – Gateway to external packet switched networks HLR (Home Location Register) – A database that holds a master copy of the subscriber’s profile. GMSC (Gateway Mobile Switching Center) .VLR). to the fixed circuit switched network. or packet switched network (Internet). Marconi Internal Use Only . VLR (Visitor Location Register) – A database that holds a copy of visitor subscriber’s profile. MSC (Mobile Switching Center) – Switch for circuit switched information and services.Architecture General Architecture CN (Core Network) Provides switching functions of user traffic to other UTRANs.

Architecture OSI Protocol Layer Stack L7 PRESENTATION APPLICATION SESSION L6 L5 L4 PRESENTATION APPLICATION SESSION TRANSPORT TRANSPORT L3 NETWORK NETWORK L2 DATALINK DATALINK L1 PHYSICAL PHYSICAL A Marconi Internal Use Only B .

Architecture Radio Interface Protocol Architecture Control Plane Signalling User Plane Information OSI L3 Network Layer Radio Resource Control (RRC) Radio Link Control (RLC) L2 Data Link Layer Logical Channels Medium Access Control (MAC) Transport Channels L1 Physical Layer Physical Layer Marconi Internal Use Only .

Architecture Radio Interface Protocol Architecture end to end session Mobility Management L2 Radio Resource Control L2 Radio Link Control Layer 1 Physical Appli Appli CN MM MM RRC RLC L1 Radio interface RRC RLC L1 UTRAN UE Node B SRNC SGSN VLR Destination Marconi Internal Use Only .

Between L2 and L1 Marconi Internal Use Only . CN • L2. between RLC and MAC. UTRAN.Architecture Q&A • What are the three main entities of UMTS and briefly explain their functions ? • When we speak of logical channels. where exactly are these channels on the protocol architecture ? Transport channels ? • UE.

UMTS INTERFACES Marconi Internal Use Only .

then it will be IP v6 due to improved QoS.Interfaces General .ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) ATM is commonly used as the transport network layer for UMTS. ATM is the layer 2 (data link layer) connection across the network. The transport network layer can be IP or ATM but if IP is required. N : 2 Higher Layer Protocols ATM Adaptation Layer ATM Layer Data Link Layer 1 Physical Layer Marconi Internal Use Only .

Interfaces General . Marconi Internal Use Only .ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) ATM Service Classes ATM Adaptation Layer Bit Rate Connection Mode AAL 1 AAL 2 AAL 3 AAL 4 AAL 5 Constant Variable Variable Variable Variable Connection Oriented Connection Oriented Connection Oriented Connectionless Connectionless UMTS network uses AAL2 for synchronous connection based service and AAL5 for asynchronous connectionless service.

Interfaces UMTS Network Interfaces UE Uu Iub Iu Air Interface Uu Interface between the RNC and the Node B. Core Network Marconi Internal Use Only . NodeB Interface between the RNS and the Core Network Iub Iucs Iups RNC Iu Iur RNC Iur Interface between RNCs.

1 Transport Network User Plane SCCP MTP3b SSCF-NNI SSCOP AAL5 Q.1 MTP3b SSCF-NNI SSCOP AAL5 AAL2 ATM Physical Layer Marconi Internal Use Only .2150.2630.Interfaces UMTS Network Interfaces Iu-cs (circuit) •AAL5 •ATM •Physical Radio Network Layer Control Plane RANAP User Plane Iu UP Protocol Layer Transport Network Layer Transport Network User Plane Transport Network Control Plane Q.

Interfaces UMTS Network Interfaces Iu-ps (packet) •AAL5 •ATM •Physical Radio Network Layer Control Plane RANAP User Plane Iu UP Protocol Layer Transport Network Layer Transport Network User Plane SCCP M3UA MTP3-B SCTP SSCF-NNI SSCF-NNI SSCOP AAL5 IP Transport Network Control Plane Transport Network User Plane GTP-U UDP IP AAL5 ATM Physical Layer ATM Physical Layer Marconi Internal Use Only .

Interfaces UMTS Network Interfaces
Iur
A point-to-point logical connection between any two RNCs within the UTRAN.

RNSAP (Radio Network Subsystem Application Part) – Signaling protocol used across the Iur

•AAL5 •ATM •Physical

Radio Network Layer

Control Plane RNSAP

User Plane Iur Data Stream(s)

Transport Network Layer

Transport Network User Plane

Transport Network Control Plane
ALCAP(Q.2630.1)

Transport Network User Plane

SCCP MTP3-B SSCF-NNI SSCF-NNI SSCOP AAL5 M3UA SCTP IP

STC (Q.2150.1)

MTP3-B SSCF-NNI SSCF-NNI SSCOP AAL5

M3UA SCTP IP AAL2

ATM Physical Layer

Marconi Internal Use Only

Interfaces UMTS Network Interfaces
Iub
The logical interface between the RNC and Node B.

•AAL5 •AAL2 •ATM •Physical

Radio Network Control Plane

Transport Network Control Plane

User Plane

Radio Network Layer

Node B Application Part (NBAP)

PCH FP

TFCI2 FP

RACH FP

USCH FP

FACH FP

DSCH FP

CPCH FP

DCH FP

ALCAP Q.2630.1
Q.2150.2

Transport Layer

SSCF-UNI
SSCOP

SSCF-UNI
SSCOP

AAL Type 5

AAL Type 5

AAL Type 2
ATM

Physical Layer

Marconi Internal Use Only

Interfaces Q&A

• What are the two ATM service classes used by R99 version of UMTS ? • What are the five main interfaces ?

Marconi Internal Use Only

• AAL2, AAL5 • Uu, Iub, Iur, Iups, Iucs

UMTS CHANNELS

Marconi Internal Use Only

Channels Control Channels Traffic Channels Logical BCCH PCCH DCCH CCCH CTCH DTCH Transport BCH PCH CPCH RACH FACH DSCH DCH Physical P-CCPCH S-CCPCH PCPCH PRACH PDSCH DPDCH DPCCH SCH CPICH AICH PICH DPCH Marconi Internal Use Only .

Channels Abbreviations Logical Channels BCCH – Broadcast Control Channel PCCH – Paging Control Channel DCCH – Dedicated Control Channel CCCH – Common Control Channel CTCH – Common Traffic Channel DTCH – Dedicated Traffic Channel Physical Channels P – CCPCH – Primary Common Control Physical Channel S – CCPCH – Secondary Common Control Physical Channel PCPCH – Physical Common Packet Channel PRACH – Physical Random Access Channel PDSCH – Physical Dedicated Shared Channel DPDCH – Dedicated Physical Data Channel SCH – (Primary and Secondary) Synchronization Channel CPICH – (Primary and Secondary) Common Pilot Channel AICH – Acquisition Indication Channel PICH – Paging Indicator Channel DPCH – Dedicated Physical Channel DPCCH – Dedicated Physical Control Channel Transport Channels Common BCH – Broadcast Channel PCH – Paging Channel CPCH – Common Packet Channel RACH – Random Access Channel FACH – Forward Access Channel DSCH – Downlink Shared Channel Dedicated DCH – Dedicated Channel Marconi Internal Use Only .

it is a common resource. Downlink channel than can carry control information to known terminals in a cell or used for transmission of small amount downlink packet data. The CPCH is fast power controlled. It may support slow power control. Forward Access Channel (FACH) Common downlink channel without closed-loop power control used for transmission of relatively small amount of data. Downlink Shared Channel (DSCH) A downlink channel shared by several UEs carrying dedicated control or traffic data. This channel only exists in FDD mode and only in the uplink direction. e. * Source 25301-3b0 Marconi Internal Use Only . Contains control information such as a request to setup an RRC connection. The common packet channel is shared by the UEs in a cell and therefore. Common Packet Channel (CPCH) A contention based channel used for transmission of bursty data traffic.g.Channels Definitions* Common Transport Channel types: Random Access Channel (RACH) A contention based uplink channel used for transmission of relatively small amounts of data. for initial access or non-real-time dedicated control or traffic data.

Dedicated transport channel type: Dedicated Channel (DCH) A channel dedicated to one UE used in uplink or downlink. etc. It carries all user information (speech. An uplink or downlink channel dedicated to one UE. Paging Channel (PCH) A downlink channel used for broadcast of control information into an entire cell allowing efficient UE sleep mode procedures. Marconi Internal Use Only .) and can support variable bit rate and service multiplexing with closed loop power control and supports soft/er handoff.Channels Definitions Uplink Shared Channel (USCH) An uplink channel shared by several UEs carrying dedicated control or traffic data. data. used in TDD mode only. Broadcast Channel (BCH) A downlink channel used for broadcast of system information specific to the UTRA or a cell. Another use could be UTRAN notification of change of BCCH information. Currently identified information types are paging and notification.

