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UNIT 2

FIBER OPTIC

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Introduction to How Fiber
Optics Work
 Fiber-optic lines are strands of optically
pure glass as thin as a human hair that
carry digital information over long
distances.
 They used in telephone system, the
cable TV system or the Internet.
 They are also used in medical imaging
and mechanical engineering
inspection.
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Fiber-Optic System Block
Diagram

Fiber

Coder Light Repeater


Source (long distance)

i
Light pulses

Fiber

Light Decoder
Detector

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ii
Fiber-Optic System Block Diagram

 Is a communication system between


transmitter and receiver using fiber optic

(a) Transmitter (b) (c) Receiver

Electronic Electronic Electronic Electronic


transmitter transmitter receiver receiver

Coder Light Source light detector Decoder


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(a) Transmitters
 Consist of an analog to digital converter (coder) & a
light source
 CODER
convert analog signal to digital signal

 LIGHT SOURCE
convert digital signal (electrical form) to light
signal (optical form)
Either light-emitting diode (LED) or Laser Diode
(LD)
• LED – sistem perhubungan jarak dekat
• ILD – Sistem perhubungan jarak jauh, julat
frekuensi tinggi dan menghasilkan kuasa
optik yang besar 5
(b) What are Fiber Optics?

 Fiber optics (optical fibers) are long, thin


strands of very pure glass about the
diameter of a human hair.

 They are arranged in bundles called


optical cables and used to transmit light
signals over long distances.

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Takrifan fiber optik

 Merupakan suatu pemandu


gelombang cahaya yang terdiri
daripada teras (core), pelapis
(cladding) dan selaput pelindung
(buffer jacket)

 Is a light waveguide consist of core,


cladding and buffer jacket.
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Fiber-optic cable construction

 It is comprised of three layers;


 Core - Thin glass center
of the fiber where the light
travels
 Cladding - Outer optical
material surrounding the
core that reflects the light
back into the core
 Buffer coating - Plastic
coating that protects the
fiber from damage and
moisture
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How light travel in fiber optic

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 Hundreds or thousands of these optical
fibers are arranged in bundles in optical
cables.

 The bundles are protected by the cable's


outer covering, called a jacket.
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The material composition of
these two layers (Core and
Cladding) can be any of the
following :

 Glass cladding and glass core


 Plastic cladding and glass core
 Plastic cladding and plastic core

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(c) Receiver

 Consist of light detector (photocell) &


decoder
LIGHT DETECTOR
convert light signal (light pulse) to digital signal
(electrical pulse)
Either PIN or APD

DECODER
electrical pulses are amplified and reshaped
back into digital form

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LIGHT
Light source
 Produce from different
multi colours
 Can be seen at the
opposite end of the
fiber
 Function: as carrier
information

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LIGHT

 Light is electromagnetic radiation with a


wavelength that is visible to the eye
(visible light)

 The basic characteristic of


electromagnetic radiation is its
frequency or wavelength.

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Light frequency spectrum can be
divided into three general bands

 Infrared : Band of light wavelengths


that are too long to be seen by the
human eye.
 Visible : Band of light wavelengths
to which the human eye will respond.
 Ultraviolet : Band of light wavelengths
that are too short to be seen by the
human eye. 15
 Light waves are commonly specified
in terms of wavelength instead of
frequency.

 Units typically used are the nanometer


or micrometer
( 1 micrometer = 1micron).

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Light frequencies fall between
microwaves and x-rays, as shown in
Figure below:

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Applications of Fiber-Optic
 Closed-circuit TV systems used in buildings
for security.
 Secure communications systems at military
bases.
 Computer networks, wide area and local
area.
 Shipboard communications.
 Aircraft communications.
 Aircraft controls.
 College campus communication.
 Cable TV systems replacing coaxial cable. 19
EXERCISE
The optical spectrum is made up of three parts.
Name them.
= In the optical spectrum, the three parts are
infrared, visible and ultraviolet.
Name 3 part of Fiber-optic cable construction
= Core, Cladding and Buffer coating

