by the Internet Arciiive


funding from

University of Toronto






V A/ y .

for the "I ^tve thtft Books founding cf a CcHe^t in this Colonf J 9 OS .

c / .

1905 by Frederick xMorgan Padelford. .D. Ph.Copyright.


the nature of imitation. and gives attention to theorv than anv of the remaininji books. in spirit and to decide whether or no Scaliger was closer to the Attic philosopher than to Horace. and the origin of poetry. of this notable to include such chapters or portions of chapters as bear most vitally upon the fundamental problems of poetics. Those who have studied the Poetics will perhaps regret the omission of certain chapters from the translations. through lack of access to the original. have had to gain their impressions H work from the meagre digests in handbooks and histories of criticism. . for his treatise was not only the literary canon of the later Italian Renaissance. Sand if the father of classicism in England did not receive Ibis bent from Scaliger. and question the judgment shown in the selection. The more First Book. I have tried. poetry in relation to history and philosophy. Indeed. however. but it exerted a determining influence upon such English men of letters as Sidney and Ben Jonson. he was at least trained by him. /jonson strikinglVTesembled ScaligcTm mentaTtemperament.PREFACE These select translations from Scaliger's Poetics are ofTered to the public in the belief that they will be welcomed by the many students of poetical criticism who. ulmiii he profo'^soil to fallow.i'i iiiidcrslood ArlslotU'.ili}. while keeping the volume within reasonable limits. He should also be able to determine to what degree Sc. Thus from these selections the reader will be able to learn Scaliger's attitude on such subjects as the end of fine art. Scaliger certainly should not be neglected by English students of poetics. poetic truth. the fundamental distinctions between tragedy and comedy. the tragic emotions. which is historical in character.



and an exhaustive treatment of The illustrations. to give an idea of the books as a whole.vi Preface generously represented in the translations. Book is a potpourri of minor matters overlooked in the earlier books. of Contents has been translated in order its that the reader may gain an impression of the Poetics in The absence months. offering in part or in whole the cisms of such eminent Renaissance writers as Robortelli. . but the better not to proper annotation of these chapters would be the work of not of years. inclined to this course as 1 T am especially prosiiil criti- expect to follow liio volume with others. in which fc. rhetorical and stylistic principles. Castelvetro. and is therefore not to the point. and I feel that it is delay the appearance of the translation.The selection from the comparative criticism of Homer and Virgil is representative of the voluminous Fifth and Sixth Books. the third. Scaliger betrays how completely he failed to understand (Aristotle's discussion of character and action. and finds a place partly because the I \ reader will wish to see the principles. Books Tiiree and Four are designed to offer a catalogue Sand discussion of everything that may be included in the subject-matter of poetry. and have supplemented these chapters by others. if of notes may cause some surprise. in The Table totality. The Sccon'l is altogether taken up with the technical treatment of is Book the * classical metres. This book was a salve to the exacting conscience of Scaliger. and also helped to keep up the pleasing delusion of his omniscience. or their bearing upon later criticism.. full. critic's attempt to apply his own and partly because Scaliger was the first influThe Seventh ential writer to use this method of criticism. are throughout taken ^omVirgnjjvhom I Have selected Scaliger regards as the poet ^ar excellence. For the student of to-day it Scontains one most interesting chapter. its which are very full. and others. some chapters from these books because of their intrinsic worth. Minturno.

t"ii.. In quotations from the Iliad. however. to an ulterior purpose in working out these translations.'/.c Study and Use of Yale Studies in English. I Finally.ii\ \'t . and Arlluir helped me over many a hard stile. there yet remains much to be done.iy Uui u. Ji)> <'.i»i'I iJr.r'liinj..ily (»f I'rof.ors Tli'-ma..-. David Thomson. for how can one rightly place Scaliger without intimate knowledge of the writings of his contemporaries ? In my in previous volume of translations^ I I attempted to of Scaliger's reproduce the styles of the originals. but in this case the introductory word must be the concluding one. and of Lonsdale and Lee.T5 "-tnnd-'ir'l. and the Aeneid.ti:.. because these versions have come / to ho rerop^i/ed y\. Tool. wlio has attempted exact work in translatin. . nf W. T must confess. Leaf. .p'-rlifi'-nt mi.'tr l'.'iv^ All'ti i\>'' '. and have merely attempted to express the meaning with clearness. the I Odyssey.Preface vii Any one knows tliat. K. Though the contributions that have recently been made to this subject are of real value as pioneer work. ( in v/l(0 I'lnfr'-. of Butcher and Lang.in'l I'/ /iiy fMrainu-.-. (. than can readily express to I'rofessor a wmter who became interested in my task while sponduig of which translated many chapters. and Myers.:^ though the task is a humble one. Sidcy. but giving - have despaired of English the stylistic equivalent Tacitean Latin.- y/-. 1 S.h:irki G..ot. respectively.pcr. {]><- r'l. (nad'. for the preparation of them is largely incidental to acquiring such intimate knowledge of these writers as will enable me to contribute one or more worthy chapters to the history of poetic criticism. by Plutarch and Basil ^ Essays on il.iral I. the Great.: \'> \'t<ii'v. of the I'lii'tit). Another seeming oversight is the lack of an Introduction. it brings its own rewards.^' 'iw . who have owe more George D. have followed the translations of Lang.rparlm'-iit of llip IJiiiv'M-.uifl . Pci.]. hynn'l.\l(.'//iii'i l'lii'/.'lf y/ii'tnti-. Hak^l. 13. I shall always romem- Poetry. HID lui'Uh'//]'']'////ii'f hi/ iii'i'}. ft^ml lit'fii.'fr li. and have been included in this volume.v. some in my home.

viii Pttfjce ber with pleasure the animaiod discussions in which tried to find wc some possible It is interpretation for Scali. P. Washington. 1904- . Seattle. request that I only at Professor Pepper's earnest his have omitted name from the title-page. F. M. September 14.c:cr"s perplexing Latin.

. 13. . ..... . 19 *4.. Characters of Tragedy. Modes and Pipes... 21. . . Greek Games Olympian. . 33 39 42 • 49 . Megalensian.. Isthmian.. '^*2. . . .] BOOK The *i. ' 10.. Other Characters. Uses. .. 17. Ncmcan. The Origin Poetry. 21 (5. 20. and Cultivation. Roman Games...... i The Name Effects. Causes. rciiowticd (JaiiK"* 28. 29. ' . Pipes.. Tragedy Kinds of Comedy.. Parts of Cpmedy and Tragedy. Pastoral Poetry. .^^^2%^^ of Apollo and Bacchus.. 9. PAGE The Indispensability Poet. : . Dancing. : Pythian.— The chapters marked with an asterisk have been translated I. Kinds of Poetry.. . . 25. 24.. . in full or in part.. I *6. I *3... 26.. The Theatre. 16. Characters of Mimes. . . 14.. in how far Dramatic 31. Mimes. of End. . Ullicr less 27. its Origin. . *7- I . Games — — — — .... 15. Games. Satiric Plays Characters of Comedy.. and Material. Kinds of Tragedy.. Comedy and Tragedy. 22. 19. — — — — ^^ — — — — — — — — — — — — — — -^ . Games Circus in Honor ... 18. . .. y "^..TABLE OF CONTEiNTS [Note. 30. 11. Characters of Satiric Plays. " . 23. *8.9 its . of Language. . . ^i. .. Parts of Tragedy the Chorus again . Classification of the Form. 12.. History of Poetry..

Proverbs. Riddles.: Contents r\c. 5.. . 51. . 56. 33. 38. luuiiiicratioii: . Rhythm. etc. — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — BOOK The Matter 1. Handful of Other Songs. Palinodes. 40. Popular Shows. 4. A Songs of the Draw-well. 42. . . Hyporchemes. .. Votive Games. 47. Trochaic. 3. Feet. Lyric Poetry. 9.. Rowing-songs. .. . 53. 55. .. 10. 49. and the Instruments used in Choruses. Kinds of Feet Whether or not Verse. Molossian. Panegyrics. Songs—^etrt/cd.. Hymns.. 35.r 32. . • Material of Poetry. . Enigmas. Games Games in in Honor Honor of Ceres. Epos. 8. . "Zivdira. Dactylic. 41.. SeciUar Games Juvenile Games. Ionic Poems.. 45. 6. 46. 48. 36. Limping Iambic. Fables.. Capitoline Games. It. Censorious bics. 37.. there are Other Feet. of the Gods of the Lower World. .. Dithyrambs.. Funeral and Marriage Songs. • 39. Iambic. . Parody.57. . Iametc. . .. 52. Elegies. 7. . 43.. 11. 34. 44. . . Lampoons. Anapaestic. Songs of Ill-boding. II of Poetry . . 54- Songs of Good Cheer. Kinds of Verse. 50. Metre. 2. 12. . Spondaic. . Centos. I'yffliic. Funeral Games. Latin Satiric Plays. Rhapsody. Styles of Lyric Poetry.

Effects resulting Effects resulting from Quantity. 42. 36. 19. Instrument. 23. 20. 39. Faults in Quality. Description of Quasi-Persons.. SO ^ Ideas in the Platonic sense. Description of Persons. 4.. 14.. 33. Properties peculiar to the Anapaest. Mixed Punic..Contents 13.. with Illustrations. Jonic a majori. 37. 7. III.. Properties peculiar to the Galliambus. '41. Properties peculiar to the Elegiac Measure. Time. Ideas' of Poetry.. Common Effects of Verses. 21. Logavedic. Ionic a majori.. 22. . Properties peculiar to the Hendecasyllable Properties peculiar to the Ionic a major. Divisio Place. Ionic a miiiori.. 31.. Epionic. 32. Rcnim. from Quality. Antispa>tic. 6. *5. ^2. 24. Divisio RcruDi. Group Compound?. 3. Paconic. !Mixed Ionic a viinori. . . 34. Anapae Compound Choriambic. . BOOK The I. etc. 38. Faults in Quantity. 29. . 17. 35. 15. Consideration of Certain Rules. 26. Effects resulting from Order or Arrangement. . . 18. . 28. 27.. 25. 30. Compound Acolic. Common Laws. 40. Clioriambic. . 16. Properties peculiar to the Iambic. Dactylic. Other Feet. . . Other Properties.. Properties peculiar to the Dactyl. Properties peculiar to the Trochee. Epichoriambic. .

. . 21. Minor Figures.. . Fated Issues. c- — - 41. 30. Works. is a mistake in numbering. Vividness Variety. . . 24.... . Demonstration. Causes.. Accumulation. Celerity . 28. Asseveration. Efficacia. 27. Connection. 33. Portrayal. Condition. g. .. make a more Careful Examination. when and where Used..] . Mode. Critical Comment.. ... Delaying. 19. ... 45.. [No tenth chapter is given in the third edition . Office. Anticipation. ^""47. .. . ... Accidents.. 48. Conversation. . The Four Attributes of the Poet Insight and Foresight Prudcntia.Contents 8. 23. • Bodily Goods. Evasion. . Speech. . . . 17. 39. 22. 32.^ 26. Exaggeration. Attribution.. . . Amplification. 43.. . *25. Moderation and Correction. . 36. . 38. 34. How we may Other Persons Sex.. Description. . 35.. . __49. . Fortune. Raiment. Personification. 13. 31.. Significance of Figures. 42. Repetition. .. 27. 12. 14. '"46. 20. Modification or Tempering. . — — — — — — — . Figures. Domestic Economy. 16.. . . Kinds. Vivid Description. — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 10. etc. Acclamation. probably there 11. Exclamation. . — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 52 44. 40. Nation or Tribe. 29. Habits or Customs.. . 15- Age. Definition of Figures. 18. . Recapitulation Accumulation.

. . . Entliymeme. . 58. . Threatening. which magnify: Hyperbole. Fifth Kind of Figures.. Induction. 65. .. Example. Pleading. Likeness. Defmition. 77. . Transposition. 87. ! . 60. Allcyory. Limitation.. . Execration. Epichirema. 53. Ecbasis. Metaphor.. . Communication..... . Complex Comparison. Admonition. . . Rejection. . Conciliation.. 64. ^75. 85.. ... Objection. Argumentation. Detestation. . Agnomination. 78. Sub>titution. . ....Contents Example... . Necessity. Metastasis. Castigation. Simile. Mockery. 79- . Antithesis... 76. . Retribution. Emphasis Intimation. 81. . . Introduction... 57. 82. 61. 50. Circumlocution. 69. . Confession. Assimilation. Addition Another Kind of Figures. Etymology. Metabasis. Exclusion.. Translation. . 67. 88.-Mle- Aversion. 68. Interpretation. Prohibition. 74. A A Fourth Kind of Figures.. 83. Reasoning... 59.. . 62. which express a Meaning contrary to the Words: Irony 86. . . Enumeration. . Epitropc.. 56. . 70. Ellipsis... 63.. 66. which minify: Periphrasis. 51. '84. Promising. Concession. 72. Declination. Transition.Mlnsion. Asseveration. Comparison. ... . 73. Paronomasia. Apology.. A Third Kind of Figures. Excursion... Excitation.. Parable. 55. which symbolize: Is'Hiy. Extenuation. . 54. Transmutation. Dispersion. Ellipsis. 80.. Concession. Egression. 52. Various Kinds of Sarcasm Vexation. . 71.

125. Elegies.. Poems to be sung at Departure for a Voyage. . .. Epigrams. 116. Apophasis. . Apothegm.. Regulations for the Various Kinds of Poetry: Epic Tragedy. Songs of Heroes. 106. So-called Figures. 104. Epitaphs. .. . . Hymns of Ancestry. . 107. Conciliation. Inscriptions.. Encomia^ Subjects for Universal Laudation.. 109... .. 126. . . ' 96.. • 127. . Praise of Cities. 98. lOp. Poems of Exhortation and Consolation.. " PocMis of Consolation. Praise of Places. .115.. ^iio. • . Banquet Songs. 114. 112.. . 90. 57 loi. . Poems to be sung on Arrival from a Voyage. .. .. Dirges. 117. Lyrics. • . — — — .. 102.. 120. 105. 95. 93. Poetry. etc. .' 113. Dithyrambic Poetry Poems of Laudation Praise of Persons. 124. 118. which properly are not such — — — — — — — 54 94. Valedictory Poems. . . Nuptial Songs. . . Mimes. Mirth: Interpellation. . . 103. Invocatory Poems. Admonition. 122. . . Apology.. Antiphrasis. III. etc. Recollection. Reminiscence.. Votive Poems. 123. . * . Contradiction. 119. Hymns. — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — . 91. Deception. .xiV Contents 89. . Poem expressing Gratitude to a Teacher. .. Peroration. Monodies.. Love-idylls. 108. .. 92.. . Panegyrics. 121. Nature Hymns. . . Satiric Plays. Provoking. Mythic Hjinns. Silvae. Poems of Nativity. "99. . Poems of Farewell. Pastorals. *97. Paeans. . Comedy. . .

. Sonorousness. 21. 24. . Epanalepsis.. Periphrasis... 32. Symploce. Iden: 27... Rhythm Fulness. Antistrophe.. .. ... 12.. 36.. Asyndeton... Acumen. Comma. . *4. fACB I. Figures Period.. Fervency. 34... 33.. 29..... Propriety. Paronomasia... . Figures based upon the Use of the Same Word Anadiplosis. Properties peculiar to the 15.. . • . Figures of Amplification: Emphasis. 16. Hypobole. Metabola. 25. Smoothness. Degree in Style.. Ponderousness..Figures based upon the Use of Synonyms: Synonymy. 3. : Figure. 35. the Dull. — — — — — — — — — — — — — -^ — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — tity 30. Winsomeness Rapidity or Spirit. Base Forms: The Jejune. Prosdiasaphesis. 18. Allage. Elegance. Roundness. The Humble Tenuity. The Grand Style. 2 . 17. . 22. • . the Hysterical. : . Figures based upon the Use of Like Words: Allusion.. . 19.. . . .. Perspicuity. Epanastrophe. Palillogy.... 28.. 7. Style.. . Epanodos.. — 70 — 72 ID... 31.... 9.. . Purity or Unadornedness. 11. Alloeosis. 26.. Thf. Sharpness. 13.. 6. Common Properties: Refinement.. Inversion. Epanaphora. . Colon... 20". 2. Metonymy. . Style..Contents XV BOOK Style IV. 23. . Grand Style. Pleonasm.... The Moderate . Anaphora. Preparation or CoMrosiNC of Poetry... Figures.. 5. 14. . 8. Qimax. . Omateness. . Fluency. Fig^jres of Abbreviation Ellipsis...

Comparison of Ovid and Greek Writers. 38/ Figures based upon Position or Arrangement: Hyperbaton. Enceladus. Imitation and Criticism. Goats. Winds. Snow. Comparison of Oppians and other Writers. Horses. Wolves. . Comparison of Horace and Greek Writers. Comparison of Greek and Latin Writers.Contents Antithesis. 7- 8. Wild Beasts of the Caves. . Piles of Stone. Figures based upon the Use of Contraries Antimetathcsis. 6.. .. Amazons. Latin Writers compared among themselves. Comparisons of Disasters. Diana. Antenantiosis. Lions. Phoenixes. Comparisons of Tempests. Comparison of Homer and Virgil. liulls. Oaks.. . _ . 4344- Uses of Figures. and by the Quantity of Words. which takes up Fifty-nine Columns. .. . Figures based upon Quality: Homoeoptoton. 41.. . SheVarious other Comparisons . teleuton. Interrogation. Parcnibole.. Rivers. 12. Dolphins. 73 45. Pestilences. Comets. Cranes. Eagles and Serpents. 3940.. . Synantesis. Synthesis. . Percontation. : n. 49. Of Order or Arrangement. Bees.. Tempests. *3. Figures based upon Quantity: Parison. Comparison of Virgil and other Greeks than Homer. : bcars. Falling Leaves. Criticism. Lionesses. Homoeo 42. 10. Rending of Rocks. Concinnity of Expression. Chiasmus. Comparisons of Pestilences. Seas. Concinnity as determined by Quality in Diction. 9- . Ploce. Zeugma. 1314- . . Sygchresis. Ceres. 4748. Tmesis. Comparison of Virgil and Theocritus.. As determined by Quantity in Diction. Serpents. • • 4546. . The Construction of Feet: how modified by Word pictures . V. . . Parenthesis. II. Mars. Offices of Compact and Loose Diction. BOOK Of 2.. Comparison of Virgil and Apollonius.

Micyllus. Faustus. . 5. Propertius. 7. which takes up Twenty-six Columns. Persius. Vegius. Cotta Aonius. Serenus Auso- 6. Bonincontrus. Gaidanus Mombritius. Germani. . end of Of all the above the criticism extends to the this Book. . VI. Valerius Flac Juvenal. Sabinus. Amaseo. Naugerius. Dampetrus. Rhodophilus. Statius. Bigus. 2. Bembo. Vida. Sannazaro. Verinus. Angerianus. Politian. of the Fourth Period: Macer. Lancinus. Dolet. . I. Altilius. 17. Cordus. Cerratus. . Parts of Tragedy.Contents Comparison of Lucaii and Xicander. VII. . Molossus. 4. Poets. Whether 1 The the Poet teaches Character or Action. Sulpicia Lucan. Paulinus. Writers of the Second Period: Cornelius Gallus. Eras mus. Appendix. Ovid. Rogerius. Explanation of the Book Divisio Rcruvi. Plautus and Terence. Horace. 16. 3. Vulteius. Pontanus. Sidonius. Martial. Writers nius. . Consideration of Introductions and Conclusions. Varus. Alciati Castiglione. Boethius. Quin tilius.. Writers of the Third Period: cus. Accius. Beatianus. Egnatius Strozzi. Latter-day Writers: MaruUus. —continued. Fra castorius. . Palingenius.. BOOK Pari K I. Nemesian. Calpurnius. . BOOK Criticism 1. ^ 1 2. 4. Alexander. and the Kinds. Comparisons of Various Other Passages. Collatius... Pierius. TibuIIus Catullus. Melanchthon. Claudian. Mutius. Augurellus. Quintianus^ Mantuan. *3. Fiera. The The Different Periods of Latin Poetry. 15.. Seneca.

measured to restore 2. 6. The Classification of Poetry. Quantity in Pronunciation. Certain much-needed Criticisms. The Carelessness or Ignorance of Professors..Contents Wliether Figures of Speech pertain to the Actor.. 8. . . . 3. The Chorus of the Old Comedy. II. .. Of Diction. Certain Verses Readings. .. 7. Part -^•l.... . 5. Examination of Bembo's Codex of Terence. the Correct . Metres appropriate to the Stage.

the arts are cultidestined to is. Not unlike these were the ends which Ian- . or. As to an undefined body the metric science appoints breadth. To cultivation afforded the soldier his speak figuratively. to give orders to have things done. vated. man. AND CULTIVATION (Everylhing that pertains to mankind may be classed a^. more careful cultivation added knowledge of windings. and to abolish. the senator his useful toga. ITS ORIGIN.^en his richer pleasure-robe. 1. or pleasure-giving-J and by an inherent] characteristic of all these classes the power of speech was the very beginning. as time went Since man's development depended upon learning. and then it appeared illustrious both in form and in spirit. he could not do without that agency which was on. Next. to dispose. the postman of the mind. USES. the — so to an unordered language law gave the so-called rules. make him the partaker of wisdom. to establish. Later. END. or the more elegant citi. Thus arose established laws of speech. Such were the functions of early speech. being given to a rude and formless body. as it were. of valleys and hills. as it and the claims of wisdom intercede with men for It is of course necessary to secure from others those things which we need. to prohibit. THE INDISPEiNSABILlTY OF LANGUAGE. dimensions. angles. Then the usefulness and effectiveness of language were increased by rules governing construction. implanted in man from was acquired. of first the pvOfMOL of the Greeks — retreats. of light and shade. through the services of whom civil gatherings are announced.I. language was adorned and embellished as with raiments. Our speech were. necessary. useful. such necessary armor. and length the masters of harmony also add proportion. to propose.

they are name History came to be applied to the former alone.2/ Scaligcr in gunge served. underlying the music was that for the sake of which music was provided only as a sauce. at another crafty — theo-rpaTT/yr. governed by the subject. to the subject-matter. is to acquaint the hearer with a fact or with the thought of the speaker. and such speaking was called oratory. wliiih ni. theatre. the time. poetry describes military counsels.. it was satisfied merely with that field of writing /v adapted to setting forth actual events. TliajeJid_is_Jhe_gmrTg of_j^^^ in pleasurable form. v. but is intermediate to the end. at one time open and frank. but because the primitiv j poetry was sung. ^On the other hand. to be. but also events as they // / I j n I and represented them as they might be or ought Wherefore the basis of all poetry is imitation. the said. in that one professes to record the fixed truth. utility dictated and pleasure drew the it to the to exact. The language of was philosophers. •.pmiiy Let it be further said that when the medium of its teaching. ration.Jbr poetry teaches. confined necessarily concise and adapted On the other hand. however. I suppose. or Making. since. The third class contains two species. in the forum and the camp less precise expression was permissible. because fictitious narrated if not only actual events. it // the / / latter was called Poetry. While. In time this rude and pristine ijivenlion was enriched by i)hil<>sophy. not very unlike. or imitates the truth by ficwith more elaboration. /Whenever language is used. the purpose. and use much embellishment. is not the end of poetry. and employs a simple style of composition. while the other either adds a fictitious tion. however. since necessity demanded language cultivation in statesmanship. "^ Imitation. the its search of the philosophers after truth. the place. its design seemed merely to please ./iuof the Greeks — when . and the audience. and does not simply afnaseTas some used to think. as we have both equally narrative in character. of course.'uli. which in common employ narThey differ. of course element to the truth. were actual. logical reasoning.