This channel is established through RRC connection setup procedure. Shared Channel Control Channel (SHCCH) Bi-directional channel that transmits control information for uplink and downlink shared channels between network and UEs. Paging Control Channel (PCCH) A downlink channel that transfers paging information. Common Control Channel (CCCH) Bi-directional channel for transmitting control information between network and UEs. This channel is for TDD mode only. This channel is commonly used by the UEs having no RRC connection with the network and by the UEs using common transport channels when accessing a new cell after cell reselection. Marconi Internal Use Only . or.Channels Definitions Logical Control Channels Control channels are used for transfer of control plane information only. This channel is used when the network does not know the location cell of the UE. Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) A downlink channel for broadcasting system control information. the UE is in the cell connected state (utilising UE sleep mode procedures). Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) A point-to-point bi-directional channel that transmits dedicated control information between a UE and the network.

Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH) A Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH) is a point-to-point channel.Channels Definitions Logical Traffic Channels Traffic channels are used for the transfer of user plane information only. for the transfer of user information. Marconi Internal Use Only . dedicated to one UE. Common Traffic Channel (CTCH) A point-to-multipoint unidirectional channel for transfer of dedicated user information for all or a group of specified UEs. A DTCH can exist in both uplink and downlink.

4 Primary 256 Secondary 256 AICH (Acquisition Indicator Channel) PICH (Paging Indicator Channel) 256 256 Channelization C.256.0 Arbitrary C.256.1 Scrambled ?? Primary Scrambling Code Primary or Secondary Scrambling Code Carries the BCH Carries the FACH and PCH Used in Cell Search Downlink Slot Synch Downlink Frame Synch reception of PRACH preambles Carries Paging indicators Always associated with S-CCPCH Pure Data Channel Pure Physical Channel Function Phase Reference Other information CCPCH (Common Control Physical Channel) SCH (Synchronization Channel) Marconi Internal Use Only .Channels Definitions Downlink Physical Channels Channels CPICH (Common Pilot Channel Spreading Factor 256 Primary 256 Secondary 256 256 Primary 256 Secondary 256 .

Physical • P-CCPCH .Channels Q&A • What are the three different classifications of channels in the access stratum? • Through which physical channel do you get system control information ? Marconi Internal Use Only • Logical. Transport.

UMTS SPREADING and MODULATION Marconi Internal Use Only .

100 series.Spreading and Modulation General The UTRA modulation scheme is QPSK.223. * TDD mode: codes with period of 16 chips and midamble sequences of different length depending on the environment. or alternatively S(2) codes 256 chip period. In UTRA different families of spreading codes are used to spread the signal: For separating channels from same source. Pulse shaping is specified in the TS 25. * FDD mode: Gold codes with 10 ms period. Marconi Internal Use Only - . For separating different cells the following solutions are supported. With CDMA nature the spreading (& scrambling) process is closely associated with modulation.84 Mcps) used. with the actual code itself of length 218-1 chips. For separating different UEs the following code families are defined. * FDD mode: Gold codes with 10 ms period (38400 chips at 3. as defined in TS 25.213 and 25.213. * TDD mode: Scrambling codes with the length 16 used as defined in TS 25. channelisation codes derived with the code tree structure as given in TS 25.223 are used.

Spreading and Modulation General Marconi Internal Use Only .

recovering the original symbol-rate source information Marconi Internal Use Only .The symbols (user information) are applied to a spreading code .Spreading and Modulation Channelization and Scrambling Symbol Rate Source Chip Rate Modulator RF RF Demodulator Chip Rate Symbol Rate Out X (OVSF) Spreading Code X X X (PN (Gold)) Scrambling Code (PN (Gold)) Scrambling Code (OVSF) Spreading Code • Transmitter .The resulting chip-rate signal modulates the transmitter • Receiver .RF and demodulator recovers the signal .the same scrambling code de-scrambles the received signal .the spreading code de-spreads the signal.The spread signal are then applied to a scrambling code .

2 βd Complex-valued chip sequence from spreading operations Re{S} S Split real & imag.3 DPDCH3 cd.1 DPDCH1 cd.4 DPDCH4 cd.n I+jQ cd.Spreading and Modulation Uplink cd. parts Pulseshaping Pulseshaping DPDCH2 cd.5 DPDCH5 βd βd βd Σ I cos(ωt) Sdpch.6 DPDCH6 cc DPCCH βc S Im{S} βd -sin(ωt) βd Σ Q One DPCCH and up to six parallel DPDCHs can be transmitted simultaneously j * Based on 25213-380 Marconi Internal Use Only .

The stream of real-valued chips from both the I and Q branches are then combined (summed) t form a complexvalued stream of chips. Second it makes each channel unique from a single source (UE). After channelization. it increases the bandwidth of the input data symbol by the chip rate. the binary value "0" is mapped to the real value +1.n. The number of chips per data symbol is called the spreading factor (SF). The complex-valued signal is then scrambled by a complexvalued scrambling code for transmission. The spreading process results in two things. while the binary value "1" is mapped to the real value –1.n. the spread signals are weighted by gain factors βc . For DPDCCH and DPCCH. it goes to the modulator and its corresponding RF sub section Marconi Internal Use Only . The scrambling process is necessary to uniquely define the UE from the system. After spreading. Sch. First. I + jQ.Spreading and Modulation Uplink Each physical channel is separated into its so called “I” and “Q” branches. Cd. The real-valued symbol data on each physical channel is spread using OVSF codes.

m Q S j Different downlink Physical channels G1 G2 Σ P-SCH GP Σ (point T in Figure 11) cos(ωt) Re{T} Complex-valued chip sequence from summing operations T Split real & imag.SF.Spreading and Modulation Downlink I Any downlink physical channel except SCH S → P Sdl.n I+jQ S Cch. parts Pulseshaping Pulseshaping -sin(ωt) S-SCH GS Im{T} * Based on 25213-380 Marconi Internal Use Only .

The spreading process uniquely defines each channel in a cell while scrambling identifies the cell from other cells. The spread I and Q branches are then combined and treated as a single complex-valued sequence.Spreading and Modulation Downlink A serial to parallel operation is performed for each input pair of two consecutive real-valued symbol. Each complex-valued spread and scrambled channel is weighted by a weight factor Gi . The even numbered symbols are mapped to the “I” branch while the odd numbered symbol goes to the “Q” branch. All downlink physical channels are combined using complex addition and is modulated using QPSK. the complex-valued sequence is scrambled by a complex-valued scrambling code. The I and Q branches are then spread using real-valued OVSF codes. After spreading. Marconi Internal Use Only .

Spreading and Modulation Q&A

• What is Dual Channel QPSK ? • What is the channelization code (spreading process) of the synchronization channel ?

• In the uplink, the “I” and “Q” branches carry separate data channels • None. SCH is a pure physical channel. It does not go through the channelization process Marconi Internal Use Only

UMTS CODES

Marconi Internal Use Only

Codes Synchronization Code
The Synchronization Channel (SCH) is used in cell search procedure. It allows the UE to initially synchronize to the Node B. Synchronization is done in two steps, slot synchronization and frame synchronization. Primary SCH The primary synchronization code (PSC) allows downlink slot synchronization in the cell. PSC is common to all cells and is transmitted on every slot at the start of a timeslot. length = 256 chips duration = 66.67uS Secondary SCH The Secondary SCH consists of a modulated code known as Secondary Synchronization Codes (SSC). SSC allows the UE to acquire frame synchronization and provides information on which code group the cell is using as its downlink primary scrambling code. Cs i,k where i = 0..63 (scrambling code group number) and k = 0..14 (slot number) length = 256 chips duration = 66.67uS

Marconi Internal Use Only

67µs Cp Cp S-SCH Cs i.0 2560 chips 666.Codes Synchronization Code P-SCH Cp 256 chips 66.1 Cs i.7µs Cs i.14 slot # 0 slot # 1 slot # 14 SCH frame 10 mS Marconi Internal Use Only .

Downlink -Used to separate the channel set of a cell • OVSF – Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor The code length is directly related to the the spreading factor (SF) and depends on the channel and the bit rate required by the service FDD Uplink : 256 – 4 Downlink: 512 – 4 TDD Uplink: 16 .1 Marconi Internal Use Only .Codes Spreading .1 Downlink: 16 .Channelization Codes Channelization Codes • Channelization codes have orthogonal properties of variable length used for Uplink Used to separate the physical channels from one UE. It allows the UE to simultaneously transmit multiple physical channels.

1   :  :    C ch . 2n −1  − C ch . 0   C ch . 2 ( n+1)−2  C ch .Code Tree Generation for OVSF Cch .1. 2n . 2 . 2n . 2 −1 C ch . 0  1 1  = − Cch. 0  Cch.Codes Spreading . 2n −1   • • The OVSF matrix can be built by replicating and inverting Faster symbol rates require shorter OVSF codes Marconi Internal Use Only . 2n . 0  C  C ch . 2 ( n+1).1  Cch. 2n . 2n .1. 2 ( n+1). 2   C ch . 2n . 2.1   − C ch . 2 ( n +1 ). 2 ( n+1). 0 =  Cch . 2n . 0  − C ch .1   :  C ch . 2. 2n . 2n .1.1. 2 . 2n . 0   C ch .1   ch . 0  1 − 1     C ch . 0 Cch. 2 −1   ch . 0   C ch .1     C ch . 2n −1  C ( n+1) ( n+1)  C n n  ch . 2 ( n+1). 2n . 3  =  C ch .

