# -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Keppler’s 2nd Law𝛿𝐴 𝛿𝐴

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Orbits & Energy- 𝟏

𝟐 𝑹
𝜹𝜽 𝟐

Or using polar form 𝑑𝐴
𝑟𝑑𝑟𝑑𝜃 𝑅 𝛿𝜃 𝟏

𝟐
∫ ∫ 𝑟𝑑𝑟𝑑𝜃 𝑹
𝜹𝜽 𝟐 𝑟 𝜃 𝑅 𝑅𝛿𝜃

̇
̂

̂
̇
( ̂)

̇
( ̂)
̇

̇ (
( ̂)

̇̂

̇

)

̇
( ̂)
̇
( ̂)

̇̂
̇ ̂
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------̇ (̂ )
̇ ( ̂)
̇ ( ̂)
̇ ( ̂)
̅
̇ ( ̂)
̅
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

( ̈̂

̇ )
̇ ( ̂)

( ̇ ̇̂

̇ ( ̂̇ )) (

̈̂

̇ ̇ ̂)

( ̈ ̂

( ̇ ̂)
̈̂
( ̇ ̇̂

̇ ̇̂
̇ ̇̂
̇ ) ̂ ( ̇ ̇

̈ ̂
( ̈

)

̈ )̂

(

̇ ̇

̇ )̂

( ̇ ̇

̈ )̂

( )

̇ )̂

( ̈

)

(

)

)

(

̇ )̂

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Central OrbitsA central force is purely radial – that is, it is directed towards a fixed point (the centre)

( (

(
( (

)

)

)
(

)
)

)

( )

-Kepler’s 1st LawThe soln to the D.E is

̇ )̂

(

̇

Total Energy

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------( ̈

∫ (

̇

̈

] ̇

Potential Energy

(

̇ ̂
̈) ̂

̈ )̂

( )

& we can use the zero transverse acceleration condition (central orbit) - ̇
̇

̇
̈

̇ ̂))

̇ )̂ ( ̇ ̇
̈ )̂
( ̈
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------̇ )̂
( ̈
( ̇ ̇

Kepler’s 2nd Law of Planetary Motion
This means that equal areas are swept in equal times, which
is exactly what Kepler found for planetary motion.
This result applies to any central force.

Graviational Force is purely radial therefore
̇(

̈̂
̇ ̇

[

& the only contribution is the transverse velocity
̇

̂

̇
( ̂)

( ̂̇ )

̇

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Inverse-square force for planetary orbitsGravitational Force is a Central Force

̇ ̂)

( ̇ ̂

̇
( )

̇̂

̈

Kinetic Energy
We take point at the closest approach to the sun

(

)

Main Cases
e < 1 the total energy E is negative and orbit is an ellipse.
The planet is said to be bounded to the Sun.
e = 1 the total energy E is zero and the orbit is an parabola.
e > 1 the total energy E is positive and the orbit is an hyperbola.
The planet (or comet) is said to be unbounded.

Type of curve depends on the value of e (equ 2.240 𝒆
𝒆𝒄𝒄𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒓𝒊𝒄𝒊𝒕𝒚 𝒑𝒂𝒓𝒂𝒎𝒆𝒕𝒆𝒓

If the force is radial the so to is the acceleration therefore the transverse
(tangential) acceleration is zero.
( ̇ ̇

(

̈)

(

(

̇)

̇)

̇ ̇

̈)

̇)

(

(

Kepler’s 1st Law of Planetary Motion
This shows the path of a planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one
of its foci. Kepler found this from empirical observations.
̇)

̇
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Orbits of comets that never return
(
)
(
)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Kepplers 3rd Law-

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Rotating Objects & Reference Frames--

The time dependence was eliminated as soon as we could but we will now look at
the planetary motion from the perspective of time using the easiest quantity being
the period.
̇

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Let the body in Fig 3.4 rotate at angular velocity
̂
̂
̂
̂
̂
̂
̂
̂
̂
Any Vector quantity ( ) can be expanded in terms of ̂ ( ) ̂ ( ) ̂ ( )
̂( )
( )̂ ( )
( )̂ ( )
( )̂ ( )
( )
[ ( ) ̂ ( )
( ) ̂ ( )
( ) ̂ ( )]

̇

In 1 period (one revolution) the time goes from t=0 to t=T &

from 0 to 2

( )

( ) ̂ ( )

[

( ) ̂ ( )
* ( )

Replacing r with our soln for the orbit equ 2.24

( )

(

)

( )
From the Areal Velocity expression eq 2.10

-Points in Rotating ObjectsIf a body rotates with angular velocity about an axis which passes through the
origin of co-ordinates, then the velocity of a point P fixed to the body is

( )

( ) ̂ ( )

[

( ) ̂ ( )

( ) ̂ ( )
[

( )

Where is the position vector of point P (see below)

( )̂ ( )

[

(

)

(

)

)

(

)

(

)

*

From equ 2.25
(
(

P moves perpendicular to the plane of
(
| |
(
)
| |

Kepler’s 3rd Law of Planetary Motion
This means that the square of the period T is proportional to
the cube of the semi-major axis α. The constant 4π2/(GM)
does not change with the planet, so exactly the same relationship
holds for all the planets. This is Kepler’s 3rd Law.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Dark Matter-

| |

(ie moves in the direction
)
| |
|

)

|

*
(
(

(

)

)

(

)

)

)

(

(

)

(

)

̂

( )

̂

( )

̂ ]

( ) ̂ ( )]
( )̂

( )̂ ]

( ) ̂ ( )]

( )

This is usually written as
( )
+
*
+

)

( )

+

*

( )

+

*

( )

+

*

( )
+

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------A CD is rotating about the z axis with angular velocity . A
Beetle starts at the centre and it wants to walk directly outwards
at a speed of v relative to the surface of the CD. The external
axes, the internal axes and the position of the insect are illustrated

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Rotating Reference Frames-

`

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

+

̂
(
)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------( )
( )
*
+
*
+

(

̂ ()

This result expresses the rate of change in relative to the external (inertial)
reference as 2 terms.
( )
(
)
*
+

)

)

( )

( )

( ) ̂ ( )]

( )̂ ( )

Area=
(

( )̂

̂ ( )

( )

( ) ̂ ( )
[ ( )

[

( ) ̂ ( )]

̂ ( )