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SUBMITTED BY:JANARDAN KUMAR ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING 143/07, 6th SEMESTER NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, JAMSHEDPUR
Plant training report Completed Under the guidance of
Project on Generator Protection completed under the guidance of
Mr. Cosmos D. Lakra Sr. Manager, HR Tata Power Jojobera Plant JAMSHEDPUR
Mr. Sanjay Kumar Sr. Manager, Electrical Tata Power Jojobera Plant JAMSHEDPUR
I would like to express my gratitude and thanks to all those who gave me this great opportunity to compare my report .Firstly I want to thank Mr. Cosmos D. Lakra , Sr. Manager H.R. ,Tata Power , Jamshedpur and the Department of Electrical for giving me permission to commence this report in the first instance, to do the necessary field work and to use departmental data. I would like to extend my gratitude to Mr. Sanjay Kumar Sr.Manager, Electrical for his immense support, encouraged and all technical help without which the completion of this project would have been impossible. I am also deeply indebted to Mr. S. K. Sahoo and Mr. Saket Kumar whose technical input, stimulating suggestions and encouragement helped me in the completion of report and provided me with practical on- field knowledge of the subject. Moreover, I would like to give my special thanks to
Mr. G.P. Shastri Mrs. Archana Sharma Miss. Neha Kumari Mr. B.C. Majhi
Who all helped to get knowledge about working and maintenance of the plant and the vital role they play in the performance of the plant. My co-trainees from various colleges supported me in my work. I want to thank them for all their help, support, interest and valuable hints. Their presence made my stay at TATA Power a pleasant and learning experience in all aspects of life.
CONTENT Plant overview Environmental Management Coal Handling Plant Operation Control and Instrumentation Electrical System Protective Relays Generator Protection Trip Classes Protective Relay Form generators and Generator-transformer units Protection Application REG SPAJ Reference .
Jamshedpur . UNIT COMMISSIONING: Unit #1: 67. transmission and distribution business at present and has set goals to take this level to 5000 MW by the year 2008.set up in 1919 . The Tata Power group (TEC) comprised three companies:• Tata Power • Andhra Valley • Tata Hydro .5 MW AT Jojobera Plant.A 120MW plant is going to be operational from July 2010. Now The Tata Power manages around 3200 mw of generation.The first unit began commercial operation in February 2001 followed by the second unit in February 2002 while the third became operational by 2005.5 MW of coal based captive power unit of Tata steel in April 1996. Tata power added three units of three units of 120 MW capacities each at Jamshedpur . Tata Power started its operations in Jharkhand with the acquisition of 67.set up in 1916 .set up in 1910 These companies were merged in the year 2000 to form Tata power.OVERVIEW The Tata Power Company Limited is one of the oldest power sector utilities in India.5 MW (commissioned in 1996) Unit #4: 120 MW (commissioned in 2000) Unit #3: 120 MW (commissioned in 2001) Unit #4: 120 MW (commissioned in 2005) NET GENERATION: 427.TATA POWER.
.circulating water system is provided . The condensate water is reutilized in the steam generator for producing further steam and the system runs in a closed cycle. is tangentially fired.it is fed into coal mills where pulverization takes place and coal-primary air mixture is pneumatically fed into boiler furnace through coal burners .In the process coal is fired in the Boiler to convert water into superheated steam . LDO (light diesel oil) and water • The primary fuel is coal.From coal bunkers . Specific LDO consumption of the division is 2. steam comes into condenser where it is condensed where it is condensed into the water. It is sourced from Indian Oil Corporation or HPCL or BPCL.The materials used for power generation are coal.FUEL: .Coal is used as primary fuel and LDO firing system is provided for starting up/Shut down/ low-load operations . coal is fed to coal bunkers through conveyors .fly ash and Bottom Ash .generator set to generate electrical power .76 kg/KWh.Fly ash is conveyed pneumatically to M/S Lafarge and through baulker to ACC and Grasim for Cement making.60% of which is procured from Tata steel .after passing through the turbine.To convert Turbine exhaust steam into condensate water in the condenser . Then the thermal energy stored in steam is utilized in the turbine. A small percentage of make-up water is required to compensate the losses in the process . The specific consumption of the division is 0.The balance quality is supplied by Mahanadi Coalfields Limited (MCL) . recycled and reused. • The secondary fuel used in the plant is Light Diesel oil (LDO). WASTE DISPOSAL:In the Power generation process coal ash is generated in two forms.46 Liter/KWh. Bottom Ash is disposed to ash pond for setting and water is recovered.coal is received in the coal yard and after primary and secondary crushing. pulverized coal generator (Boiler). PROCESS:Steam is generated.
The product of coal/LDO consumption i. DM plant is installed to remove all the salts to maximum extent from the available normal incoming raw water. The power at 132 KV level is fed directly to the main grid of Tata Steel at Golmuri Substation. Power generation. DEMINERALIZING PLANT: The high pressure boiler at the Jojobera thermal power station unit requires high purity water for their smooth and safety operation. Further in the event of high salinity in the boiler water there is always the danger of salts being carried over with steam. This insures that the boiler water will always have limited salinity and the problem of scaling and corrosion of boiler internals is prevented. Electrical power is supplied to Tata Steel at two voltage levels 132 KV and 32 KV. to be ultimately deposited on lower pressure side of the turbine blades. Important parameters are monitored on continuous basis through DCS. in –house consumption and power supply to customer is monitored on – line through VISTA system. flue gas comes out through boiler stack after passing through air pre heater and economize . This salt laden water may also damage the turbine blades as it is emitted at a very high velocity. To produce this high quality water for the boiler feed purposes. The division feds the 33KV power to local industries through a 33KV substation directly as per guidelines given by Tata Steel. All three units are provided through Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) to bring down the suspended particulate matter (SPM) level in conformity with the pollution control norms. The power is generated at 11KV level and then stepped up to 132 KV level by generators transformers. To evacuate the Fly –ash and Bottom ash. .e. a mechanized ash evacuation system is provided.Fly –ash thus generated is collected in bottom ash hopper beneath steam generator . VISTA and other systems all the important control loops run in auto mode with self –correcting characteristics.
ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS (E.S.P.):Exhaust gases contain large quantity dust particles which are emitted into the atmosphere. This poses threat to mankind as devastating health hazard. E.S.P. Advantages : • Ability to treat volume of gases at high temperature. • Ability to cope up with corrosive atmosphere. • Offer low resistance path to gas flow E.S.P. uses intense electric forces to separate suspended particles from the flue gases. Process involves : • Electric charging of suspended particles • Collection of charged particles on collecting diodes • Removal of particles from collecting diodes • Five fields to keep emission within limits. • Electromagnetic control system is used. • Ammonia dosing for better result.
COOLING TOWERS:Cooling tower is very large and is divided in smaller parts as the size of droplets. These water droplets drops fall from a height of 8 to 10 meters to the bottom of cooling tower. The splitting of water into small droplets, the draught provided by the tower and the large evaporating surface helps to cool water very quickly practically during the time when it is descending. Water from the base of the cooling is pumped into the condenser and the cycle is repeated. Some water about 2% to 5% is lost due to evaporation and has to be added from the tank. Cooling tower are classified as atmospheric (or natural draught) and mechanical draught. • Counter flow cooling tower with PVC fills. •Chemical treatment, to avoid scaling and corrosion in condenser tubes.
Fig. Cooling Tower structure
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT (D M PLANT)
Environment stricture are to be strictly abided by governing authority of any industry with pollutants as effluent .So the Electrostatic Precipitator has been installed to extrude 99% of ash and prevent it from moving out into the atmosphere air. As DM water is required in many of power plant operation , a DM plant is invariably required .It is basically an Unit for producing clarified drinking , make-up and mostly DM water .Apart from drinking ,water is mostly used as coolant in Heat exchanger & Boiler. Some salt like Sulphate, Chloride, Silicate not having retrograde solubility comes out of solution for exceeding solubility limit due to concentration .Ultimately the salt which comes out of solution settle on the heat exchanger surface restricting heat transfer, thus reducing the heat transformer efficiency. The water supply source is river Subarnrekha which is treated with Na2SO3 to drive away C12, which would otherwise oxidize and damage resin permanently and then with ironammonium alum to precipitate suspended impurity materials. CONTACT TANK Takes care of suspended matter and filter them out .Alum solution dosed to incoming raw water facilitate proper reaction. To place in the contact tank with sufficient retention capacity for the alum, to form a filterable flock. PRESSURE SAND FILTER: It minimizes the carry over of suspended matter to the subsequent vessels. DEGASSER: It removes the carbonic acid at the SAC outlet .At SAC inlet, soluble carbonates are there .They are converted in SAC to carbonic acid .An intimate contact between solution and
required for filling of generation of power is maintained without interruption. Function of the coal handling plant :1. As the bicarbonate content is nearly half of total anion load of the influent water to plant. Procurement of coal. degasser educe the load on anion resin and regenerate significantly.The CHP is responsible for the procurement and supply of the coal to the coal mill bunkers so that the supply of pulverized coal. 3.air enable CO2 stripping. Unloading . MIXED BED EXCHANGER: The anion and cation not absorbed earlier are absorbed her. PROCESS FLOW CHART :Railway rakes ⇒Wagon tippler ⇒ Hopper ⇒ Apron Feeder ⇒ Primary crusher ⇒ Eccentric Disc Screen ⇒ Secondary crusher ⇒ Conveyor ⇒ Bunker . 2.sizing and storing of coal Feeding of coal. COAL HANDLING PLANT (CHP) Coal handling plant is the most essential plant of any thermal plant .
The mixture of water and steam is discharged into the boiler drums. drain cooler and LP heater. • Pneumatic conveying system to silos. • Ash conditioning for unloading into dumpers. emergency stop and governing valve. pumps. thus producing electricity. Steam undergoing expansion in the turbine is allowed to flow through the condenser where the steam is condensed by cooling water supplied by C. Feed water is supplied to the drum through the economizer outer limbs. The condensate collected in the hot wells and pumped by vertical condensate extraction pumps to the de aerator through air ejector. Water in the boiler tubes absorbs heat from the furnaces. • Provision of four types of ash evacuation from silos. • Wet ash disposal system. the condensate steam collected steam collected in different . OPERATION The steam cycle is working on a non heat regeneration cycle. During this process. Super heated steam from the boiler is fed to the turbine via the turbine top valve.W. The separated saturated steam is led to the super heater where it is heated to about 810 k. feed water is pumped to the economizer inlet header through two HP heater. From the De aerator feed water storage tank. gland steam condenser.ASH PLANT :• Dry collection of Ash in Hoppers. gets expanded here and then it is directed to the inlet of the LP turbine for further expansion. In the process the turbine starts rotating which in turn rotates the prime mover of the generator. Steam first enters the HP turbine.
• Super heater section • Re-heater section • Draught system • Fuel firing system. 2.system. In a steam turbine following are the main parts:1. The steam expanded from high pressure to low pressure either in the nozzle or in the blades and kinetic energy thus obtained is supplied to the blades where the it is transformed into mechanical work. Heat is recovered at various points and is fed to the main feed water system. BOILER AND ITS AUXILIARIES :- Steam generation is done in a radiant reheat. . so that steam issues from nozzle at high velocity. single drum. The nozzle in which energy of high pressure is converted into kinetic energy. The blade which change the direction of motion of steam issuing from the nozzle that force acts on the blades to change momentum and propel them. direct corner fired fitting burners and top supported type boiler. The power is made available at a turbine shaft directly or with the help of reduction gear. The turbine mainly consists of nozzle or set of nozzle and rotary blade wheel. TURBINE AND ITS AUXILIARIES:A stem turbine is a prime mover in which rotary motion is obtained by the gradual change of momentum of the steam. wet circulation.
• Hotwell make up pump. In order to have stable generating condition in power plant. • Surface condenser. they create a necessity for the deviation .• Condensate extraction pump. always a balance is obtained. • Gland steam condenser. This balance is distributed due to • Grid troubles • Trouble in process • Trouble in equipment. all the process variables deviate from the normal value. Thus. • Extraction steam system - LP heater HP heater De aerator CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION Thermal power plant have a number of equipments performing number of complex processes for the ultimate aim . . When this balance is disturbed. the conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy.