1 1 1 1 -1 -1 Cch4.1 Cch512.4 1 -1 -1 1 Cch512.2 Cch4.7 Cch8.1 Cch8.2 Cch1.Codes Spreading Cch4.5 Cch8.512 Cch2.8 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 Cch512.6 Cch8.511 Cch512.1 Cch2.1 1 1 .2 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 Cch4.2 Cch8.Code Tree Generation for OVSF 1 1 1 1 Cch8.1 spreading factor number code tree branch number Higher rates Lower rates Marconi Internal Use Only .3 Cch8.3 Cch2.4 Cch8.

-1 .-1 .-1 .OVSF Code Usage If a short OVSF code is used such as in 384K data channel.4 .1 ) C ch .4 .-1 ) C ch .3 = (1 . This greatly reduces the number of physical channels available on a cell C ch .1 = (1 .1 . the branches (descendants) after the chosen code cannot be used.2 .-1 ) C ch.0 = (1 ) C ch .1 .2 = (1 .-1 .Codes Spreading .0 = (1 .4 .1 ) SF = 1 SF = 2 SF = 4 √ √ √ x x √ √ √ √ √ Marconi Internal Use Only .0 = (1 .1 ) I US N E C ch .1 = (1 .2 .4 .1 .1 .1.-1 ) C ch .

CD/CA-ICH..complex-valued Gold codes from a long sequence 224 of 38400 chip segments codes available: 16. PICH. primary CPICH. • The DPCCH/DPDCH may be scrambled by either long or short scrambling codes • There are 224 long and 224 short scrambling codes Long codes .. codes available: 16. AICH.216 code length: 256 chips Downlink • A total of 218-1 = 262. numbered 0…262. CSICH and S-CCPCH carrying PCH are always transmitted using the primary scrambling code Marconi Internal Use Only . AP-AICH.142 can be generated but not all are used.143 scrambling codes.400 chips Short codes . Only 512*16 = 8191 codes are used. Each set consists of primary codes and 15 (1.Codes Scrambling Uplink • All uplink physical channels are scrambled using a complex-valued scrambling code. • There are 512 (0.15) secondary codes associated with each primary code • The primary CCPCH.216 code length: 38.a sequence from the family of periodically extended S(2) codes.777.777.511) sets.

Codes Scrambling Code .Downlink Marconi Internal Use Only .

Downlink: separate channels from a cell • • small • 512 Marconi Internal Use Only .Spreading and Modulation Q&A • How is the channelization code differ in the uplink and downlink ? • How do you generate the OVSF code tree ? • For higher data rate. what should be the size of the channelization code ? • How many primary scrambling codes in the downlink ? • Uplink: separate channels from one UE.

Frame Uplink / Downlink Superframe (72 frames) Tframe = 720ms Tslot = 666. Power control: 1500 per second Marconi Internal Use Only . Slot: The length of a slot is 2560 chips.7µs = 2560 chips Slot 0 Slot 1 Slot 2 Slot 3 Slot 4 Slot 14 10 ms frame Radio Frame: A radio frame consists of 15 slots with a frame length of 38400 chips.

CPICH. and PDSCH have identical frame timing The S-CCPCH timing offset is always a multiple of 256 chips from P-CCPCH The DPCH timing offset is always a multiple of 256chips from P-CCPCH The PICH timing is always 7680 chips prior to SCCPCH P-CPICH S-CPICH P-CCPCH n*256chips 7680 chips .Frame Timing Relationship The SCH has two sub channels and are transmitted in parallel The SCH.Physical Channels Primary SCH Secondary SCH P-CCPCH S-CCPCH PICH PDSCH n*256chips DPCH Marconi Internal Use Only . CCPCH.

7) Slot #i One radio frame. 10*2k bits (k=0. Tf = 10 ms Slot #14 Marconi Internal Use Only ..Frame DPDCH DPDCH Data Ndata bits Tslot = 2560 chips. 10 bits FBI NFBI bits TPC NTPC bits Uplink Structure I/Q code multiplexed with complex scrambling code Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i 1 radio frame: Tf = 10 ms Slot #14 Time multiplexed with complex scrambling DPDCH Data1 Ndata1 bits DPCCH TPC NTPC bits TFCI NTFCI bits DPDCH Data2 Ndata2 bits DPCCH Pilot Npilot bits Downlink Structure Slot #0 Slot #1 Tslot = 2560 chips. Ndata = 10*2k bits (k=0.6) DPCCH Pilot Npilot bits TFCI NTFCI bits Tslot = 2560 chips..

6 3.4 8 12.Frame DPDCH UPLINK SF 256 64 12.4 64 32 28.4 4 12.4 32 28.2 144 3.2 384 3.4 16 12.4 32 16 57.4 12.4 16 57.4 DCCH AMR speech Packet Data DCCH Fax DCCH AMR speech Packet Data DCCH AMR speech Packet Data DCCH Turbo Coding / 20ms TTI Turbo Coding / 20ms TTI CS data / Turbo coding / 40ms TTI Turbo Coding / 20ms TTI AMR speech DCCH CS data / Turbo coding / 40ms TTI Convolutional coding User bit rate (Kbps) Multplexed Services Transport Format Marconi Internal Use Only .2 3.2 3.2 64 3.4 12.8 Modem 3.4 User bit rate (Kbps) Multiplexed Services DPCCH AMR speech DCCH 28.8 Modem DCCH AMR speech Packet Data DCCH Fax DCCH AMR speech Packet Data DCCH AMR speech Packet Data DCCH Turbo Coding / 20ms TTI Turbo Coding / 20ms TTI CS data / Turbo coding / 40ms TTI Turbo Coding / 20ms TTI CS data / Turbo coding / 40ms TTI Transport Format Always Convolution coding .2 384 3.4 8 12.6 3.2 64 3.Symbol Rates and Services DOWNLINK SF 512 256 128 12.8 3.2 144 3.

P-CCPCH. S-CCPCH.Frame Q&A • How many power control groups in one frame ? • Name the physical channels that have identical frame timing ? • To achieve 384Kbps downlink data rate. 128* 512 Marconi Internal Use Only . 16. PDSCH 8. what should be the size of the spreading factor ? For 144Kbps ? AMR speech? • How many primary scrambling codes in the downlink ? • • • • 15 P-SCH. CPICH. S-SCH.

UMTS HANDOVER Marconi Internal Use Only .

Monitored Set / Neighbor Set contains all cells that the UE is monitoring which are not in the active set but have potential for handover (soft.measurement report sent by the UE when measurement reporting criteria are met Periodical – Periodic measurement report sent by the UE Event Triggered Periodical Node B Node B Marconi Internal Use Only . softer or hard handover) Two measurement Reporting Modes Event Triggered .Handover Introduction UE tracks cells/sectors in two main cell sets: Active Set All UTRAN cells involved in soft or softer connection on a UE.

Handover Handover Causes Uplink/Downlink Signal Measurements This is the standard cause for the soft handover algorithm.f2 GSM SUBURBS Marconi Internal Use Only . It is also a valid handover method for hard handover. Distance Distance between UE and the Cell Location Actual location of the UE Quality BER. BLER 1% Cell Topology Cause This cause will be used for hard handover between two frequencies (FDD to FDD or UMTS to GSM) UMTS .f1 UMTS CITY UMTS .

It is used to replace the worst cell.Handover Handover Reporting Events Intra-Frequency Events (MEHO) Handoff between cells in the same WCDMA carrier Event 1a: Cell (P-CPICH) enters the Reporting Range 10*log10MNew =< W*10*log10(∑Mi) + (1-W)*10*log10MBest – (Rla – Hla/2) Event 1b: Cell (P-CPICH) leaves the Reporting Range 10*log10MOld =< W*10*log10(∑Mi) + (1-W)*10*log10MBest – (Rlb – Hlb/2) Event 1c: A Non-active cell (P-CPICH) becomes better than an active cell (P-CPICH) When a non-active cell becomes better than the worst active cell in a full active set. Event 1d: Change of best cell Event 1e: A cell (P-CPICH) becomes better than an absolute threshold + Hysteresis (optional) Event 1f: A cell (P-CPICH) becomes worse than an absolute threshold – Hysteresis (optional) Marconi Internal Use Only .

Handover Handover Reporting Events ∆T Measurement Quantity CPICH 1 ∆T ∆T As_Th + As_Th_Hyst AS_Th – AS_Th_Hyst As_Rep_Hyst CPICH 2 CPICH 3 Time Event 1A ⇒ Add Cell 2 Event 1C ⇒ Replace Cell 1 with Cell 3 Event 1B ⇒ Remove Cell 3 Cell 1 Connected 1 >>> 2 3 Marconi Internal Use Only UE HEADING >> * Based on 25922-370 .

