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**Introduction to Dynamic Analysis of Structures
**

All real physical structures, when subjected to loads or displacements, behave dynamically. The additional inertia forces, from Newton’s second law, are equal to the mass times the acceleration. If the loads or displacements are applied very slowly then the inertia forces can be neglected and a static load analysis can be justified. Hence, dynamic analysis is a simple extension of static analysis. In addition, all real structures potentially have an infinite number of displacements. Therefore, the most critical phase of a structural analysis is to create a computer model, with a finite number of massless members and a finite number of node (joint) displacements, that will simulate the behavior of the real structure. The mass of a structural system, which can be accurately estimated, is lumped at the nodes. Also, for linear elastic structures the stiffness properties of the members, with the aid of experimental data, can be approximated with a high degree of confidence. However, the dynamic loading, energy dissipation properties and boundary (foundation) conditions for many structures are difficult to estimate. This is always true for the cases of seismic input or wind loads. To reduce the errors that may be caused by the approximations summarized in the previous paragraph, it is necessary to conduct many different dynamic analyses using different computer models, loading and boundary conditions. It is not unrealistic to conduct 20 or more computer runs to design a new structure or to investigate retrofit options for an existing structure. Under dynamic or time verying loads the response os structure become function of space and time. A Dynamic Analysis is response evaluation at different time steps or intervals. It can be said that dynamic analysis is step wise carried oit static analysis.

Determination of Stiffness of a model frame.

Experiment Number 1

Structural Analysis

Static Analysis

Dynamic Analysis

Function of Space only.

Function of Space and Time

**Types of Dynamic Loads
**

Dynamic loads can be regular loads i.e. sinusoidal or Harmonic type of loads. Dynamic loads can be highly irregular or random loads. Dynamic loads in case of vibratory machinery are regular types of loads where as in case of winds and earth quake these loads are highly irregular or random type loads.

Regular Loads • Harmonic or Sinusoidal types of Loads • Load due to Vibratory Machinery.

Irregular Loads • Load due to Winds • Load due to Earthquake.

Determination of Stiffness of a model frame.

Experiment Number 1

Dynamic Equilibrium

The force equilibrium of a multi-degree-of-freedom lumped mass system as a function of time can be expressed by the following relationship:

……… eq. (1) In which the force vectors at time t are

• • • •

F(t)I is a vector of inertia forces acting on the node masses F(t)D is a vector of viscous damping, or energy dissipation, forces F(t)S is a vector of internal forces carried by the structure F(t) is a vector of externally applied loads

Equation (1) is based on physical laws and is valid for both linear and nonlinear systems if equilibrium is formulated with respect to the deformed geometry of the structure. For many structural systems, the approximation of linear structural behavior is made in order to convert the physical equilibrium statement, Equation (1), to the following set of second-order, linear, differential equations:

……… eq. (2) In which M is the mass matrix (lumped or consistent),

**C is a viscous damping matrix (which is normally selected to approximate energy dissipation in the real
**

structure) and K is the static stiffness matrix for the system of structural elements.

The time-dependent vectors and accelerations, respectively.

are the absolute node displacements, velocities

Determination of Stiffness of a model frame.

Experiment Number 1

•

Is the internal forces which is due to mass or weight of structure. It acts in or weight opposite direction to applied load and keep the structure at rest.

•

Is the damping force due to internal friction of structure and due to external friction with air and other mediums.

•

It is elastic or restoring force. It acts in the opposite direction to the applied load. It is based on structural stiffness or structural properties.

P(t) = Dynamic Load M = Mass of Structure C = Damping co-efficient u = Displacement u = Velocity u = Acceleration

Determination of Stiffness of a model frame.

Experiment Number 1

Here are the results of an exampled cantilever beam whose dimensions are given above. Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam has been done using a powerful FEM computer program, Ansys v12.

Determination of Stiffness of a model frame.

Experiment Number 1

Determination of Stiffness of a model frame.

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