1. tube metal temperature filled system thermometer such as mercury in steel . 2. Recorders: Recorders are necessary wherever operating history is required for analyzing the trend and for future case and efficiency purpose. measurement of bearing babbets . • Automatic control – to correct the deviation and bring back to normalcy. POWER PLANT INSTRUMENTS:- Temperature Measuring Instruments :. vapors filled or gas filled is used for local indicators of temperature depending 1. turbine top. TYPE OF INSTRUMENTS:The instruments that are being used in the process instrumentation for measuring the physical qualities can classified as Indicators: They are of two categories local and remote local indicators are self controlled and self operative and are mounted on the site . bottom generator and core super heater. .the remote indicators are used for telemeter purpose and are mounted in the centralized control panel.• Instruments – to measure and indicate the amount of deviation.heat transfer etc.Accurate measurement of temperature is required to assess the material fatigue . • Protection – to isolate the equipments from dangerous operating conditions caused due to such excessive deviation.
With the help of this system the mechanical energy is converted to electrical energy and is distributed to various consumers according to their requirements. Border type and diaphragm type gauge or liquid manometer are used . flow etc. venture. Electrical System Electrical System is one of the most important components of a power plant. 4.upon the range. • Air cooled generators. Level Measurement :. The restriction devices are suitably selected depending on the media. hotwell . Transmitter does remote measurement of pressure either electronic or pneumatic coupled with secondary instrument indicator/recorder.In power plant . Pressure Measuring Instruments: . 3. . Diffrential pressure is created by placing suitable restriction in the flow path of the Fluids in pipe. The devices are orifice. pilot tube. Flow Measurement:. Gauge glass is used for local indication and transmitters are used for remote indication.For local indication of pressure and differential pressure .level measurement in open tank s such as DM water storage tank and oil tanks and close tanks such as de-aerator . 2. flow measurements are based on differential pressure principles .LP heaters . flow nozzle.In power plant .HP heaters . Resistance thermometer or thermocouples are used as sensor in remote measurement of temperature depending upon the range.boiler drums are to be made .
Stator:The stator consists of two parts viz. the outer casing and inner frame supporting the core and the winding .Welded tubes and ducts provide flow paths for cooling. Stator winding fractional pitched. • Numerical protection relays for fastest response • Fault data recorder • SF-6 Circuit breaker for high voltage applications • Energy management System • Real time display of generation.Outer casing is of welded construction . The entire losses are dissipated through the air. The machines are designed for the air temperature of 45 degree Celsius maximum. The 2. consumption.pole generator uses direct cooling for the rotor winding and indirect air cooling for stator winding. • Centralized monitoring of HT motor protection relays. the bars are separately brazed together and insulated from each other. Generator name plating of unit 1:KW: 67500 . Turbo –Generators:The turbo –generator is designed for continuous operation with voltage variations of +. Stator core stacked with insulated electrical sheet steel laminations clamping fingers ensures uniform pressure and intensive cooling of stator core ends.• Digital voltage Regulator. • SCADA for remote switchyard operation and data transfer to Load Dispatch Centre. To minimize the losses. Inner stator consists of stator and core windings. two layers consisting of individual bars. with cooling water temperature of 38 degree Celsius maximum at the inlet. dispatch and Aux.1% in general.
It is designed on principal of cross counter flow system. particularly to the copper conductor. Indirect cooling is used for stator winding. The hot air returns to the air cooler. In the stator cooling medium is circular which has copper fins to obtain a large heat transfer area. Direct cooling of rotor essentially eliminates hot spot and different temperature between adjacent components. The cooling air has three flow paths. iron losses. The air flow mixes in the air gap.B Generator Cooling System:The heat generated inside the stator and rotor due to the copper losses. which could result in mechanical stress. The air cooler shell and tube type heat exchanger. . which cools the air in the generator.8 84375 10500 volts 4639 amps RPM: Frequency: Phase: Connection: Coolant: - 3000 50 Hz 3 Y Air Insulation Class: .PF: KVA: Stator: - 0. friction and windage losses are dissipated through the secondary coolant air. The cooling air is circulated in generator interior in closed circuitry to axial flow fans arrange on the rotor shaft journals. From hot air heat is dissipated through cooling water which is regulated through the valve. The cooling air then flows radially outward through ventilating slots in the core within the range of hot air compartments for cooling further portion of the stator core and stator winding.
CRGO steel has a feature that has specific loss in Watt/Kg is lowest in the direction of rolling. Hot oil comes from top of the Main tank in the Radiator and cold pushed from bottom in the Main Tank. Air cooled or Resin Cast type. According to windings configuration it can be Core type or Shell type. which reduced Hysteresis loss and enable the core to operate at higher flux density. Cores are laminated and each lamination is coated with phosphorous glass type coating to reduce the Eddy Current losses in the core. For OFAF type of cooling. Auto transformer. It can be Delta. Rectifier transformer. It provides dielectric strength of the transformer insulation system. Generally it has limbs which mitered with top and bottom yokes. It provides efficient cooling system of transformer.Zag . Transformer Oil:Transformer oil protects the core and coil assembly from chemical attack. Power transformer. According to cooling it can be classified as AN.Transformer:According to uses and types. transformer can be divided into different category. OFWF type. Oil temperature indicator:- . Zig. ONAF. For ONAF and OFAF type. Star. single phase to poly phase Transformer core:Transformer provides continuous path for electromagnetic flux and are made of cold rolled grain oriented alloy steel (CRGO). They are mounted either below or at side of the radiator. ON. Transformer oil is a pure hydrocarbon mineral oil and generally paraffin base. It can be Liquid filled (OIL). It is made of mild steel but not designed for vacuum. electrically driven cooling fans are provided to cool the radiators. ONAN. OFAF. Laminations built to from a stepped Limb (cross section) having as near as possible a circular section and mitered at 45 degree with top and bottom yoke. Control transformer. OIL pumps are also provided to circulate the oil between Main Tank and Radiator to improve the cooling. Radiators and Cooling:Radiators are provided to enlarge the cooling surface area of the oil filled transformer.
open & closed . During the abnormal or faulty conditions the relays senses the fault and closes the trip circuit of the circuit breaker.These correspond to open circuit breaker contact and closed circuit breaker contact respectively. The operation of automatic opening and closing the contact is achieved by means of operating of the circuit breaker. Circuit-Breakers:The circuit breakers are the device. Relief Vent:In case of severe fault inside HVR. During Normal operating Condition the CB can be opened or closed by a station operator for the purpose of switching and maintenance.To avoid such a contingency. Dehydrating Breather:The conservator is connected to the atmosphere through a dehydrating breather to make sure that air entering the conservator is dry. In some of the cases conservator is provided with magnetic type oil level gauge with low oil level alarm as per the contact requirement. a relief vent of diaphragm type is fitted. Conservator:Oil conservator is connected to HVR tank to account for any change in the volume of the oil due to variation in the oil temperature. which may result in the explosion of tank . The switch contacts are brought to thermometer box for alarm and tripping. terminal pressure may be built up to a very high value. The indicator is fitted with a maximum pointer and two mercury switches to provide alarm and trip signals. As the relay . The diaphragm breaks open and relieves the pressure if the pressure is more than 35 KN/m2. Thereafter the circuit breaker opens .The circuit breaker has two working positions. Silica gel in the breather is blue when dry and it turns pink as the crystals absorb moisture. which is capable of making and breaking of an electrical circuit under normal and abnormal conditions.It indicates the top oil temperature and operates on the principle expansion of liquid with temperature. A prismatic oil gauge is provided to indicate the oil level. Buchholz Relay:A double float relay is fitted with a mercury switch.