Handover Handover Reporting Events Measurement quantity P CPICH 1 P CPICH 2 P CPICH 3 P CPICH 4 Reporting event 1C Reporting event 1C Time A primary CPICH that is not included in the active set becomes better than a primary CPICH that is in the active set Measurement quantity P CPICH 1 P CPICH 2 P CPICH3 Reporting event 1D Time A primary CPICH becomes better than the previously best primary CPICH * Based on 25331-3c0 Marconi Internal Use Only .

Handover Handover Reporting Events Measurement quantity P CPICH 1 P CPICH 2 Absolute threshold P CPICH 3 Reporting event 1E Time Event-triggered report when a Primary CPICH becomes better than an absolute threshold Measurement quantity P CPICH 1 P CPICH 2 Absolute threshold P CPICH 3 Reporting event 1F Time Event-triggered report when a Primary CPICH becomes worse than an absolute threshold * Based on 25331-3c0 Marconi Internal Use Only .

This has no UE cell dominance functionality • • • Mode BA . with UE cell dominance functionality Mode CFE .Variation of Mode CBA Mode CB .For non-mobile operation such as WLL Mode CF .Advanced mode of operation.For non-mobile operation such as WLL Marconi Internal Use Only .Handover Handover Modes • • .Basic mode of operation using threshold levels.Intra-frequency Handover Mode CBA .

Handover Handover Reporting Events Inter-Frequency Events (NEHO) Handoff between cells on different WCDMA carrier Event 2a: Change of best frequency Event 2b: Estimated quality of the currently used frequency is below a certain threshold AND estimated quality of the non-used frequency is above a certain threshold Event 2c: Estimated quality of the non-used frequency is above a certain threshold Event 2d: Estimated quality of the currently used frequency is below a certain threshold Event 2e: Estimated quality of a non-used frequency is below a certain threshold Event 2f: Estimated quality of the currently used frequency is above a certain threshold Marconi Internal Use Only .

Handover Handover Reporting Events Inter-System Events (NEHO) Handoff between different radio access technologies such as for WCDMA and GSM or between different radio access modes such as between FDD and TDD Event 3a: Estimated quality of the currently used UTRAN frequency is below a certain threshold AND the estimated quality of the other system is above a certain threshold Event 3b: Estimated quality of other system is below a certain threshold Event 3c: Estimated quality of other system is above a certain threshold Event 3d: Change of best cell in other system Marconi Internal Use Only .

Handover Handover Types Softer Handover Softer (intra-cell site) handover entails data splitting/combining operations inside the Node B. The Node B supports the splitting function in the downlink and Maximal Ratio Combining in the uplink Radio Network Controller Soft Handover Soft (inter-cell site) handover is mainly transparent to the Node B Radio Network Controller Marconi Internal Use Only .

Soft Handover Begin Meas_Sign > Best_Ss – As_Th – as_Th_Hyst for a period of ∆T Yes No (Event 1B) Remove Worst_Bs in the Active Set Meas_Sign > Best_Ss – As_Th + as_Th_Hyst for a period of ∆T No Yes (Event 1A) Active Set Full Yes No Best_Cand_Ss > Worst_Old_Ss + As_Rep_Hyst for a period of ∆T No Yes (Event 1C) Add Best BS in Active Set and Remove Worst Bs from th Active Set Add Best_Bs in the Active Set flow-chart of a Soft Handover algorithm * Based on 25922-370 Marconi Internal Use Only .Handover Handover Algorithm .

Neighbour Cell Neighbour list Intra frequency The UE must be able to monitor at least 32 cells within the same WCDMA carrier Inter frequency The UE must be able to monitor at least 32 cells total on two WCDMA carrier Intersystem A maximum of 32 inter frequency neighbours must be supported Marconi Internal Use Only .

Distance CBA Softer . Periodic Quality (BER/BLER).Handover Q&A • What are the two measurement reporting modes ? • Name at least two that causes a handover ? • What intra-frequency handover mode that has cell dominance functionality ? • What handover type done at the Node B level ? Marconi Internal Use Only • • • • Event.

UMTS POWER CONTROL Marconi Internal Use Only .

). It requires parameters being broadcast by the cell. Without precise power control. Inner . Closed loop The closed loop power control is for losses due to Raleigh/Rician (fast) fading.fast power control for UL and DL .The outer loop takes into account changing requirements in SIR with respect to long term QoS or average erasure rates Outer Marconi Internal Use Only . CDMA technology will not work. etc. VAF.addresses the near-far problem .Power Control General Power control ensures that all users (BSS and UEs) in the system transmits and receives just enough power to send/receive data. Power Control Open Loop The uplink open loop power control involves both the UE and the UTRAN. It aims to maintain a minimum transmit power from the UE for a desired quality of service.once every power control group = 1500 times per second . loading. and other losses. This is very important as it minimizes the interference in the system.g. interference level variation (e.

max PreambleTransmissions in one ramping cycle NbOfRampingCyclesMax – max number of ramping cycles Marconi Internal Use Only .Uplink Preamble Initial Power PRACH_Initial_Power = CPICH_Tx_Power – CPICH_RSCP + UL_interference + UL_required_CI + open_loop_constant Preamble ∆Pp-m ∆Po ∆Po Message time 4096 chips 4096 chips 4096 chips 10 ms ∆Po (deltaPo) – Power Step (UE) ∆Pp-m (deltaPpm) .Power offset between the preamble and the message part PreambleMaxRetrans .Power Control ACCESS Power Open Looplist Neighbour (PRACH) Control .

4. 6. 3.Power Control Open Loop Power Control 1.10*log10(SFDPCCH) Parameter CPICH_Tx_Power CPICH_RSCP UL_interference UL_required_CI Source System Information UE Layer 1 System Information System Information Source Parameter Cpich Power measured at UE measured at node B ul initial target per service type per SF dBm dBm dBm dB Unit Marconi Internal Use Only . 5. UE determines RACH from the BCH UE selects a sub-channel and one of the signatures UE measures downlink power and sets the initial power level UE sends up the 1ms preamble UE waits for the AICH with the correct response – preamble is sent in next slot if no response is received UE sends the 10-20ms message part of the RACH DPCCH Initial Power DPCCH_Initial_Power = CPICH_Tx_Power – CPICH_RSCP + UL_interference + SIRDPCCH .Uplink 2. .

CRCI me tric Of Node s B in the active s et NODEB RX P r=NoW + - ±P s te p TP C De code & Voting UE Pt cl Encode r Info Bits TX Accum.Quality Estimate BER .Cyclic Redundancy Check Indicator Pt total received power cl Pt closed loop power estimate component ol Pt open loop power estimate component. Pt Ope n Loop Estimator K-NoW Pt ol Othe r Info Bits S IR me tric Compute S IR Me tric RX pilot s ymbols da ta s ymbols TX Encode r FQI. Marconi Internal Use Only .Uplink closed loop power control operation UE-UTRAN RNC Oute rloop PC inne r loop S IRta rge t TP C QE. BER me tric De code r MAP QE .Physical Channel Bit Error Rate of the decoded frame CRCI .

Power Control Close Loop Power Control Uplink inner loop power control The inner loop compares the estimated SIR on the pilot symbol on every DPCCH slot vs. Marconi Internal Use Only . the target SIR and provides feedback to the UE via the TPC command: SIR ≥ SIR_target the Node B should set the TPC bits in the next transmitted downlink slot period such that the UE will lower its transmit power. SIR < SIR_target the Node B should set the TPC bits in the next transmitted downlink slot period such that the UE will increase its transmit power.

The service type is used to choose the type of outer loop power control algorithm to implement. Marconi Internal Use Only .Power Control Close Loop Power Control Uplink outer loop power control The outer loop power control attempts to meet a bit error rate (BER) or BLER for each type service (real time. which is implemented in a lookup table in the SRNC. Outer power control loop adjusts the SIR_target for the inner loop comparison down in the node B. An algorithm based on CRC of the data stream is used as a measure of the quality. non-real time) by producing adequate target SIR for each individual inner loop PC. This is converted to BER or BLER. The BER is mapped into a block error rate (BLER). The core network (CN) provides SRNC the SDU error rate in RAB Assignment Request.

If the CPCH used. It is set per real time or non-real time service and for each spreading factor for each soft handoff state. The UTRAN controls the forward link gains and controls the range of power available.Power Control Close Loop Power Control Downlink outer loop power control The downlink outer loop power control function is done in the UE. The target SIR for the downlink inner loop PC s adjusted by the UE. The value of the quality target in the UE is controlled by the admission control. Marconi Internal Use Only . the SRNC will provide the UE with the BLER target for the downlink outer loop power control.

Power Control Downlink Common Channels DL Channel Typical Power Level (dBm) P-CPICH SCH Primary Secondary CCPCH Primary Secondary PICH AICH 27-33 -3 -3 -5 -5 -8 -8 Remarks RF Design/Optimization relative to P-CPICH relative to P-CPICH (SF=256) relative to P-CPICH relative to P-CPICH relative to P-CPICH (Np = 72) relative to P-CPICH Marconi Internal Use Only .

