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Factors

In theory at least, the design of a column or of a beam-column starts with the evaluation of the

elastic restraints at both ends of the column, from which the effective length factor k is then

derived. To get a k-factor, the designer is much more likely to use the two charts provided in the

Column Design section

of the AISC Manuals 1,2 rather than to solve the transcendental equations on which the charts

are based.

However, having to read k-factors from an alignment chart in the middle of an electronic

computation, in a spreadsheet for instance, prevents full automation and can be a source of

errors. The fact that spreadsheets cannot accept so-called circular references makes their use

awkward for the automatic

solution of transcendental equations. A side benefit of an excellent article by Barakat and Chen

was the demonstration of how powerful an engineering tool the electronic spreadsheet can be: it

automates many routine calculations, and it is well suited for tedious column and beam-column

calculations.

Barakat and Chen did not elaborate on how they obtained the k-factors used in their examples;

from the context, it seems that the factors were manually entered into the spreadsheet.

Obviously, it would be convenient to have simple

equations take the place of the charts in the AISC Manuals. The American Concrete Institute

does publish equations, but their lack of accuracy may be why they seem not to be used in steel

design. Better equations have been available in the

French Design Rules for Steel Structures since 1966, and have been included in the European

Recommendations of 1978, with only a change in notation. These equations are accurate, yet

simple enough to be easily programmed within the confines of a spreadsheet cell. For this

reason, they may be useful to North American engineers.

1. EXACT AND APPROXIMATE EQUATIONS

Consider a column AB elastically restrained at both ends. The rotational restraint at one end, A

for instance, is represented by a restraint factor G4, expressing the relative stiffness of all the

columns connected at A to that of all the beams framing into A:

Braced frames are frames in which the sidesway is effectively prevented, and, therefore, the ^-

factor is never greater than 1.0. The "sidesway inhibited" alignment chart is the graphic solution

of the following mathematical equation:

This equation is mathematically exact, in that certain physical assumptions are exactly

translated in mathematical terms. Whether these assumptions can be reasonably extended to a

specific structure is a matter for the designer to

decide.

For the transcendental Eq. 2, which can only be solved by numerical methods, the French Rules

propose the following approximate solution:

Slightly simpler equations apply to special cases. If the column is hinged at B,GB is infinitely

large, and 1 / GB = 0

If a rigid frame depends solely on frame action to resist lateral forces, its sidesway is not

prevented. In this case, the K-factor is never smaller than 1.0. The mathematical equation for the

"sway uninhibited" case is:

Although simpler than Eq. 2, this equation cannot be solved in closed form either. The French

Rules recommend the following approximate solution:

When GA = GB= G:

The accuracy that we can readily measure is of course the mathematical accuracy, that is, the

comparison of the results given by an approximate formula to those obtained by solving the

corresponding "exact" equation. The accuracy of the alignment charts depends essentially on the

size of the charts,

and on the reader's sharpness of vision. For the small charts in the Column Section of the AISC

Manuals, this accuracy may be about five percent. In view of the many simplifying assumptions

needed to arrive at Eqs. 2 and 7, this accuracy is certainly sufficient.

The formula proposed by the ACI for braced frames gives K = 0.7 for a beam fully fixed at

both ends, instead of 0.5. If GA = GB = 3.0, it yields K=l.O, instead of the expected 0.89.

The equations for unbraced frames are somewhat better: for GA = GB = 2.0 for instance, they

yield K = 1.56, instead of 1.61. The French Rules indicate that Eq. 3 has an accuracy of -0.5

percent to +1.5 percent, while Eq. 8 is accurate within two percent. Tables 1 and 2 report the

accuracies found at a few sample points. Again because of the nature of the surrounding

assumptions, Eqs. 3 and 8 may be considered mathematically exact.

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