Here zinc oxide arrestors are used. In Tata power . Zinc oxide arrestors have higher energy absorption level.3 are all ABB and are SF6 circuit breaker in which closing and tripping is through charged spring .contact closes the trip circuit is closed and the operating mechanism. DC System:Total power failure of a thermal power station is a most critical situation for the station . the output voltage is held constant at present value (around 2.15 V/cell) whereas in manual mode the output voltage may be varied within the limits by potentiometer. Boost Charger:- .Since the turbo –generators sets takes about 20-25 minutes for coasting down to barring speed.2. DC supply system takes over the oil supply to scanners in steam generators in addition to catering power to entire protection system. In the event of total power failure any delay in coming up emergency DG sets. the 132 KV breakers for GT #1. In the automatic mode. Lightning Arrestor:Lightning Arrestor are usually connected between phases and ground in the distribution system to protect apparatus insulation from lightning surges. The float charger may either be operated in auto or manual mode. it is essential to provide emergency oil supply to the turbine and generated journal bearings. Float charger:The Float Charger is meant for supplying the continuous dc load and at the same trickle charging the battery to keep it in fully charged condition. The resistor blocks in the arrestor offers low resistance to the full impulse wave.
PROTECTIVE RELAYS Protective relaying is one of several features of system design concerned with minimizing damage to equipment and interruptions to service when electrical failures Occur. When we say that relays “protect” we mean that. It will be evident that all the mitigation features are dependent on one another for successfully minimizing the effects of failure. together with other equipment. the relays help to minimize damage and improve service. In the manual mode the output current may be varied within the limits by adjusting a potentiometer.The boost charger is basically meant for quick charging the battery (cc mode) after a heavy discharge so as to restore the capacity of the battery within minimum time. The relaying equipment is aided in this task by circuit breakers that are capable of disconnecting the faulty element when they are called upon to do so by the relaying equipment. or when it starts to operate in any abnormal manner that might cause damage or otherwise interfere with the effective operation of the rest of the system. THE FUNCTION OF PROTECTIVE RELAYING The function of protective relaying is to cause the prompt removal from service of any element of a power system when it suffers a short circuit. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF PROTECTIVE RELAYING . The charger may be operated in auto mode or manual mode.
There are two groups of such equipments one which we shall call “primary” relaying and the other “back-up” relaying. Primary relaying is the first line of defense. PRIMARY RELAYING . whereas back-up relaying functions only when primary relaying fails.
1. One-line diagram of a portion of an electric power system illustrating Primary relaying. .Fig.
Primary relaying may fail because of failure in any of the following: A. economics plays a large part. By minimizing damage when failures occur. Figure 4 shows how the speed of protective . protective relaying helps to minimize the amount of equipment reserve required. Current or voltage supply to the relays. Like all other parts of a power system. Protective relays. 3. THE EVALUATION OF PROTECTIVE RELAYING Although a modern power system could not operate without protective relaying. but of how far one should go toward investing in the best relaying available. since there is less likelihood of another failure before the first failure can be repair. When we say that primary relaying may fail. The cost of repairing the damage. protective relaying should be evaluated on the basis of its contribution to the best economically possible service to the customers. Because short circuits are the preponderant type of power failure. Although the protection engineer can usually justify expenditures for protective relaying on the basis of standard practice. and it often becomes necessary to evaluate the benefits to be gained. D-C tripping-voltage supply. As in all good engineering.BACK-UP RELAYING Back-up relaying is employed only for protection against short circuits. 2. protective relaying minimizes: A. The likelihood that the trouble may spread and involve other equipment. circumstances may alter such concepts. Tripping circuit or breaker mechanism. this does not make it priceless. Circuit breaker. The time that the equipment is out of service. C. How protective relaying does this is as follows. B. E. 1. C. The loss in revenue and the strained public relations while the equipment is out of service. D. we mean that any of several things may happen to prevent primary relaying from causing the disconnection of a power-system fault. B. It is generally not a question of whether protective relaying can be justified. The contribution of protective relaying is to help the rest of the power system to function as efficiently and as effectively as possible in the face of trouble. there are more opportunities for failure in short primary relaying. The ability of protective relaying to permit fuller use of the system capacity is forcefully illustrated by system stability. D. By expediting the equipment’s return to service.
4. More loads can be carried over an existing system by speeding up the protective relaying. Where stability is a problem. 5. One should not conclude that the justifiable expense for a given protectiverelaying equipment is necessarily proportional to the value or importance of the system element to be directly protected. A failure in that system element may affect the ability of the entire system to render service. Other circumstances will be shown later in which certain types of protectiverelaying Equipment can permit savings in circuit breakers and transmission lines. Some of the most serious shutdowns have been caused by consequential effects growing out of an original failure in relatively unimportant equipment that was not properly protected. and therefore that relaying equipment is actually protecting the service of the entire system. Equipment that can still operate properly when future changes are made in a system or its operation will save much future engineering and other related expense. The quality of the protective-relaying equipment can affect engineering expense in applying the relaying equipment itself. protective relaying can often be evaluated against the cost of constructing additional transmission lines or switching stations. .relaying influences the amount of power that can be transmitted without loss of synchronism when short circuits occur. This has been shown to be a relatively inexpensive way to increase the transient stability limit.
in order to round out this general consideration of relaying and to prepare for what is yet to come. some explanation is in order here. there is some distinctive difference in these quantities. and there are various types of protective-relaying equipments . and location to the protective relays. and many other types also.HOW DO PROTECTIVE RELAYS OPERATE? Thus far. type. But. failures signal their presence. All relays used for short-circuit protection. Through individual or relative changes in these two quantities. For every type and location of failure. This fascinating part of the story of protective relaying will be told in much more detail later. we have treated the relays themselves in a most impersonal manner. operate by virtue of the current and/or voltage supplied to them by current and voltage transformers connected in various combinations to the system element that is to be protected. telling what they do without any regard to how they do it.