Power Control Q&A • Which power control loop provides the target SIR for the inner-loop power control ? • How fast is the closed loop inner power control ? • Is fast power control implemented only on the uplink or downlink or both ? • How does the mobile know how much power to transmit during initial access? • Outer loop power control • 1500 Hz • Both • PRACH_Initial_Power = CPICH_Tx_Power – CPICH_RSCP + UL_interference + UL_required_CI Marconi Internal Use Only .

UMTS TERMINALS Marconi Internal Use Only .

UMTS STANDARDS Marconi Internal Use Only .

211: Physical channels and mapping of transport channels onto physical channels (FDD) The scope is to establish the characteristics of the Layer-1 transport channels and physical channels in the FDD mode.833 and 25. five TDD mode documents (TS 25. five FDD mode documents (TS 25. slot format etc.201: Physical layer – General description The scope is to describe: the contents of the Layer 1documents (TS 25.944).200 series).225). what is the structure of each physical channel.5 Document structure of physical layer specification 5. which physical channels exist.211 through 25.3 TS 25. and to specify: the different transport channels that exist. a general description of Layer 1. In addition. relative timing between different physical channels in the same link. mapping of transport channels onto the physical channels.1 Overview The physical layer specification consists of a general document (TS 25.201). and relative timing between uplink and downlink. 5.. where to find information. 5.215).221 through 25. Marconi Internal Use Only .2 TS 25. there are two technical reports (TR 25.

and to specify: The scope is to establish the characteristics of the spreading and modulation in the FDD mode. and to specify: RF channel arrangements and Pulse shaping are specified in TS 25.212: Multiplexing and channel coding (FDD) coding and multiplexing of transport channels into CCTrCHs. how is rate matching done. Marconi Internal Use Only . generation of RACH and CPCH preamble codes. coding for Layer 1 control information. such as TFCI. generation of SCH synchronisation codes.104 for Node-B.5 - TS 25. physical channel segmentation and mapping. modulation. The scope is to describe multiplexing.4 5. channel coding and interleaving in the FDD mode.101 for UE and in TS 25. the different interleavers. channel coding alternatives.5. TS 25.213: Spreading and modulation (FDD) the spreading (channelisation plus scrambling). generation of channelisation and scrambling codes.

structure and contents. and to specify: transport channels.5. mapping of transport channels onto the physical channels. Marconi Internal Use Only .215: Physical layer – Measurements (FDD) the measurements that Layer 1 is to perform. idle-mode measurements etc. handover measurements. reporting of measurements to higher layers and network. The scope is to establish the characteristics of the physical layer measurements in the FDD mode.221: Physical channels and mapping of transport channels onto physical channels (TDD) The scope is to establish the characteristics of the Layer-1 transport channels and physical channels in the TDD mode. physical channels.7 - TS 25. and to specify: 5.8 TS 25. and to specify: 5.6 - TS 25. random access procedure.214: Physical layer procedures (FDD) cell search procedures. The scope is to establish the characteristics of the physical layer procedures in the FDD mode. power control procedures.

generation of synchronisation codes.223: Spreading and modulation (TDD) The scope is to establish the characteristics of the spreading and modulation in the TDD mode. rate matching. channel coding and interleaving in the TDD mode.9 TS 25.105 for Node-B. Marconi Internal Use Only . and to specify: data modulation. spreading. RF channel arrangements and Pulse shaping are specified in TS 25. channel coding alternatives.222: Multiplexing and channel coding (TDD) The scope is to describe multiplexing. 5. and to specify: channel coding and multiplexing of transport channels into CCTrCHs.10 TS 25.5. physical channel segmentation and mapping.102 for UE and in TS 25. coding for Layer 1 control information. such as TFCI. interleaving.

5. timing advance. and to specify: the measurements that Layer 1 is to perform.11 TS 25. Marconi Internal Use Only .224: Physical layer procedures (TDD) The scope is to establish the characteristics of the physical layer procedures in the TDD mode. idle-mode measurements etc.225: Physical layer – Measurements (TDD) The scope is to establish the characteristics of the physical layer measurements in the TDD mode. reporting of measurements to higher layers and network. 5. and to specify: cell synchronisation. handover measurements.12 TS 25. idle mode tasks. power control procedures.

4-state SCCC turbo coding and ODMA.14 TR 25.5.944: Channel coding and multiplexing examples The scope is to describe examples of channel coding and multiplexing for transport channels of various types and cases. FAUSCH. Hybrid ARQ. such as DSCH control channel. 5.833: Physical layer items not for inclusion in Release ‘99 The scope is to collect materials on UTRA physical layer items not included in the Release ’99 specification documents. Marconi Internal Use Only .13 TR 25.

greater will lead to resolved multipath. the duration of one spreading chip is 1/1. Multipath differences less than this will lead to flat fading.Q&A In IS95A/B. which will be diversity combined by the receiver. or 244 meters.2288MHz = 814 ns. What is the minimum distance in UMTS for the rake receiver to be able to decode ? Marconi Internal Use Only .

UMTS CALL PROCESSING .

MODULE 2 CALL PROCESSING General Idle Mode Cell Search Procedure UE Initiated Call Flow RRC Connection Management Procedures Radio Bearer Control Procedure RRC Connection Mobility Procedure Measurement Procedures Sample Call Flows Timers and Counters Marconi Internal Use Only .

331 CELL_FACH 3GPP TS 25.08 UE idle 3GPP TS 25.304 URA_PCH 3GPP TS 25.331 GSM connected GSM TS 04.331 3GPP TS 25.331 CELL_DCH 3GPP TS 25.304 Mapping of UE state to 3GPP Specifications * Based on 25331-3c0 Marconi Internal Use Only .331 3GPP TS 25.304 CELL_PCH 3GPP TS 25.304 3GPP TS 25.18 GPRS Packet Transfer GSM TS 04.60 GSM idle GSM TS 05.331 3GPP TS 25.Call Flow General Information UE switch-on UE Idle 3GPP TS 25.304 UE connected 3GPP TS 25.

Call Flow Idle Mode When the UE camps on a cell in idle mode. the UE tries to camp to any PLMN and enters to a “limited service” state on which only emergency calls can be made. if the UE is unable to find a suitable cell due to either the USIM is not inserted or the registration was a failure. the PLMN knows where to forward a call as it knows where the UE is currently camped on. • Allows the UE to receive system information from the camped PLMN and cell broadcast services. Similar to other systems. • If the UE is registered. Marconi Internal Use Only .

The UE may reselect to another cell if it finds another suitable one. by means of a NAS registration procedure. Cell Selection/Reselection After choosing the PLMN. that the AS shall use for cell selection and cell reselection. It does this by searching and choosing a suitable cell that can provide services that the UE may require. if the UE loses coverage to any cell belonging to the current PLMN. either a new PLMN is selected manually through a list of available PLMNs or automatically. the UE selects a public land mobile network (PLMN) and searches for a suitable cell to camp on.Call Flow Idle Mode Three processes in Idle Mode PLMN Selection/Reselection The first time a UE is switched “ON”. The UE may do PLMN reselection at regular time intervals and searches for more suitable cells. The NAS shall provide a list of equivalent PLMNs contained on the USIM. Marconi Internal Use Only . if available. the UE camps on a cell belonging to the chosen PLMN. Likewise. in the registration area of the chosen cell. Location Registration The UE may then register its presence. and tunes to its control channel and camps in.

Call Flow Idle Mode cell information stored for the PLMN Stored information Cell Selection no suitable cell found go here whenever a new PLMN is selected no cell information stored for the PLMN 1 no suitable cell found Initial Cell Selection suitable cell found 2 suitable cell found no suitable cell found Cell Selection when leaving connected mode suitable cell found Camped normally NAS indicates that registration on selected PLMN is rejected (except with cause #14 or #15 [5][16] ) return to idle mode leave idle mode trigger suitable cell found Connected mode Cell Reselection Evaluation Process no suitable cell found no acceptable cell found Any Cell Selection go here when no USIM in the UE USIM inserted acceptable cell found 1 Cell Selection when leaving connected mode acceptable cell found Camped on any cell suitable cell found 2 return to idle mode leave idle mode trigger acceptable cell found Connected mode (Emergency calls only) Cell Reselection Evaluation Process no acceptable cell found Idle Mode Cell Selection and Reselection Marconi Internal Use Only * Based on 25304-3b0 .

the UE can now listen to P-CCPCH for BCH information (system and cell specific information). It does this through symbol-by-symbol correlation over the P-CPICH with all the codes that belong to the code group determined during frame synchronization. Matched Filter • Frame Synchronization (code group identification) After acquiring slot synchronization. Scrambling Code Identification As the UE is now frame synchronized. By this time the UE now has acquired frame synchronization.Call Flow Cell Search Procedure P/S-CPICH Primary SCH Secondary SCH 3 steps in Cell Search Procedure • P-CCPCH P-CCPCH Slot Synchronization UE listens to any cell’s P-SCH to acquire slot synchronization. • Marconi Internal Use Only . detecting the peaks on the output. This is done through the UEs matched filter. By correlating the repeated modulated code received with all known secondary synchronization code sequences. it now tries to determine the exact primary scrambling code that identifies the cell through which the UE is trying to camp on to. After the determining the primary scrambling code. The S-SCH consists of a sequence of repeated modulated codes. the UE can then determine which code group (downlink primary scrambling code group) the cell belongs. the UE listens to the S-SCH.