The end of learning in is knowledge. to the one who asked him. knowledge. since. An accurate and simple definition of knowledge as follows: upon conclusive evidence. that the hearer accepts the is Per- suasion. By no means are we to accept the popular idea that eloquent speaking. means words of the speaker. Poetics tells 3 it of Icnipcsts. the rhapsodist imitation. because such arts are foreign to For the rhapsodist will say things than the poet has written of them. in philosophical can reproduce. is Now is exposition. 'What merit in a poet can arouse the greatest admiration for him?' Euripides made a good answer when he replied. of various artifices.. in oratory. is the end of oratory. So in The Frogs of Aristophanes. and the case. : one purpose it imitates that it may teach. of wars. All have one and the just it for.' Plato was less happy in the Io}i in all is for saying him. or susceptible of question. truth either and absolute. that is is. rather than persuasion. of course. for the arguments of the grammarians on this . again. interpreted Belief based either no narrow sense. *I know that Dido committed suicide because Aeneas departed. or to secure the doing of something. but this is popularly accepted as the truth. or upon a loose notion. Whenever in the — language used either expresses a fact or the opinion of the speaker. dist he who acts out the and according as the poet represents. while the poet is the imitator of things. as well remarked in the nothing worse about such is very is same passage. that a rhapsodist cannot satisfactorily represent military or nautical doings. the rhapsothere not one end. Thus we say. fixed The soul of persuasion truth. Truth. is as drama ? Assuredly such same end persuasion we were saying above. 'The ability to impress adroitly upon citizens the need of being better men. is agreement between that which is said about a thing and the thing itscll.' Now we do not know any such thing. Its end is to convince. and one only. you see. of routs. in turn.

such the others are as shoemaking. if a man does not persuade. but that which > all serves. by the way. it is / not possible that both the defendant and the plaintiff should in fact it is necessar)' that one or the ] be equally eloquent • . . this is Scaligcr Clearly. not by fixed principle. and navigation. then. had run across this idea in Plato. no fault of the art. because. Arts of the one kind can attain their ends in and of themselves. Eloquent speaking certainly cannot be the end. Medicine . I Now. Two kinds there are. you are not the arbiter of your eloquence. which may either reside in his speaking or in tli bad cause which he espouses. or else he is a knave. or to some defect f^>f his own. not only is your eloquence fruitless. or a mode of the means. carpentry. medicine. from whom Galen borrowed it. two kinds of arts are recognized. but the physician docs not always do so. The latter arts the Greeks denominate cTToxaaTiKui (coiijrcliirn!). that treatise entitled in that other Eio-aywyiKo?. which is work on the science of medimore confidently attributed to If Quintilian. even though you have spoken eloquently. Moreover. which it is beyond the power of the orator to control. as is staled in llio VUHchns. by conjecture. or should merit losing it. Further. and if he does not think you eloquent. so to speak.4 point are not valid. Therefore you may go away frustrated in your purpose. the Svo-rao-ts. In this last case he is eitli' r due to noorator. for my always cures curable diseases. but the judge is. in will not be your orator whom you have picked attributed out as eloquent. but either to the issue. part. as oratory. other should lose his cause. for obviously it is the means to an end. and cine. and so one uses eloquence that he may persuade. and the like not thus able. him. wherefore he does not cease to be an orator. take a different view. he would have changed his theory about the end of oratory. to Galen. An end is not that which serves another end. Therefore he Finally. but it is not eloquence at all. llu-y proceed.

Here belong what Hippocrates and other agencies physicians call external is — ra Indeed. for not only do these In fact. but such are of the rebuke properly rebuked by Quintilian.'iNn utility is nid of justice his . the sun. some chance happengrief. befall Further. speaks in the forum that good may be meted to good men. still however. or rash. In tact the physician does not accei)t an incurable case unless he be careless. be observed that . belong in to judicial bodies. honesty. whrii'furr And is the righteous payment to a is man of that which own or its equivalent. or through ing. in deliberative pro- To ceedings. justice is the end of deliberative counsels. Justice even the end of war. such as those uttered others to deliberative Catiline. dampness. accidents are wont to the sick. then. and the like. But that aside. The orator. or brings forth defective bodies. wherefore in that case he fails to be a doctor. the presence of witnesses bodies. . for the councils .Poetics 5 because he is cniljarrassed by many obstacles. anger. The ground should be noted rather carefully. certain invectives are to be included.ill lh(^ virliics. or that of their servants. there are those who contend that in judicial proceedings the end is justice. fear. in another all passage they it confound of ju^liiT. tsw^tv. utility honesty. and may pursue and practice that which is . common be sure. the epideictic. but they even contradict themselves. either through their own instrumentality. In this last class. and punishment to evil men in assemblies and councils that public aftairs may be well administered and in eulogies that we may be won from evil by good example. embarrassed and of her end. . not for occa- even nature herself sionally she is a perfectly reliable fails workman. as when she produces a monstrosity. as of the atmosphere. utility. Other kinds of invectives. men with the siuic is reason superficially. and in eulogies. prce<ly for fees. as the speeches against Antony and and the addresses on consular provinces. set forth as honest. or stupid. All of these different kinds of speaking have a end.



the future .. What this. on the grctnnd that the word usually had this meaning this among the Greeks. tlic the basis for the classification of the different kinds of division. man is never tried or defended without praise or censure either of a person. deliberative. it So far is from the truth. and the epideictic. Although that discerning man. But now who is does not appreciate that in judicial proceedings the past involved? Wherefore it is not possible for the latter to form a sub-species of the the statement as follows : judicial. for persuasion all the end of speaking. an act. Finally. and to persuade? makes an fVtSccKTttco? equally bad mistake to when he interprets the word moan ostentations spcnkinf. a w^ord. the disciple of philosopher. virtue. or a policy. an accused and epideictic. to speeches of a is deliberative nature hortatory.6 Scaligcr of ^var justice. because no species of one call is able to be part of another species. speaking. else does an orator do than create Quintilian confidence. as some do. he classified as follows: cases either are subject for judicial investigation. it is improper. Those relating to the past are those of the future. the latter alone prescribes deliberation into the former the first divides the forensic. classed them as forensic. and in like manner never without deliberation. or are outside of The latter relate either to the past or to the future. epideictic . So is I would have altered a case either in the past or in . an event. to define . — Uicy arc very if many — are held for the sake of end of man is virtue. it is deliberated whether to convict or to acquit the defendant. Indeed.fold it. of ever)' act and thought. That he might simplify the three. that the philosophers used the most simple and exact exposition. So you see that there cannot be species or genera of cases. deliberative. or it is the soul ot Of every human office. honesty ^vill be the end. or judicial. We must consider even i^iore carefully than did Quintilian Fitially. honesty is either a state of mind induced by virtue.

as if he who adjudges praise were himself relieved from judgment. represent things just as they see Quintilia^i.^ just as in councils the question As an illustration of the mode. If he would eulogize a man. of speeches have this in common. and. such as we is read of Camillus. it is in both. as it Scipio. and Plato brings forward Socrates and the orator in like manner interjects personifications. zation. on his part. that while they. state of quality. inasmuch as the mind of the hearer is surrendered to the speaker. latter . intersperses his But it only poetry which includes everything of this kind. Thus we might say that the translative state could be subsumed dealt under the conjectural.same spirit. 6. the fact being conAll kinds a question who is responsible for it. vices. as * wc have said above. and forum examining them in which inquiry is made orator in the concerning what is to be preferred. . speaking the case is the opposite of this. For these technical terms ff. indeed. decrees. that in epideictic of his hearers. he must needs touch upon the stor}. in behalf of v/hich he essays to speak lunges upon the favor Let it be further noted. his nation and this allies him with the historian. in that in The debates concerning the. . were. virtues. tiie accomplishment of that purpose his audience. all with is what But the philosopher and the poet deal such matters in the ver}. be dwelt upon. and Cicero. that in and judicial speaking the orator depends upon Indeed. Hannibal. his family. life. Jugurtha. chap. each in his own is.^ since ceded. especially sections 45 *The definitive state. Socrates introduces Diotima/ or Aspasia. just as we have Let it be observed.Poetics 7 we arc on the subject. while deliberative more accurately with various other matters. It is. frequently adds a characteriperson or in that of another. Bk 3.of his life. The historian. excelling those other arts in this. from the very nature of my undertaking. These points in which v/e differ from the recognized opinions of the rhetoricians must.

and to create. not by the agreement of men.. for though Usage has sanctioned this practice. but by the provident. 2.^ In view of this fact. fattojo and fattojaiio. overseers /but since poetry . as (ashio ns it were. which confine themselves to actual events. etymologically it is absurd. In fact. deity. its common title was furnished it.8 are. The Latin is miror majores nostras sibi /a»t intquos fuisse ut facton's z'oce)n malucrint olearionim cancellis circumscribere. and a variety of fortunes. 71: 'This joke requires a little explanation and adaptation to get it into English. I \1 images of those things which arcMiot.^ ^ Saintsburj'. if not fattorc. and rather to be another god. he transforms himself almost into a second Of those things which the Maker of all framed. Hist. such as history. wisdom of nature. the other sciences are. it seems unlike other literary forms." . fact. the poet clcj)ict> quite another sort of nature. in by so doing. in Scaliger some sense like a spenkinpf jiictnrc. of Crit. as well a^ images more beautiful than life oftlids'e' things which arc. our ancestors should be so unfair to themsel^s as to limit the tenn to candle-makers. do mean in Italian "oil-press and oilpresser. I must express my surprise that when the learned Greeks had most happily defined the poet as the maker.

everything that enters into an intellectual product is the result either of intellection. many children cannot go to sleep without crjing. and they arrogated to themselves. whether high or low. C fact that the poet employs the is but from ! the fact that he makes verse. vocal movement. the propensity for an instinct with man. and of course discerning judgment in the was used choosing of the sacred mysteries. the" protection. I ^ \ > / lLvi<ii (to be initiated). or of judg- . in turn. Those. or of invention. FORM. There is in fact a degree of quality and quantity in every Quality is determined by the pitch. THE NAME POET. they were called poets. 2. whence >nysta (a priest of the mysteries). quantity by the length of time that the sound is audible.Poetics I. THE ORIGIN OF POETRY. and mystcrinm {secret rites). the medium of poetry. AND MATERIAL The word from the poet is ITS not. and in election to the secret order. Clearly. of the I^Iuses. the child cries before it can speak. implies This last word discernment. and simply composed metrical narratives. CAUSES. were called versifiers. from a form of the verb yjaionai (to seek_\ Others derived the word from the passive of after). 'effects. and the air in movement is the sound Again. After certain more inspired composers were successful in providing the old forms of poetry with new themes. time. as popularly svnposed. Plato deduced the name Muses. to whom of course inven-tion is attributed. the ivluses by the inspiration of whom they had discovered what was concealed from others. rhythm. Indeed. and proper. on the other hand. derived fictitious. as guardians. by the extent to which ^ the air is moved. who lacked this inspiration.

and these same men chose to call the IMuse which had previously been named UoirjTa. But the earlier \\ name is the better. who arranged the inventions according to an estabNext. even more precise. that the flute and pipe and the voice alike einplo\ breathing as an agency. on the other. the self- two Muses. necessary or contingent. organ. or logical This is clearly wrong. Scaligcr ment. and regarded themselves styled disciples of the Muses. an element which Vitruvius says was first used in the instrument which Ctesibius invented. because they unearthed lished or logical method. the Sinsrer. if we must is complete. which they said was brass. and these limits are determined by invention. You can now see why the early theologians. or is it is air in analyze. dependent upon sound alone and water as a suggested of course by the instruments third.lo/ . for. one MeXcra. made a threefold classification of in accordance wnth their notion of early music. since arguments present themselves as either good or bad. logic is common to all kinds of argumentation. as another element. and unknown to the common herd. whom they appropriately named 'Mv^fia. and judgment must determine what of these are to ^ be used. one must be as careful to observe the limits of necessity in demonstration as of probability in topics. Further. a classification which in his Topics. *Aoi8a. for song is not esscntjal to ppetrv. for sound vibration of the air to itself. But. and judgment only with dialectics. recognized only as doiSa. this analysis is far from produced by striking the air. who invented through meditating. questions. records relating to the creation. is better than that made by Cicero where it is said that jnvention has to do with topics only. on the one hand. . and tho ' cither results from a vibration oxd m process of vibration. water docs not give . . some poets added a third Muse. They recognized harmony as one element. and called the hydraulic . rather than the Maker. Then it is cleu fnttli not. the other IIoiTTTa. and. "" those who approved tliis change. Memory. .^ Later.

to take part. Eight notes. Of the significance of there being nine Muses. and have claimed that the letters in the word Mnemosyne were the capital letters of the names of the Muses. The pleasing elegies in which Mimnermus celebrated the daughters of the sky are based on this theory. or perhaps I should rather say the nurse. for number nine to be accommodated to the octave?. and when three more instruments were added. mentions as cant the fact that there are as many iMuses as letters in the of the mother IMnemosyne. the theologians advanced the idea that the Muses were the daughters of Jove. of which Jove was And the author. but for the most part how mere nonsense. harmony. as already stated. much tradi- tional musical theory has been handed down. is v. harmony. and the others. or Apollo. not worthy of wise men. came to be. in his Symposiacs. on the ground that simultaneously with the creation of human life. Plutarch. the ninth had to be explained as the mother of the rest. and quite properly so. impertinency. but so long as the facts were against him. Finally the numis ber became fixed at nine. finally.Poetics II any soinul williout air.eems ahlc to suppose that in the early times the more reasonnumber of the iMuscs was determined by the rendering a piece of music. the number of the Muses was the perfect raised to seven. Forsooth. The ancients were again in error in accounting for the number by the number of the heavens. not nine. where he With like makes signifi- many absurd name suggestions about letters. constitute the octave. for as they recognized only eight it is is the heavens.to my way of thinking. Again.liicli is the ail blending: of properly related sounds. clearly generic to According. it <. number of those engaged in So when four performers came fourth many were disposed to recognize a Muse. he would fain have substantiated some trifling Greek theory by a falsehood. . he decided to keep still about it. for nine number.

for the


same reason

that the


of an earlier time

Memory one

of the three Muses,


made made her

the mother. It is the idea which our most learned Vir-il has expressed with his wonted chastcncss and deh'cacv i" that divine verse: 'And indeed you are mindful of the goddess,

and you are ahic




Philosophy also theorizes as to why Mriemosyne is the mother of the Muses. It argues that habit results from repeated acts, memory from habit, propositions from

memory, and conclusions from
arts are said to be




handed down.

The Greeks

testify to


their familiar expression vtes larpwy.

For they anform?,

not disclosed in writing, but in unwritten secret

taught by one generation to another.

It is said that this


the custom


the Pythagoreans; historical records

was the method of the Dryads; and we knowit is true of the Chaldeans, from the testimony of the word Cabbala. With equal logic it was proposed that Euphemc was the nurse of the Muses, inasmuch as good reputation is
prove that
the reward of the wise.
Tlius, in

the Laivs, Plato pre-

scribed a bad reputation as a punishment to

many men.
So, through



same writer says


the Ion,

'That which they

themselves are, the poets


others to be.-

those arts whereby they render themselves immortal, they








Pindar, thus Theocritus


and others

after them.



we have

considered the question wholly from

philosophical point of view.

Now, with your



should also touch upon certain historical testimonials The grammarians, relating to the antiquity of poetry.

with their customary superficiality, argue that poetry older than prose, because all the writing in temples nnd Forsooth, do such rccn: other monimients is metrical.
antedate every-day speech?



think that Pierus,


Macedonian, was the father of the Muses, and gave them






»vas the first to


This was suggested by the tradition that he compose a poem, and was the father of nine Others prefer the tradition that the Egyptian


vvTlTrApollo, this coincided with the

was the father of the Muses, and, as he was identified Greek tradition. J Further,' many of the surnames of the Mu5(*i are borrowed from those localities in which poems first sprang up, Tlius it Df where poetry was early cultivated or venerated. is said that Pierus was the first poet and sang Jo the Th_es-__ pians, and another tradition says that in{JIelicon/ptus and
Ephialtes, the first sons of Aloeus, originaled'Tlie divine art
for the



consequence of which the Muses are called

Thespiades and HeUconides. Among the Oscans the Muses were called Camenae, because of their prophetic utterances.
Also, because of their superior genius and their rapid utteras Aristotle says, ance, they were denominated 'winged'



the product of a genius or of one inspired.'





words also winged.

It is related in

legendary lore that, at the instigation of

Juno, the Sirens contended with the Muses in song, and lost that then the Pluses tore the feathers from the wings of the vanquished ones, and crowned their own heads therewith.

Again, since the iMuses seemed to be the promoters of a more refined and noble life, a Hfe characterized by that satisfaction which resides in temperate pleasure, they were
conceived as the companions of the Graces, or as their kin. This pleasure of which I speak is just the idea expressed by x"/"5 and xa'/)"" ig''^'^'^ ^^^ ''^"'^ ^^O' Pleasure; often

used as a greeting, equivalent to be of good cheer, hail, zi'elcomc, etc.), words which usage employs for the second expression of well-wishing in letters and greetings, although
Plato prefers
cv TrparTuv {to

bring one's affairs




I'lcasutc or gl.ulncss

a UKMilal cinulilion enjoyed

by a perfectly healthy person it is occasioned by what the philosophers are pleased to call an adequate object of desire.

Through poetry^ indeed,



turned back upon





draws forth from its inner sanctuary, which is, it therein indeed, an inexhaustible spring, that which inheres
from the divine life. That the Graces and pleasure and the Pluses and good which health are related, may be gathered from the oracle Plutarch records as delivered to the Argive Telesilla*.


by disease, and, as was beyond medical I understand it, from the gods. The aid, she was constrained to seek aid 'she would only be restored to health if response was that herself she cultivated the Pluses.' She accordingly devoted
of noble birth, she




she found that

to their service, and in a short time
to health, but

was not only


endowed with vigor and the So the Muses not only sing of arms, but

of a general.

as the career of Tyrtaeus also

also bestow them, Then, as tradition

because has it, the Athenians made Phrynichus their leader they used he performed well the Pyrrhic dance. Indeed,

rhythm in their military exercises. Telesilla made use of against Cleomenes this same oracular aid, mentioned above, was attemptthe conqueror. When this Lacedemonian king
the women ing to take the city of Argos, she so inspired him awa^ that they thronged the battlements, and drove

with great

And when another king named Demaratu^ loss. was actually within the city, she expelled him by force of arms W^ may make a threefold classification of poets, accordr
ing to poetical inspiration, age, and subjects.

and then

Aristotle, said that there are diversities of inspirawhile others, born tion, for some men are born inspired, and rude, and even averse to the art, are seized on

by the divine madness, and wrested from their lowliness. divine, use even It is the work of the gods, who, though

Thus Plato himself, in the Ion, these as their servants. interpreters and expounders t.f llir i;'--!-.. calls such men the Wherefore the dictum expressed in the Republic, which
some crude and

men would

construe to the cxcln-

Poetics sion of poets ously. according the age in which they wrote. Hes. which dra^-s out the mstruments of the mind. and Homer is placed there by universal consent. what filthy thoughts tins Greek rogue often forces upon us. Of these ones. one could fancv that impression remains. are not worth reading. are not on that account to ignore those other passages which Plato cites times out of mind in support of his own theories. and Sophocles applied it to Aeschylus: 'Wine. Horace said that Ennius was such a poet. Then there is the second and venerable period. and such we consider Horace himself Tradition says the same of Alcaeus and Aristophanes. First. from the . Among the poets of this period are Apollo. and it includes Hesiod and other such writers if It were not for historical records. No name survives. poets may be divided into three classes.' no. that the divine madness may imbue them to do their work. there pristine. as the T. Olympus Of Musaeus was later than Homer. 'not Aeschylus. and also. of which onlv a vacaie mimbered Orpheus. Musaeus. should be taken Ics though he condemns certciin scurrilous seri- passages should remark how many nnpertment and low stories he himself employs. Alcman did not escape such censure. mental effort on their part except the simple invocation. those to whom The one class are :^' ^vith the divine power comes from above.' he said.inus. . the Phacdrus^ and other such monstrous productions. Plato includes the third period Homer is the founder and parent. The other class is aroused by the fumes of unmixed wine. when religion and the mysteries are first sung.-- . unless it be that'of originator of poetry. for he is more polished and . Surely the Symposunn. Plato ni the poets. was the author of his tragedies.material parts of the body.. for I from the republic. crude. '" ^^' to Agarn. The poets invoke the Muses.od classed himself in this category. we \ \ 4 two divinely possessed classes are to be recognized. the spirits themselves. was tha't and uncultivated age.