D. More possible differences exist in these quantities than one might suspect. Magnitude.available. Harmonics or wave shape . Phase angle. G. B. C. Differences in each quantity are possible in one or more of the following: A. F. Frequency. E. each of which is designed to recognize a particular difference and to operate in response to it. Direction or order of change. Rate of change. Duration.
f. c. Core Lamination faults d. . k. electrical and mechanical faults may occur .GENERATOR PROTECTION Introduction Generators are designed to run at a high load factor at a high load factor for a large number of Years and permit certain incidences of abnormal working conditions . j. Stator electrical faults Overload Over Voltage Unbalanced Loading Over fluxing Inadvertent Energisation Rotor Electrical faults Loss of excitation Loss of Synchronization Failure of prime mover Lubrication Oil failure Over-speeding Rotor Distortion n. if necessary . initiate a complete shutdown of the machine. Problem faced in the generators a. i. e. h. m. g. and the generators may be provided with protective relays which in case of faults .quickly initiate a disconnection of the machine from the system and . l. Difference in expansion between rotating and stationary parts o. Excessive Vibration p. Despite the monitoring .The machine and its auxiliaries are supervised by monitoring devices to keep the incidences of abnormal working conditions down to a minimum. b.
Class-A Tripping This is adopted for those electrical faults of Generator and Generator transformer and unit auxiliary transformer for which tripping cannot be delayed. Generator transformer and unit auxiliary transformer for which it is safe the turbine • Subsequently the generator is tripped through reverse power interlock • Ensures that unit does not over speed due to trapped steam in the turbine during the shut down and also the loss of power to the grid from the Generator is not sudden. This leads to simultaneous tripping of Generator Transformer HV side CB Field Circuit Breaker LV side incomer breakers of UAT Auto changeover from unit to station for unit auxiliaries and tripping of turbine Class-B Tripping This is adopted for all turbine Faults (Mechanical) and for some electrical faults of generator. Class-C Tripping • This is adopted for all faults beyond the generator system which can be cleared by tripping of generator Transformer HV side CB alone. • In this case the TG set run with HP-LP bypass system in operation and the generator continues to feed the unit auxiliary transformers .
. . . Power Tr. .. . Type of Relay Earth leakage Over Load Distance Relay Directional OL Directional EL Main 1 Distance relay Main 2 Distance relay Over Voltage LBB Protection Power relays Check synchronizing relay Bus bar Protection Transformer differential Non directional OL HV – directional EL LV Non directional OL LV Non directional EL LV Directional EL Over fluxing (V/F) CT PT Open delta Open delta Open delta Comparison of EMVTs Vs CVTs S.No.. ....Protective relays for generators and generator transformer units CT. 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 400 kV. . 3 . .. .No. 5 . 220 kV feeders . 4 .. 1 2 3 4 5 Characteristic Burden Reliability Cost Transient response Distance Protection Electromagnetic VT >= 300 VA More Expensive Very Good Very Good Capacitor VT <= 300 VA Less Less expensive Poor Over Reaches . PT Inputs to relays Sl. ... Power System Element 1 132 kV feeders 2 .. .... ...
accuracy The figure below shows an overview of standard protective relays for generator transformer units. A recommended minimum of relays for different types and sizes of generators is given under section protective relay schemes. .
Protective relays for a generator-transformer unit .Fig.
5 s. . In both cases. Stator earth –fault Protection for Generators with unit Transformers 95% stator earth. Tuned reactors which limit the earth –fault current to less than 1 A are also used . will quickly develop into an earth –fault and will be tipped by the stator earth–fault protection.Types of Fault and their Protection Stator earth-fault protection Common practice in most countries is to earth the generator neutral through a resistor . fed either from a voltage transformer connected between the generator neutral and earth or from the broken delta winding of three –phase voltage transformers on the generator line side . will depending on the setting . the low voltage winding of the unit transformer and the highvoltage winding of the unit auxiliary transformer. 2-3% of rated generator phase voltage. the transient voltages in the stator system during intermittent earth –faults are kept within acceptable limits . The generator earthing resistor normally limits the neutral voltage transmitted from the high voltage side of the unit transformer in case of an earth fault on the high voltage side to max. Interturn faults. The relay is normally set to operate at 5% of phase voltage with a time –delay of 0. The fault is normally initiated by mechanical or thermal damage to the insulating material or the anti-corona paint on a stator coil. which gives a maximum earth–fault current of 5-10 A.3-0. and earth-faults which are tipped within some few seconds will only cause negligible damage to the laminations of the stator core . which normally are difficult to detect. protect 80-95% of the stator winding . Short -circuits between the stator winding in the slots and the stator core are the most common electrical faults in generator s.fault protection A neutral point overvoltage relay . With generator bus.
Normally. 95% stator earth fault protection Units with generator breaker between the transformer and the generator should also have a three phase voltage transformers connected to the bus between the low voltage winding of the transformer and the breaker. The broken delta connected secondary are connected to a neutral point overvoltage relay . voltage limiting capacitors will be required for this bus section. . which will provide earth –fault protection for the low voltage winding and the section of the bus connected to it when the generator breaker is open . normally set to 2030% of phase voltage .Fig.
in that case. which would lead to complete shutdown of thermal power station .causing excessive heating at the end region of the stator core . may be obtained during normal system condition . the normal automatic voltage regulator (AVR) action will reduce the field excitation. the normal tendency towards an increasing system voltage (dropping of reactive loads).excitation may occur as a result of: • • • Unintentional opening of the field breaker an open circuit or a short circuit of the main field a fault in the automatic voltage regulator (AVR). Loss of Excitation relay RAGPK is used to protect Generator . The maximum active power that can be generated without loss of synchronism when the generator losses its excitation depends on the difference between the direct axis and quadrature axis synchronous reactance.Loss of Excitation protection A complete loss-of. absorbing reactive power ( VAR ) for its excitation from the system. In that case. with the result that the field current is reduced to zero When a generator with sufficient active load losses the field current. The generator terminal voltage varies periodically due to the large generator auxiliary induction motor stall.when there is a continuous tendency towards an increasing system voltage (dropping of reactive loads ). the difference is normally sufficiently large to keep the machine running synchronously .Reduced excitation . it goes out of synchronism and starts to run asynchronously at a speed higher than the system. For generators with salient poles .even with an active load of 15-25% of rated load .