Call Flow Cell Search Procedure Marconi Internal Use Only .

Call Flow UE Initiated Normal Call Flow Notes Call Attempt Message Type RRCU RRCD RRCU RRCU L3U RRCD L3D RRCU L3U RRCD RRCU RRCU L3U RRCD L3D RRCD L3D RRCD RRCU RRCD L3D RRCD L3D RRCU L3U RRCU RRCD RRCU RRCD RRCU RRCD RRCU RRCD : : : RRCU L3U RRCD L3D RRCU L3U Downlink CCCH "RRC_CONNECTION_SETUP" Uplink CCCH "RRC_CONNECTION_REQUEST" DCCH "DCCH_RRC_CONNECTION_SETUP_COMPLETE" DCCH "INITIAL_DIRECT_TRANSFER" DCCH "CM_SERVICE_REQUEST" Remarks Call Setup Failure DCCH "DOWNLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" DCCH "AUTHENTICATION_REQUEST" DCCH "UPLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" DCCH "AUTHENTICATION_RESPONSE" DCCH "SECURITY_MODE_COMMAND" DCCH "SECURITY_MODE_COMPLETE" DCCH "UPLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" DCCH "SETUP" DCCH "DOWNLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" DCCH "CALL_PROCEEDING" DCCH "DOWNLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" DCCH "FACILITY" DCCH "RADIO_BEARER_SETUP" DCCH "RADIO_BEARER_SETUP_COMPLETE" DCCH "DOWNLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" DCCH "ALERTING" DCCH "DOWNLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" DCCH "CONNECT" DCCH "UPLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" DCCH "CONNECT_ACKNOWLEDGE" DCCH "MEASUREMENT_REPORT" DCCH "ACTIVE_SET_UPDATE" DCCH "ACTIVE_SET_UPDATE_COMPLETE" DCCH "MEASUREMENT_CONTROL" DCCH "MEASUREMENT_REPORT" DCCH "ACTIVE_SET_UPDATE" DCCH "ACTIVE_SET_UPDATE_COMPLETE" DCCH "MEASUREMENT_CONTROL" Dropped Call Call Setup Failure Call Setup Complete Call Completed DCCH "UPLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" DCCH "DISCONNECT" DCCH "DOWNLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" DCCH "RELEASE" DCCH "UPLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" DCCH "RELEASE_COMPLETE" Dropped Call Marconi Internal Use Only .

Actual Messaging RRCD LONG LAT 27 2107 3 0 20 12:49:06.## : : XXX-# : : GSM 900/GSM 1800/UMTS 2100 FDD : ### : NTM ##.961 BCCH "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BLOCK_TYPE_2" HEX MESSAGES RRCD LONG LAT 27 2107 3 0 20 12:49:06.961 BCCH "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BLOCK_TYPE_7" HEX MESSAGES RRCD LONG LAT 27 2107 3 0 20 12:49:06.Call Flow UE Initiated Call *** NEMO PRIME #.####.931 BCCH_BCH "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BCH" HEX MESSAGES RRCD LONG LAT 27 2107 3 0 20 12:49:06.901 BCCH_BCH "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BCH" HEX MESSAGES RRCD LONG LAT 27 2107 3 0 20 12:49:06.941 BCCH_BCH "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BCH" HEX MESSAGES RRCD LONG LAT 27 2107 3 0 20 12:49:06. : 0.## MM. MM-DD-YYYY. V ##.##.00 : Originate : #.961 BCCH "MASTER_INFORMATION_BLOCK" HEX MESSAGES RRCD LONG LAT 27 2107 3 0 20 12:49:06.961 BCCH_BCH "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BCH" HEX MESSAGES RRCD LONG LAT 27 2107 3 0 20 12:49:06.931 BCCH "SCHEDULING_BLOCK_1" HEX MESSAGES RRCD LONG LAT 27 2107 3 0 20 12:49:06. XXX-#.DD.961 BCCH "SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BLOCK_TYPE_18" HEX MESSAGES Marconi Internal Use Only .## : HH:MM:SS #ID Id tag for simultaneous measurement files #AG External antenna gain (dBi) #BF BTS filename #CF Call list filename #CL External cable loss #CM Call mode #HV Handler version #MF Map filename #MT Mobile type #NN Network name #NT Network type #PN Test call phone number #SW Device software version #HW Device hardware version : {HEX NUMBER} .#.00 : : C:\Nemo Tools\….##.## ff ver #.YYYY : 0.

403 12 -90 -89 4.403 12 1 10762 -93 4 1 10762 208 -3 0 1 10762 216 -16 0 0 0 BER LONG LAT 27 2113 3 0 22 12:49:08.403 12 3700 ECN0 LONG LAT 27 2113 3 0 22 12:49:08.662 DCCH "DCCH_RRC_CONNECTION_SETUP_COMPLETE" HEX MESSAGES RRCU LONG LAT 27 2107 3 0 20 12:49:07.403 12 -4 0 1 0 602 615 PHDAS LONG LAT 27 2113 3 0 22 12:49:08.0 255.361 12 5 2 1 11 8 -102 ECN0 LONG LAT 27 2107 3 0 20 12:49:07.263 DCCH "DOWNLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" HEX MESSAGES L3D LONG LAT 27 2113 3 0 22 12:49:08.0 640 1.361 12 -87 -87 -32.662 DCCH "INITIAL_DIRECT_TRANSFER" HEX MESSAGES L3U LONG LAT 27 2107 3 0 20 12:49:07.263 DCCH "AUTHENTICATION_REQUEST" HEX MESSAGES RXPC LONG LAT 27 2113 3 0 22 12:49:08.0 0 0 0 RACHI LONG LAT 27 2107 3 0 20 12:49:07.Actual Messaging RRCU LONG LAT 27 2107 3 0 20 12:49:07.361 12 1 10762 -93 4 1 10762 208 -3 1 1 10762 216 -16 0 0 0 RRCD LONG LAT 27 2107 3 0 20 12:49:07.0 0 621 597 TXPC LONG LAT 27 2113 3 0 22 12:49:08.061 CCCH "RRC_CONNECTION_REQUEST" HEX MESSAGES RXPC LONG LAT 27 2107 3 0 20 12:49:07.1 RRCU LONG LAT 27 2113 3 0 22 12:49:08.8 255.391 CCCH "RRC_CONNECTION_SETUP" HEX MESSAGES RRCU LONG LAT 27 2107 3 0 20 12:49:07.Call Flow UE Initiated Call .662 DCCH "CM_SERVICE_REQUEST" HEX MESSAGES CHI LONG LAT 27 2107 3 0 20 12:49:07.7 3.5 100 4.762 12 5 10762 -1 -1 2.0 100 RRCD LONG LAT 27 2113 3 0 22 12:49:08.403 12 6.523 DCCH "UPLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" HEX MESSAGES Marconi Internal Use Only .

104 DCCH "IDENTITY_RESPONSE" HEX MESSAGES RRCD LONG LAT 27 2120 3 0 22 12:49:09.2 255.5 3.104 DCCH "DOWNLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" HEX MESSAGES L3D LONG LAT 27 2120 3 0 22 12:49:09.Call Flow UE Initiated Call .374 DCCH "CALL_PROCEEDING" HEX MESSAGES RXPC LONG LAT 27 2120 3 0 22 12:49:09.404 12 -94 -95 4.104 DCCH "IDENTITY_REQUEST" HEX MESSAGES RRCU LONG LAT 27 2120 3 0 22 12:49:09.Actual Messaging L3U LONG LAT 27 2113 3 0 22 12:49:08.104 DCCH "UPLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" HEX MESSAGES L3U LONG LAT 27 2120 3 0 22 12:49:09.0 0 600 900 TXPC LONG LAT 27 2120 3 0 22 12:49:09.773 DCCH "SETUP" HEX MESSAGES RRCD LONG LAT 27 2120 3 0 22 12:49:09.404 12 1 10762 -89 4 1 10762 208 -3 0 1 10762 216 -18 0 0 0 BER LONG LAT 27 2120 3 0 22 12:49:09.404 12 6000 ECN0 LONG LAT 27 2120 3 0 22 12:49:09.404 12 -11 0 1 0 747 754 PHDAS LONG LAT 27 2120 3 0 22 12:49:09.773 DCCH "UPLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" HEX MESSAGES L3U LONG LAT 27 2113 3 0 22 12:49:08.374 DCCH "DOWNLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" HEX MESSAGES L3D LONG LAT 27 2120 3 0 22 12:49:09.1 Marconi Internal Use Only .773 DCCH "SECURITY_MODE_COMMAND" HEX MESSAGES RRCU LONG LAT 27 2113 3 0 22 12:49:08.523 DCCH "AUTHENTICATION_RESPONSE" HEX MESSAGES RRCD LONG LAT 27 2113 3 0 22 12:49:08.404 12 4.773 DCCH "SECURITY_MODE_COMPLETE" HEX MESSAGES RRCU LONG LAT 27 2113 3 0 22 12:49:08.