The major use of fiber-optic cables is


______________________.
= Telephone System (cable TV or Internet)
system

True or False. Fiber-optic cable has more loss than


electric cable over long distance.
= False
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Basic Optical Laws
Normal
Reflected
 Light can be treated Line
beam
as a beam (ray) θ1 θ3

 Light rays propagate Air, n1 = 1.0


Glass,n2 = 1.5
within different media
at different velocity θ2 Refracted
beam
Normal Line
 The characteristic that Reflected
describe this property beam

of a medium is called θ1 θ3
the refractive index
(index of refraction) Glass,n1 = 1.5
Air,n2 = 1.0
Refracted
θ2 beam
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Refractive index, n (cont.)

c
n
Where:
v
n is the refractive index
C is the speed of light in a vacuum
 is the speed of light in the material

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Refractive index, n of various
media
Medium Index of
refraction
VACUUM 1.0
AIR 1.0003 (1.0)
WATER 1.33
GLASS FIBER 1.5 – 1.9
DIOMAND 2.0 – 2.42
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Snell’s law
 How a light ray reacts when it meets the
interface of two transmissive materials that
have different indexes of refraction can be
explained with Snell’s law

 n1sin 1  n2 sin  2

where n1 = refractive index of material 1 (unit
less)
 n2 = refractive index of material 2 (unit
less)
 1 = angle of incidence (degrees)
 2 = angle of refraction (degrees)
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Normal
Line
Reflected
 When a light ray beam
from the air
θ1 θ3
strike the surface
of glass, it’s not
only slow but Air, n1 = 1.0

also change its Glass,n2 = 1.5

direction within
the medium θ2
Refracted
beam

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 When a light beam Normal Line
strike the boundary of Reflected
two medium, the beam

incident beam slip into θ1 θ3


two beam
 Reflected Air, n1 = 1.0
 Refracted Glass,n2 = 1.5

θ2
θ1 =angle of incidence Refracted
beam
θ2 =angle of refraction
θ2 =angle of reflection
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The angle of the incident is 35o

glass (n=1.5) to air (n=1)

Normal Line
Reflected beam

θ1 θ3

(Angle of incidence)
n1 = 1.5
n2 = 1.0

θ2
Refracted beam

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Critical Angle

 defined as the minimum angle of


incidence at which a light ray may strike
the interface of two media and result in
an angle of refraction of 90 or greater
 This definition pertains only when the
light ray is traveling from a more dense
medium into a less dense medium.
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Critical Angle
The angle of the incident is 40o

Normal Line
Reflected
beam

θ3
θ1 (Critical angle of
incidence) - TIR
n1 = 1.5
n2 = 1.0
θ2 = 90ο (angle of
refraction)

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Normal line

2
n2 less
dense
n1 more Refracted ray
dense (more to less
dense)
1=C
(minimum)
Incident ray

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 The critical angle can be derived from Snell’s law as
follows:

n1sin1  n2 sin  2
n2 sin  2
sin  1 
n1
 When
2 = 90 which result to sin 2 = 1,
then 1 = C , Therefore,

 Critical Angle :  n2 
c  sin  
1

 n1 
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Total Internal Reflection (TIR)
 Occur when the angle of incidence is equal to
or greater than c (1> c )
 We can define the two conditions necessary
for TIR to occur:
1) The refractive index of the first medium is
greater than the refractive index of the second
one.
(n1>n2)
2) The angle of incidence, 1, is greater than or
equal to the critical angle, c
(1> c )
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The phenomenon of TIR causes 100% reflection

Normal

n2 less dense

n1 more dense

1C
Total Internal Reflection
Incident ray of Incident Ray
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 This figure before is most importance position,
where the angle of incident θ1 reaches the critical
value, θ1c
 θ1c
is call critical incident angle
because no light penetrates the 2nd medium
angle of refraction = 90o

 θ1 > θ1c
all light will be reflected back into the incident
medium
called TOTAL INTERNAL REFLACTION (TIR)
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 TIR
is what keep light inside an optical fiber
Without this effect, we could not use optical
fiber as a light guide over a long distance

