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Sails from the Roman port at Berenike, Egypt
Felicity C. Wild and John P. Wild
30 Princes Road, Heaton Moor, Stockport, Cheshire, SK4 3NQ, UK
A 1st-century A D midden deposit at Berenike, a major port on the trade route between the Roman Empire and India, has produced cotton textile fragments reinforced with a rectangular grid-pattern of cotton strips, interpreted as the remains of sails. Webbing fragments of cotton and linen, in some cases attached to stout cotton or linen cloth, may also have come from sails. The only published example of a Roman-Period sail is a linen sail of 1st-century BC-AD date from Thebes in Egypt, to which the Berenike fragments bear a close resemblance. The S-spun linen sails were presumably manufactured in Egypt. Most of the Berenike material, however, was of Z-spun cotton: an import, it is argued, of Indian origin. The construction of Mediterranean-type sails entirely from Indian materials has implications for the presence of Westerners on the Indian 02001 The Nautical Archaeology Society sub-continent. Key wov& Berenike, cotton, India, Roman, sails, webbing.
Introduction: the historical background
he site of Berenike lies on the Red Sea coast of Egypt in the lee of the Ras Banas peninsula (Fig. 1). The author of the shipping handbook known as the Periplus Maris Erythraei, generally considered to have been written in the middle of the 1st century AD, regarded it as one of the two main ports of trade between the Graeco-Roman world and East Africa, South Arabia and India. According to Pliny the Elder (NH 6.33.168), the town was founded c. 275 BC by Ptolemy I1 Philadelphus and named in honour of his mother, but it appears to have come into prominence during the expansion of trade between the Mediterranean world and the East from the time of Augustus, when it acted as a transit port from which goods from the East were transported overland to the Nile Valley and thence to the Mediterranean (Sidebotham, 1995). Strabo (2.5.12), writing of the year AD26, notes Myos Hormos (Quseir al-Qadim) as the main port for the India trade, noting elsewhere (17.1.45) that Berenike had no harbour. By the middle of the 1st century AD, however, this had been rectified: Pliny specifically refers to a harbour (NH6.26.103) and it may be argued that the author of the Periplus implies its greater importance by starting his account of the voyage to India from Berenike rather than Myos Hormos/
1057-2414/01/020211+ 10 $35.0010
Quseir (Casson, 1989: 143). To the sailor, the advantage of Berenike over Myos Hormos was that, although the journey overland to the Nile was longer, it obviated the necessity of beating against the north wind for the further 230 nautical miles up the Red Sea on the return journey. The latest mention of the site, in the Martyrium Sancti Arethae, suggests that Berenike was still a functioning port in the early 6th century (AD 524-5), contributing two ships, but only two, to an Ethiopian expedition to South Arabia (Acta Sanctorum Octobris X, VII (29)). Soon after this, the town must have been abandoned permanently. Excavations at the site since 1994, directed by Prof. S. E. Sidebotham of the University of Delaware and Prof. W. Z. Wendrich of the University of California, Los Angeles, have started to reveal more about the history of the site and the extent of its contacts with India. The archaeological evidence confirms the impression gained from the literary sources that the port was particularly active in the 1st century AD. After a possible decline in occupation in the 2nd and 3rd centuries, when evidence for mercantile activity is more scanty, the town experienced a renaissance in both occupation and commerce in the late 4th century, which appears to have continued until the final evacuation, probably in the early 6th century AD.