626 1 4 -1 BLER LONG LAT 27 2125 3 0 22 12:49:10.626 DCCH "RADIO_BEARER_SETUP_COMPLETE" HEX MESSAGES CAC LONG LAT 27 2125 3 0 22 12:49:10.766 12 9.1 3.027 DCCH "UPLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" HEX MESSAGES L3U LONG LAT 27 2130 3 0 20 12:49:11.896 DCCH "ALERTING" HEX MESSAGES CAC LONG LAT 27 2130 3 0 20 12:49:10.896 2 4 -1 RRCD LONG LAT 27 2130 3 0 20 12:49:10.027 DCCH "CONNECT" HEX MESSAGES RRCU LONG LAT 27 2130 3 0 20 12:49:11.406 12 1 10762 -90 4 1 10762 208 -3 0 1 10762 216 -17 0 0 0 BER LONG LAT 27 2125 3 0 22 12:49:10.1 RRCU LONG LAT 27 2125 3 0 22 12:49:10.896 DCCH "DOWNLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" HEX MESSAGES L3D LONG LAT 27 2130 3 0 20 12:49:10.Call Flow UE Initiated Call .3 255.406 12 9.027 DCCH "DOWNLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" HEX MESSAGES L3D LONG LAT 27 2130 3 0 20 12:49:11.406 12 -87 -87 3.406 12 1200 ECN0 LONG LAT 27 2125 3 0 22 12:49:10.1 RRCD LONG LAT 27 2130 3 0 20 12:49:10.905 DCCH "RADIO_BEARER_SETUP" HEX MESSAGES RXPC LONG LAT 27 2125 3 0 22 12:49:10.406 12 -4 0 1 0 753 746 PHDAS LONG LAT 27 2125 3 0 22 12:49:10.0 BER LONG LAT 27 2125 3 0 22 12:49:10.Actual Messaging RRCD LONG LAT 27 2125 3 0 22 12:49:09.027 DCCH "CONNECT_ACKNOWLEDGE" HEX MESSAGES Marconi Internal Use Only .977 DCCH "MEASUREMENT_CONTROL" HEX MESSAGES RRCD LONG LAT 27 2130 3 0 20 12:49:11.1 3.766 0.0 0 612 887 TXPC LONG LAT 27 2125 3 0 22 12:49:10.

Actual Messaging RRCU LONG LAT 27 2157 1 6 0 12:49:56.333 DCCH "RRC_CONNECTION_RELEASE_COMPLETE" HEX MESSAGES RXPC LONG LAT 27 2157 1 5 0 12:49:57.173 DCCH "RRC_CONNECTION_RELEASE_COMPLETE" HEX MESSAGES RRCU LONG LAT 27 2157 1 5 0 12:49:57.422 DCCH "DISCONNECT" HEX MESSAGES RRCD LONG LAT 27 2157 1 6 0 12:49:56.422 DCCH "UPLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" HEX MESSAGES L3U LONG LAT 27 2157 1 6 0 12:49:56.403 12 -77 -76 3.403 12 1 10762 -77 4 1 10762 208 -3 0 0 0 0 BER LONG LAT 27 2157 1 5 0 12:49:57.672 DCCH "DOWNLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" HEX MESSAGES L3D LONG LAT 27 2157 1 6 0 12:49:56.0 0 447 1052 TXPC LONG LAT 27 2157 1 5 0 12:49:57.0 Marconi Internal Use Only .9 255.403 12 -20 0 1 0 749 751 PHDAS LONG LAT 27 2157 1 5 0 12:49:57.672 DCCH "UPLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER" HEX MESSAGES L3U LONG LAT 27 2157 1 6 0 12:49:56.672 DCCH "RELEASE_COMPLETE" HEX MESSAGES RRCD LONG LAT 27 2157 1 6 0 12:49:57.672 DCCH "RELEASE" HEX MESSAGES RRCU LONG LAT 27 2157 1 6 0 12:49:56.013 DCCH "RRC_CONNECTION_RELEASE" HEX MESSAGES RRCU LONG LAT 27 2157 1 6 0 12:49:57.Call Flow UE Initiated Call .403 12 0.403 12 19000 ECN0 LONG LAT 27 2157 1 5 0 12:49:57.013 DCCH "RRC_CONNECTION_RELEASE_COMPLETE" HEX MESSAGES RRCU LONG LAT 27 2157 1 5 0 12:49:57.9 0.

UMTS Planning and Optimization Marconi Internal Use Only .

PLANNING Multilayer Networks Microcell Only Network >>> <<< MultiLayer Network * Radio Planning of Third Generation Nwtworks in Urban Areas by P R Gould Marconi Internal Use Only .

GENERAL INFORMATION UMTS Commercial Deployment Initial System Design (Link Budget & Simulations) PLANET Noise Floor Test System Rollout / Site Integration Single Cell Functional Test Drive Routes Cell / Node B Issues ? N Initial Cluster Coverage Survey Update Master RF Database Network Metric Drive Issues ? N KPI Y Y Clustering Prepare Master RF Database Network Coverage Survey Optimize Y Update Master RF Database A Network Coverage Design Issues ? N Update Systems Design PLANET Network Metric Drive Test Optimize Update Master RF Database Cluster Coverage Design Issues ? N Optimize Y Update Systems Design/Retune Model PLANET Cluster Metric Drive Test Network Coverage Test Forward Link loaded Conditions Friendly User Performance Test Cluster Metric Drive Issues ? N Y Optimize Update Master RF Database User Issues ? N Y Trouble Tickets A Marconi Internal Use Only Commercial Service .

UE STATES Marconi Internal Use Only .

UE STATES Service States • The UE operates in one of three basic states – Detached •Not registered to the network – Idle •Registered to the network and performing both LA and RA updates – Connected •CS-Connected – Does not perform LA updates – CS Signalling/Traffic Link Established •PS-Connected – PS Signalling/Traffic Link Established – RA updates for boundary crossings Detached CS-Connected PS-Connected Idle Marconi Internal Use Only .

UE STATES Idle Mode Idle mode is when the UE has: – Selected a PLMN – Selected a cell – Carried out Location Registration Once in Idle mode the UE continually reassess its serving cell – Monitoring the serving cell’s and neighboring cells radio performance • The UE should be served by the most reliable cell – Monitoring signaling information • P-CCPCH for cell and system parameters which could provoke cell reselection • S-CCPCH for paging or notification resulting in connection establishment Marconi Internal Use Only .

it can now decode the P-CCPCH Marconi Internal Use Only .UE STATES Synchronization In order to select a PLMN or cell the UE must first be synchronized to the network As discussed in Module 2. the procedure for this is: – Derive slot synchronization from P-SCH – Derive frame synchronization and scrambling code group from S-SCH – Derive scrambling code from CPICH Once the UE acquires the information above.

MEASUREMENTS Marconi Internal Use Only .

• (CPICH Ec/Io) = (CPICH RSCP) / RSSI CPICH ISCP – CPICH Interference on Signal Code Power.MEASUREMENTS UE • UTRA carrier RSSI – Received Signal Strength Indicator. interference on received signal after despreading CPICH SIR – CPICH Signal to Interference Ratio. • (CPICH SIR) = (CPICH RSCP) / (CPICH ISCP) * Based on 25302-3e0 Marconi Internal Use Only • • • • . wideband received power within the channel bandwidth CPICH RSCP – CPICH Received Signal Code Power. received power on CPICH after despreading CPICH Ec/No – CPICH Energy/chip to Noise power spectral density.

• SIR = (DPCCH RSCP) / (DPCCH ISCP) Transport channel BLER – Estimation of transport channel block error rate UE transmitted power – Total transmitted power of the UE measured at the antenna connector/indication of TX power reaching threshold • • * Based on 25302-3e0 Marconi Internal Use Only .MEASUREMENTS UE • SIR – Signal to Interference Ratio.

MEASUREMENTS UTRAN • Transport channel BLER – Estimation of transport channel block error rate Physical channel BER – Physical channel BER measured on control part after RL combining Transport channel BER – Transport channel BER measured on data part after RL combining RSSI – Received Signal Strength Indicator. scrambling and channelisation code combination * Based on 25302-3e0 Marconi Internal Use Only • • • • • . the wideband received power within the UL channel Transmitted carrier power – The transmitter carrier power is the ratio between the total transmitted power on one DL carrier and the maximum power to use on that carrier Transmitted code power – The transmitted power on one carrier.

OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES Marconi Internal Use Only .