Loss of excitation relay .Fig.
. The relay has output contact for alarm when the measured thermal content is 95% of operate value. The temperature monitoring system enables measurements measuring points. The temperature rise of the stator winding is . an accurate thermal overload down to some few minutes.Thermal overload protection Overloads up to 1. in addition to the magnitude of the current . Thermal overload relay RAVK is a microprocessor based thermal overload relay .also influence d by the coolant flow . the coolant temperature . Sustained overloads within this range are usually supervised by temperature monitors (resistance elements) embedded at various points in the stator slots. As an additional check of the stator winding temperature. etc.4 times the rated current are not normally detected by the impedance or over-current protection. which is required for adequate thermal protection of directly cooled machines.
vibrations. Thermal overload relay Rotor earth –fault protection The rotor circuit can be exposed to abnormal mechanical or thermal stresses due to e. The field circuit is normally kept insulated from earth. if . a second earth fault should occur. A single earth –fault in the field winding or its associated circuits. therefore.therefore . heavy fault current and severe mechanical unbalance may quickly arise and lead to serious damage .It is essential . gives rise to a negligible fault current and does not represent any immediate danger. excessive currents or choked cooling medium flow.Fig.g.that any occurrence of insulation . This may result in a breakdown of the insulation between the field winding and the rotor iron at one point where the stress has been too high.however.
Normally .the machine is tripped after a short time delay.independent of fault location . With current setting 15 mA . When a fault occurs . Fig.3 kilo ohm .failure is discovered and that the machine is taken out of service as soon as possible . Rotor earth-fault relay with ac injection For small generators with rotating dc exciters. a suitable rotor earth-fault protection can be arranged with ac injection and a time –over current relay as shown in fig. a certain contribution to the injection voltage is obtained depending on the field voltage and where in the rotor winding the fault occurs. Rotor earth-fault relay with dc injection The rotor earth –fault relay type RXNB 4 a dc voltage of 48 v to the rotor field winding and measures the current through the insulation resistance . the protection operates for earth-faults with fault resistance up to about 3. Rotor earth-Fault with Ac injection .
hence it moves relatively to the rotor at twice the synchronous speed.The ampere-turns wave produced by the stator currents rotate synchronously with the rotor and no eddy current are induced in the rotor parts . the phase current are equal in magnitude and displaced electrically by 120º. Rotor earth-Fault with Dc injection Negative phase sequence current protection When the generator is connected to a balanced load . primarily.Fig. in the surface of cylindrical rotors and in the damper windings of rotors with salient poles. . The double frequency eddy currents induced in the rotor may cause excessive heating. Unbalanced loading gives rise to a negative sequence current component in the stator current. The negative-sequence current produces an additional ampere-turn wave which rotates backwards.
t the duration in seconds and K a constant depending on the heating characteristics of the machine. as a maximum of more than 50% of rated machine current. such as railroads and induction furnaces Transmission line dissymmetric due to non.transposed phase wires or open conductor (circuit -breaker pole failure ) An open conductor may give rise to a considerable negative–sequence current. where I2 is the negative sequence current expressed in per unit (P. The unit is provided with a thermal memory and the cooling down time of the relay is settable in 7 steps in the . Negative sequences current relay RARIB with thermal memory The measuring unit for I2t has the setting range 1-63 s in steps of 1s. permitted I22t=K(seconds) 30 5-10 40 40 Max. permitted continuous I2 (percent) 10 8 10 5 Example on load dissymmetry which gives rise to negative–sequence currents in the generator are: • • Unbalanced single –phase loads.) stator current. Table: Type of generator Cylindrical rotor Indirectly cooled Directly cooled Salient pole With damper winding Without damper winding Max. The combination of two or more of the above mentioned dissymmetry can give rise to harmful negative sequence currents . the type of machine and the method of cooling adopted.even if each of them give rise to a relatively small unbalance. i.U.The approximate heating effect on the rotor of a synchronous machine for various unbalanced fault or severe load unbalance conditions is determined by the product I22t=K.e.
The blocking relay resets when the heat content in the memory is 50% of the tripping level. switched for manual control of a voltage level. severe overvoltage will occur.65-1. even in case of repeated periods of Unbalanced loading which eventually results in excessive heating of the machine. This voltage rise will be further increased if simultaneous over-speeding should .(2. Over-voltage protection If the generator circuit–breaker is tripped while the machine is running at full load and rated power factor. at this particular time. if it is not tripped. or. However.70)×k. if the AVR is faulty. The memory function secures adequate protection. the subsequent increase in terminal voltage will normally be limited by a quick acting AVR.
the temperature rise. For high impedance earthed generators. The losses due to eddy current s and hysteresis and hence. the over-voltage relay is connected to the voltage between phases to prevent faulty operation in case of earth-faults in the stator circuits . increase in proportion to the level of excitation. . In case of a hydro electric generator. Over–excitation protection The excitation flux in the core of the generator and connected power transformers is directly proportional to the ratio of voltage to frequency (V/Hz) on the terminals of the equipment. owing to a slow acting turbine governor. a voltage rise of 50-100% is possible during the most unfavorable conditions.occur. An excessive high set voltage relay can be include to trip the generator quickly in case of excessive over–voltages following a sudden loss of load and generator over speeding . Over-voltage relay RAEDK The microprocessor based time over/under-voltage relay RXEDK 2H has two voltage stages with definite time delay.
6 V/Hz. The relay provides a precise measurement of the relationship between voltage and frequency within the frequency range 5-100 Hz. overvoltage relays cannot be used to protect the generatortransformer unit against over-fluxing. Over-Excitation relay RALK The microprocessor based over-excitation relay RXLK 2H has two V/Hz measuring stages with time delay and wide setting range: 0. The risk of over-excitation is. V/Hz characteristics of generator-transformer units As long as the generator –transformer unit is connected to the network. Hence.However. obviously. when the generator transformer unit is disconnected from the network.An example on the V/Hz capability curve for a generator and the unit transformer is shown infigure. The proper way of doing this to use a relay which measures the ratio between voltage and current (V/Hz relay). largest during periods when the frequency is below rated value. From cases reported in existing literature it can be concluded that over-fluxing occurs relatively often compared to the number of other electrical incidents. . Fig.2-9. there is an obvious risk for over-excitation. the risk of over-excitation is relatively small . mainly during generator start-up and shut down.