 Summarize (TIR Phenomenon)


“When light travel from a medium with a
higher refractive index to a medium with a
lower refractive index and it strike the
boundary at more than the critical incident
angle, all light will be reflected back to the
incident medium”

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Numerical Aperture, NA
 The numerical aperture is defined as:
NA = Sin θA
 Or
NA  n12  n22

 Or
sin 1
NA   A
 Where
 NA = numerical aperture (unitless)
 N1 = refractive index of the glass core (unitless)
 N2 = refractive index of the cladding (unitless)
 A = acceptance angle (degrees)
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 It is a measure of the light gathering
power of the fiber.
 It lies between 0 and 1.
 NA = 0
the fiber gathers no light
(corresponding to A = 0o).

 NA = 1
the fiber gathers all the light that falls onto
it
(corresponding to A = 90o).
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Light Ray Propagation in a Fiber-Optic
Cable

Cladding n=1.47

TIR
1

A
Core n=1.5

Cladding

Figure 2.8 Propagation of light in a


fiber-optic 38
Explanation

 The angle A in the Figure is called the


ACCEPTANCE ANGLE.
 Any light entering the fiber at less than this
angle will meet the cladding at an angle
greater than c.
 If light meets the inner surface of the cladding
(the core-cladding interface) at greater than or
equal to c then TIR occurs.
 So all the energy in the ray of light is reflected
back into the core and none escapes into the
cladding.
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Cont.
 The ray then crosses to the other side of the
core and because the fiber is more or less
straight, the ray will meet the cladding on the
other side at an angle which again causes TIR.
 The ray is then reflected back across the core
again and the same thing happens.
 In this way the light zigzags its way along the
fiber.
 This means that the light will be transmitted to
the end of the fiber.
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How’s zigzags occur

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Mode of Propagation and Index profile

In fiber-optic terminology, the word mode can


be defined as path.
If there is only one path for light to take down
the cable, it is called SINGLE MODE.
If there are more paths that can be used in a
fiber-optic cable, it is called MULTIMODE.
2 basic types of index profile
Step
graded.

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A step-index fiber
has a central core with a uniform refractive
index less than that of the central core.

A graded-index fiber
there is no cladding, and the refractive index
of the core is non-uniform;
it is highest at the center and decreases
gradually with distance toward the outer edge.

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Classification of Fiber

3 types of configurations:

single-mode step index,


multi-mode step index
multimode graded index

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single-mode step index

 Small NA
 Coupling more difficult
 No modal dispersion
 High data rates
 Long distances
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multi-mode step index

 Large NA
 Easy coupling
 Modal dispersion
 Lower data rates
 Shorter distances
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multimode graded index

 Large NA
 Easy coupling
 Less modal dispersion
 Good compromise between multimode &
singlemode fiber
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INTRODUCTION TO FIBER
OPTIC SYSTEM (2)
General Objective:
To understand the concept of the Fiber-Optic
System.

Specific Objectives :
name the two types of optical transmitter
components and their main operating range
explain the operation of an optical detector and
receiver.
state eight benefits of fiber-optic cables for
communications.
list four disadvantages of optical fiber
communications 48
(3.1) Light Sources

Generally, a light source must meet the following


requirements:
It must be able to turn on and off several tens of
millions, or even billions, of times per second.
It must be able to emit a wavelength that is
transparent to the fiber.
It must be able to couple light energy into the
fiber.

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The optical power emitted must be sufficient
enough to transmit through optical fibers.
The performance of the fiber-optic should not be
affected by the temperature variation.

The manufacturing cost of the light source must


be relatively inexpensive.

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Cont.

Two types of light sources used

light-emitting diodes ( LEDs )

Injection laser diode (ILD).