02001 The Nautical Archaeology
the almost complete absence of which in the ancient world has been commented upon by Black and Samuels (1991. Fragments were small and. A high proportion of the wood remains from the site was of teak. 19986: 80-84). The textiles from the earlier deposit. not well preserved.2 Figure 1. pieces of webbing and sacking. 1992).or anticlockwise-spun yarns (S/S). can best be described as utilitarian: amalgams of wool scraps probably reused as saddle packing. Tomber. that at least some of the contents of the deposit are the remains of sails. pottery of South Indian origin (Begley & Tomber. Indian and Sri Lankan beads (Francis. The purpose of the present article is to assess the evidence from Berenike for sails and their nature (see also Wild & Wild. possibly from dismantled ships (Vermeeren. the other to the late 4th-5th century AD. the other from Z. indeed. a situation without parallel on sites within the Roman Empire. in particular. (Drawing: J. fragments of medium-weight and coarse 212 linen and cotton tabbies (plain weaves). 1996). 1998a: 31 1-319. 1999. Ancient spinners were highly conservative and the tradition in Egypt and the neighbouring Roman provinces was for the Sdirection. They appear to represent rubbish from the docks rather than the remains of clothing and furnishing and their functions are likely to have been concerned with the packing and transport of traded goods.NAUTICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. coinciding with the main period of early Roman activity on the site. The proximity of the sea and the neighbouring wadi have led to the disintegration of the textiles from the lower levels of the site: heavy dews alternating with day-time heat have attacked those near the surface. Wild) Evidence for trade with India and. in general. A high proportion of the textiles recovered came from two rubbish deposits. P. badly degraded by salt. borne out by the presence on site of the teak planks and of brailing rings. 2000).or clockwise-spun yarns (Z/Z). The textile remains The greater proportion of the material considered here is of cotton. 30. 1999: 319). has come in the form of: a graffito on a 1st-century AD amphora in Tamil-Brzhmi (Mahadevan. including reused planks. The cottons can be divided into two distinct groups: the one is woven exclusively from S.. one dated by the associated pottery and ostraka to not later than AD 75 (Bagnall et al. in many cases. and botanical remains such as coconut and. for the presence of Indians on the site. large quantities of black peppercorns (Cappers. The textiles from the site were. It would be fair to assume that the . Location map of the area and sites mentioned in the text. It seems a reasonable supposition. 2000: 221-223). 2000). sometimes heavily and repeatedly patched. 2000).
(horizontal) 25 mm Sail fragment shows patch. The edges had been turned in. 100mm x 30mm 9. length 40 mm x 250 mm.002 19. Figs 2 & 3) was a large.006 19. probably of same textile. 285 mm x 65 mm 35 mm 2. 265 mm x 70 mm 2.004 LR 97. with traces of blue check where edges turned under. attached to it at right angles to each other.008 19. proved to have strips. Reinforcing strips. The linen fragments were uniformly S-spun and presumably of Egyptian origin.008 ER strips: ER ER Fragments of tabby. 25 mm Pieces of reinforcing strip. 90 mm x 25 mm 240 mm x 56 mm 33 mm 130 mm x 45 mm Two strips folded longitudinally. The warp (taking the denser system as warp) seems to run more often widthways than lengthways and there is a marked variability in yarn diameter (a characteristic of the Z/Z cottons in general).026 reinforcing 19. often sewn end-to-end with others (Table 1). 105 mm (lower count) x 50 mm 2. 1. All probably sailcloth? 1. 19 x 15. 70 mm x 20 mm 18 mm Two strips 1. Z-spun cotton. Wild & Wild. LR: Late Roman) No. wide spaced. 