Now and Pythagoras. our uncultivated philosophers. authors are Hedyle. The third classification is according to subject-matter. most correctly. as . whom Alcman and others. I leave it to the judgment of each one to determine whether or no the poetry of Martins and of the Sibyls should be referred to such categories as the above. the ecoincluding the political.y i> events. and that he was the first to write i>i the Trojan war. and these again are of two — natural. They too merit praise. My preference is not to do so. Aeiian state_s__tliat Oroebaiitius of Troezcji. Gellius it is authority for the statemciil was born during the Second Punic War. argument. as Solon and Tyrtaeus nomical. The second is that of the philosorts sophical poets. the Sappho.1 Sca'igcr refined. and moral. EmpedoclesTl^icander. and Lucretius. and that Homer's time the Iliad of Dares was held in esteem. and the Latin philosophers. many kinds as there are styles of subject? Yet for the sake of treatment. the religious_^poets. Sr. i ' Dares the Phrygian. as Phocylides. ai. but actual utterance the things disclosed by the gods. The. who iambic poetr)- . Corinna. in Hedylus. applied to women authors. This the Greeks call iwoKtifitvov . whose art was so divine that they are believed to have given ' a soul to inanimate things. Such are Orpheus and Amphion. i>f As that for our poetry. not simply learning about the gods. Of this class of poets there are as treated. the mistress of Pindar: mother of the Samian or Athenian poet excelled loved. flourished before Homer. subject. Aratus. '11 same author has it that Syager the poet even antcdaf' Musaeus and Orpheus. somewhat inappositely. as Hesiod and the general. all that we have been saying may be equally " v. Let me . the poets may be The first is that of classed under three principal heads. for they do not narrate past This part of thcolt^<. but predict future ones. ognis. Megalostrata.

I would almost consider it the first and truest of all )etry. because Surely is humble. it seems to me that it would be better to ive the title of poet to Livy than to deny it to Lucan.l| Poetics jVc his 17 own choice words: 'In the Second Punic War. for comedy employs every kind of invention.s poetically wrote SO he even calls Empcdocles. the property of the poet. a poet. For eks for : ! . not this the practice of Homer? Do we not do this in le tragedies themselves? Such is the practice of Lucan. with ingcd step the Muse bore herself to the warlike. cVoi'r/o-tv) ' and says 'As EmpcdocU:. the grammarians deny this. although y lluisc to whom llu\v were nttrihulod. of poet to versifiers. __ Another question Was Lucan a poet ? Surely he was. nstance the image of the country offering itself to Caesar. rugged On the other hand. it is commonly jce of Romulus. and other such episodes. le spirit called forth from Hades.ways with changed aspect. and . who gave to the public vear 519 U. Verse ust difter from Livy. must it be denied the title of poetr}-? unfortunate ruling! So far from comedy not being )etry. . s usual. s the tragic poets base their plays upon true events. indeed. C). Vristotle exercised this censure so severely that he would efuse the name . somemes delineated only in semblance. and .1 all kinds of material. and the difference is verse.' iceivcd that Livius Andronicus wrote his his in dramas before the acvius. and object that he Well now produce a pure histor}\ Lucan rote history. who feigned not it all. yet in practice he speaks : lifferently. that the poets are Now enumerated and classified. \. Then who will deny that all )ic fK>ets go to history for their subjects? History. sometimes idealized. Why does Horace ques- on whether or not comedy is poetry? Forsooth. but Li\'>' dapt the actions and speeches to the characters. so nd Thucydides insert orations which were never recognized Moreover. is made the basis of poetry. Vherefore. certain uestions may receive attention.

'. and the other and the execution.).o^a. make a former a pocsis and poana.. (/. So the form and plan of the to pacta. . the material. duction in symmetrical underlie that accordance with those laws which known as poetry. and pocsis : . or the may I not be the word guidance {rcciio). In dramatic the and the manner is different.crat {you myself. Ovid imitates tragedy but the verses that Seneca does in his morphoses a different.r. . the form. pocsis. n the A . agree in the manner mode or m\d inodin.^ (an invention). The poetical art is a science. and the MargUcs citing the lUad pocma is the very work For mischievous. r ^^^ a habit of pro."^ poema may be applied to the Ihad. Cicero uses allowed the same privilege? imitation. the manner. poem. is get the three words.nA comechc. the plan and form of the Poesis. that is. and since one is whereby they are imitated are receives an eP. V which is used in the making. elements-the matefial.. to Homer. . Surely this is itself.i8 f Scaligcr disamong Nvhom is Plutarch. it is •.d of but differ in the object Eclogues use the same medium. Ihe Aene. poeta: (a aVe. and pocta: thus pocsis ^e. The Eclogues . and the latter as pocma as pocsis. «uo. f. but differ in again. instruction-for that is imitation. So it has three fashioning element is recognized. ogy in c^-p.. a fourth if ulterior end. I might say. the end the higher criticism. three persons of a verb we From the poema'.^pxt {I have pocma. imitation and objcU^ of imitation. or / have been made) made anal.'-^^^^-'^^^)'^.sc U^ng presentation. the means and Poems differ in the objects of athe same Medea. Some writers. calling the tinction between an insignificant one. Margites. etc.. (an inventor).. You f^nd an exac etc. cVr.). and legitimate work. . the manner.o. on the other hand.

such as second mode is employed in comedies. i^7f/r]fi/iTiK6<. and to produce dramas without metre. 'drajust as in the process of latic' And being from the Greek verb Sinw. CLASSIFICATION OF THE KINDS OF POETRY Now. the Teian. This second mode. As said )0ve. The original . In line with this. and the prefix 8ta signifies transmission. 3. there is some action even when 'or is this arts in a drama . A StaAoyTjriKos {conversational) and word was most accurately employed. for it was usage In fact. those loose discourses which produce the conversation of a group of men not of ro only. as the grammarians falsely assert were called reek term for this e was — — lalogues. was also called ramatic (Spa/iariKo's). we find that as in the poems of Lucretius..at yielded the derived meaning of disputation. and then too. sting. in degraded it to mimes and lascivious development this •ose style of speaking was adapted to metre. as SiaTTpo {right through) and in Sm/i-cpc's {through and rough). narrative). le is to take simple narration. just as Aristotle and he with illustrious themes and divine utterance. and used in ots. as the ventor of the dialogue. from its gestures and acting. we learn through the transmission of ideas from one ind to another. the SiaAoyTyrtKo'?.Poetics 19 «. it is regarded said. meaning lo do. . call up the niodcs of poetry. or o8ir]yt]fjATiK6<i (descriptive.' etymology contradicted by the fact that some are delivered by actors who are seated. turn. so Crates the Athenian in turn was the first to throw 1 these chains. lAfKTos has no other meaning than conversation. this he Greeks mode 8i7/y7^/AUTi>co?. Alexamenes. for le epithet 'dramatic' was determined by the predominating laracteristic. is jjixcrsation. inobled ucian.

exodia. not because modes both join together and species do not.' the end of poetry in general. species. the latest The comedy and its is offspring. . once treat them in their proper chapters. will receive a fourth place by itself. and scolia. nuptial songs. which derives the more complex forms from the simpler. comprehending them by predication. and because the chiefcst catholic in the range of subject-matter. odes. i'- some were not afraid to call tliis mode imitative. in our treatment of poetry we can follow either the The most excellent kinds of poetr}' are hymns and paeans next rank songs (mele). which are sung in the praise of brave men. tragedy. order of excellence or the chronological order.20 Scaliger is an actor seated. the parts themselves constitute the whole. and But it is best to make this our startingthe most inept. but no one would say that the compound is common to the parts. and less accurately. it is The epic is a mixed form. It is is clearly quite another case when we say that a genus part of its com- mon The genus is indeed a to its species. though the same men would have recognized imitation as said 'to do. while and we Of shall dramatic poetry there are at many subdivisions. Thereafter come satires. however. Now If . There both Koivo? is also a narration this termed mixed mode. jests. compound. So the term species. point. elegies. the most naive. Comedy. . The epic. by inclusion. and epigrams. The Greeks happily /^ikto? {mixed. and to follow the suggestion of nature. monodies. not we have adopted the term modes. who is an imitator. Since the actor. for a compound is made up of parts. compound). (common). of all forms. interludes. is earliest form is the pastoral. comes third. and then follows tragedy along with comedy. in which the poet employs and conversation. in which are both heroes and lesser men. earliest . we shall find that the form is likewise the mildest. incantations. we follow the chronological order.

3f one another. or jealous because of a song. much less vould singing be in place. or of the sighing )f the trees. lawless. and. Moreover. this variety was called from the later of art. As Varro states. purely a product of nature and not at all had no name.and vantonness. or who were emulous This leisurely life.vhen either by accident or design those would meet between . two species of alluring maiden beneath the iummcr shade. Leisure is indeed the parent of luxur).vhom love or hate had been aroused. In the oneTl the verses were without fixed metre or rule. rhucydides implies. field. and the fact that the is but he shepherd of leisure. 4. .— Poetics 2y I. produced song: the one. he hunting. )andman practised the ural art But the shepherd and the husof song. retired with a . and because : this poetry was vulgar. it . From its nature. the emulous sentiments were clothed in verses of similar structure. style. and farmer lives a life of toil. when. and regular in metre. in distinction -. 5 Xow because the hunter intent upon it his work. ^ Of this last kind there were two sub-species. and rude. we lo not think good luck to speak while hunting. additional evidence. or a . or the agricultural. PASTORAL POETRY The »ne earliest kind of poetry was of course the product of life. a fiock. or through mitation of the songs of the little birds. of the earliest stages of either the pastoral stage. the lover would sing his amours to satiety :he so-called poetic monologvie {monoprosopos) the other. he is little inclined to words. hythmical utterance seems to have been learned in the lither through an impulse caught from nature. the pastoral stage preceded the agricul. then. In the other. naiden.

amchcan.' they derived a diminutive c/SuAAiov. passion was implanted in all animals at the creation. both youths and maidens without distinction acted as shepherds. looks on with yearning eyes. . and kept only an anthology of turn or alternately) is not limited in usage to the ! — /their better work. Let us also note the origin of the word 'eclogue. amorous delights were actually dcitic' as they.' Because the shepherds based their poetry upon imitation. I will not dwell on the thought thai youths who lived on milk and meat.' This is analogous to the history of the words 'wealth' and 'pay.' which they applied to short. and were thus not only thrown much together.22 Scaligcr is. In the first place. which bears this meaning V in the Greek. 'idyll. do Homeric meaning of responsive utterance. Of this. the word assumed the broader meaning *to respond.) Pastoral poetry has been the earliest. poems. . that the perpetuity of species might not be endangered. and so. 'You sing in responses the jMuses loved the alternating (to Although the verb in d/xeijSco-^ai change one with another.' Things to be exchanged must be equal. . and fain would be cvtii And finally. who were light-hearted. from the word f'l-^'iy meaning 'shape' or 'image. and of these delights song is the most simple and engaging adjunct. Then. j 'selecting' /"From this practice of 'picking out' or came the word eclogue.' in Venus. but love seems to have There are many reasons why this should have been the case.' When certain superior poets became disgusted with some of their hurried productions they how often does the wise writer have this experience impulsively destroyed them.' alternating. when he marks the young goats at their pastime. but easily inflamed by the example of the flocks as Theocritus most happily words it: 'The goatherd. as is noted in the Origins. that will verse. many themes.' which have come to be regarded as synonyms for 'goods* and 'work. or modest and unpretentious. the origitial idea of the word was clearly 'to change. the poet said.

usage confined it So a derivative. and the Mysians. as its name «^«ii'o//. in which a lover and maiden either told of their love for one another. What then lightly-clad condition. \ (Greek oapiarv?. I suppose that the origin of this garment is to be attributed to the goat-skins. would. meant those songs with which the shepherds were wont to entertain themselves or others. Troi/icvtKa {of or pertaining to shepherds). greed of reward.». well-fed.Poetics fearless. \ fond discourse). . there Next came the oaristys I dialogue. The names of various originally pastorals are also derived from the different kinds of herding. or complained of unreciprocated love. be easily enticed into love./ji's indicates. neiijthcrds - The last variety is held to be the most noble / of and yet the Libyans. where both the arms and thighs are visible. make robust and vigorous? was the amorous monologue. with bodies which constant exercise served to all. covered the loins. garment showed the bare thigh. Such is the garment shown in the picture of the Nymphs. 23 and susceptible. meant any kind of a herdsman. when tempted by the fav- oring season and retirement. not to say the Persians. Though TroLfxyv (a herdsman) to the shepherds. the Parthians. prompted the use of the poetic First of then. the Scythians. iho songs of ihc swincliLMds and . Afterward. goatherds taining to szi'inchcrds). A similar description will be found in the proper place in my chapter on satirical poetry. and were strapped around the front of the leg. AiTToXta {herds of goats) and atyoTroXta {herds of goats) o-i-^wna {of or perwere the songs of the. or envious detraction. either desire for fame. and all. . Such are the Idylls of the most graceful and exquisite / Theocritus. care-free as they were. familiar converse. for could be expected of these youth. the Arabians. This result -was especially encouraf^cd by their nude or yet their ordinary though the virgins u'ere clothed. which hung from the shoulders.

but also as to the place. in this occupation. and tell this story When Orestes was bearing away the image of Diana stol. were interrupted. country' folk took the temple-of?ice upon themselves. learned from the local heroes.from the Tauri. for tell is much olde^ I will a story relative to this point. and yet in Thessaly the horseman was in the higliest favor. and let you judge for your- war by the PerDiana Caryatis. The surname Caryatis is taken from a village of Laconia called Car\'ae.kI<\ set when he had come into Italy he found such streams near Rhegium. peculiarly favored by the natural conditions. Then. KapvaTi^uv. in the village which Strabo calls Tyndaris. and bathed. When the Greeks were reduced in sians.24 tlie Scaligcr Numidians. and sang the praises of Diana in their own peculiar little songs. since either religion gave these songs the hearty sanction of its approval. the rites of also given its name to a style of dancing. The Greeks have no name for such herdsmen. Castor and Pollux. more. what had been an accident became a custom. if to an\'. In accordance with the oi. he was admonished — I. Not only are the Greeks at variance as to the time when the pastoral was first sung. Thereafter he out for Sicil}-. It is a mistaken tradition that places the origin of thv it pastoral in the Persian period. names of the dance and of the village are forgotten yea. the ver}' names of Sparta and Lac^e^l/(jmon are unknown and the Turks call the village Misitra. customarily performed Thereupon some of the by virgins. esteem those who tend the studs of horso worthy of chief praise. and. . erected the . the oracle to hatho in the water of seven slrcnius whi ' issued from one source. the parent of bucolic poetry. the herding of horses. and the custom became an established rite. a Scythian people. which has self. was so cultivated by the natives that the Sicilians were thought second to very few peoples. A good many think that it originated in Sicily. the To-day. or the verses prevailed by their own charm. and in Sicily itself.

in accordance with the Scythian ritual. It came about as follows: The brother of Antiphemus. is Now I take it that the right explanation of the epithet just the opposite of this: lence) we use the word lues (a plague. and to placate the wrath of the goddess. Diana. sedition). 25 and established worship \vith musical modeled upon the service of the people from whom the imag^e had been stolen. It js not surprising that Orestes was driven thence by the Greeks. give a third explanation: Before Hiero came to the throne. Thereupon steps were taken to placate this who was held to be the author of calamity. separation. features. Later. Some employ the surname Phaselis. and built a town called Phaselis. festival Diana earned the was thus made. fieldsports were frequently held. This Mopsus purchased land from the native shepherdess Cylahra. and in memory Mopsus gave the . the island was stricken with a sore disease. pesti- of a disease which unlooses or undoes our bodies. and so they gave the name to the goddess because she stirred up the intestine discord.Poetics statue of the goddess. The gifts and the songs appeased and the beginning of a yearly this episode domestic to her gifts the goddess. and therefore Diana was called Lya because she unloosed (liiissct) the disease. From surname Lya (Greek Xvrj dissolution. and next he took refuge in a grove hard by Aricia. rather than Lj-a. hence faction. There is still another tradition. and many of the people brought temple. This name had been transplanted from Greece by Antiphemus. There he again instituted the solemn worship of the Tauric Diana. Still others. while they recognize and employ the surname. There he built the city of Gela and celebrated of the sports of Diana. and the survivors began a massacre. Antiphemus led a colony to Sicily under divine auspices. bearing his household gods. Once Syracuse was the scene of a disastrous domestic brawl. Lacius of Argos. on the right of the Appian way. sent a colony into the mountain districts of Colophon under the leadership of jMopsus.

and defeat. and with a staff. and instead of having to beg bread on the strength of a The contestants were also crowned. from the defeated one. and the wine. or again while leading the flocks. originally used in venery. These prizes were not vases. in the contest. with wine in goatskin bottles. so called from its use in governing the flocks. the Aayw/3dXov( originally a staff or stick for flinging at hares). Of the staff the Greeks had several varieties. Sometimes the shepherds sang while sitting down. They were furnished with a bag called Traiavipfj. sometimes while standing. the pedum of the Romans. and therewith made an offering to the Muses. but bread-cakes made in the image of animals. would sprinkle fruits or tlio thresholds of the cili/ciis wilt) sacrificial with wine. The victor would enter the city of Syracuse. and yours good health. their we even read of wearing the horns of deer. The victor received the bread. Derivatives or variants of this may also be found in Theocritus. and which we even see to-day. Certainly the older writers agree that poetry of pastoral character was met with in Sicily. though begging was contrary to the law. and called /3<i)KoAmcr/xo? (o singing of pastorals). There was the KaXa(ipo\^. and offer libation with the following prayer: 'May good fortune be yours. he was expected to beg bread.ia.26 Scaligcr this goddess the surname of is Pliaselis. and she. cows. and Iht KopvvT} headed (a club. name Mopsus often met \v'ith pastoral poetry. in which he could remain as long as he pleased. title The early shepherds were wont to contend for pri^c-^. This we bear from the goddess. or goats. because of in this. often shod zvith iron). Then. her . the bag. a kind of thickclub. and vv-as not allowed Since he had rightly forfeited his own to enter the city. as among their luxurious and wealthy descendants. and adorned with brass rings. a club made of blackthorn or of cornel wood. which contained seeds of all kinds. There was also the knotty club which Virgil describes. The vanquished departed into the suburbs and villages.

So the pastoral poets sang of his misfortune.iN. This Daphnis was passionately loved by a Nymph. in Italy. and the Romans from the nature of the opening. and was followed as a business. invoked it.' From tiiis we may gather that song and pantomime were originally used in allaying disease. which were of different sizes. or of the hemlock-stock. or AiSuiorat' (pantominiists). Somewhat thereafter a princess fell desperately in love with him. which Greeks fistula.Poeti *7 illustrious self. Daphnis was the son of Mercury and a Nymph. but graded in the shape of a wing. Tradition has it that the first poem on this theme goes back to Stesichorus. and the poet even honored the tomb of his brother with divine verses in the name of Daphnis. since men professed to gain health hy using magical for- mulas.liin. acting passed over to the stage. and w^hen she found other means of no avail. and from that time the voice of the actor has never been silent in the Preeminent among the poets of this period was Daphnisr\ who was made the subject of such hero-worship that the shepherds vied in celebrating his disaster.. who threatened him with blindness if he should violate her affection by other amours. He had a herd of cows from the same blood as those Sicilian cattle . and at birth they gave him this name indeed. I am of ihc opituoii ih.il which could be so easily secured. because of his matchless beauty. Later. the its The shepherds had a musical instrument. and w. she seduced him with wine. which Homer tells us were sacred to the sun. . The fistula was called (r^ptyi from sound. Finally there came to be seven pipes. the poet of Himera. so that they were even at the end on which they were Willi hair. the story goes that he was born in a laurel grove. but later two were fastened U)). was also used in place of wax. went about the provinces and performed land. made either of cane. At first it was an instrument of one pipe. fiovKoXuifTTaC So men who called themselves {pastoral poets).ctli<'|- stift :.