The principle of the RADHA high –impedance differential relay is shown in Fig. therefore.It is. the time constant of the dc component in the short-circuit current is large. The risk of saturation of the current transformers in case external short-circuits is obvious .Generator differential relays For modern generators. important that generator differential relay remains stable even when the current transformers are heavily saturated. Hence. the voltage across the relay measuring circuit is negligible. under normal service condition and external faults with unsaturated current transformers. The current transformers on the generator neutral and the line side shall have identical turn’s ratio and similar magnetizing characteristics. typically more than 200ms. .
. with fault current equal to or above the minimum operate value of the relay. the magnetizing characteristics and the current ratio of the CT’s.The relay requires dedicated CT cores. The primary operate current is normally between 1-5%of rated generator current . one of the current transformers may saturate more than the others . For internal faults. symmetrical (ac) component Rl= resistance of pilot wire between current transformer (CT) and relay Rct=resistance of the secondary winding of the saturated current transformer The relay operate voltage is set higher than Umax The minimum operate current depends mainly on the voltage setting of the relay.The worst case will be if one is completely saturated and the other is completely unsaturated. the voltage across the relay goes up to the full saturation voltage of the CT’s and the relay operates in 10-15ms. A voltage dependent resistor across the differential relay limits the voltage to a safe level .In case of an external short-circuit. The maximum voltage across the relay will be: Umax=Isn (Rct+Rl) where Isn= secondary sub transient short-circuit current.
the in rush restraint is also required when the unit transformer is energized from the H. For generator-transformer units with separate generator breaker. It is a static relay with threefold restraint: 1.transformer units. the terminal voltage of the main transformer is practically zero and at the instant of fault clearance. The voltage then rises immediately and remains high until the automatic voltage regulator (AVR) of the machine has brought it back to the normal value. bus. when the circuit–breaker of the faulty feeder opens.V. i.Without the restraint. Over–excitation restraint to counteract operation at abnormal magnetizing currents caused by high voltage The magnetizing in rush restraint is required to keep the relay stable when a nearby fault on an adjacent feeder is cleared. The over-excitation restraint is important for generator –transformer differential relays . This may cause severe magnetizing in rush currents. Through–fault restraint for external faults 2. . Magnetizing in rush restraint 3. During the time of the fault. there is an obvious risk that the differential relay may trip the generator due to overvoltage if a substantial part of the load is disconnected when clearing a fault.Generator and unit transformer differential relay The transformer differential relay RADSB is used generator. the transformer terminal voltage quickly rises.e.
The total losses. in the case when the total losses of a unit are covered partly by the prime –mover and partly by electric power from the system. In case of steam turbines. as a percentage of rated power of a prime mover/generator unit running at rated speed. are approximately: Steam turbine 1-3% Diesel engine 25% Hydraulic turbine 3% Gas turbine 5% These values apply to the case when the power input to the prime-mover is completely cut off. Hydro turbines of the Kapalm and bulb type may also be damaged due to the fact that the turbine blades “surf “ on the water and set up an axial pressure on the bearing . the actual power drawn by a generator. may be much less than the above percentage values. If the driving torque becomes less than the total losses in the generator and the prime mover. Thus.Reverse power protection The purpose of the reverse power relay is basically to prevent damage on the prime mover (turbine or motor). Reverse power relay RXPE 40 . taking the necessary active power from the network. the generator stars to work as a synchronous compensator. during certain motoring conditions. a reduction of the steam flow reduces the cooling effect on the turbine blades and overheating may occur.
The RXPE 40 unit is normally connected to phase current and phase voltage . the relay cannot operate when there is a direct earth-fault on the generator bus in the phase selected for measurement. the current voltage circuits are connected in accordance with Figure1.where §is the angle between the polarizing voltage and the current to the relay .The directional unit measures the 1x Cos § . Impedance Relay RAZK .For generators with V-connected voltage transformers.The reverse power relay shown in figure contains one static directional current unit RXPE 40 and one static timer RXKT 2. When connected to phase current and phase voltage.
The microprocessor based impedance relay RXZK 22H has two impedance measuring stages and definite time delay. corresponding to an operate current of 1/0. the generator bus and the low voltage winding of the unit transformer.4 times rated current at rated voltage .7 =1. Impedance stage Z2 is normally set to operate at 70% of rated generator load impedance. Figure1: Reverse Power Relay . The impedance measuring characteristics is polygonal with independent setting of the reach in the X and R directions see Figure2. Impedance stage Z1 is set to reach only into the unit transformer and will provide a fast back-up protection for phase short-circuits on the generator terminals.
For generators with split neutrals.For these machines.The fault current can be extensively large in case of interterm faults . the time delay . interterm faults can only occur in case of double earth-faults or as a result of severe mechanical damage on the stator end windings. The latter is considered rather unlikely to occur. 13.Figure2: Impedance Relay RAZK Phase Interterm Short-circuit protection Modern medium size and large size turbo-generators have the stator winding designed with only one turn per phase per slot . the conventional inter-turn fault protective scheme comprises a time delayed low–set over-current relay which senses the current flowing in the connection between the neutrals of the stator winding . It is generally considered difficult to obtain a reliable protection against shortcircuiting of one turn if the stator winding has a large numbers of turns per phase. hence . see Fig.
there is a danger of further damage being is caused. However. it remains in synchronism with the system and continues to run as a synchronous motor.must be short .2 to 0. This condition may not appear to be dangerous and in some circumstances will not be so. drawing sufficient power to drive the prime mover. Over speed . 0. and the over-current relay must be set higher than the maximum unbalanced current incase of external faults and the minimum unbalanced current for single–turn short-circuits have to be obtained from the manufacturer of the machine.4 sec. Interturn short-circuit current relay RAIDK The microprocessor based time over-current relay RXIDK 2H is used for the interterm protection Mechanical Faults Failure of Prime mover When a generator operating in parallel with others losses its power input.