100mm x 15+ mm 8. up to about 300mm long. 70 mm x 30 mm 7. tattered and patched fragment which. sewn down to the main cloth on one side with running stitches. crossed by two reinforcing strips at right angles.004 LR 0169 6. max. torn from the same or an identical fabric. P. carefully aligned with warp. the key to understanding their function lay in two pieces from Late Roman contexts. 400 mm x 85 mm 3. 7-8 x 6 per cm. 7-8 x 7 per cm. (vertical) 2. 1997: 289-290).010 Date ~~ ~~ Measurements Folded width LR 0170 6. (vertical) Two lengths of strip sewn end to end. The Z-spun cottons are best described as ‘intrusive’. 1997. Strip of tabby. Two sections of the vertical strip were sewn end-to-end. c. at right angles. also probably blue check. when stretched out. 97. per cm. and oversewn on the other. All the cotton fragments discussed here were Z-spun and presumably imported. 250 mm x 65 mm 35 mm (folded) 5. Among the fragments of Z/Z cotton tabby were a number of strips. The strips concealed nothing: there was no seam in the 213 .103 Context 16. from Berenike (ER: Early Roman. 100 mm x 60 mm 40 mm (folded) 6. 480 mm x 85 mm 4. WILD: SAILS FROM THE ROMAN PORT AT BERENIKE. WILD & J. where cotton-growing is attested by the 1st century AD (Wild. EGYPT Table 1. but the weight of ancient literary and documentary evidence indicates India to be the only practical source (Wild. 13 x 8 per cm 1.008 ER ER ER ER 2509 Possible 0829 0895 33. 110 mm x 50 mm Cotton yarns sewn through it S-spun cottons were produced within Egypt. (horizontal) c. 300 mm x 60 mm 35 mm two lengths sewn end to end 300 mm x 40 mm Edges folded about 210 mm x 33 mm two strips sewn end to end Nine strips. 2000: 271-273). 1 2 0 m m x 3 0 m m 22 mm 22 mni 2.F. 20 mm 1. C. Overlies 2.106 0724 0758 0827 13. length 710 mm x 380 mm crossed by two reinforcing strips. 150 mm x 30 mrn 3 pieces c.103. max. probably from 0170. Although most of the strips came from the Early Roman deposit. The raw edges on the long axis had been folded in to form a band about 35 mm wide.006 19. 25mm 1. probably once blue and undyed check. The first (97.
Although none was found attached to a fragment of sail. 5). pierced with two small holes for attachment to the sail. 250 mm x 40 mm. (Photograph: J. 214 A relief of a Roman ship from Ostia (Graefe. The evidence from Berenike appears to confirm this suggestion. A number of circular brailing rings. These can be divided into two categories: of S-spun linen (Table 2) and of Z-spun cotton (Table 3). Wild & Berenike Project) Figure 3. Roberts.103). Outline of sail fragment from Berenike (97. Sail fragment from Berenike (97. 1971: 233-234. P. Similar string was attached to the reinforcing strips (Fig. have been found at Berenike.) Are these the reinforcing bands for sails? Sails are generally depicted in Mediterranean art as bearing a grid pattern which has been variously interpreted (Casson. The flax webbing. of wood and bone. Daremberg & Saglio. 1979: 121-123. The Early Roman deposit also produced pieces of webbing which may have served a similar purpose to the reinforcing strips.103).NAUTICAL ARCHAEOLOGY.124. but perhaps coincidental. Abb. on the grounds that these dividing lines are portrayed as being of a different colour from the sail itself. One example still retained Z-spun cotton string through its holes. to which had been sewn.2.2 I Seam 0 5cm l U Strip n Ground weave 7 --- Figure 2. 1997: 89-90). The other fragment (0170) was a strip of what was probably once a blue and undyed cotton check. Wild) fabric beneath. P. 1993). 133. 5295) (Fig. at right angles. strips of the same faded check (the blue yarn was barely visible except where protected by the turned-in edges). 1877-1919: fig. Most recently it has been suggested. (It is interesting. Taf. that they represent reinforcing bands sewn on separately (Weski. uniformly 30-35 mm wide. (Drawing: J. was in basket weave (paired warp and weft) or half-basket . 4) clearly shows brailing rings attached to the bands. 30. they occurred in the same contexts as potential sail fragments within the early midden. that the bands are narrower on these two late examples (20-25 mm) than on the early Roman ones (approximately 35 mm).