Aelian. for the word 'seven' determines that. Further the material is Certainly Servius was mistaken in said to be hemlock.' 'Unequal* does not refer to the number.28 Scaligcr played. but played the flute. into a bag. Tityri. but to the length. the fistula. but the read in Theocritus Greek used as many as he pleased whether or not Theocritus . panions were beings of a like race called Satyrs. thus you the real a — is author of the passage tubed pipe. while pasturing This instrument was made by peeling the their mares. for its tubes. defines the The following manner of 'I verse their number : have an instrument comiX)sed of seven unequal hemlock-stalks. so far apart as they were. resembling the whinny of a horse. The poet His comattributed the invention of the fistula to Pan. while others again wouM make thfiu I'loiii oiitcM stiK'lvs. is elsewhere discussed —of many- Tlie later Romans made most absurd all paintings of this instrument. The Afrirau Nun\id and he says that their whistling. and so cutting the wood as to produce a shrill whistle. the construction. saying that cicuta {hemlock) means the internodes of the it is simply the shrub which we all know by hollow stock and soft marrow. or sometimes. this two-formed race got their name from The Gauls and the adjacent islanders were in the habit of making pipes from reeds. and uneven and at the other. . ians did not use the pipe. from the syrinx episode. by representing of the tubes as leading and they made this blunder because they did not understand and no more do I how one was able with quickness and accuracy to run over the mouths of the These paintings different tubes. — — represented the instrument popularly known as the organ. relates that the Tityri were both the companions and allies of Liber Pater on his expedition. a name which the Dorians gave them because which took its rise they played a pipe called the Tirvpivo? {shepherd's pipe). and which is an instrument superior in construction and tone. Our Roman poet was content in his modesty with the early instrument of seven corn stalks. as well as others. describes the material of these pipes. bark from a laurel branch.

the following We is have such a song in the poem from which taken my goats. or the detraction of a contentions and upbraidings. when they led the flocks. they expressed their love in vows. to the green and the moist willows. and still a third. of which these few words. or in the consolali(Mi of lauded tlie bull or the ram that swrd couvitsc and thoy won in the fight. of his TropcuriKo's is attributed to whom Epichamius made in Ulysses Diomus. 4 rival. a. In Theocritus' travellers we read of the song called going OH foot. as the leader. ov. They . when consumed 'Wander clover fields with love for the hunter ]Menalcus.' arc extant. and introduced the stories of the shepherd's own love.: Poetics 29 There were. of shepherds). and promised fairer pastures another day. another as we were to saying. she followed The story has it that him through many a wood. In short. . Tlie invention of the the Sicilian poet. O Menalcus. or prayed that they might not be exposed to perils or dire events. the animosity of an enemy. The peasants used one tune and one theme when they were standing. While they leisurely moved about in the summer shade or basked in the winter sun. They urged the males of the flock to mate. which was sung to the fields or to the fold.' Of this class was the poem composed by Eriphanis. and in the songs of the shepherds the ram. in Innionts.. or of that of a friend or rival. All of these songs were seasoned with jest and merriment. the address TToptvTiKo? {fit for when they were seated. ivalking). was encouraged. indeed. ever singing. 'The tall oaks. Thus some related to the harvesting-. strove over the virtues of a friend. Shipurecked. mention in drama Halcyon and far. along these precipices. the females to bear young. in prayers. and others to the vintage. many kinds of rustic songs. the shepherds talked of the seasons. and gave voice to her frenzy in a pastoral called a v6fjiiov (substantive from vofjLLO'. the common material of this style of pastoral was praise and blame. as the flocks were attended In the songs of the neatherd the dogs were incited to beware of the crafty wolf. the poetess.

and that since these seem absurd to an enlightened society. the embodiment of universal nature and a prophet.' the Senate lowered the dignity of the consul to the humbleness of the trees. in which he urges on his dogs. Bacchus was worshiped. his praise The songs i" were called cViAr^cia (of the wine-press. Silenus refined them in his songs by But Theopompus was not that heaven-given skill of his. 'If we sing of the trees. man was Eclogue is the line. for. or liti- . by his fresh and dignified verses the poet equally exalted the trees to the eminence of the words : So while consulship.to the popular conception. the more he Thus.3© Similar to the Scaligcr Tro/jcuTtK-d? is the song of Hippolytus in Yet Seneca's tragedy. for such is the case. that in the decree of the Senate respecting the ofRce of the confiscated consulship. occurred the 'The trees should be worthy of consular attention. we regard silence as a heaven-given law in hunting.' Now it is traditionally known Thus. that divine Well have we said that of all the men of old the most learned. as \vc said above. and other hymns. we that the care of the trees was a consular duty. paeans to Hercules. so to speak. and the like. for. apart from this. In his chapter on Midas. as Plato points out very clearly in his Sy»ipos{nm. Theocritus also described solemn processionals. Virgil represented Silenus as. Aelian recounts many unusual opinions and beliefs of the ancients. In the vintage. Indeed. the only Greek who thought thnt Silenus hnd a (livinc understanding of nature and prophecy. the trees should be worthy of the consul. king of Phrygia. writers. wherein are many things which should be sought. in another appreciates the erudition of Virgil. The tradition was that another world exists. and in this connection mentions Silenus. Contrary. based on Theopompus' history-. it was the belief of the Athenians and of other Greeks as well. Seneca merely employed it for its stage effect. the more learning a man has himself. after the mention of the trees. read in Tranquillus' history of the Caesars.

The story goes that Lityerses. called Xxmipa-rj^:. and Tibullus has also embodied one of these Such a song larvest-songs in a brilliant and refined elegy.pplied to wool. many . followed a similar custom at the harvest-season. extant in the line TrXdarrov ovXov ovKov r«. and that the Phrygians who came after them sang this song at the annual harvest-offering. but that he overcame Lityerses. the fact remains that the country folk composed a threnody to solace his father. or Bonnus. 'Many a harvest-song let there be. one of the elegies.' The ancients also used this its fine word to define an ear it was also number of little •f grain. aiul •ress. in honor of Borcos. and then compelling them. were called )y this same name. a word which II. cutting oft their heads. a people neighboring on Bithynia. hence a han-estis ong). This explains the tradition that the Theocritus records another song of ' ongs of good omen. with lashes . for Midas and Hercules did not live at the same time.invitation as he was passing along. was a idd that when these laborers fainted from fatigue. . and . he . dwelt in Celaenae. that Hercules received the customar>. he son of Midas king of Phrygia. song. and vas insanely devoted to the pursuits of agriculture. vas called ioi-Xo^ (dozen. carried away by his zeal another. According to another story. Borcos. a corn-sheaf.Poetics age). his type. 31 festivities were sung during the in at the wine- Tibulkis has left us a most exquisite little poem of During the harvest the amcs of Ceres and Libera were constantly upon the lips i the swains. So jxtreme was his zeal that he the tardy ones. the Mariandyni. Whatever his death may have been. sung by the wool-spinners. he reapers.or work with him Some would irst kill them.is to the effect that he died from Dver-work. on account of the infinite its breads in texture. however. and threw his dead body into the Maeander. as sometimes written. because of husk and beard. to made a practice of inviting in the fields. vayfarers to a feast. and then would con:eal the bodies among the sheaves. One ston.. accompanying his deed with songs. contradicts this last. Chronology.

or Adoniasmos. A tradition which. is familiar from the pages of Theocritus and others. this subject. In Sicily there who was also a was a poem called Persephate. the king. for it is not to be supposed that a prince acted as sutler to the shepherds. The song called you will. disciple of the Muses. or Adoniaoedes. its species. and we here close thc subjects. The tale of Adonis. and its Of the composition of each species the proper treatment is given in the proper place. Another song of like character called maneros. These Plours are not to be confused with the hours which mark the time of day. mention one other There remains to which was chanted in concert. though only transmitted orally by the shepherds. was named after the lad. In like vein Theocritus relates the story of Hercules' search for Hylas. as Pausanias writes it in his note-book. strictly historical treatment. It was not unlike the song called Adonima. is more reasonable than some written records. while hunting. Theodoric the Colophonian is the reputed author of this variety. or instance Paris if Borimos. fact that The lends credence to this tradition. is to the eflfcct that he perished in the summer he was the son of Upius. the ancients for the princes to be given charge of the and Ganymede. So much for the origin of the pastoral.32 Scaligcr boy who was sent to fetch water for the reapers. or Borcos ri imvipm. —yet in fact some accounts deny that would defend the tradition that Borcos was a Let it be remembered that it was a common practice I — among herds . in thanksgiving to the Hours. took its name from the inventor of agriculture. for they are the Hours which preside over the changes of the seasons. the father also of lollas and Mariandynus. which was yearly sung in commemoration of the search of Ceres for Libera. But we must not dwell longer upon style of pastoral. Though one may well question whether Lityerses in the above story was the son of King Midas he was prince. which the Egyptians sang in memory of Adonis. and the ceremony in his memory. . and was never seen again.

of comedy. and ennobled it. to go about the villages rez'cling). irparTuv The Sicilian claim is further supported by the argument that {to do). related to the Greek leaz-- verb in on luv — Dorian little {because 0)ie must be at luncheon^ a ing). Not only do the Sicilians make this claim for the origin of . as required only a ver)' sparing breakfast call it. COMEDY AND TRAGEDY > From pastoral poetry comedy subsequently sprang. contraction for clearly a one was once more prepared Similarly. Kti/xr. It was meal to put one in condition for further work. we Set whence lev jento. and they took more in meal named early in the from the mid-day hour. for they say that the credit for enlivening the antiquated raillerj^vith a plot belongs to Phormis and Epicharmus. so also they claim the origin They avow that Epicharmus was a citizen of a colony established by the ^legarians. as a relief from the day's work. and we find Theocritus applying a : common term to the pastoral and to the drama until Koj^do-8oj t-otI rav *A/ia/3uAAt'8a(/ make merry Amaryllis). Again. the while the Attic Greeks use the verb word from which 'drama' comes. a 8<r Troreti. The Greeks jentatio. 5. the Greeks call it SaTrior. Just as the Sicilians arrogate to them- selves the invention of the bucolic. whence Kw^d^civ {to make Dorians use SpSv {to do).— Poetics 33 1. and that as he lived before Chionides and Magnes. the Dorians. it was llic I'rondiuin day)..{one must be at zi'ork). This reveling took place after dinner. the Attic Greeks use the word 8t}/xos for a village. the merry. . (^lilcially.but they also assert that they refined comedy. Aiiolhcr hmclieoii which they took refreshment. so called because by for his work. he destroys the claim of the latter to the invention of comedy.

Let us also add the passage from the Fourth Book of Theopompus' Histories. with leisure on their hands. ran to and fro in the country later districts. €K TTOcrios KWfio^. and implies that the soldiers did not bathe or lay aside their arms unless their work was over. KU)fio<: defines frenzy induced by drinking and carousing. {village). was the custom. fK Kw/xou ^vavtct. called coena. charmus witness to this etymology *Ek )xlv 6va(a<: 6olvi]. fetters nence of Philip of Alacedon KOI : kqi ttiojv Sc ti]v ta'Acra TTarrav. The Greeks called it SopTrov. took advantage of the freedom of the night. safely away from masters. as Martial said of that Acerra whom he facetiously described. at tombs or altars. o-<^a»c£Ao?. fitOvnOcU rj8r] Trpo? r]i. then. Again. relative to the untimely inconti- conviction tence. ishness from revelry swinishness. he rcrclcd unlit day). from from swin- in court.34 Later in the day. because it was eaten 'in common' (kou'ci). there was a more and elaborate meal. from the feast drinking. drinking revelry. a contraction for the beside the spear). and. Thus •in his there would be sporting even after light. The young men. which was eaten in the Tliis meal was society of one's family or intimate friends. The sports in. as cities. Kol Koi Crjixia {from the sacri- fice comes the feast. They were thus distinguished from the odes sung in the pastures or Many extant passages of Epifields. phrase Trapa to I6pv iravuv {to rest This word of course originated in the army. assemble in the under the same name held dulged in in the villages in the read of comessationes (reveJings) a The same custom Roman times thus we in Livy. At that time they did not. kw/xj. tK KttTaStKTjs TTc'Sat Tc. were quite properly called comoedia. patrons. (K 6vavLa<i SlKT]. and from the court's senIn this passage and gangrene and a fine).L(pni' tVw/xa^ei' {wontoniug Ci\'n oll the night and drunken as xccll. Luciaii The Twofold Indictment {Discategorumenos) . and was not a private meal. Scaliger pretentious when work was over. or parents. ck compound of ii^ {ode) and : 6oiVTj<% 7ro<7"is.

/3«\Xl^tv The same idea is expressed by Perhaps it is from {to throzv the leg about. We at from history that tragedy was early known. for vied with one the grave of Theseus the tragic poets learn . to dance).p. and yielded to As conformed limits. Lastly. he was wriliug comedy came to him ready named. so of the arts. comedy. its employment for gain.Poetics 35 Tlicn {the revelers. us an exile on Cos. revelers). and surely amusement So there is no truth in that report. it is said that Epicharmus gave but ihc fad plays wluMi. for comedy was known in the villages is older than before this practice. Sophron. word that we get the name BalHo for a worthless all use m name which Alexis.V»^t.xoi)r Their service was to refine the strained inventions like from the songs at honor of Apollo divinity. The verb means and docs not refer to the that the reveHng is resumed.. where the {to prefix . Nor would we fall into the its rise the villages in of others./xd^oiai lierc the verb cVt/cw^d^av {to rush has the same force as in more keen). Some the sav that comedy took in cross-roads and Nomius. and his part was . when he comedy originated with the stories for young men who went about the villages telling money. is the refiner and of other things. so prescribed artistic principles. and Epicharmus their comedies. comedy its name. as Origen drinking a less common verb. on the day after the festivity. but this must be regarded as but It was not the original comedy. to Thus fixed regulations detemiined the time and place for presenting comedy. was developed from assert that the Pisiserror of Idomeneus. the pastoral a later development.) on iinth a party of las Lima shining on is toT? Ko. time comedy that with more cultured generations svstematizer. is that to refine it.uvav make still this a fellow. And you must says that avoid the error of Varro. states. who ventured to revelries {6a\tai kuI tratidae invented merry-making and primitive and unreKS.

a property of tragedy. On the other hand. y Aristotle laughs at those / who think that the Iliad or the [ Odyssey is a complete ojgamsm with one plot. Scaligcr However. and he was drunk for the destruction of the companions of Odysseus is barely mentioned. who If It does not see that the fliad. Odyssey * is essentially a tragedy? is In the on the other as a whole. Ilium is not destroyed in this poem. for he says that one may draw several plots from cither one. but in the Odyssey. the summoning of the spirits. So it was Ihal the ancients were accustomed to recite certain episodes taken from the body of the work. the catalogue of ships. [^ which destroys more men than the entire war. there it is no tragic sequence. in the major part of the Odyssey only one character. There are pictures of sweet intercourse. thus. and the Odyssey for comedy. that the Iliad is older than the Odyssey. it ends with the death of only one person. and the dciis ex machina. should be read I Furthermore do not think that Again. there is drinking. Finally. which first. dies. I Now would not presume it is to say earlier. for he ought to be judged /by a standard himself.36 another. . the wooers are slain. trag^cdy is not. and without any emotional appeal. Elpenor. older than "^comedy. At the denouement. the conversation of ordii'nary life ilife before a pretentious style of discourse. song. nuptials before tragic situations. written in a looser style. I j ! . for the homelier or more every-day life finds it? |\vay into song first. as reported. is before court IMoreover. and that the Iliad the model for tragedy. Idrinking bouts before continence. because there arc many parts and nuuiy episodes. hand. for a debatable question. and dance. writing should be referred to Homer as a standard. however. the events . And though the poem is called the Iliad. this claim that__tragedy It is said antedates comedy is based upon false reasoning. and pastoral life. you take it • one long string of deaths. but is which one was written I do think that the all Odyssey. begins with a pestilence. as the battle at the ships. and he is not even mentioned by name. is employed.

elaborate. on Circe's isle. and sang in the villages. was a stupid thing Latm gram(grammarian because of my work on historical the balances mar a work in which every point is weighed in So it to call me a comedy or Homer. ^Ctalk. chapter on rhapsody.( jud-mcnt on anything and everything.\^^ ^l "^ <inent of knowledge. do nothmg but AAristotle. let me cite Hesiod. have the temerity to they con. the arms of Achilles. indeed.tation. that he adapted and incorporated into who was Homer's port of this statment.Poetics 37 slaying of the sider criticism the third <6uch a point as the priority of tragedy . and Clearly this is not far from the the name drama. the oflkc of the philosopher ^ar fthem of judgment for every departphilosopher has one prmcTple it is ^ . In suphis works. recite.'and consisted in gesticulation and delivery. tion common the share m Tragedy and comedy are of the same genus.^ V jToni. comedy. tragedy antedates Finally. Aristotle did not say that There is no quesrefined earlier. and so on.t it ^^ .'V sai<l lh:.^^ % . are so meritorious that they of philosophy. was not so much a teacher of country folk and tragedy. but did not m Symposium. How can the workman test his own workmg that the p^mcTpIesr But in that book we test everything The detractors of grammarians accept as established. oc^^ \>^ ^ ^ must not be allowed The excellence. senior. ^ /Lli false teachmg about 5 The grammarians did some more was pootrv based upon imi. as a pupil who learned from the the little stories old^'wives in Ithaca. we hear too much about imitationbeing_the^^ . but that it was that comedy was late in being embellished. thought that Plato touched upon.Mlv wlini th. pass < Die grammarians. J. and elsewhere. and not who read. the Such excerpts we have discussed in the wooers. for surely X a comedy is no less acomedvjfiti^^reacU all Then ^ur^eTs c^^^fi^mTTo recitation. again. Moreover. so long as But judgment on part of their art. Chios. lived in the country. forsooth.

and written popular style. lovers. first to would embrace free mimes and dramatic Crates of Athens was the the shackles of metre. but violence at the hands always the suggestion of danger of panderers. non-dramatic which can be presented is in simple narration. which is with intrigue. An as 'a inaccurate definition of the Latin plot free comedy described it from the suggestion of danger. general. for they are not private citizens. is important to know the extent of the similarity. although the outcome is invariably tame. liappy in its outcome.38 of poetry in general. the definition satires. in rivals. What else is danger than the approach or the visitation of imminent danger? Further. this definition would not admit the oflTicial class. dealing with In the stories. first -^the life and affairs of the private citizen. wearers of the toga. Thus The Ghost even the masters themOnce more. •^ ^'^u.' place. Finally. In the second place.^--' • this definition covers other. there is not only danger in comedy. or masters. senants. there in comedy. in a of action. comedy and tragedy . I write comedy from it Now " 1 since comedy and tragedy are of the same genus. and then later We we will will first treat of tragedy in discuss the characters and actions in respectively. Scaligcr So our definition filled would be: Comedy full ^ ~f^-y^{ ^^'^^^l ^?»v<r^ ' fs a drariiatic poem. the Asinaria and selves are ill-treated.

TRAGEDY Tragedy. but that Euripides replied 'Indeed I cannot do it your life presents affairs. the goat was given as a prize. Then. whose affairs are those of the city. Davus. characters from rustic. word for rw/n^jSia. the intimate friend and patron of Euripides. A tragedy opens more tranquilly than a comedy. removed from the colloquial. the he-goat. that the victor might sacrifice it to the god. It is not known who was the author of tragedy. gave the grammarians an opportunity to derive the name from rpvyrjyua^ the vintage. J All things wear a ished. is patterned after real life. 6. there Tradition has it that the^Iacedonian are exiles and deaths.' The name tragedy is derived from rpayos. confused state of The beginning of a comedy presents a < "X^ ^ 1 t^ : . polbut^the outc^ne js hornfying. on the other hand. in turn. but it from comedy iJi_the rank of the characters. in the nature of the action^ and in thc"outcoine. dififers like comedy. or low city life. . ^ ''•'W / troubled look.^ cleared up at_the end.Poetics 39 I. and ^^ ^f^{ the camp. and Thais. no adequate misfortune. king. there is a pervading sense of doom. employs kings and princes. asked the poet to make him the hero of a tragedy. ^^3" ('^lifeT' T^ragedy.' a word which you actually find in the Acharnians of Aristophanes. and this confusion is happily |'V'n^. The language is that of ever>'-day "^'h. ?^ The language is grave. the fortress. as an assured were first acted in the vintage season. difTerenceTTiiTstyle. for the simple reason that tragedy was acted in the honor of that divinity to whom the goat was wont to be sacrificed. Comedy employs such as Chremes. These differences aenTan^T^nr'turn. just as if it were TpvywSia. fact that tragedies this and ' The older. but less honorable. It is recorded. Archelaus.

/ ^^"^^ '-^ The grammarians blunder again were either ( the lees used from wine or from and add. in impressive metrical language. tiiis lees. here. for not every subject produces this effect. complete. and the For the lees of oil they have a different word. to return to the phrpse. just some would derive the name tragedy dregs of the wine. the mention of 'purgation' is too restrictive.'j^^ Then the phrase 'of a certain magnitude' the It put in to differis entiate prolix. and of a certain magnitude. and not in the form of narration.' I do not wish to attack this definition bother than by adding my own: A tragedy is the imitation of the adversity of a distinguished man it employs the form of action. of its one and only essential is is acting. they use for the lees of wine. So much for the name and origin of . which somctinus however. from use of the as a mask. for they say that oil. are anything but water.40 '• Scaligcr but the as we know that Thespis refined it. vinegar. the different kinds of embellishments being variously employed in the diflFerent parts. Now. they the essence of tragedy. and are even subject to crj-stalliza- ^ < y^"^ tartar. 1 The definition of tragedy given by Aristotle is as follows 'Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is illustrious. vA means not . in embellished language. As rpv^ means lees. but through pity and fear effecting the purgation of such like passions. a word which like. Further. Though Aristotle adds harmony and song. tragedy is from the so. as the philosopTiersTay. thefal. presents a disastrous denouement. and to smear p^ I mouth with Tpvyrjfia. tragedy. not always certain magnitude'. as the work of Musaeus illustrates. are not. that 'lees' means the watery tion. 'for the name tragedy older than Thespis. and is expressed . the lees of wine r^^ /^ . liquid of the wine. But this is a false is etymology. here with their I fatal predilection for blunders. correspond- ing to our amiirca. The lees are the deposit which our physicians call known among the Arabs as diirdi. opic. He was the first to < go about presenting scenes from a wagon. vintage.