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LED
 is an incoherent light source
that emits light in a disorderly way

 are economical Incoherent radiation


(a)
 common for short distance,
 low data rate applications.
 available for all three wavelengths but are most common
at 850 and 1310 nm
 Light power from an LED covers a broad spectrum, from
20 to over 80 nm .
 more stable and reliable than a laser in most
environments. 52
Injection Laser Diodes
Is a coherent light source
that emits light in a very orderly way

are more expensive. Coherent radiation


(b)
The advantages of using a laser diode
are in the high modulation bandwidth ( over 2 GHz ),
with high optical output power
and narrow spectral width.
Their application is in long distance,
high data rate requirements. 53
Cont.

 Lasers are common in single mode optical fiber


applications and their light power covers a very
narrow spectrum, usually less than 3 nm.
 This results in a low chromatic dispersion value
and hence high fiber bandwidth.
 Their life span is shorter than that of an LED.
 Lasers are sensitive to the environment
(especially to temperature variation).

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(3.2) Light Detector

Optical detection occurs at the light wave


receiver’s circuitry

Photo detector
is the device that receives the optical fiber
signal and converts it back into an electrical
signal.

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 Most important characteristics of light
detectors are:
Responsitivity:
 is a measure of the conversion efficiency of
a photodetector.
Dark current:
 is the leakage current that flows through a
photodiode with no light input

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Transit time:
 is the time it takes a light-induced carrier to
travel across the depletion region.

Spectral response:
 is the range of wavelength values that can be
used for a given photodiode.

Light sensitivity:
 is the minimum optical power a light detector
can receive and still produce a usable electrical
output signal.
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most common types of photo detectors

positive intrinsic negative photodiode


( PIN )

avalanche photodiode (APD ).

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PIN photodiodes

are inexpensive,
but they require a higher optical
signal power
to generate an electrical signal.
more common in short distance
communication

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APD photodiodes

are more sensitive to lower optical


signal levels
can be used in longer distance
transmissions.
more expensive than the PIN
photodiodes
sensitive to temperature variations.

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Both photodiodes can operate at
similar, high-signal data rates.
Some receiver photo detector circuits
operate within a narrow optical dynamic
range.

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(3.3) Kelebihan Sistem
Komunikasi Gentian Optik
 Kos pembuatan gentian optik lebih
MURAH untuk jangka masa yang
panjang. ----bahan mentahnya dari pasir
 Mempunyai SAIZ yang LEBIH KECIL

 Menyediakan LEBAR JALUR yang LEBIH LUAS


 Membolehkan PENGHANTARAN DATA yang LEBIH
SELAMAT kerana tiada gangguan

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Samb.
 Diperbuat daripada KACA yang mempunyai TAKAT
LEBUR YANG TINGGI berbanding dengan dawai
kuprum
 KEBAL kepada ELEKTROMAGNETIK DAN GEMA
BUNYI
 TIDAK KARAT dan TIDAK berlaku PROSES
PENGOKSIDAAN
 Lebih TERJAMIN KESELAMATANNYA kerana TIADA
LITAR PINTAS di dalam pendawaian disebabkan
cahaya yang bergerak bukan arus elektrik. Ini
menjauhkan daripada percikan bunga api.

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Samb.

 Boleh MEMBAWA PELBAGAI JENIS DATA : suara,


video, grafic dan data berbentuk digit

 CEKAP MENGHANTAR MAKLUMAT. Pengalirannya


selaju denyutan cahaya

 MEMPERCEPATKAN PERTUKARAN DAN


PENGHANTARAN MAKLUMAT antara tempat yang
jauh

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(3.4) Keburukan Sistem Gentian Optik

 LEBIH BANYAK PERALATAN ELEKTRONIK


SOKONGAN DIPERLUKAN bagi system beroperasi
(ia diperlukan bagi memastikan denyutan cahaya tidak
bergabung menjadi satu pancaran dalam kabel)
 Perlukan MASA YANG PANJANG untuk penggunaan
secara meluas
 KOS YANG TINGGI bagi jangka pendek
 Sukar untuk memastikan kabel gentian optik bebas
dari bendasing yang boleh memesongkan keupayaan
cahaya yang merambat.

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