1877-1919) weave (paired warp or weft). the stripe was blue-green (Fig. In some of the examples with single weft. but was badly decayed and may once have been red. Finally.F. generally either eight or four. WILD: SAILS FROM THE ROMAN PORT AT BERENIKE. one with single.115) had single warp and paired weft. Secondly. Firstly. In four cases. there were the remains of a narrow red pin-stripe within the eight singles to each side. originally. It is possible that. The cotton webbing was less common than the flax webbing: the ten pieces listed (Table 3) probably came from only eight examples. The others had paired warp with a specific number of single warps at each selvedge. The singles at the selvedge. P. three pieces of linen webbing were sewn firmly onto pieces of medium weight S/S flax tabby (12 x 10. The ‘Lyons’ sail There is one published parallel to the Berenike sail fragments: fragments of what have been argued to 215 . there is the evidence of the ‘Lyons’ sail. In at least one case. C. The cotton webbing varied from 3 5 4 3 mm in width: all had a plied warp. with either single or paired weft. Relief of a Roman ship from Ostia. other fragments may also have had such stripes. A third showed a bare strip to each side where the coloured yarn had disappeared altogether. 12 x 11. It is impossible to be certain that the webbing was used on sails. One of the linen examples showed a red stripe: the cotton example had also had a stripe. EGYPT Figure 4. there is a marked correlation in width between the webbing and the reinforcing strips from Early Roman contexts. no doubt. in another it appeared as brown. now faded to a pale pink and barely visible except where protected. One example (97. there was a coloured pin-stripe to each side. but there are three pointers which suggest this. 13 x 9 threads per cm respectively) and one piece of cotton webbing onto a piece of Z/Z cotton tabby (16 x 16 per cm). and either single or paired weft. If indeed these are from sails. three with paired weft. their scarcity may be accounted for by the more common use of cotton tabby strips for this purpose. 6). (After Daremberg & Saglio. provided added strength. WILD & J.
the vertical bands (3538 mm) were wider than the horizontal bands (25-29 mm). particularly the narrow ones. Schoeffer et al. The ground weave was of S/S linen. a sail some 550 cm square is suggested. In all. on and between the horizontal bands. (Photograph: J. 30. the red on the inside. with bands attached and sometimes already themselves patched. possibly to attach the brailing rings. The present writers were fortunate to have been able to spend a day in Lyon examining the sail. From the 46 fragments recovered. Light brown streaks in the undyed linen of the bands. showed minor variations in detail and had. is that they appear to be considerably stouter and stronger than the rather fine (though obviously badly worn) Thebes sail. though on some of the narrower bands the outer two warps on each side were singles. 1987). has been studied and conserved and is currently in the Natural History Museum at Lyons. although ostensibly uniform. vertical bands showed a double stripe (blue/red/blue/red). As well as the renewal of the webbing bands. of a similar pattern to those found at Berenike. the sail also showed considerable evidence of patching during its period of use. dated by radiocarbon to 50 ik 100 BC. after which it was torn up to recycle as mummy packing. the blue on the outside. suggest that the bands may originally have been of a different colour to the sailcloth. however. been renewed at least once. Many of the cotton tabby . patched and remade until it was no longer fit to use for its original purpose. on occasion. On the fragments studied. All were in basket weave (paired warp and weft). Reinforcing strip (0758) and brailing rings from Berenike. The webbing bands. half a wooden brailing ring was still attached. but in the time available were only able to make a detailed study of four of the fragments.NAUTICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. The sail was reinforced with strips of linen webbing to which. from a Nile river-boat. variety in the number of pairs of each colour used and in the 216 number of pairs between the coloured stripes. in one case with the broad band oblique to the weave. however. Two pieces showed a red stripe only. There is. torn up and used as packing for a mummy from a grave in Thebes (Rouge. The wider. The textile. Pieces of sail. A common feature was a narrow coloured stripe to each side of the band.2 Figure 5. no doubt. All have a narrow coloured stripe of blue and/or red to each side. P. The fragments from Berenike show similarity to those from Thebes in both construction and date. the sail appears to have been made. had been seamed together. Wild & Berenike Project) have been a linen sail. in one place.. 1987. approximately 22 x 12 threads per cm. another a blue stripe on its own. only to be expected of oceangoing ships. The final act of construction appears to have been to add string ties down the side of the fragment (the edge of the sail?) at about 80 mm intervals. The main difference.