Poetics too long 41 a and not too short. is just as bad.' . however. Prolixity. and my '>^. the disgusting prosiness of a who are prepared to atone for many a day by the enjoyment of (>^^ ^ V^^ -1 > few hours. for few verses would not satisfy the^exx^ectant public. when you must say with Plautus: 'My legs ache with sitting./ ^-^'^^^ eyes with looking.

nor did he limit the actors to an exact number. The was the period of the Old Comedy. but as Instance The Frogs the very pith and marrow of his plot. Thus Sannyrion. The poets could thus practice their abuse with impunity. but with keen relish. the people saw magistrates brought to justice for their misdeeds. From no mere sense of equity. This if crowning work But any . 7. It is said that Cratinus was the first to distinguish the parls. it was preferably assigned to the chorus. and The Clouds of Aristophanes. The poet was thus licensed to attack people of whatever rank. KINDS OF COMEDY ^ So much for the origin of tragedy and comedy. observed no rule for the division into parts and the introduction of actors. when. and to limit the characters to three. Although this persecution might be introduced at any point where the play warranted it. on the ground that the deterrent fear of a bad reputation would reconcile men to virtue. first Three periods of comedy are recognized. the corrupt practices of bad citizens placed them. or with reference to subjectmatter. to divide the play into acts.42 Scaligcr I. and yet that his service was rather to make a careful [ beginning than to is formulate the completed system. attributed to Aristophanes. We distinguish two periods of this Old Comedy. and the parts. age. These may be con- sidered either chronologically. or condition. celebrated as first by the ancients. and incite them to fruitful living. whether his jests were wellseasoned or sour. sex. and this not incidentally. it was permitted the poet to provoke a laugh at any cost. under a democratic government. and let the I'kinds of comedy be our first concern. Let us ?no\v consider the kinds of each. or witnessed the predicament in which .

Later. It was intermediate both in form and in time. knell of pleasing satire placid. exception of the chorus the species remained as before. We may find another raments. to it censure sharply and to raise a laugh. they is go about in difTcrent ways. This came to known as the Middle Comedy of course this designation was not given to it at the time. and their extravagant license and inconstancy gave place to the tyrannic pleasure of a few. Though all common end in view.Poetics 43 one acts will will find that the parts lack unity. for its special whomever iPpIeased. and supports fictitious pungent pleasantries by the novelty of . As to form. characters is biting. In fact we find in this Old Comedy the usage and theory w^hich Latin satire should accept as its law. Then it was that fear of men in power induced the poet to confine himself to praise. is is delicate and harsh and rash that satire not to repre- hend or rebuke. and Eupolis. he and are not grouped into after the manner of later writers. Aristophanes. By Middle Comedy was meant that which came between the Old Comedy and the New. account the jchorus. but to mock and tease. but after the name New ) Comedy came to be used. it was identical with neither the one nor the other. and as be . with . the power of the people waned. examine the work of Aristophanes more acutely. Juvenal that where Horace . • From these men the is detractors of Juvenal should learn that their contention They say is that his affectation sounded the death. was done^ function On this was to injure away with. with lance his unsheathed and bare. is a witticism. Cratinus. Eupolis the laughter of Aristophanes grave. Cratinus is acrid. as exhibited in three representative basis for the differentiation of these early dramatists in their mental tem[ three have a writers. as we have shown in the proper place. for Aristophanes more resembles Horace. This contention is not at all true. and every thrust not valid. Such models are Eupolis and Cratinus. Since the this other parts of comedy were unchanged.

44 to time. in of the play. Phiilipjides. was thrown into the imitation of the sea. Anaxilas. In the place in the age which succeeded to the oligarchy. notably in composition. we have was peculiarly Middle Comedy. Another poet of this period. Theopompus. Mnesimachus. has us a bare line or two from his play entitled *EyKAcio/xcmt. Nicostratus. the Middle Comedy employed what was known as the parabasis. of the chorus. Plutus of Aristophanes the chorus is wanting. but the remark to the parabasis. and. Indeed the New Comedy be. Teleclides. were ridiculed. which tive cost by those whom him his life. Pherecrates. for he was taken caphe had attacked. and posterior to the other. Thus is has more exacting laws both for plot and diction. Stratis. and others. . which he speciously attack Odysscys. Crates. daring to revert to the former license. The New Comedy dilTcrs from the Old it in many respects. title Besides those whom we have mentioned above. was bound. which. as distinctive of the especially applicable said. jivTArnbraciotk. Cratinus wrote a play of this sort. or The Dippers. Archippus. there flourished in the period of the Old Comedy Phrynichus. j Scaliger it was anterior to the one. It is an established fact that Cratinus. but the other who one. In the character was the Aeolosicon of Aristophanes. wrote a play called /Sa-rai. Horace said that Accius made fun of the is verses of Ennius. though no one of the grammarians has told us just what it was like. it is said to have been a most scurrilous Another play of like on the Odyssey of Homer.c:an to flourish under Alexander. but removed. as we have noted elsewhere. Plato. and a very noted was Alexis. In the middle period flourished Straton. Epicratesy and Sotades not that monster — Sotades wno was famed left for his lasciviousness. and seemingly it was not omitted. in which passages from other poets. written with no thought of offense and without a suspicion of calling called down a storm on themselves. and 1 not so much given to jesting It is and provoking a laugh at anything and everything.

not of laughter. and she adds. and the New Comedy of Terence. censuring and I condemmng. nor wish to. is In the Greek New As Comedy to metre.' This speech is in character. but he was so censured by the raillery of Aristonymus and Ameipsas that he put aside his fears and came on the stage himself. In vices. we find many difTcrent measures. I have not yet found out. Tlie latter that is as follows: The Eunuch Chaera is threatened with the proi^er punishment of the adulterer. and~one covert passage in Terence. the style of which furnished Menander and Philemon the rules and regulations with which they invented the New Comedy. Thus it is said that Aristophanes wrote a play called Cocalus. r The New Comedy of the Romans did not refrain from the Greek custom he taught the parts to the players. because Terence was born in the last period.Poclics divided into five acts. demonstrate. but on style. the languag^e it distinctly that of the streets. of the Greeks. and Pacuvius in the middle. following and on the stage to correct them. but Plinius Caecilius says that in his day the Old Latin Comedy was recited. is a vocabulary of raillery. Whether or not Livius Andronicus was the first Latin poet to use a chorus. and cmi)loys the vocabulary tlic 45 fluteplayer. and so hired two actors. the Middle Comedy of Pacuvius. and not acted. as frequent passages in a slave-girl says Plautus. for the woman gained S . As it to which this New Comedy coined. who appeared before tlie public in his stead. However. on the other hand. based not on species. Thus we speak of the Old Comedy of Livius Andronicus. Aristophanes did not dare do this when he was a novice. the early records give ample proof that the New Comedy originated from the Old. yet logical classification of New Comedy Andronicus was the also appeared first to present a plot. Andronicus in the first. Callistratus and Philonides. and. *a thing that I never saw done. and did not run after variety. Although our Latin comedy favored and imitated the we also make a chronoour comedies. In the Old Comedy. was content with the iambic and trochaic.

as PoUio in The Tzvin Sisters. who go loaded beneath their cloaks with books. .46 - Scaliger a mtretricious livelihood. other passages he criticised the customs and peoples of the time. after the Greek The robe. which would mean The Windl^i^''. and Apollodorus. Menander. innovation arose the custom of naming plays according to the garments or ornaments worn by the dramatis personac. which the proper place. but in elaborate passages. and employing them in holiday spectacles. Riley. and this not merely incidentally. togatae in turn were subdivided into the praetextatac anfl later the 'Scaliger spells instead of Circulio. Thus Marcellus. So just as Greek plays were called palliatac. Roman plays were analogically called togatae. . who walk about with covered heads. they loiter together. for his bad acting. she is in effect saying it is Romans it in that was never executed. with their covered pates they are drinking mulled wine. Brutus.' ^ In like vein in trifle. and did not want to see adulterers punished. for when she says that she had never seen the punishment. he now and then inserted satire foreign to the original. • it Girgulio. but also as characters on the stage. He even inserted in this last-mentioned play a severely censorious parabasis. the plays of Diphilus. we discuss in The plays of Plautus and Terence are ostensibly Greek. Although Plautus reworked Philemon. but the also a hidden attack upon the neglect of punishing adultery. and not simply customs in general. In The Forgery^ occur the following lines: 'And then those Grecians with their cloaks. and engage in gossiping among themselves. Epicharmus. and with baskets. and other of the nobility not only appeared on the benches From this as spectators. but even the con- duct of the individual. sad and maudlin they depart. but ' Romans made bold to modify this absurd exaction by introducing both Latin names and customs. the gad-abouts you may always see them enjoying themselves in the hot-liquor shops when they have scraped up some .

tabernariae. however. The fact that the from being enrolled the atellanae were citizens. for women Perhaps there is a goats. in time^it was inserted as a was performers of gave rise to the exodi/. which were the higher were named from the praetcxta. comedy. and among the One kind them the right of applying for military service. and the actors wore concerns of the humble These plays. isle of Capri take Romans thought that it was no disgrace for them to their customs of their neighbors. an Oscan town. so-called plays first from Atella. was invented by Cains ^lelissus. action. practcxtatac. the purplehke the bordcrctl toga of the magistracy. The in the portico of Octavia under librarian The senators. and in jests born citizens engage in presenting satirical thrusts were couched in uncouth verses. These appeared in the town theatres. Still another was one altogether given up to pointed jesting. The Greek TT(pinop<f>vpi^ means to 'border with purple. for praetexo.' we learn from the little book entitled Illustrious trabcala.Poetics 47 the trabcatae. the atellana. who characters in the trabeata were the private presented wore the toga. who Augustus. . language. such favor that they were transferred to to raise a laugh. in order to relieve up the Indeed. but they obtained Their the city. was from such a play that. after the shops or booths in tiinicatae. and yet of poem lacked the full proportions of part. relieved them retained actors or removed from their tribes. and congenial to it. minds from in though the performances were obscene in every respect. but species of which the scenes were laid. Because this style which the alcllana. Another style of Latin comedy the populace. dirty Suetonius cites that verse which censures the lusts after the fellow for his obscenity: 'The old buck pun in these words. were not called the simple tunic.' the may be called goats (caprae) because Tiberius chose You must know that the as his retreat. class of the two. as was Gramwarimis. acrid language had no further object than It Tiberius. they enjoyed having freecharacter. in his Life of coarse. the weighty conduct of public affairs.

even in his playful when a play is distorted to secure it. way Plautus calls his Jupiter in Disguise tlie tragicomedy. nor indeed In the Ninth Book of the is it a matter of much moment. and The Concealed Treasure. Each kind of comedy has its own types of character. as in The Apparition. Iwhom I think are undoubtedly mistaken. I do not see how an actor is able to change or originate a species of drama. as The Treasure. Donatus agrees with us in disvtinguishing the togatae from the tabernariae. but whether this was some other variety is not known. and some. at least this is so if he wrote the Orestes and the but Agamemnon. Amphitryon. As a matter of fact. By another classification we recognize plays as full of commotion and bustle. ' Some plays are wholly taken up with love affairs. In his Third Book. and he the atellana or says that these plays were so called after Rhinton. Other plays are jovial The Tzvin Now let us take up the parts of tragedy. Banquet of the Learned a certain Tarentine poet. Still others hinge upon deception. though it is said that Pacuvius did not observe the distinctions. for he attempts to combine dignity of distinguished characters with the lowliness of comedy. In other plays an absorbing dcnouetnent is the end sought. the actor. so-called noisy plays (motoriae) . novelty pleases us in things dramatic. Thus 2L. Sciras. and presented the plot of a praetexta under the title of a palliata. Instance The Mother-inand convivial. though others. and Arcturus. such a play free is The Brothers. as The Braggart Captain and The Cheat. The conditions and cus- Captives. as the Atidria. do not. <^ i We may make another classification_of comedies accord- ing to subject-matter. Athenaeus speaks of Rhinton as a poet and the author of a play. Law and as the Asinaria.48 of Scaligcr comedy was known as the Italian. Sisters. some with calumny. with the civic toms of Rome. Donatus adds another kind of comedy called the rhyntonicae. as The Clouds. is mentioned as the author of the Italian Comedy. this more composed and from Other plays arc running to and fro the — so-called quiet plays (stafariae). and not as an actor at all. .

an example an Athenian is Seneca's Nero. some verses in the Medea of Euripides and in the Oedipus of Sophocles were because he used mere letters for both subject-matter. Another species of tragedy contains satyrs mingled with heroes in such a way that things grave and merry are combined. KINDS OF TRAGEDY There arc two kinds of tragedy. locally Greek and The latter is also called praetextata. namely the Dionysia. subin the fourth.' In three. 'A group of four dramas. However. hence the term TcrpaXoyta aaTvpiKy. If any one cares to know more about this play. Now there were four festivals in which tragedies were wont to be acted. who was born before Straton. produced a tragedy which he named Grammar. composed in imitation of it. it was so admired by those of former times that. Chytra. or jects of a grave character were acted . one being satyric. for it has little to do with our present subject. For example. as records show. after the aristo- cratic robe of that name. and has small interest for Latin scholars. Mendemus the philosopher states that Sophocles and Achaeus wrote the first plays of this kind. Lenaea. satiric subjects. let him consult Athenaeus. its vocalization and its and the chorus was nothing else than a dancing to names and sounds and measures and rhythms of the letters of the alphabet.Poetics 49 IS. Callias. Tragedies also differ in the nature of their subject-matter. The Polyphemus of Euripides is an example. named Latin. and Panathenaea. .

now a .' In the first book we find a more elegant description 'Within a long recess there is a spot.' but rather. or a goal.' Sometimes the name is added: 'In . a grove.50 Scaliger 111. And there is a similar description of Thrace in Book Three. A simple description is the following: 'The harbour is sheltered from the approach of winds. an island well known by fame.' and then follow Tenedos. but in the Then legal sense of a wall. rich .' Use is again illustrated in the following from the Second Book realm of Priam lasted.' In like manner is the description of Italy in the First r>ook. an island forms a description with superficies would be the harbour. and it tells of the change in name. unmoved in its broad bay. sight lies powerful. PLACE The ficies.and its vicissitudes 'So long as the : mere bay. .' In the follo^^-ing we have the description of the nature of a place and of its use: 'In the distance out at sea is a rock facing at times it is submerged and buffeted the foaming beach by the swelling waves. 'In the midst of the city grew a holy grove. 5. though the author docs not say in so many words. and rises above the a station where the cormorants still sea with level surface most delight to bask. when the stormy north-westers hide tlie stars. 'It is called Thrace. etc' A line. description of a place is either simple or with superis This last term of course length not to be taken in its mathematical and breadth. in calm weather it is quiet. and mention its advantages or disadvantages. sometimes we show what use it serves. and an unsafe anchorage for ships.' A more elaborate simple 'The harbour by the description from the same book reads sense of : force of the eastern wave is scooped into the shape of a bow. an altar. 'The Thracians till it.

that divine author. Turnus leads his forces 'There is a valley with a winding gorge. Poetics 'Tlicrc 5* was a threshold. and the like. and roll down huge masses of rock. the valley of Amsanctus . Here a dreadful cavern is show^^ as the vent of cruel Dis. and the stratagems of war. there lies table-land the little known.' . and a safe place of retreat. and a concealed door. and a clear communication with the several parts of Priam's palace. Above this. through which bursts Acheron. and a strait pass. and told of by rumour in many a the dark side of a wood land. it in opening its jaws fraught with pestilence. of Carthage.. which would serve you as models in imitating the work of So you might use the following passage: 'There is a place in the heart of Italy beneath high mountains. or to take your In stand on the ridge.' hke manner you might study the descriptions of Mount Aetna> of the encampments. formed for fraud. well known. dark banks close it in on either side with steep descending woods hither leads a narrow path. hems on either hand with thick foliage. and a scanty approach bears the traveller on. and in the center a roaring torrent resounds o'er the rocks with whirling eddies.' Note also the place in the Eleventh Book where etc. and a mighty gulf. on the cliffs : and on the highest peak of the hill. whether from right or left you mean to rush to the fight.

This will be our next concern. while the work . and their language was correspondingly rude the poets sought only to please. so that they do not seem. climate. for sculptors and those conceptions which they use of in imitating lines. in fact. would say that to have given it its laws. orator and poet secured from each other that which they lacked respectively. I think that the workmanship of his poetry finds an analogy in painters take from real life art. to have been taught by nature. In due time. So we have not been able to get from nature a single pattern such as the ideas of Virgil furnish us. however. and add that his diligent efforts were furthered by Gorgias. and they embody in their own productions the peculiar excellencies many objects. shade. Indeed. and background. Isocrates is credited with . time. and thev whiled away their leisure simply with alluring songs. Accordingly it now remains for us with acuteness and wisdom to consider in systematic order the elements in that divine power of his. and place. or even better Who. having diction. THE FOUR ATTRIBUTES OF THE POET Thus far we have presented the ideas of things in examples drawn from Virgil. the actual woman is so beautiful that a connois- seur could not find some flaw in her beauty? For though hindrances altogether perfect in outline and product suffers many through circumstances of parentage. nature ever produced a the archetype of nature proportions. first given graceful movement to a hitherto rude literary though deeper students of the this distinction to monuments award Thrasyniachus. to persuade and move their hearers. light. The early orators had only one end in view. but to have vied with it. just as they might be taken from nature itself. 25.r Scaligcr HI.

variety. ^^ : \ create quality distaste is rather in than pleasure? The is third I poetic i'=Y found but few writers. "^ I?^/ compels one to be a willing someness_(j!|aj/i7qj. vividness. and winsomeness.>j '1 \ "S^ yi^ \ . for there \ is no. \ • '^^ and to j)Ieasc. and sentiments to furnish precepts. where plots were added to furnish warning examples. then'.Poetics of Isocrates P' j' was to it add the finishing touch. listener. 'He carries every vote who all 1 -^Q/ ' mingles theljfseful with the J^jcasing. By vividness I mean a certain potency and force in thought and language which f/^ ^^""^ ."" are" the supreme poetic qualities. these. In the first place his poem must be deeply con-'^j/" ?eiyed. Insight and foresight i^rndenUay. on the other hand. to teach ^ j ^ . o^-''^ principles.' foPpoelry bends Its •^^'"^'Z-.^' Now ^ to"realize these ends o'neV'work"'must conform to certain / ^. was rendered more thoughtful by being transferred from the country to the town. of itself inclined to be harsh.) . What then are the dishes which would A^J 'energies to these two ends. worse mistake than to glut your hearer before you are \//' done with him. Then he must ^^ take pains to temper all with variety (varietas). and be unvaryingly seJ^cons. As to poetry. w > ^Z/ . The fourth is win" which tempers the ardency of this last quality._stejit. what would term vivijdness (^//"/cocz'a) there is also a Greek name for it which will be given in the proper place. ] r Horace most I aptly said. and .

begins with Caesar's crossing of the Rubicon. it other kinds of poetry have such a norm. so that to for their regulative principles. This rule was observed by Lucan. AVe shall therefore derive from the sovereignty of the epic the universal into to its controlling rules for the composition of each other kind. and has deduced the sequence of action. and compelled him to make war. who. REGULATIONS FOR THE VARIOUS KINDS OF POETRY: EPIC POETRY We have already remarked that for objects of every kind all there exists one perfect original to which referred as their the rest can be nomi and life. they turn yShown / I Now our First Book has what species poetr}. has adjusted them to times and places. which all describes the descent. determine the privileges of each.jfJ2 a general way the events fif'o S I "~^^" and characters of a poem.54 " . Scaligcr I. in writing of the because for War. cognate with the theme. and intimately related. The precept of Horace to begin ab ovo is by no means to be followed. - the laws common to all. therefore. which is utterly contrary to the general rules heretofore established. V^ccording distinctive subject-matter and nature^. to begin with something grand. we are to' ^^t^ /Vl. The very thing. it is of necessity intruforced upon the attention. which you are going to take as your principal . H the sively lest you become lodi(nis. 96. Rather let the first r'uleT)e. U Having thus found point of departure.is divided. this act the senate adjudged him an enemy. there remains the composition according to a well-known principle. same event is often repeated. A second rule: Do not Civil repeat and double on your tracks. standard. and deeds of heroes. In epic poetr\-. making heroic poetry our After one has determined in .

a book. parents. each part to its But itself in doing you should so assign achievement perfectly If one will read the conforms to this prinnot. it Aciieid attentively. is to be kept in suspense. affairs of peace. Thus critics the insertion of the story of Camilla looks to the fact that her death is atoned for by the death of Aruns. Mingled with the Variety battles are waged.^ tion in the jicthiopica of cHpiLorus. have shaped an realized only by the divine Maro. With mortals.' me in my wanderings the God has driven to From this point the story moves on evenly. as furnishing him^th e best_ model^ ' ^ that they consitute an this. I take it. all so related organic body. and yet the more impor- tant parts are assigned to kings as already stated. interrupted by novel experiences. which subdivides into parts of parts. at intervals and heroes. Another principle is that an author should divide his book into chapters in imitation of nature. he only says of Camilla that she was fleet of foot. but these it. Now the epic story wholly taken from civil life. that ^ H should be most carefully conned by the epic poet. and race of many. but this exception proper place that the book shall seem to inevitably. The failed to note the nice variation in this passage. is To is he suri\ the Grorpjrs <1(H's due to the nature of the subject-matter. for in this catalogue of warriors have though he gives the counfry.Fpr this reason the greatest of poets so arrangecThis material that the end of the narra- Aeneas was in reality the beginning of the action proper: 'Thence Syour shores. To be sure. for the (mind of which is the hearer to develop. and the reason is that Diana was to tell the story of her life in a later book. . a\vahting_that It is 6l)\1^is!Ta umque and cfilef vir- tueJo^klThe tive of Hearer captive. it is are constituent parts of or closely related. This principle of arrangement has a most admirable realiza.Poetics 55 in ('theme should not be placed first the narrative. In this instance. . the gods associate. he will see that ciple. Virgil was acting in obvious conformity with the above principle.

as it were. . but. recalled history from the very begin- ning of Rome. as was he. so that the narrative properly begins and ends with the immediate tale of Leander. when the he undertook to treat of Catiline he omitted the story of man. instead. for that story is.56 dictates other usages. because. did this rightly and from necessity. a tragedy. But it seems to me that a man eminent and even peerless in his class. poet-hke. Nor is Musaeus to be condemned because in his altogether charming story of Leander he does not follow the same practice. and where he had many confederates in his crime and wickedness. Scaligcr Sallust Now to some it has seemed that showed a vain ambition. in order thus to show the corruption of the state of which the worthless Catiline was himself a part.

tricks jests. To satyric plays In comedy we have belong dancing. and the introduction of the chorus. sarcastic fellows. despair. deceits. and biting raillery. mimes Although tragedy resembles this epic poetry. for the Romans have The wanton characters of the satyric plays are drinking. and the instance as the like. frauds. rustic pranks. battles. merchants. banquets. for the subject-matter of the Old Comedy was not very different from that of the mimes. were admitted in the Old Comedy. joking. unexpected. it differs ^in rarely introducing persons of the lower classes.J weeping. jests. The^ performances of the satyrs. I would limit this generalization of course to those plays" which employ Greek characters .Poetics 57 111. drunkenness. the putting out cf eyes. • 97. | slaughters. at the close as at the beginning. as comir. sailors. such as messengers. ignoble traf^cking. and dirgo?. eulogies. potalion-^.> ^^^V ^i . as well. save in such a rare Amphitryon of Plautus. ' drawling speeches. indeed.! 6^ are impudent. on the other hand. weddings with drunken played by slaves. jokes. bereavements. exiles. funerals. bewailing. reveling. jolly. shoemakers. and the difference between the two forms was largely in the division into acts. admitted at will the dignified toga and trabea. tragedy. deners. panderings. fish-dealers. old men deceived and cheated of their money. comedy. poulterers. wailing. The mime employs cloth-fullers. plebeian. but difTer in subject-matter and treatment (ordo).' carousals. to mimes. incests. conflagrations. varied. never admit kings. Tragedy and comedy are alike in mode of representation. The matters of*^ tragedy are great and terrible.cnds of kings. Comedies. capricious. butchers. and market-gar- Such characters. ?^ and the Greek dress. parri- i cides. suicides. and inco.