Downlink and Uplink U Check Uplink Coverage (DM Data) site parameters set correctly CPICH ? Y Y N N High UE Tx ? Y Y Adjust Antenna Parameters Relocate Antenna Relocate Site Low RSSI / RSCP ? N N Blocked Sector ? Y Adjust Antenna Parameters Relocate Antenna Relocate Site DM / UE Failure ? Y Fix/Calibrate DM Redo Metric Drive Blocked Sector ? N Overshooting Coverage ? Y Adjust Antenna Parameters Adjust CPICH Power High FER / BER / Io ? Y Multi Pilot ? Y N High Interference ? Y Check Noise Floor Data N Check w/ Network Related Problems (Node B issues ?) M N Check w/ Network Related Problems (Node B issues ?) U DM / UE Failure ? N Y Fix/Calibrate DM Redo Metric Drive M Marconi Internal Use Only .Optimization Techniques Coverage Check Downlink Coverage (Scanner Data) .

Optimization Techniques General Process · . · · · · · · .Goals RSSI and RSCP Pilot Quality (Ec/Io) Uplink Interference UE transmit power Neighbor List BLER call set-up success and failure rates session establishment success rates drop call rates SHO failure rates SHO regions Throughput Marconi Internal Use Only . · · · .

etc.5th . Best Server •Change Antenna Parameters •CPICH Power Reduce overshooting SCs Coverage .Interference.4th.Optimization Techniques Multi Pilot Reduction M . 6th.SCs with highest hit count above threshold •Change Antenna Parameters •CPICH Power # of SCs > 3 Above Threshold ? Y N Marconi Internal Use Only . Ec /Io Interference Multi Pilot low Ec/Io CFE Absolute Thresh Handoff Mode ? CBA Multi Dominance # of SCs > 3 w/in Tcomp of Best Server ? Y Reduce overshooting SCs Coverage .

• Distance of nearby cell (Proximity) • Direction of nearby cell (Orientation) • Line of Site (Visibility.Optimization Techniques Neighbor List Generation UMTS can have up to 32 Neighbors defined per cell. Initial Phase • Based on simulation or visual inspection from maps.re-prioritize or eliminate cells initially defined but was not visible during drive test • missing neighbor information from drive test data .include missing neighbors in the neighbor list with corresponding priority based on Ec/Io and RSCP • call failure messaging . no natural or man-mad blockage) • Drive Route Optimization Phase As above with the following considerations • Actual drive test data showing cells visible to the UE during drive .either include or exclude cells in the neighbor list that resulted to the call failure .check active set and best candidate before and after the call failure Marconi Internal Use Only . Improper Neighbor List can cause access failures and drop calls.

UE cannot handoff to strong nearby cells • UE handoffs to a far cell and cannot handoff back .combined neighbor list is filled up by neighbors coming from far cells.overshooting cells . no room for new cells within the area where the UE is in.call fails due to high interference caused by cell not in neighbor list • Origination on a far cell .UE attempts to handoff during access attempt to a strong cell not in neighbor list . Marconi Internal Use Only .Optimization Techniques Neighbor List Generation Access Failures • Missing Neighbors .overshooting cells Drop Calls • Missing Neighbors .

Optimization Techniques Neighbor List Generation N Create Neighbor List Create initial list based on simulation and visual inspection • Obtain Metric Drive Data • Check the best server and cells on the active set • Re prioritize the original list based on the metric drive. • Obtain the 2nd. Demote cells on the list that do not appear in the active set often Eliminate the cells in the neighbor list that do not appear on the active or candidate list Maintain the size of the neighbor list of a cell between 10-15 neighbors. etc best servers and put them on the top of the list. 4th. unless otherwise Marconi Internal Use Only . 3rd.

Optimization Techniques Neighbor List Generation Composite Neighbor List When in soft/er handoff. This will allow all important neighbors to be included in a full 3-way handoff. They have to be keyed-in in order of importance at the RNC. Implementation of the combined neighbor list is not standardized and is vendor specific. Typically.) All the defined and visible neighbor list of the best server is included and arranged based on how it was arranged at the RNC database. then the 3rd best server’s list is appended. The priority will still be based on how the neighbor list was arranged at the RNC. Marconi Internal Use Only . The first ten (10) defined neighbors for each cell should be the most important ones and must be based on actual drive test data.) The combined neighbor list is generated by allocating equal number of neighbor list from all cells in the active set. the system combines the neighbor list of all cells on the active list. If it is less than 32 neighbors. b. The combined list starts with the best server then the 2nd best server and lastly the 3rd best server. If it is still less than 32. It is therefore recommended to consult the vendor’s documentation. General Rule: 1. then the 2nd best server’s list is appended. c. The maximum combined neighbor list is 32. three scenarios are implemented a. 2.) The system automatically arranges the neighbor list based on measured Ec/Io values.

Optimization Techniques Neighbor List Generation First two is always the adjacent cells 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 A A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 A10 A11 A12 A13 A14 A15 A16 A17 A18 A19 A20 B B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10 B11 B12 B13 B14 B15 C C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11 C12 C13 C14 C15 C16 C17 C18 C19 C20 C21 C22 C23 C24 C25 Neighbor List Combined Neighbor List Scenario a Danger: Neighbor list of site C will never appear >>> 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 A10 A11 A12 A13 A14 A15 A16 A17 A18 A19 A20 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10 B11 B12 Combined Neighbor List Scenario b 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 A10 A11 A12 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 Combined Neighbor List Scenario c 1 A1 2 A2 3 C1 4 B2 5 A5 6 C4 7 B1 8 C2 9 B9 10 C9 11 A7 12 C3 13 A3 : 14 : 15 : 16 : 17 18 B12 19 A10 : 20 : 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Marconi Internal Use Only .

Horizontal. Operational Bandwidth UMTS. Gain Installation How the antennas are installed also play a major role in minimizing interference. and Flush Mount Tilt Electrical or Mechanical Downtilt or Uptilt Marconi Internal Use Only . If an option. Antenna Parameters that are important during optimization phase are 1.Optimization Techniques Antenna Configuration Type Different types of antennas are used for different purposes. Antenna Height 2. Beamwidth Vertical Beamwidth. Tilt Electrical (with remote capability?). Two major considerations are 1. Polarization Vertical. Rooftop. Antenna Mount Tower Mount. MultiBand 2. Cross Polar 3. choose the correct antenna type during the initial design phase. Horizontal Beamwidth 4. Mechanical 5.

Weak coverage area Weak coverage area Roof Mount Flush Mount Tower Mount Marconi Internal Use Only .Optimization Techniques Antenna Configuration .Antenna Mounting The document “THE INFLUENCE OF REFLECTIONS ON RADIATION PATTERNS” by KATHREIN ANTENNAS” is a good reference on the effects of different mounting configurations of antennas and its radiation patterns Main Lobe must not hit the rooftop with the desired tilt.

Antenna Tilts 0 Etilt and 0 Mtilt Good Low Antenna Height n° EDTilt n° MDTilt n° EDtilt and n° MDtilt n° EDtilt and n° MUtilt High Antenna Height Requires Narrow H Beamwidth Decrease Backlobe Radius High Antenna Height Requires wide H Beamwidth Increase Backlobe Radius High Antenna Height Medium H Beamwidth Increased Downtilt Medium Backlobe Strength Requires Narrow H Beamwidth Requires Wide H Beamwidth Medium Site Density Area High Antenna Height Medium H Beamwidth Minimum Backlobe radius Bad High Antenna Height Typical Applications Highway Coverage only sites Low Antenna Height Requires Wide H Beamwidth High Site Density Area – CBD Low Antenna Height Requires Narrow Beamwidth Low Site Density Area – Suburb Aesthetics Very High Sites – Hills Backlobe creates handoff problems Marconi Internal Use Only .Optimization Techniques Antenna Configuration .

Too high CPICH values will increase system noise (Io) and may lead to increased access failures. 5. ie. Adjusting CPICH may increase or decrease in-building penetration. the antenna is shared by other technology or carrier. 4. Adjust CPICH in +/. 1. 6. General Optimization Rule. Typical network starting values for CPICH Typical value: 30dBm (1W) Typical adjustment range: 27dBm – 33dBm or (500mW to 2W) Marconi Internal Use Only .1dB steps. It is best to adjust antenna parameters than CPICH power. Adjusting CPICH may increase or decrease coverage due to reflection/refraction from nearby obstructions.Optimization Techniques CPICH Power Optimization Most of the other channel’s power is based on the Common Pilot Channel’s (CPICH) power. 3. 7. Adjusting CPICH is not an effective way of decreasing the coverage radius of the cell in line of sight situations. 2. For overshooting cells. adjust CPICH power only when changing antenna parameters is not an option.

Understanding Layer 3 and Layer 2 Messaging Marconi Internal Use Only .

Understanding Layer 3 and Layer 2 Messaging Example of Handoff Scenario : EVENT 1b Previous Handoff Message: : : Current Handoff Messages: >> : : << >> << >> measurement control measurement report active set update active set update complete measurement control Link Handoff Call Flow Analysis Marconi Internal Use Only .

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