or reused. uncountable 8 singles at each selvedge 4 singledl p a d 4 singled26 p a i d 4 singledl paid4 singles 8 singles at each selvedge. EGYPT Table 2. sewn to S/S flax tabby (12 x 10 per cm) traces of singles at edge 8 singles at one side.008 19. and presumably of local Egyptian manufacture. A surprisingly high proportion of the Berenike evidence. 30mm 32 mm 25+ mm 45 mm damaged damaged damaged 30 mm damaged pairs pairs pairs pairs and singles pairs pairs pairs pairs pairs pairs pairs pairs pairs pairs S/Z pairs pairs pairs pairs pairs pairs pairs pairs pairs pairs pairs pairs pairs pairs no singles noted in warp 8 singles at each selvedge no singles noted in warp 4 singles at each selvedge 8 singles at each selvedge 4 singles/2 p a i d 4 singled4 pairdl single/8+ pairs 2 outer warps single. Flux webbing.006 29.002 29. of which the pieces of S-spun flax webbing and largely undiagnostic scraps of medium-weight flax tabby are all that survive.008 48. sometimes several times over.008 19. a material which it is argued above was of imported. Apart from the piece with the crossed reinforcing bands (Figs 2-3). but the evidence of the Lyons sail raises the possibility that sails may indeed have been patched to this extent. Discussion The ‘Lyons’ sail was of linen. S-spun. 4 und.006 19.005 48. probably Indian. as tarpaulins or for wrapping goods.008 19. 4 und.009 48./4 red/27-28 p a i d 4 red/4 und. 3rd thicker single 4 singles at each selvedge 8 singles at each selvedge 8 singles at each selvedge. Attached to S/S flax tabby (12 x 11 per cm) 4 singles one side.005 48.cbn 3 1 . They may have been used. with a single main mast and large.cbw Width Warp Weft pairs singles singles singles to 0798) singles singles singles singles singles sing1es singles singles pairs pairs pairs singles pairs pairs singles pairs S/Z pairs pairs singles singles singles singles pairs pairs singles singles singles singles singles pairs Structure about 46 singles in warp 8 singles at each selvedge 5 singles at each selvedge about 6 singles at edge 10 singles at each selvedge 8 singles at each selvedge.115 0759 0797 0798 0799 0838 0839 0869 0890 1372 1465 1480 1508 1509 151 1 2357 1788 1818 1875 1876 1952 1953 3174 3238 2762 2802 2849 285 I 2887 2907 2920 292 1 2923 2990 308 1 singles 30 mm pairs 30 mm pairs 43 mm pairs 30 mm (scrap of similar band pairs 30 mm pairs 35 mm damaged 30 mm 35 mm 35 mm 35 mm 30 mm 32 mm 30 mm 30 mm 30+ mm 38 mm 32 mm 30 mm 30 mm 35 mm 40 mm damaged 28 mm 38 mm c. These were not.006 29. WILD & J. reinforced sail.007 3 1. even the patching materials. One would expect the ocean-going vessels constructed in Roman Egypt also to have had linen sails.008 19. . the rope and sewing thread./4 red02 p a i d 4 red/4 und. Attached to S/S flax tabby (13 x 9 per cm) 8 singles at selvedge.008 19.007 3 1.019 48. however.007 3 1. no singles noted 4 und.009 29.002 19./ .008 48. ideal for 217 . jiom Berenike No. which shows a small.007 3 1. indicating manufacture in India and/or the use of Indian materials for running repairs during the voyage.F. .009 48. P.cbw 48. C. origin.006 29.009 48. S-spun.008 48. The sailcloth.007 3 1. but ships of Mediterranean type./4 red fragments reveal evidence for extensive and skilled patching. there is no specific evidence that these heavily patched pieces are from sails. 4 und.017 3 1.008 19. neat patch firmly sewn down with two or more rows of stitching. however.007 31. other missing 8? singles one side. Context 13. 6 the other 6 singles one side. are uniformly Z-spun./2 redl2 und.008 48. other missing 4 singled1 paid4 singled main pairs 8 singles at each selvedge. 3 lengths. square.006 33. has been for sails of Z-spun cotton. the webbing. 9 S spun singles at each side (thicker than normal) 4 singles at each selvedge singles at selvedge. Indian ships. 6+ the other (damaged) 4 singles at each selvedge Wa: Z spun pairs? in centre S spun singles at edges 97. WILD: SAILS FROM THE ROMAN PORT AT BERENIKE.008 19.