58 herent. but there have been some satyrical plays [ ' which differed little from comedies save in the gravity of some of the characters. which brings happi. there are not a few tragedies which end happily. Euripides says. its treatment is more like that of comoily. to cite an exainple. they are lazy and silly. many comedies which end Such are The Brag\gart Captain. TIkopening part is gratifying to the guard. cactcris rebus mecr colas (A violated oath is cause for drinking. rail at The char- acters run and skip about. / There are. they is one another. . the giant with the rock alone remaining. Aeschylus contains tragic events. and disturbing to then Clytemnestra because of the arrival of her husband comes the murder. but so imitate as to subvert serious.' Cicero 'Regnandi causa et the passage as follows: pietaiem colas (To rule. see to it that you cultivate parodied your drinking on other grounds). which makes Electra and Orestes happy and then succeeds the denouement. that which turn. though The Eumoiides of the outcome was happy. [unhappily for sc^e of the characters. Parodies imitate. and give a thought an unexpected Thus. that of a mime. Scaligcr The action of the nihiies all is abrupt. 'Jusjuratidiim si violandnm est bibendi causa. for the stage was wholly deserted on the exit of Ulysses. provided a genuine tragedy. joy came to many.' He thus plays sense. for example slaughter? and furies. is upon words / in pieta and Triav. on the other hand. thus if one character leave the stage. So too. and where the outcome is so happy that all the companions of Ulysses are released. even though not much of a situation lias been worked out. cultivate piety). except for the slaughter of Aegisthus. In the Ion and the Helen Again. Thus ' in the Electro of Euripides. We have an illustration in the Cyclops of Euripides. where all is wine and jesting. the rest leave too. it and subverts the is Now a tragedy. and the Cyclops alone suffers in the The conclusion of this play was not unlike loss of his eye. alto- gether serious. and the Asinaria of Plautus. The Persian.

whose souls. for binding Prometheus to dire is the rock. history must be done ^way with. So those comedies should be prized which make us condenn. and Pasiphae. especially when the life of impure women ends in an unhappy death. for together they constitute. There should be no event at the end.' or it a sentiment has is When to rest may be expressed figuratively at greater length. because he had warned the god not to cohabit with Thetis. a sustaining column or pillar for the entire structure. the people. some have it that the eagle was driven away by Hercules others that he killed it with his arrows and still others that Prometheus was set free by Jupiter himself.Poetics ncss to all 59 Pallas. . Jocasta. the early writers such care was by no means in taken. 'Death makes the good happy. . is by no means true. it and the ^. as when we say. as has hitherto is been taught. by whose infamy society is corrupted? But we reply that these women were not creatures of his imagination. as when the above sentiment is thus expressed ''Be not willing to think : of good men as perishing. Eunienides. than Phaedra. per se immortal. the critic says. tragedy throughout two modes of expression. the vices which they bring to our ears. but were taken from life. Thus Aeschylus followed Greek history thunderbolt. where he bound to Caucasus. Canace. the upon each. that an unhappy issue It is 'C" essential to tragedy. lest she should bear him a son more . if we are to hear of no wickedness. but he invented the fiction of his undoing by the tragic effect. A sentiment may bo put simply and definitely. Euripides invented stories than the father. but only at the beginning. about Helen which were utterly contrary to well-known illustrious history. they must In be careful not to depart too widely from the records. Hence Orestes. as it were. Forsooth. '^ When authors take their plots from history. What is viler. The same author has been censured for bringing wicked and impure women into his plays. — Apollo. j enough that the play contain horrible events. Plowever.

as in r rightly ordered. fur is as the whole time for stage-representation eight hours. Aeschylus introduces the apparitions of Polydorus and Darius. and the blinding of or ghosts.man. Achilles forbidding kl-. Therefore.6o Scaliger v4__ — —y take their fliglit from out these miseries to those seats A sentiment may also he whence they had departed. move. if Disregard of truth is hateful to almost jTi'J'^ >| I '^'*'» u v ever}. Polydorus the murder of Polyxena. The events themselves should be made to have such as r sequence and arrangement as is to approach near as possible to truth. Let the first act be a passionate lamentation. as noted above. The content of a play should be as concise as possible. in a moment of time. or from Athens to Thebes. in a part of the sea from which no land \'isible. Thus. and in Ovid. neither those battles or sieges pl Thebes which are fought through in tyyq.' reheved of its plainness by being put into the mouth of some person thus Socrates is made to speak in the Apology and in the Phacdo. it only six or arise. Aeschylus was often guilty but should also teach. and please. or spectres. . are substituted. Ceyx appears to Alcyone. for example. If a tragedy is to be composed from this last stor\'. Polynmestor. in Tbr^ff^. for cannot be represented without doing vio- 'irshj^ Llence to truth. yet also as varied and manifold as possible. tin . ^°'' ^s ^^"'^ iji jq*^ \ I casting of Lichas into the sea by Hercules to be it \ approved. Hecuba already ' her return. comedy. it should not begin witii the departure of Ceyx.'m-' i^ is not true to life to have a stonn the ship founder. Thus. r .led. or with things serious. L "°^ ^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^ ^"^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^ discreet poet to pass from Delphi to Athens.y I . apparitions. according to the either with jests.. their Since dead persons cannot be introduced. . hours please nic. We are pleased \ ' -. ^'"'VL: \ so suddenly that the actor has scarcely time to breathe. for the play not acted solely to strike ^1 I the spectator with admiration or consternation —a fault of which. critics. ^'7 . Aeschylus has Agamemnon killed and buried = .

The a title. used by Aeschylus. and not Phoenicians? So too the title The Trachinian Women is bad.should be unhappy. the chorus bewailing the event as though all were lost . so great a slaughter of the poet ' 6 . Alcyone peering fol- anxiously over the sea and sighting far off a corpse. or who figures most prominently in the plot as a whole. altars. Theban men? Especially why does go so far afield for a title. Thus the Hecuba of Euripides is so called because Hecuba is everyw^here in evidence from beginning to end. Euripides found a happier name than this of Sophocles in Hercules of Octa. the report found true. of a storm. at the end than at the beginning for the end furnishes some scant relief to her misery. for what had the women to do with the burial of Hercules? Certainly no grave mishap befell the Trachinian women. Hecuba ought to have been made more miserable this is certainly not done. the third act. and Hecuba is a. together with rumors as to the ship. for there is nothing about Troy in it. the chorus following with approbation of the vows. the fourth act tumultuous. This sample outline can be expanded by the introduction of other characters. tragedy. Nor have the poets been happy in naming their plays after choruses. when the play was devoted to j . when she was about to take her own life. chorus to follow with execrations of sea act. But since the_issue_of_traged}. Then too. the fifth act. shipwrecks described by sailors and merchants. fire. greatest of care should be exercised in the choice of for it event. a messenger announcing the rising. for the women were Thebans. the chorus to follow with mention of shipwrecks.1 Poetics 6 life. a priest willi votive offerings the second conversing with Alcyone and her nurse. and much apostrophizing of Neptune . or the person ought to be derived from the most conspicuous most conspicuous in rank or suffering. lowed by the resolution. Seneca's The Trojan VP'onicn is not rightly named. and better still was the title The Sezrn Against Thebes. for why the name The Phoenician Women. pious sentiments.

whose characters were called stupid by Aristophanes. "^ by omens. cfia>ige or reverse. by the chorus alone.r simply one manner. much the complication the dcu-oue}nent. Aeschylus followed with a more pompous style. he shov. and send him away satisfied. suppose that Thespis. Thus it appears that title Orestes. that in the early plays the flute to indicate the acts chorus was used instead of the that it is — and true we have it satisfactorily demonstrated in the First Book —then is clear that plays were not then. and are refined by time. or revenge. . and treatment. to plays with the same subject-matter different names have 'been given. judgment. inner_ structure) . ^or Xv<n<: there . but with peril or injury from exile. If it is true. ' Probably a misprint for fjLtT<i^a<ns. employed by Euripides.62 Scaligcr The Euincnidcs of Aeschylus. digression) } chorus. if any. {loosing) and by which these two parts are joined Trapd^uai. the inventor of tragedy. But the traj that can fill the spectator. Laertius says tragedies were originally acted I After Thespis came Phr}nichus. Aristotle uses in this connection ti. novelty. as said. as in the case of Virgil's The whole sum of these fated o-vo-racri? Sc(tl<. as now. or fated cakes. (covipTicafion). expression Tre/jiTrcVcta (reversal of fortune). 1 Thus persons or either places are often accidentally recognized by signs. ltirn{>i<:^-f'iiint. the change or reversal being either in the fortune or in the plans of men. events Aristotle calls (plot. carnage. More satisfactory is the for the Eumcnides do not suffer. used very simple action. however. -^ So All arts are rude at the start. and little. but with little variety of plot. was not well-namcl. tenor. In the Prometheus of Aeschylus the chorus certainly seem? to be introduced two or throe times. a!! of more than one issue. The outcome is either calamitous or associated with misfortune: joy of bad men turned to sorrow. Let us now take note of the nature and technique of the tie {deviation. . grief of good men to joy. divided into five acts. or by oracles. the is confusion of affairs.

in the immediate context.Poetics 6$ though the if you care to consider lo [)arts. which would give us The closing chorus always points out. not very unlike those just mentioned. person. either in con- . The Phoenician Women. so light comedy it is simply an exhortation to depart. and of his other plays four choruses only. and in The Trojan Women it is hard to tell how many. In his Maidens of Trachis Sophocles has six choruses. and Oceanus as a chorus. intermingled with Phaedra's the fifth. but is neglected by Sophocles. for each chorus follows its own act. eight address . and adds thereto. not many the eighth. many. Here let it be said that in six Seneca has no chorus the five acts. and as better to befit these so unequal that the first recited only nine lines . apparently six. or of the circumstances of place. either of the play as a whole. In the Alcestis there are also eight. own judgment is In the Philoctetes of Sophocles this part . by Euripides. Elcclra. . many the seventh. many. the third. and the Oedipus of Seneca. what has been done. Now the choral parts should be of suitable length first : observe that the chorus of IpJiigenia fifty verses. in the Iphigenia in Tauris. the Philoctctcs. with no interruption . many. still be the sixth act. . and in the Hippolytiis Euripides seems actually to have introduced eight. The chorus does not always sing. part. . in Tauris carries more than a hundred and Aeschylus you w^ill find and in the Agamemnon of more than two hundred. as in the there arc then five choric Agamemnon of same author. . and after the fifth chorus there will trophe. few the sixth. but sometimes speaks. the fourth. Xow if there are five choruses there \\\\\ be six acts. and Oedipus at Colonos of Sophocles. the Hecuba of Euripides. or the catas- The Greeks customarily closed a play with a choric and Seneca closed one in in that manner. and the This rule is best observed like. Nor is one to forget that the subject-matter of the chorus is to be derived from the nature of the plot. the second. but these were not regarded as choruses proper. as a its judge. in his Ajax only four properly so called.

Hence those rules which we called nomes he refused to recognise as applying Singing he conceded. and hypophrygian modes. in it hi^ in extant works the trochee rare. sometimes it also blames. it may teach. as appears in the Iphigenia in Axilis. hopes. expresses wonder. thoi. Toidv ToSe irpayfia. but imitation. though this is not an invariable practice. tetrameters are most often used. The last trimeter is for the most part hypercatalectic. acatalectic. but not the hypodorian to them. times the chorus ministers comfort. Aristotle denied the use of admonishes. for is the chorus. where he uses it to close his i)lay. The dramatist may assign any measure that he pleases t<. Tims we sec thcni spv. Bacchae. So. the function of the chorus is manifold. its special function is to delineate character and express emotion. it Somebewails. and Helen. At the end of a play the anapaestic.) Sophocles preferred the anapaest. Such lines hath been the outcome of this afTair. and doubts. because he held that harmonies of that sort did not well comport with the ruk-s of song.' You find these in his Alcestis. But . Andromache. predicts. Euripides and Aeschylus use the trochee more comnionl\ It is a custom of the chorus not yet mentioned to bring in two iambic verses after any long address. makes choices. In a word.igh you find Oedipus the K{)ig. 'But the god hath brought impossible things to pass. we see the actors holding converse with the chorus and with each other in the kind of lines usually assigned to choruses. One poet very facetiously brought several of his plays to a close with the same sentiment in the same little verses Tciv S' 8* dSuvarwv nopov evpe anifSr] ^€o?. which is the properest medium for the chorus. on the other hrmd. learns that antistrophes to the tragic choruses because their office \^•as not simple narration.'l: and engage in dialogues. passes judgment.64 cert or Scaligcr in iambics through an individual. Again.

on the contrary. Again. So much for the parts and the law and technique of tragedy. as having to persons. a part of which tration in the Andri^. of station whom choruses are their made up. as most perfectly for the representa- tion of character. as \vc said above. Aristotle thought not suited to feelings of good-will it. such as the hypodorian or hypophrygian.That which was stated in our First Book as to the pro7<v . The hypophrygian. but oi the part called protasis. in the Rhesus if indeed the Rhesus is his there is no prologue. ja. befits choruses. because. he thought the so-called fitted Phrygian mode. Since. should not be made harsh and stormy. and neither loftiness nor tranquility The citharists. went well A\-ith Bacchanalian bouts and brawls. But the phr}'gian suited more lowly mode to all others. -y. recited. that Euripides was veiry^particular to have this part and the argument you do find such a However. Their lowly to explains why spirits stooped sorrowful bewailings in songs which are averse to passionate agitation. — — "^^<7M y^ ^J^*=--r //_ we said. to be preeminently suited to the chorus. then. You see a chorus professes only toward all with whom it has to do.^^^^ '^^v^ it ^logue. preferred do with kings and heroes. the cliorus is 65 peculiar function of the to delineate character. a mode it. for tragedy has not a separate prologue as has comedy. or. he thought the hypodorian mode especially appropriate. on the other hand. Aristotle denied to the chorus the use of the hypodorian. on the other hand. In short./-^ play of Terence.. Aristotle's precaution was that the song its by very nature soft and gentle. itself. To stage-action.Poetics because. the chorus was an avpaKTos full indifferent guardian —of — for so I interpret his ktjScit^? the events and their results. / . and it is certain that prologue in many of his plays. ought not to be simple. nor. this and tranquil. which. as the vulgar dolts have a killing mode. that is of bustle. does hold illus- we have an They say -^y ^^-^. as was this lofty we remark in its own proper place. does not Jhold of JI a prologue iu tragedy.

v test. ns they add. But to this it is to be said that pleasure does not reside in joy alone. We have proof of this in Epicharmus. and to keep them ing what in the world was going to happen. This was a mere trick. the play would be kept going. . nothing more was wanted. Here some one may object that the idea of pleasure is embodied in the definition of pMDetry. to keep the spectators in suspense. in a certain scene he has Achilles remain state!.. 24." and I iuclitie to the opinion of those who say that the former were a class of tion. for provided they amused. hence their imitator Terence. In the annotations to the Peace of Aristophanes it is stated that the judges were called papSovxoi.'given to the victor in those public contests where scvor. of whom. but in everything and that the spectator does receive instrucmay contain ugly faces.66 unnatural. without givinjx cither anything to say. when once but that in tragedy are gorrow. Plautus was If Apollodorus and Menandcr were like a diligent imitator.' poets competed. magistrates similar to the aediles or to the apparit<^rs of the aediles. Thus. Thus a picture . Scaligcr Aeschylus is blamed for the latter fault. Comedies were not all of one character. and in another has Niobe concealed. and that their business was to take care ihrt nothing out of the way should occur among the spi^rt • r . T'or example. according to Horace. grief. l:uc-=. fitted to instruct. which cannot please. and in the parabasis and epirrhema Aristophanes often expresses the hope of victory. they certainly were too tame the statement that in the judgment of the people Menander was often surpassed by Philemon is not improbable. his rivals clnim. M. Elsewhere we have stated that the judges in these contests were called nJo-i'/iiT^Tat. In fact there were judges by whose decision the palm w. or what the silence wm'! be said was broken. though at the expense of an unpleasant disappointment. but none the less do we look at it and enjoy it. and misery. Hesiod says that he won in such a C' -. wailing.

contrar}. what intense anticipation of the decision of Liber in the choice of a tragic poet! What care by the poet not to offend the people. so that one interpretation makes For a passage complimentary. because facetious. sarcastic. Laughter is often caused by parody. others Aeschylus. Martial mentions Old Comedy the subject-matter was wholly ficword How much others than occasion was taken to deride. How he excelled in this is appears sufficiently from his writings. own poems were even then living. one line from The Acharnians. when serious verse I give as an example is so changed as to become ridiculous. with ver)' great ! whom Sophocles undeniably had ments Indeed the very meaning of the sentiweight always ambiguous. abusive. most prosperous men! Since What many of public disgrace for Cleon and Lamachus the spectators favored Euripides. of the man against whom at the play is ^directed.to Now the Athenian people knew that after the death of Euripides the plays of Aeschylus alone were represented. is equivocal? Obviously it can be taken to mean that after is Euripides no tragic poet remained. Ever}' event is reproach and censure. Aristophanes made so that his the line read the passage is 'chief of fifty eels of Copats. What ! laughter in the Clouds of the burning or'Phrontisteriuf What reversal of fortune in youth and old age for Plutus. but that fact. In the titious. In the judgment of anns in Aeschylus Thetis is called 'mistress of fifty Nereids' now by substituting an eel for Thetis. Dicacopolis was .' In like manner his servant where Lamachus requests arms of parodied at the expense of Dicaeopolis. one Occanus. Aeschylus once said that in the death of Euripides Do you ask if the statement w-as tragedy also died. and that each should keep his own such an officer. the opposite derogatory. example. Scarcely a word spoken by any one which is not designed to injure somebody. or derision. Poctics^ 67 scat. Aristophanes achieved in this line is not known. so that at every nothing of theirs is extant.! .

make the worst of blun.„er of lines. - 'or you may- n^e and makes .con- ^cn and denounce therefore exert his of the san. a to seenre peaee.. Nay not only do s well. and in others as to the ant.hough the >ater come ^^^^^^^^ Thmk ho talk - I'cor's The is followed restrained. .n largely aceoun^ for ?h s d styfe of play them .rrhema speA rparabasis.. other I obviously without offense^ with the 'audience.al utelils great as that actual disparity as bu And now let each by hmise.mdanty o You see of course a superfie. but suffice for not the ong. not for arms.e Xc Hn carnasc and . the epirrhema.s • • the^-lves.l jests. But why though they do not opinion altogctlv-r when we have . give my "of h point. to those poet Those alnirers of Terence '"P-ors do no Sedigitus called h.c poets avor than the drollery le s In who prefer hin. "^ t'appear. •" "any characters ercur> Birds. m MecU wee whom Voleatiu.ore :. this practice Plautus the actors In the plays of plavs. spce.gh art that the very choice of many com..M.v::tr^ohed to enough rDutdfbell invented novelt.people y>sn. live and ^'-. The the difference between tor of the of character. mind with laughter -"<> to relax the of . he' calls. The Frogs revives a corpse. to learn punty of was not This interchange So t r. but for of words. influence most the sn^ nun.ouUl So u.s shght. and of a for its number c. Lmtlf appears.lcrs..ertncc diction and h. and for seven one Erasmus only.es its din.'.68 a ^"''S'' man who c n. s.su t. to introduce all kinds Old Comedy was allowed four characters speak having ?nd thl w-as no objection to mime Lihe rm^Hcene.ilitary vvould fain deride it life for it.--„V ^ 'lose from the same -*-. one after another.v rL^:f:^:dc.irrro:r. or even the stage the colloquial parts but in the. '''^V'Tw't^C l.f desire to die. where even ^ in The Scenes of the Plulus.. i.