in any case .and. the following sequence is used whenever electrical tripping is not urgently required: Trip prime mover or gradually reduce power input to zero.if load is suddenly lost when the HV circuit breaker is tripped . Trip generator circuit breaker only when generated power is close to zero or when the power flow starts to reverse.However . Allow generated power to decay towards zero. To minimize over speed on load rejection and hence the mechanical stress on the rotor. but nevertheless an additional centrifugal over speed trip device is provided to initiate an emergency mechanical shutdown if the over speed exceeds 10%.The speed of a turbo-generators set rises when the steam input is in excess of that require to drive the load at nominal frequency . the set will begin to accelerate rapidly . a et running in parallel with others in an interconnected system cannot accelerate much independently even if synchronism is lost .The speed governor is designed to prevent a dangerous speed rise even with a 100% load rejection . to drive the idle turbine. .The speed governor can normally control the speed .
analogue to digital conversion of the input variables takes place immediately after the input transformers and all further processing of the resulting numerical signals is performed by microprocessors and controlled by programs.e.The combination of the three are used in protection scheme of generator.Protection Application in plant With the development in the field of electronics and induction type relay have been replaced by much compact and accurate kind of electronic relays. i. measurements and protection parameters or the activation of a different set of settings by higher level of control systems. The menu based HMI (human machine interface) and the REG small size makes the tasks of connection. One of the latest innovations which took place in the field is the advent of Numerical relays. configuration and setting simple. . Continuous self –monitoring by hardware Setting of parameters and recording of the settings display of events . GRP stands for GENERATOR RELAY PANEL comprises of mainly REG. RET and SPAJ . Standard Interface enables REG to communicate with other control systems. REG built by ABB incorporate following features in it: • • Selectable protection functions Setting menu-assisted with personal computer by means of the windowsbased operator program. Provision is thus made for the exchange of data such as reaction less reporting of binary of binary states. events. their acknowledgement and printout Serial port for communication • • • • Design : The REG belongs to the generation of fully numerical generator protection terminals.
In the analog input unit an input transformer provides the electrical and static isolation between the analogue input variables and the electronic circuits and adjusts the signals to a suitable level of processing. a connection mother PCB and housing . Every analog variable is passed through a first order R/C low-pass filter on the main CPU unit to eliminate what is referred to as the aliasing effect and to suppress HF interferences. The analog /digital conversion is performed by a 16 Bit converter .Generator Relay panel Hardware The hardware concept for the REG generator protection equipment comprises four different Plug-in units. They are then sampled and converted to digital signals.A DSP carries out part of the digital filtering and makes sure that the data for the protection algorithms are available in the memory to the main processor.Figure 1 . Binary signals from the main processor are relayed to the corresponding inputs of the I/O unit and thus control the auxiliary output relays and the light emitting diode (LED) signals .The main processor unit is equipped with an RS232C .
serial interface via which among other things the protection settings are made. . events are read and the data from the disturbance recorder memory are transferred to a local or remote PC.
Connection of Generator Relay Panel Application The main areas of application of the REG terminal are the protection of the generators. motors and unit transformers are included .Fig. Generator differential . PROTECTION FUNCTIONS 1.Transformer differential 2.All important protection functions required for the protection of generators.The system can therefore replace several relays of a conventional protection schemes .The following table gives a survey of the most significant protection functions of REG. Definite time over-current (under current) . motors and unit transformers .
Digital input and output signals can also be connected together logically: The tripping outputs of each protection function can be allocated to channels of the tripping auxiliary relay assembly in a manner corresponding to a matrix. Under-impedance 9. . Negative phase sequence current 7. 100 % stator earth fault(= rotor earth fault) 8.Poor slip functions All setting is extremely wide to make the protection functions suitable for a multimedia of Application. Logical Functions . Power. Overload. Over-excitation 12.Inverse negative Phase-sequence current 13. Instantaneous Over-current(undercurrent) 4. Frequency. Over-temperature 11.Voltage-controlled Over-current 5. The pick-up and tripping signals can be allocated to the channels of the signaling auxiliary relay assembly. Inverse Time Over-current 6. Minimum Reactance 10.3.
The tripping outputs of each protection function can be allocated to channels of the tripping auxiliary relay assembly in a manner corresponding to a matrix. Low-set. low –set phase over current unit with definite time or inverse definite minimum time (IDMT) characteristics. high-set phase over current unit instantaneous or definite time function.. Digital input and output signals can also be connected together logically.g. fault codes etc. The pick-up and tripping signals can be allocated to the channels of the signaling relay assembly. Provision is made for blocking each protection function with digital signals (e. measured values. Provision is made for blocking each protection function with a digital signal (e.g. SPAJ Combined over current and earth-fault relay Features Three-phase. Three-phase. (IDMT) characteristics High-set . digital inputs or the tripping signal of another protection function). memorized fault values. non-directional earth fault unit with definite time or inverse definite minimum time.non –directional earth fault unit with instantaneous or definite time function Built-in breaker failure protection function Two heavy-duty and four light-duty output relays with field-selectable configuration Numerical display of setting values. digital inputs or the tripping signal of another protection function). .
The following Protections are the old once itself: • • • • UAT differential Protection –Old Generator Differential Protection-Old Local Backup breaker(LBB)-Old Dead Machine Protection –Old The following Protection has been shifted to REG: • • • • • • • • • Overall Differential Protection –REG Reverse Power Protection –REG Under Frequency Protection –REG Negative Phase Sequence Protection-REG Over Voltage Protection –REG Loss of Excitation Protection –REG Under Impedance Protection –REG Over Fluxing Protection –REG Stator Earth Fault Protection –REG The following Protection has been shifted to SPAJ: • UAT Over Current and Earth Fault Protection –SPAJ .Application The combined over current and earth-fault relay SPAJ 140C is intended to be used for the selective short-circuit and earth-fault protection of radial feeders is solidly earthed. Protection arrangement in plant: There are many protections which have not been shifted to REG and SPAJ due to its own advantage. The integrated protection relay includes a phase over current unit with flexible tripping and signaling facilities . resistance earthed or impedance earthed power-systems.two or three phase over current protection and non-directional earth-fault protection .The over current and earth-fault relays can also be used in other applications requiring single .The combined over current and earth-fault relays also features circuit breaker failure protection .
www. NUMERICAL Generator Protection by ABB 5.com 6. The ART and Science of protective relaying 2.com 3. Internet . Fundamental of protection Practice 4. ABB site.• GT Over Current Protection –SPAJ References 1. www.wikipedia.abb.
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