006 29. constructed of Indian materials and copying which extended. it is an estimated 11-12 days journey overland from Coptos. ?3 threads wide. Kartunen (1997: 334) dismisses it. 1999). too.001 29.008 48. or at least sails. while reinforcing the idea of the existence of Westerners in the area. Z-spun. presumably settled. to whom temples and dedications were made in ports (Richard. on the Nile. as against sixseven for Myos Hormos (Casson. the main port of South India.006 29. Tamil literature.2 Table 3.006 29. 1974: 149-150). F. best exemplified by Arikamedu. in some cases. 30. Detail of Z / Z cotton webbing (1512) from Berenike (the faded blue-green stripe is not visible in black and white). of Yavanas. P. In addition. 1988: 195207) are vessels with two or three main masts and no sign of a grid pattern of reinforcement on the sails. which produced small quantities of Italian terra sigillata tableware dating to the early 1st century AD. The construction of ships at Berenike. (Photograph: J. near Pondicherry on the east coast of India.002 19. Cotton webbing. its presence must imply the work of Westerners.008 Width 35 mm 38 mm 32 mm 43 mm 35 mm damaged 43 mm 30 mm 33 mm 38 mm Warp plied plied plied plied plied plied plied plied plied plied Weft singles? (invisible) singles pairs pairs singles singles pairs singles singles singles Structure brown line. 8 from the other Wa: ?5/ dec. a Roman map originally compiled in the 3rd century AD (Rivet & Smith. as well as other items of Mediterranean pottery and glassware.12 blue14 und. familiar with Graeco-Roman ships. There were Greeks settled in the North of India from the time of Alexander’s expedition. missingt24ldec. 6 warps from one selvedge. reviewed by De Romanis in 1997 refers to the presence elsewhere in India. there is the archaeological evidence. By contrast. cannot have been easy. even to the conventional coloured stripe on the webbing reinforcements. 16 x 16 per cm about 38 in total warp sheet blue-green stripe. along the coasts of India materials must have been ready to hand. The evidence from Berenike suggests Mediterranean-style ships.019 running before the wind (Pekary. Wheeler (Wheeler et al. The raw materials would all have had to be brought from elsewhere: perhaps down the Red Sea from the Levant. Wa: 4 undyed12 bluet 18 und.006 48. from Berenike No. 97. 1998: 66).107 0888 Context 13. Sewn to ZIZ cotton tabby. Although the significance-and reliability-of this is in dispute. The ships portrayed in Indian art (Schlingloff. acting as mercenaries for local rulers (Cilappatikaram 14: 66-7).cbn 3 1. 1988) rather than being a chronological indicator of Augustan date makes the presence of such a temple more probable. places a ‘temple of Augustus’ near Muziris. and Myos Hormos. 1989: 13). now largely missing. Richard’s suggestion (pers. on the road between Coptos. for instance. An ostrakon from Krokodilo. if it had any basis in fact at all. 1946: 18-22) and. records a wagonload of timber for shipbuilding on its way to Myos Hormos (Biilow-Jacobsen.. blue stripe (= 1512) 36 in total warp sheet (probably= 1510) no decoration noted no decoration noted no decoration noted 1414 1510 1512 1539 1599 1686 2848 2988 29. foreigners of Mediterranean origin.) that it may be connected with the cult of the emperor epibaterios. Wild & Berenike Project) 218 Myos Hormos. Berenike lies almost 320 km (200 miles) south of Figure 6.NAUTICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. certainly by land from the Nile Valley. comm. . The Peutinger Table. a term which clearly includes the merchants arriving annually from Egypt (Akansuyu 149: 7-11) as well as others. missing/ ?5. in the Eastern desert.