mother. for Aristotle so shield in Virgil. but invention has brought us of Consequently Cicero is to-day held in highest esteem. vestment of Ariadne in Catullus. New Comedy may be marriages and loves have the chief . while few care for Seneca. glor)-. and Hecuba. Rivalries abound ers that they free. Terence lacking in spirit. or a garden-plot. either comedy names whatever is introduced Thus the description of the aside from the announced plot. and invariably the panderer is discom- But each may find for himself as many examples from authors or from real life. are episodes. but that. of father. an amulet. Comedy also differs from tragedy in the fact that while the latter takes both its subject-matter and its chief names from history. . fited. In the place. with a ring. from panderand those found free are bought virgins are bought lover. we make more of him than that to-day we arc most intent Not only has the vast exten- sion of our knovvdedgc given us science. they must as he will. in comedy all is fictitious. clearly Why then do of Plantus? on the also art of For the reason good speaking. or brother. As to episodes. is taking into account the subject-matter. And yet a skill modicum in wisdom far excels the highest and best speaking. such as Agamemnon. the enumeration of the chiefs in in the Philoctctcs of Sophocles. and names are assigned for the most part to suit the connection.Poetics Cicero's jtidgnicnt that the speech of Atilius 69 was iron and stone? his I think it clear that each of the poets satisfied own times as respects the art of speaking. Hercules. lo in the PromctJicus of Aeschylus. the birth of Camilla on the not be regarded as belonging either to tragedy or to exclusively. and the fable of Europa and Hypcminestra all Horace.

raifa. propriety I / (altiloqna). auUm est firm: as - tenuitatem.ly stj e (. and ornateness ifloridum). r Thoit-h Hermcgenes classified conpropagated his system. refine^Common properties are perspicuity (proprictas). gence {secnritas)} ' on occasion.s:Ten.v. and rhythm {mnnerositas). and others might have consider certain precepts which strained to of our poet. THE GRAND STYLE ideas according to atiotl.. These qualities Of the other common acumen (plenum). Quintilian 93= sccuntas tnaffcc: . i. io\\<v. properties are defined as In Chapter 25 these last commuui covsuctudinc loqucnd.70 Scaligcr IV. {incitatio). 2./a. Those to be invariably observed 5. unadornedness {pnntas). the mean of the two. some are particular.n the ./:. We which {aequabdts).-^'':^^punty always is plainness or artless that to be observed simplicity ysimpUot^^ and ik^:itcnuitas)'. {acutum). properties. (vemLs).poem.) rapidity as smoothness (ma///fm). so of the particular. Cf. wc are principle. properties are common to all of \ {pcrspicintas).re). purity or or spire fulness sharpness or raillery {a.i. and Some propershould inhere in ever>. those to be . others onlv on occasion. in the oralionis est turitas ex turitas non figurafa. Let us hindered or helped in the education utterance. sonorousalways are dignity (digmtas) and to be observed used on occasion. please to call the moderate these. are not invariably used. pcr^.imt.) and fervency (t.derousne55 ness {sonus) . so comup the different styles of poetic then take familiar illustration that we may become bining precept and with the true theory of / style. the grand or left) recognize three kinds of style. elegance or grace ment {cnltus). the humble (mfima). but ties some winsomeness (. As of the common some should be employed In the grand style those always. subject to occasion.as • - Sccuritas il.

style are Sucli is roundness (rotund it as) and fluency (z'olour classification. such as sailors. according functions. and it is complete and invariable. kings. deliberative counsels. that which marries sense and sound. and his wisdom in governing. it is because when men it associate together they constitute a society which has. and citizens. as were. If inferior characters. that which is not trite and pleasing language. . the members of which. and whatever else is attendant upon these. These eminent characters are gods. share in its and end of It its is their nature and the is nature of the kingly to govern.c^ly choice. th6 character of an organism. The sentiments are correspondin. Now all this we shall treat in its proper place.1 Poetics 7 moderate tibilitas). after we have considered the properties of the various styles. generals. judicial decisions. the pursuit of heroic deeds. . and they are couched in choice and euphonious diction. Choice sentiments are those which abhor vulgarity choice diction. and hostlers are introduced. Notable events are wars in behalf of peace and concord. and his office to apply his strength in affording protection. . . a task upon which we now enter. tradesmen. heroes. to the nature office. office to be superior to others end So the king's share will be preeminent strength and wisdom. The grand style is that which portrays eminent characters and notable events. merchants.

himself on the desert shore.on. there he clings through excess of sorrow it passage is weeping and groaning is and only hardly at last that a forced for his voice. with his bride. sweet solino. he throws himself the midst.the sicknesswhen day was dawning. style let this hollow shell conbe an example: 'He. and calls the gods and the the of this its nature. he comes into following: 'But Evander no force When the bier is lowered.' son.72 Scaligcr IV. It results in sentiments which leave much unexpressed. of you In the grand style is the it was passing away. 4.' of you can hold.' . by of love. when on Pallas. sang of you. and same may be said of the dict. REFINEMENT Refinement is that pruning which removes all grossnc?s to give crrace of style. body of her luckless following: 'The mother clasps the the In the moderate stars cruel. some call it the pure or terse style Because style is An example of refinement in the humble (tersus).






epithets of


are often cold, puerile, or pointthere in calling tearful Achilles

Thus, what point



the other hand,

when our poet


Aeneas father, as he frequently does, the epithet has the same appropriateness as when applied to Jupiter: men venerate Jupiter, as Porphyry says, because he is the father of the entire human race, so Aeneas because the father of



This relationship


explicitly stated in

the passage


him father Aeneas, the author of the
wished to ingratiate



Isloreover, since Virgil

work with Augustus,


desirable to touch

upon the

deeds of the emperor.

This accounts for much that appears on the shield, and for such passages in Books i, 3, and 6,

'And on the shores of Actium we celebrate the games of But all that aside, we know that Augustus arrogated the epithet 'father' to himself, for we have a coin with the inscription Augustus Pater. So we might defend other passages in Virgil, some of which Macrobius has pitched upon and torn to pieces with the worst of judgment. In the Sixth Book of the Odyssey occurs the following


passage, already quoted once:


supplicate thee,



whether thou art a goddess or a mortal If indeed thou art a goddess of them that keep the wide heaven to Artemis, then, the daughter of great Zeus, I mainly liken thee, for beauty and stature and shapeliness.' How much more distinguished is the corresponding passage in Virgil, where first doubt is expressed, and then confidence 'Oh by what name shall I call thee virgin?' This speech shows her
; : !

'for thy


the cause of the uncertainty




not mortal.'

Tliis clause

shows her


The next


'and the tones of



thy voice are more than human*
tition of the assertion:

and then there is a thou art a goddess surely.'



then expresses rehgious veneration, and avoids oflcnsc by

modestly doubting whether she
the race of nymphs.*



sister, or

one of

For you must know that it was impious to call a god or goddess by any other than his riqhl name, and implied an unanswered prayer, a point on which Livy informs us. This explains why the name of the Finally tutelary god of Rome was secret and unspoken. he likens her to Diana, for he plainly means Diana when he
speaks of 'Phoebus'

In the Fourteenth Book of the
to cause Jove to slumber,



entreats Sleep

and as an incentive promises him Poor Sleep! who a seat on which he may sit at festivals. prior to this time was forced like a soldier to take his meals X'^standing: 'Sleep, lord of all gods and of all men.'
the natural philosophers themselves will not hold the law of nature, for

who would

say that the Priiiv
are, 'of a.:

the First Cause, sleeps?

Yet Homer's words

Since sleep


given to repair

vitality, if the


gods must sleep, they are also subject to death. From such gods Homer himself could not receive good health. Juno further adds: 'Nay come, and I will give thee one of the younger of the Graces, to wed and to be called thy wife, even Pasithea, that even thou longest for all thy days.' It does not please me to have the Graces given in marriage to Sleep, for grace need never sleep. Again, orrvUfxcvai (to be wed) is a shameful word to put oTrmtv (to wed) sometimes moans in Juno's mouth, for the venereal act itself, as in the reference to the mother of Gorgythion, in the Eighth Book of the Iliad. Our poet is more happy in saying 'that in return for such
favor as





her years with thee, and


thee the father of a lovely race.*

She does not promise

simply the delights of love, which are bestial, hut

which marriage was instituted. Moreover the proposal of Hera is nugatory: 'If ever thou didst hear my word,



obey nie again even now, and 1 will be grateful to thee always'; but our Juno more winsomely appeals to Aeolus, since slie courts his good-will by recognizing his power: 'For
thee the father of gods and king of


has appointed both

them with the wind,' In Homer, Sleep replies to Hera; Aeolus, in Virgil. Sleep says: 'Hera, goddess queen, daughter of mighty Kronos, say the thing that is in thy mind; my heart bids me fulfil it, if fulfil it I may, and if it may be accomplished.' Surely this is altogether commonplace, for any clever person could make a promise of that sort. Not so ours: 'Thy work, O queen, is to discover what thou choosest; it is my duty with zeal to perform what thou dost command.' For men can talk of doing what they 'may,' but duty is the divine law of the gods, whose divinity is fate. 'Thy comto

calm the waves, and again









simple, the




to order,

mine to


The tempest
other respects

in tlie Fifth

Book of

the Odyssey, passages

from which we have quoted above,

worded, but in

inferior to the corresponding passage in


epic. Homer says: 'With that he gathered the clouds and troubled the waters of the deep, grasping his trident in his hand and he roused all storms of all manner of winds, and shrouded in clouds the land and the sea.: and down sped night from heaven. The East Wind and the South Wind clashed, and the stormy West, and the North, that is born in the bright air, rolling onward a great Wave.' Divine language this, I say, but only an imperfect description of a Virgil perfectly combines brilliant diction and tempest. adequate description: 'And lo! the winds, as though in formed line, rush forth where a passage is allowed them (you hear the very rushing in the words used), and blow with a blast across the world. In an instant they swoop upon the sea, and East, and South, and gusty South-west together lash up the whole main from its lowest depths, and roll to the shore huge billows. Then follow the shouts of the sailors, and the creaking of the cables. Suddenly the

the cleft in the air. borne For the rest. Roanng the wind hitherto omitted: full. lifting North came a squall. and tlic have the sail. Although the North Wind bnngs clear clouds. deserving to be called Zephyr is not a violent Then the true in Greece. . that 'the firmament glitters the successive words {crccr very thinness in the sound of how much Finally. rnicat ignibus aether) visualizes all. then the the waves to heaven. in the Odyssey it is an Virgil adds a consummate pleasing. Then you get.. varied detail. Virgil Homer was nature threatens the nianners satisfied with his few who secures a certain . the prow. ow. beneath .' Further and light together. the is given but here the business of the winds fies motion only. bearing weather. the figure of a .c . . 'the poles not. main from shrouded in lowest depths. when he ad.' there Poseidon here 'suddenly the clouds rob clouds the land and the sea. The the ship.' . the picture is onb of others on the crest of the waves.' touch in the expression. tlic thunders. the eyes of the Trojans of sky wind.7 6 Scaligcr . but not so that divine universality by his minuteness. but mountain.' and 'instant' ('all ! with instant death') poet. j . . the side You wave the poet does not ostentatiou^^ly immense wave. striking the sail from the prow oars are shivered.' and demands expression its explanation. Surely this is not He does not thunder. here they 'lash up the wholethere the clouds were 'gathered. details.' sable night broods o'er 'clashing' of the winds signiIn Homer's description. impression of thunder and lightning liwith frequent flashes. close in a mass comes on it a precipitous mountain-bil of the ship. . implied in the potent words suffering is 'threatens. • now adds swings round. .r. of sky and light together clouds rob the eyes of the Trojans the deep. exposed to the waves is the side of . This he defines it by using name. do you say that the 'sky' together. 'stormy' and especially is this with the air' seems inconsistent epithet 'born in the bright a good deal of 'shrouded in clouds. as do our later Latin poets. of the ships hang . ill wind.

7 as on the trifling lines in Book Nine: 'Thus .' and no wonder. and his heart melted. yea.. seem alive to the gods and animated his clasped hands to feeling: 'He groans. 'O blessed. by being directed are the words of Aeneas. fighting gotten my due of burial. Homer. on the other like ci)iSimilar observations may be made sodes in So should I have Peleus but now it is niy fate Achaeans would have spread my fame all subdued.' bore swiftly beneath his stout Sarpedon. has Odvsseus alone and on a raft.' flood rages mingled with the it shall return to present the whole tempest here. there Simois helmets and and rolled along so many shields and stream tempest In the closing scenes of the bodies of the brave. who perished blessed those Danaans. beneath Troy's lofty walls to before their sires' eyes Then note the apostrophe. and the discussing the Syrtcs. spear valiant Hector slain by the in the words. 'There lies was slam and the spirit in the verses: 'There of Aeacides.Poetics 77 the yawning water surging of the sea. is nobler than the times blessed. Then were tempest of Odvsseus follows the and loosened. ever blessed they.' This is to be overtaken by ' . scene is before mine as well. Odvsseus : How ' • Placed 'before their •But what feeling Virgil arouses! whose lot it was ('O blessed.' 'the the rirlgcs lays bare the ground between by adding: Virgil even ventures on repetition T do not sand. expressive with fitting gesture. for Homer Virgil again surpasses Homer. a pitiful death. ever And the the stars'! words of Odysseus: Thrice they' etc. sires' eyes' die ). and raising with blessed lament itself. four doing a pleasure to the sons on a time in wide Troy-land. pages to institute further subsequent shall use it m We in The lament the knees of much more spirit. and met of Atreus press of Trojans cast their bronzefate on that day when the for the body of the son of shod spears upon me.' heavily he spoke'to his own great which. my Would to God that I too had died. The and the majestic advance with its elegiac praise of Tydeus. but comparisons.

and in sayini: is the vastus ('wide.hile. This is quite incorrect. and like a diver he dropt down from the deck. where the account is trivial and superficial 'And the ship ran on her way for no long v.' So writes Homer.r-' they are seen floating in the wide water. spirited). and in Book Twelve. pilot. unjust. and the mast fell backward and all the gear dropped into the bilge. and the devouring eddy swallows it in sea.' in the expression in gtirgite z-astc) added because gurges signifies calm water. 'Woe is me! to what and of God-fearin^ which man's aii'I land am I come now ? say.' Homer dwells upon the break: ing of the bones of the thrice in the it but our poet substitutes 'Whilst same place the billow whirls the ship. for gurges means any swiftly-running water. . And behold.' the inapt. .' is replaced by 'in 'scattered here and t!n. Servius wrong trifling description of a great phenomenon. and is the wide water' define the fury cf in calling this a depreciation. with the rushing of a great tempest. Then he omits the pedantic comparison and the insignificant expression. my company fell from out the vessel.' 'scattered' Note how tl". In the Sixth Book of the are repeated in the Thirteenth: Odyssey occur these lines./S Scaligcr the ships were driven headlong. are tliey froward. Indeed. and drives round and round. dashed out rolle<I into the sea the helmsman. x^Hld. Like sea-gulls they were borne round the black ship upon the billows. or arc they hospitable. it is the Greek yopyo? {rough.! the sea. and the blast of wind snapped the two forestays of the mast. with which compare : : the following: strikes 'Before the chieftain's eyes a mighty sea forth is from above on the stern. as . 'were borne . and his brave spirit left his bones'. after the lightning 'And lo. and further. for of a sudden came the shrilling West. and wild. upon the words billows. and their sails were torn to shreds by the might of the wind'. the difficulty of very nature of the spondaic metre illustrates the swimming. on the hind part of the ship the mast struck the head of the pilot and brake all the bones of his skull together. niiiul' .

Aeneas furnish material for an interesting comparison. The Virgilian passage — — : surpasses the Homeric in splendor as much ill ber of deer slain.' sentiment all A passage in the Twelfth Book of the Odyssey comes : nearer to the Virgilian forasmuch is no greater woe that is upon us. than when Cyclops penned us by main might in his hollow cave.' But our passage is both stronger and more embellished. Virgil speaks of many things.' There he slays a deer. when the memory even of this will be a pleasure. as in the ye who know we are not unversed in : speech of Odysseus not yet a while go 'Friends. but most beautiful arc the lines: 'Recall your spirits and hope' 'Endure hardness and reserve yourselves for bettor days': 'Perchance the day will come. while of Odysseus it is said seize my spear and my sharp sword. and explore the strange lands. to find what coast had driven him to. truly this . yet most cliarming: 'As soon as the genial light of day wasgranted. num'My comrades. if happily I might see any sign of the labour of men and hear the sound of their speedi. and quickly departing from the ship I went up unto a place of wide prospect. but Aeneas. for down to ere now. and of triumph over danger. 'Friends. . on his part. and that in the Tenth Book of the Odyssey. let us take thought thereof. coming of the day of destiny go to then while as yet there is meat and drink in the swift ship.' with the our sorrows we shall the house of Hades. determined forth to go. 'Then did I seizes his bow.' This passage. . men or beasts and then for he sees all uncultivated to carry back to his comrades the report of his search. slays a herd.Poetics l]o\v shrill a cry of 79 maidens rinjs round mc!' is The followit is ing passage is shorter. ere the all . for the occasion different. for nothing gives more pleasure than the memory of perils escaped. as in sorrow w-e are not unlearned. for compare the speech.' Thus he proposes that they gain solace from their perils. who possessed it. that we be not famished for hunger.

Virgil builds the superstructure: 'O goddess.' with Virgil's Nay.' he tells us first of all. to tell my griefs from end if I the gCKls of heaven have given me griefs in plenty'. both a pious His bravery was shown by rescuing his gods from the foe. especially since it is a question if the fame of any man's woes is able to reach clear to heaven. Iliad. Homer will be found diffuse and precise.' divine judgment. his constancy in carrying them with him. be compared with that in the Tentli and Twelfth Books of the Odyssey and the First and Ninth Books of the prolix. One cannot Book of explain it. more. 'Some strip the skin off the ribs.' his prowess. "Tis to end.8o Scanner Also. if the niodo of feasting licre.xalted praise is Virgil's imitation of the lines from the Ninth when w^e observe b' Book of the Odyssey. for that O queen. and in the Third and Seventh Books of the Acncid.' 'I am the pious Aeneas. they ought ratlier to condemn Homer for saying. who was protecting them.- Homer's 'and pierced it through with spits. son of Laertes. for he is my household gods. But it is right that the renown of our hero. but it the distinctive excellence of Virgil always to be august. were to go back . and in my He does not rashly babble about man and a brave. and my fame reaches unto heaven. 'When the disgusting grammarians abuse Virgil for the known by fame above the sky'. and carrying them to the place to which the command of the gods and the oracles of the gods directed. 'I am Odysseus. *who rescued from the foe fleet carry them with me. who had delivered his household gods from servitude. among such details as. 'My fame reaches unto heaven'. Virgil more picturesque and Compart.' Virgil inserts that refined sentimcuV 'They express their regret for the friends they have lost. with 'and fixed them quivering on the spits. Upon hard. line. 'I ajn parison with those of is \'irgil. who am in men's minds for all manner of wiles. the lines in the Seventh the Odyssey. which run.' Not less e. should be known Homer's words hardly bear comin the abode of the gods. and his prudence in taking them in his ship.

and thou I hadst Ici. so he then tells first sets forth the common woe. will develop in his narrative.' The efTect of 'from end to end' is heightened by and 'if thou hadst leisure'.' in his introduction the seeds of those thoughts which he may mourn of for I tell first. : . for the gods of heaven have given me woes in plenty. woeful realm destroyed'.1 Poetics to the first bc^'innin}. and does not straightway take refuge. on the other hand. X'csper would close Olympus. Lastly. sad sights I have myself beheld'. is most brilliantly defined by the verse. . but which I suffered. When he comes to narrate these events. when he asks what enemy of theirs could refrain from tears in telling such a tale. Thus he declares the wretched- ness of the Trojans. and then explains the cause. as does Homer. he says that the time of day makes the telling more difTicult. What then shall what last. and 'the of his own. that more exceeding sorrow.. Then with a question he sets forth the suffering of his countrymen. is the divine and immutable verses sorrow you bid me revive how the Greeks utterly destroyed Thus he places the power of Troy and her woeful realm. writes these 'Ineffable. and lay the day to rest. and lay the day to rest. a great part. "tis hard'. 8 and tell the tale throughout. Yea. Virgil of the Odyssey again far surpasses Homer. before had ended. in the hackneyed complaint that the gods are the authors of evil.' Virgil. not only beheld. In the Ninth Book we read: 'But now thy heart was inclined to ask of I my grievous troubles. .' cflect of 'griefs in plenty' . Surely all this was not so done without the aid of that divine excellence of his that Virgil seems not so much to hnve imitated Homer as to have taught us how Homer should have written. by 'to hear the story of our disasters' and the expression.mre to hear the story of our disasters.' The difficulty is due to the long series 'back to the tlic first beginning. The grievous first troubles are not his alone. and of which I was a part. 'Vesper would close Olympus. O queen. of events. Then 'the.

No.' this is excluded from traged}-. and Polygnotus excelled in character-drawing. the action will be altogether fortuitous. Pylades. Aegisthus was a murderer in character. and the princonduct? ciple of avoiding evil conduct is implanted? Aristotle ruled that since poetry civic institution is comparable to that which leads us to happiness.82 Seal I Vll. action. if now and y)9o^ means 'an inclination to a certain course of ent on chance. it his mother. But in the absence of such form we are either bad or else indifferent. Surely he is right we agree perfectly. Euclio. But what he adds offers a little more difficulty. which arise from mental states or dispositions. a definite Is there form. and so were Polymne>ior. for is' no queswas not a characteristic action. naiiio. What then does the poet teach? Does he teach actions. 'character. as it were. but action. Under the circumstances. 3. the poet does not lead us to imitate character. Thus Zeuxis But the painter gave no expression of character in his work. and wholly depend- To illustrate: Orestes once commitlrd murder by slaying tion of character. whicli the philosophers forni of e\-il right reason.' '/^o? by he says that the tragic poets of his day would here translate usually constructed plots that lacked delineation of character. there is not. 1. He says that there cannot be a tragedy without there action. Pseudolus. though for may I be one without disposition. happiness being nothing other than perfect action. the Sin^eVci? of the Greeks? Or does he teach us how to become such men that the faculty of doing good is potent. Yet here there . WHETHER THE POET TEACHES CHARACTER OR ACTION Of any well-governed conduct there call is. On the other hand.

its But in civil life action the end.! it in . disposition its end. If any one thinks that our distinctions are more subtle than the subject warrants. but as to whether he teaches mental disposition. therefore. Wherefore action is. he need not take it to heart. as it were. just when he formulated metrical laws from words and the parts of words. our conduct. that which we are taught. he yill find it very easy to leave the whole matter alone. then. that the poet teaches meutal are not done without our being disposed to do them. the pattern or medium is in a plot. is a mode of teaching disposition. result of the inquiry is. they The"-. or the outward expression of it^ Though many things are done cjntrary to character. and disposition form. a So our inquiry is not as to wlicthcr the poet teacbcs character or action. so that we embrace the good and j 1' imitate that. Aristotle was also illogical in attributing to tragedy ^lone that which w^as the as common property of poetry. and reject th6 evil and abstain from Action. disposition through action. and afterwards ignored those very laws themselves.Poetics 83 and Davus. .

16. Anaxilas. 15. c. c. 62. parody employed by. pastoral. Aristophanes. 16. 23. poet of Old Comedy. 60. . Adonima. style of.i. c. Tl:of. probably tame. form of Adonis. . Apollodorus. natural. Alexamenes. Alffv/jiyrjTai. 3. 68. criticized. c. the Muse Uoirjrd so called by some. c. c. 67. of the word by pedants.INDEX [c. 43. 42-43. 44. said to have mingled satyrs with heroes in tragedy. Archippus. 45. form of pastoral. for quoted. 48. Andronicus. duties of. Alexis. A/707r6Xia. 32. ID . 45. AmBractiTttt poet of . 22. c. analyzed. method of. is the abbreviation for cited. inspired by wine. 15. cited on episodes. Aralus. 16. 69. by Horace. 35. threefold classification character of plays of.Middl e Come dy. Acumen (acuttim). said to be inventor of dialogue. Aristophanes ridiculed by. 19. religious poet. Amphion. Aristophanes ridiculed by. wit of. 82-83. in style. Aelian. 49. 44. A/jr6Xio. criticized in choice of titles. Achaeus. inspired by wine. 30. originator of poetry. chorus in plays of. several plays of. 44. 44. 15. 42. date of. 70. ArislonyuiHS. used wrong means to gain suspense. 62-64. mode of of. Frogs and The Clouds • of. comedy Aeolosicon of. Acharnians of. philosophical poet. poetry. 32. q. 19. Alcman. 15. Aeschylus. to show usages lacks unity. Plutus of. 44. c. 45. 17. often expressed hope of victory. 10. poet of Middle Comedy.] Accius. 67. 15. ^AoiSd. inspired by wine. CocaUis of. Livius. 43. Apollo. 45. Action. c. 6162. The Clouds of. story of. in dealing with history. poet of Old Comedy. 4}. form of pastoral. 'A7ro5i777r7/uaTt(c6s. * ''Ktul^iffda. 46. calumiiiou". 45. method of. 23. whether the poet teaclies character or. in Old Comedy. c. 66-67. 66. plays reworked by Plautus. excelled in raillery. Alcaeus. 45. poet of Old Latin Comedy. Cy. 66. Ameipsas. meaning of. 44. 39. 15. 66. 62. inspired by wine.

form of Latin comedy. q. or ^oniiics. nature and technique of. the chorus in tragedy. 69. form of pastoral. possible etymology of. sprang from pastoral poetry. kinds of. 34. Aristotle. Coincssationes. 69. 33. ^\2 . Cleomenes. patterned 39. 35. story of. 58. Chaldeans. 57. Character. Chio Hides. 43. Caryalis. ZAComedy. 40. poetry to be divided into. 23. 31-32. 3G-37. 67-68. Cicero. characters of Old. as a surname of Diana.of. 35-36. in pastorals. Hi'os. Callias. 22.. subject-matter periods of Old. defined. 55. characters of. 47. classified according to style. how used by Bacchus. 42-43 . on poets and versifiers. 26. New. 2)2>'. resembled mime in character. relative excellence of. Latin. discussed. origin of. life. c. 10. 5. function of. 82-83. on the Iliad and the OJysscy. 44. 43. 82-.[. worshiped Ballio. of New. 45. Atcllaiia. 67-68. derived from Old. 7* . wrong defined definition of. form of pastoral. refined by art. 39. Ceres. defined 62. 12. 27. BovKo\ui(TTai. technical terms used by. Old. 85 17. episodes how defmed by. 68. 38. older than tragedy. subject-matter of. 10. 57. BwKoXioa-/x'5s. origin of. songs at cross-roads not the origin of. 69. the three periods of. records of. 20. Coena. satiric subjects presented at festival of.. described. explained. 4. New.Judex Aristotle. significance of. 4446. Bucolic. BiKoXtKd. parody in. discussed. claimed by Sicilians. 57. 45. 22Chorus. Graiiunar of. 35.S3. Brass. 14. in dramatic criticism. 62-65. 59. early accounted one of the elements in doiSa. 64-65. 31. 35. q. 82. defined. how transmitted. claimed by Sicilians. succeeded by parabasis in Middle Comedy. in Old Comedy. 2. Middle. two discussed. inconsistent. whether the poet teaches action or. on on character and action. et>-molog>. c. should condvinn vice by illustration. 83. why esteemed to-day. on inspiration. 69. 42-43. 38. Chytra. 49. 49. 47. worshiped in pastorals. 14. practices of. tragedy How by. 13. Borcos. 19. subject-matter of Old. after real and Scaligcr's definition of. A> ts. how overcome by Telesilla. 30. Chapters. 33.

43. 44. 54. Dionysia. records of. At^-rrvov. Epicharvuis. life portrayed in. 44. AtiXcKToj. 15. 20. called an end. poet of Old Comedy. AnfynfjLaTiK6s. 4. 38. Demaratus. The Dipt<^>'s of. 62. Durdi. Epic. Dialogues. Odysscys Cratinus. c. 19. 2ilffayufyiK6i. 35. inspired by wine.86 Index et>Tnolog>. a mode mode of poetry. 70. norm for all poetry. wrongly said to have given comedy its name.of. Ennius. 33. 4. a means to Empedocles. how transmitted. how overcome by Dhioucment. philosophical totle. 17. defined. defined. 34. 49. 5-7. 66. Dignity (dignitas). tragedy acted at festival of. 40. A6pirov. 12. Arabian term for the lees of wine. Donalus. discussed. c. 19. 35. 19. Aristotle's use of. Elegies. ridiculed by Accius. 48. 43. character of his comedy. Corinna. 62. plays of. Diphilus. 82. Deliberative speaking. Telessila. A10X0777TIK65. 34. term Crates. in style. c. use of twMOJ in. 46. ZZ. Ctcsibiiis. c. 10. of poetry. Dares. reworked by Plautu":. how defined by A^o-ij. Dryads. 42. said to antedate Homer. story of. 4. 46. poet. origin of. . a 19. 55.ariK6s. 22. Complication. inventor of hydraulic organ. antedates Chionidcs and Magnes. 19. reworked by Plautus. to 44. natural. poet by Aris- End. plays of. 14. 23- ApaiJ. praiseworthy poet. Comoedh. first write comedy without metre. Eclogue. added plot to comedy. Daphnis. 3-4. Ata^eo-etj. 4-^ wit of. c. 16. how used by Aristotle. origin of word. technical use of the word defined. 16. not the end of oratory. ^ 16. relative excellence of. analyzed. etymology of. Aristotle. 34. Eloquence. etymology of. 27. 19. > Drama. 62. 29. of. 33.

. as to origin of 19. proved by an oracle. 69. in pastoral form. 30-31. ideas how classified by. 5. Harmony. chorus in plays of. analyzed. described. ISpisodcs. force of prefix in. poetry over prose. defines dialogue wrongly. 70. 55. used by Numidians. 49. 14. c. c. Fluency {volubilitas). defined. story of. in style. 20. discussed. Eriphanis. protasis employed by. exact meaning of. q. • 70. c. Hedylc. 70. 63-64. in dealing with history. relative excellence of. 37. criticized. early recognized one of the elements in doiJd. 39. ^EiriK(j>ndl^tif. 70. followed correct method of composition in Aetliiopica. wit of.plenujn). in style. Fervency {vehementia). 58. Heliodorus. Cyclops of. Polyphemus of. method of. Gellius. cited to show that tragedy may end happily. diction refined by. 66. directly inspired. • 16-17. said to . relative excellence of. generic in song. to Muses. 52. t6. Gorgias. 29. 10. 59. 3. 11. 27-28. argue superficially for priority of 12. 19. have won in a contest. Hesiod. economical poet. not distinctive of tragedy or comedy. 61-62. in style. Euripides. Aristotle's dcfmition of. criticized for choice of titles. Hercules. suggest wrong etymology for tragedy. 37. poet of 87 Old Comedy. 6. in style. 11. Galen. 59. taken from life. relation of. c. Fistula. Grammarians. 65. Flute. 32. poet excelling in iambics. a pastoral poetess. 'EiriX^fio. 4. npigrams. 5-7. plays of. 20. Medea of. c. 15. attributed to Pan. . 'Eirt5ft»cTiAc65. q. 49. Fulness (. form of pastoral. impure ' characters of. Grace (venustas). Hermogcncs. 69.Index Epicratcs. Hippocrates.wrongly represented. 44. c. 43. Exodia. ^E^rjy-rjfiariKSi. mode of poetry. Latin poetry. Epideiclic speaking. 35. 58. Eupolis. 39-40. 28. Graces. invention of. 70... 28. 16. 58.

r-.<.es.5- 7^-^^ J'^' ^ .::. .. Lilyerses. religious 3'-32...:...ves. 73is poe.. not the end - 'louXos.^:r"rtlnsof. to wl.ed ^.^_^^ ^. 48.^^ fest.„ f"':^employs '"" ..1° .. ""! ^°^X„. story of...rgU. 31. 3O..?3.ms of to deduce according-to age history.fied .o. ety. Epicharmns. a ^^^^^^^^ ^ shepherds Kop^. 35.„ crUicism. pupil of old Lf'erior...ry.. 43/„^..^f . ^{Jm.<->.„ tr™.aractema. natralcs actual cl. a Kw^o'.. inventors of Pisistratidae called the r-r":^^ al'^-'f" u"a.Index 58 88 . "'«<' '3^ '-' """ "'^^ over "•orW of tragedy ^v. 15. comedy pou.7. i i. 33- comedy. • Judicial speaking..-fJ..^^^. defined /..p— '•""r:f:rf. ... .^ssed discusseu in its relations. K.53iC...Sted by passages from meanmg ot. » not above Ik . of poetry. mu^i rr. ..ocra(e5. revelr.n i.-S- poetry.va of.on .s v. poet.na/. 17. "°^ae%f:"nt!.. 37. tool 26. ^„..o. .«d. 52- S!.. i. 5-7- analyzed.. 3U form of pastoral by. on episodes./^..^^. .Uss. 8- events. diction Latin a iorm of /entaffo.^^^ ^. • shephcrd^s tool 26 KaXd^po. Cr:r::£. false cla. I t/agedy acted ^' worshiped in Pfo"'^' at 49.tless.„w..^^^=o. satire of.

criticized. 15. Plato's explanation of origin of word. date of.. MeXerd. a form of pastoral utterance. Medicine. Nature. 11. fixed at nine. c. c. Martins. liypophrygian. Melissus. 62. why called Thespiades and Heliconides. subject-matter Old Comedy. 9. reworked by Plautus. c. discussed. 52. AiJffd. c. praiseworthy poet. Mag)ies. 13. plays of. 64-65. Menander.Judex difTcrcnt from Lucaii. why made companions of Graces. 17. why invoked by poets. 2. 57. 66. hypodorian. Mopsiis. relative excellence of. Misitra. said to have contended with Sirens in song. Mendemus. form of pastoral. poet of Middle Comedy. 14. faulty explanation of number of. Megalostrata. c. natural. phrygian. as a surname of DianA. 70. Discategarumenos of. Modes. 17. 11-12. Nicander. why . 25-26. 49. why mother of Muses. 10.2. religious poet. 17. 24. 13. philosopliical poet. 56. 68. 58. 27. relation of. more polished than Homer. natural. 46. Lucretius. 16. inventor of trabeata. of. 16. how LuC(j)i.- Martial. in style. 19. ID. Lucian. 13 why called 'winged'. Negligence (securitas). c. . 15. 31. to Graces. probably tame. li. Mime. 13. surnames of. Musaeus. 13. li. Scaliger's explanation. lilnemosyne. Lh-y. 17. used the fictitious. practices of. 47. proved by an oracle. illustration drawn from. 25. 11-12. why used as a pastoral term. AxiiiacTal. how different from Livy. Mimnermus. 16. 89 34. 16. surpassed by Virgil. 17. Muses. borrowed from localities. followed correct method of composition. related to Mnesimachus. 34. Lya. Mv^Mo. c. characters employed in. a prophetic poet. 11 . proved to be a poet. 40. philosophical poet. degraded dialogue. 20. why called Camenae. li. 34. one of the two Muses recognized by early theologians. AvTtip<jr)f. 16. 21. attacked. Aristotle's use of. explanations of. 13. 44. Monodies. origin of. Monoprosopos. 4-5. Nacz'ius. Turkish name of Caryae. explanation of others.

and why. Uapd^aais. a shepherd's bag. Xicoslraliis. phanes. aet-o/iTjp/i. Osiris. 3. Ornateness {floridum).' Odes. Orpheus. c. Persuasion. Paeans. Oroebantius. lO. 13. 20. Pausanias. oratory. / Orator. 23. Ovid. 15-16. 32. later. ^Olyynpus. 3. why so called. traditional father of Muses. origin of. 7. 49. Oaristys. Pastorals. 23. 18. poet of ii6fuoy. used in allaying disease. religious poet. in speaking. 21. wanderings of. Aristotle's use of term. 25. 20. 52. Origen. Middle Latin Comedy. very early poetry. learned from poet.90 Index Middle Comedy. . 27. exposition. form of pastoral. relative excellence of. 67-68. 46. II<p«jr^T«ta. sole 5. end sought by early orators. c. 48. 5. 3. 52. employed with effect in comedy. 62. 52. in style. confused two types of comedy. Perspicuity (pcrspicuitas). 24. Orestes. form of pastoral. defined. 29. religious poet. Metamorphoses of. how differing from poet and philosopher in method. early. 70. 44. with reference to means and manner of imitation. of. takes place of chorus. 22. in philosophical soul of. hydraulic. and drama. time of earliest. most excellent form of poetr>-. . attributed to Sicily. Pantotnitne. 15. prize contests in. 35. 26. said to antedate Homer. two main divisions of. 32. Organ. addresses audience in Aristo- Parody. tragedy acted at festival Uavarrepfxia. 24-25. end of. 70. Panathenea. 45. Aristotle's use of term. purpose of. explained and illustrated. a form of pastoral. 20. 68. sought only to persuade. end 3. 26-27. 58. Parabasis. Pacttvtus. a form of drama. in style. 21. poet of Palliatae. 16. 62. Persephate. 44. love favorite theme of.

threeclassi- Muses invoked 15. called stupid by Aristophanes. to show that imitated Epicharmus. called Jupiter in Disguise a tragicomedy. classified according to subject- Amphitryon of. 35. Poema. a second Deity. 35. c. 66. iS. Philebus of. 15. revelries. a surname of Diana. 34. honored for skill in dancing. reworked by Plautus. poet of Old Comedy. 13. Pocsis. 15. 15. often vulgar. 'muses' how c. c.. 14. 15. 18. matter. c. Republic of. 52. c. 45. plays of. incontinence of. how occasioned. 7. twofold fication of. 16. Plutarch. 16. early. 58. 12-13. how possible in tragedy. art of. classified by. Plinius Caecilius. Phcrccrales. versifier. Places. c. Phocylides. wrongly called father of the Muses. 4. 14. 52. Plainness (tenuitas). 18. 14-15. how defmed by Aristotle. later. Poet. c. four attributes of. Phh}i(Udrs. and pocma. poet of Midrile Physician. three elements in art of. 48. T Plot. matter. 44. origin of word. c. 48. Comedy. Plautus. Phormis. c. how distinguished from fold classification of. Symposium of. 46. Piertis. Symposium and Phaedrus of. threefold classification according to periods. learned from orator. 13. reworked Greek plays. of. 14. 70. iS. not worth reading. tragedy should give. several plays of. 60. moral poet. 7. in Plato. less 57. c. 8. style. Philemon. 0. Apology and Phacdo of. on poets. 66. defmed. 52. Pleasure. Maccdon. defined. popular to-day than Terence. distinguishes between pocsis iS. why 69. defined. 41. 62. a"? 91 25-26. 2)3Phrynichus. 14. on inspiration. plays of. Pisistratidae. how used by Plutarch. 3. 7. 9. 38. 14. of 66. poet of Old Comedy.. . . 4. introduced original satire in recast plays. 45. 15. 30. according to subject18. q. 46. how used by riutarch. 60. Philip. 44. word explained by. 50. c. Republic of. Ion of. comedy may end unhappily. how described in poetr>'. explanation of. sought only to please. 62. used as illustration. 18. how differing from orator in method. 5. said to have sur- passed Mcnander. q. according to inspiration. 9. 44. how differing from orator in method.Index Phast'Iis. Philosopher. said by Idomeneus to have invented their real service to refine comedy. 37. added plot to comedy. defined. 46.

.odofc^^^^^^^^^ yrio)i. c . characici Saniiyriou....).. ^ .0. form ' ^- '-'"' "• Rhythm. relative Sedigittis.. 68.c. "-^:[^^™^%"'-R/i^'nfomVo'. 57...mstyle instn t. 6.. moral ^ of h P. form ot jPra^^rxtafa^./F:::... . prM^c P ric _^ ^-'^ .„ri™. tp«^'/(°"f"!p>' VS.^ i ''''="''"r..::rf^io.cd .^>—^^ poet Pyi/iagora5.. 57 subject-matter 01.d by K.3 of speaW 'Ptt^SoOxot. cha • ?. not tracedy as ins. author ot /i" 3. origin \Prandinm.6. Plays. ./ - ^ excellence ScoUa.. uvu one of the jnopev..an. c„.e. 20.e ....... of.. .?:". 47. records ^.^^sniitted.nd Aristotle. c„. an /a '''(„um. c. form oU^^^^.ro.o. 7a. ^ ^^ ^^ iUustraUd.„...^:„. ^^^ ^^^_^ . l^tm of na. define. 33- separatejn tprologue.»"-'"^ ho.HoiTjTd. 12.ctcr..:d::^e^net.ome<iyv^ tpajj^__..-fa..Vcnt. 66."isc«s. of.«d K/ti'MfoH.

Speech. 30. Zwrroorij. poet of Middle Comedy.. 14. 69. cited. form of pastoral. wrongly Sibyls.. first poet to write of Daphnis. . (viollitia). c. ii. 70-71 humble. moderate. grand. 30. Teleclides. 15. c. 70. Sert'ius. 69. 49. 6S-69. 44. 45 48. 70. 49. 13. 20. 70. Aristotle's use of the term. 16. 59. poet of Middle Comedy. . Style. as poets. c. Superficies. with reference to more careful in diction. Stesichorus. History of the Caesars of. Sophocles. Nero ^9. said to have contended with Muses in song. c. popular to-day than Plautus. defined. Suetonius. 50. 2Cpt7|. . defined. criticized in choice of titles. 70. relative excellence Sonorousness (sonus). 7. c. in category hy themselves. 45. 44. Index Seneca. 47. on episodes. in style. c. Oedipus of. 78. q-. legend of. relative excellence of^ 20. 44. c. tion. Telessila. i8. Tabernariae. Speaking. c. Simplicity (simplicitas). Arabian term for amurca. kinds of. properties of each kind of. . political poet.. Songs. defined. see Language. 35. 70-71 . 30. 40. vice condemned several plays of. how variously expressed in tragedy. Stratis. defined and illustrated. discussed. why Thefal. poet of Old Comedy. 44. poet of Old Comedy. Terence. 63-64. with heroes. Syager. see Fistula. criticizes Virgil. 16. in style. The Eunuch. how represented by Virgil. stories of. classified according to subject-matter. 2wrTa<nj. form of Latin comedy. the Andria of. c. 16. Smoothness Socrates. 47- Life of Tiberius of. c. d'j. 27. Sophron. in style. witli fj . 70-71 "Zv^urria. nuptial. Solon. tragedies of. 4. in New Latin Comedy. why neglected to-day. Sotades. protasis. 49. 62. 65. 5-7.n. but lacking in spirit. Straton. Sirens. 45. reference to means and manner of of. 23. poet of by. said to antedate Musaeus and Orpheus. as applied to the description of a place. said to have mingled satyrs q. of. 61 chorus in plays of. 30. Silenus. Sentiments.




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