77: 217-226.26.. Princeton. Sidebotham & W. Beiheft 8. Archaeobotanical remains. R. In F. R. R. S. & Tomber. the British Academy. Wendrich (Eds). I. 1998a. Sidebotham & W. Mainz. mentioned in both Tamil and Classical literature (Pliny. If there were indeed groups of Westerners settled all year round in or at the edges of local communities. F. Sidebotham & W. Tchernia (Eds). 134-1 50. Living in the Southern Egyptian Deserts during the Roman and early-Byzantine Periods. V. Leiden.106). Miinster. 1992. Pekary. C. Professor S. 2000. M. Egypt). 219 . Z. Boreas.F. In S. D. W. Bulow-Jacobsen. & Verhoogt. B. Mainz. 161-181. T. 1997.. Berenike 1997. Crossings.. Cappers.. L. Research School CNWS. Sidebotham & W. Berenike 1998. Z. Tamil-BrZhmi Graffito. & Samuel... & Saglio. The south-west monsoon of the outward journey was characterized by rough winds and heavy rain. 3 4 441452. 1989. Life on the Fringe..26. S. Research School f CNWS. E. was dangerous and to be avoided. Archaeological Textiles Newsletter.. NH 6. Pferdehirt. 1999. De Romanis & A. 1877-1919. EGYPT more recently. 1991. Preliminary Report o the 1995 Excavations at Berenike (Egyptian Red Sea Coast) and the survey ofthe Eastern Desert. 1991: 21).. Richard. Dictionnaire des Antiquitis Grecques et Romaines. Casson. Leiden. Wisconsin. Research School CNWS. WILD & J. 1999. Black. Casson. 1996. Leiden. P. References Bagnall. Cappers. P. they would have been ideally placed to assist in obtaining local materials to repair or replace worn-out sails or boats for the merchants arriving from Egypt on the south-west monsoon. Princeton. Vela Erunt: Die Zeltducher der romischen Theater und ahnlicher Anlagen. Terra Sigillata at Arikamedu. In 0. 1971. 14: 9.. Papyrologica Bruxellensia. Repertorium der hellenistischen und romischen Schiffsdarstellungen. including Excavations ut Shenshef. Berenike 1995. A. M. Indian pottery sherds. C..101). Ein Forschungsbereich des Romisch-Germanischen Zentrulmuseums. New Delhi. Z. Mahadevan. the Pasold Research Fund and the G. 1997. L. Leiden.). Report of the 1997 Excuvations at Berenike and the Survey of the Egyptian Eastern Desert. V. 205-208. Human adornments. Traffic on the roads between Coptos and the Red Sea. Brussels. 1995. Francis.. Helsinki. before their return on the gentler North-East monsoon in December-January (Pliny. A. Leiden. Studiu Orientalia. Documents from Berenike Volume 1: Greek Ostraka from the 1996-1 998 Seasons. Begley. Living in the Southern Egyptian Deserts during the Roman and eurly-Byzantine Periods. 83. 80-160.Research School f CNWS. In V. F. Research School CNWS. Early Mediterranean Contacts with India. Berenike 1996. De Puma (Eds). J. F. Cahievs d’Histoire.. E. The authors are particularly indebted to Dr Dierdre Emmons of the Muskum d’Histoire Naturelle de Lyon for allowing them to study in detail the sail fragments from the museum’s collection. The following weeks in port would have provided a convenient pause. Arrival on the west coast of India before September. In 0. Leiden. R. not just for acquiring and loading cargo. Acknowledgements The Society of Antiquaries of London. Wendrich (Eds). as Thapar suggests (Thapar. Kaper (Ed.. E. E. 21 1-225. E. That this may provide a context for the cotton sails from Berenike is not beyond the bounds of possibility. Ancient sails. A. 19986.. Research School CNWS. A botanical contribution to the analysis of subsistence and trade at Berenike (Red Sea Coast. The ships could well have suffered from storm damage as well as the depredations of pirates. Rome and India: The Ancient Sea Trade. 1979. R. Ships und Seumunship in the Ancient World. T. Fondation Egyptologique Reine Elizabeth. Daremberg. when the winds slacken. What were sails made of? M M . 75-85.xcuvutions at Berenike (Egyptian Red Sea Coast) and the Survey o the Eastern Desert. E. a trading enclave. H. In S. Wendrich gave every practical assistance. XXXIII. I. but also to make good any damage before the less arduous return journey to Egypt. 63-77. Paris. K. Kartunen. 2000. E. Sidebotham and Professor W. 1998. N H 6. Wendrich (Eds).. J. Comfort (1991: 144-147) argue for its use by Westerners in what was. 1988. Dus Museum fur Antike Schcffahrt.. effectively. 289-330.. Black. The Directors of the Berenike Project. Graefe. E. Begley & R. & Samuel. Kaper (Ed. Z. Wainwright Near Eastern Archaeological Fund have all kindly provided travel grants to enable the authors to work at Berenike over five seasons. 1991. Z. Rome and the Nbtia of India: relations between Rome and Southern India from 30 BC to the Flavian Period. Comfort. C. D. De Romanis. In S. E. India and the Hellenistic World. E. Les Souverains en ‘Theoi Epibaterioi’. Report of the 1998 Excavations at Berenike and the Survey ofthe Eustern Desert.). Helms... The Periplus Muris Erythraei. Life on the Fringe. Wendrich (Eds). In S . WILD: SAILS FROM THE ROMAN PORT AT BERENIKE.. Report of’ the 1996 E. D.
In S. De Romanis & A. 1987. P. 251-274. A. M. Weski. E. J. In F. Sidebotham. A. 5-11. J. Historical Sources. F. E.. In S. Wendrich (Eds). L. Thapar. Wood and charcoal. Wendrich (Eds). Roberts. Z.. 1993. 25: 91-96... & Smith. & Beentjes. E. 30. E. In T. 220 . La Momie contenait-elle les fragments d’une voile? Nouvelles Archives du M u d u m d’Histoire Naturelle de Lyon. 1997. Sidebotham & W. 1999. 2 6 89-90. Z. Crossings. & Deva. 1946. Tchernia (Eds). D. Berenike 1998. Berenike 1997. Wild. London. 74 624-631. 1997. Report of the 1998 Excuvations at Berenike and the survey of the Eastern Desert. K. Berenike 1994. & Wild. Wild.2 Rivet. P.. Ghosh. IJNA. Al-RZj&n. S. 25: 77-80. C. 1979. Z. 2000. Vermeeren. Lessons Learnt. 2: 17-124. 0.NAUTICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. Nouvelles Archives du Mustum dHistoire Naturelle de Lyon. Schlingloff.. Preliminary Report of the 1994 Excavutions at Berenike (Egyptian Red Sea Coast) and the Survey of the Eastern Desert. 1995. 1140. R. Delhi. D. 1987.. Leiden. Early Mediterranean Contacts with India: An Overview. Cotton in Roman Egypt: Some problems of origin. Leiden. T.. Report of the 1997 Excavations at Berenike and the Survey of the Egyptian Eastern Desert including Excavations at Shenshef.. Sidebotham & W. E. Studies in the Ajanta Paintings: Identifications and Interpretations. New Delhi. The textiles. Oxford. Arikamedu. Tomber. R. 1988. Antiquity. In S. Rouge. Research School CNWS. Ancient India. 1997. An Indo-Roman trading station on the east coast of India. Shaw (Ed. Research School CNWS. Wheeler. Indo-Roman trade: the ceramic evidence from Egypt. The Place-Names of Roman Britain. F. Research School CNWS. T... Review of Pferdehirt (1995). J. E. M.. A. R. C. Les Etoffes de Rembourrage: du Chiffon au VCtement et a la Voile de Bateau. Wendrich (Eds).). 307-324. The Trireme Project: Operational Experience 1987-90. Early Mediterranean Contacts with India. 18: 287-298. Sidebotham & W. Cotta.. 2000. P.. The sailing rig of Olympias. 29-38. Leiden. Schoeffer.