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CHAPTER 1 THE RESEARCH PROBLEM & ITS SCOPE

Introduction
"Cutting stalks at noon time Perspiration drips to the earth Know you that your bowl of rice Each grain from hardship comes?"
-(Cheng Chan-Pao, Chinese philosopher)

Rice is the most consumed food on Planet Earth. The seeds of the rice plant are first milled using a rice huller to remove the chaff (the outer husks of the grain). At this point in the process, the product is called brown rice. The milling may be continued, removing the 'bran', i.e., the rest of the husk and the germ, thereby creating white rice. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rice#Preparation_as_food, January 26, 2010) There are some countries with high annual rice consumption per capita (up to 130–180 kg, equal to 55–80 percent of total caloric source) such as Bangladesh, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam (Chang 2000). Even in most parts of Africa, rice is a secondary staple food next to cassava, yams, corn, and millet. However, in the following African countries rice is consumed as a staple food: Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Madagascar, and part of Nigeria. By comparison with the rice production and consumption in Asian countries, Latin America is often overlooked. However, annual rice consumption in the following countries exceeds more than 32 kg per capita: Brazil, Columbia, Ecuador, and the Dominican Republic. Rice is the best cereal crop in terms of food energy per production area and is consumed in various forms, including plain rice, noodles, puffed rice, breakfast cereals, cakes, fermented sweet rice, snack foods, beer, wine and vinegar. Rice starch is used as a thickener in baby foods, sauces, and desserts or can be made Faculty Research April 2010

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into sweet syrup. However, most consumption of rice is as cooked rice served simultaneously with vegetable, poultry, beef, seafood, and other dishes. Rice as a comfort food is economical, delicious, nutritious, versatile, easy to prepare, and bland enough to pair with other foods. Rice is convenient to store on shelves in cupboards and pantries. In the Filipino culture just like the other cultures of the world, it is very hard to exaggerate the importance of rice. To the Filipinos, rice is a symbol of life itself. There are many sayings that demonstrate the status of rice. Some people commonly greet each other by asking "Have you had your rice today?" A person who loses his job is said to have had his rice bowl broken. And when you are a dinner guest it is considered bad manners not to consume every grain of rice in the plate or bowl. The Filipino eats rice at every meal. Mostly it is steamed, each kernel distinct from the other, with a flavor so mild it compliments almost any dish. But rice is so valued that other ways of eating it have been devised. It is steamed and then fried, fried and then sweetened, ground, sweetened and steamed, or used as stuffing for fowl or vegetables. It is even made into a potent wine for celebrations and rituals. (Centro Escolar University, 2009). The people of Negros Oriental have also a culture of their own about rice being the staple food in every Oriental Negrense family. Rice plantations abound all over the province apart from sugarcane and coconuts. The place is blessed with this food since it is rich in water resources which provide irrigation to the rice farms. White rice is common among the towns while upland rice as the red rice of the town of Zamboanguita in the south of the province and some other upland barangays and towns planting the same type of rice. The methods and practices among Oriental Negrenses might vary from town to town. The people of each town have their own practices and methods of Faculty Research April 2010

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cooking rice, making it into different delicacies distinctive of the aspirations and traditions of every town that comprise the province. This study provides an output of rice recipes distinct of being an Oriental Negrense. The rice recipes that will be featured at the end of this research work symbolize the uniqueness of the people of Negros Oriental as one people and as one community. Statement of Objectives This study is expected to achieve the following objectives: 1. To determine the rice cooking practices of the people of Negros Oriental. 2. To determine the methods used by Oriental Negrenses in cooking rice. 3. To identify what type of rice recipes are produced out of the cooking practices and methods used; and, 4. To find out what other ingredients are added in the methods of preparing rice recipes. Significance of the Study This study is important because its findings can be used in promoting the culture and traditions of the people of Negros Oriental. Specifically, the results of the study will benefit the following: The University. Research findings will guide the university in boosting the Hotel and Restaurant Management program. Provincial Government. The result of this study will provide impact to the province’s efforts in strengthening local tourism and provides avenue to implement Faculty Research April 2010

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programs related to cultural and community programs and projects particularly on rice production and rice-recipe promotions. Provincial/City/Municipal Tourism Office. The result will provide the officers and staff of the local tourism offices in Negros Oriental the necessary information about rice cooking practices and methods of the Oriental Negrenses particularly the methods and practices of their own city or municipality thus enabling them to make necessary steps to develop them. The Faculty. Research findings will provide additional inputs to teachers that will be used to increase students’ learning particularly on any Hotel and Restaurant Management subjects specifically on Culinary Arts module. The Researchers. The present study will interest the researchers of this study to study further the cultures and traditions of the people of Negros Oriental. Scope and Limitation of the Study The locale of the study comprises the different cities and towns of Negros Oriental specifically Dumaguete City, Tanjay City, Bais City, Bayawan City, Guihulngan City, Canlaon City, Sibulan, San Jose, Amlan, Pamplona, Mabinay, Manjuyod, Bindoy, Ayungon, Tayasan, Jimalalud, La Libertad, Vallehermoso, Valencia, Bacong, Dauin, Zamboanguita, Siaton, Sta. Catalina and Basay. The study was undertaken for two (2) semesters of SY 2009-2010 to ensure that the data gathered on the areas investigated are valid and reliable. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A Brief History The precise origins of rice are lost to history, but experts believe the plant probably got its start in India. Certainly, archeological evidence indicates that the Faculty Research April 2010

The Moors took rice with them when they invaded Spain. it has been a staple crop in the United States since the late 1600's. China is one of the countries that make up the rice bowl. Malaria was prevalent in southern Europe in the 1500's and 1600's. There are several references to rice in Buddhist scriptures. BANTAYAN. and many people believed the swampy conditions needed for rice production contributed to the spread of the disease. rice is not the first thing that springs to mind when you think of British cuisine . PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE.000 BC have been discovered in Korea. It is slightly older in Thailand which was dated at about 4000 BC. this meant northern Europeans were less than eager to make rice a staple in their diet. Archaeological records show that rice cultivation took place in our country around 3240 +/.160 BC. Speaking of the Mayflower. an area that produces the majority of the world's rice.or even French cuisine for that matter. Fortunately. From there it quickly spread through southern Europe. It is thought that the Greeks were introduced to rice when Alexander the Great brought it home with him from his travels to India in the 4th century BC. While rice wasn't one of the staples the Pilgrims packed on the Mayflower. Today. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 5 southeast Asians were the first people to cultivate rice: artifacts imprinted with rice grains dating back to 4. the domestication of rice triggered the rapid growth of the Philippines pre-colonial society. (The lack of similar references to rice in either Jewish scriptures or the Bible add to the case for rice originating in southern Asia). In the olden times. and the Spanish in turn introduced the Italians to rice in the 1400's. Rice soon spread outward from southern Asia into China and beyond. (Centro Escolar University. Needless to say. The reason for this probably stems back to medieval times. Faculty Research April 2010 . the incidence of malaria had no impact on rice's status in China.ST. 2009).

ST. Chinese rice is different from rice grown in South Asia. In fact. the separation of Australia from New Guinea when a land bridge disappeared means that Australian rice has its own unique characteristics. The shorter the period of time the rice seedlings are in this environment. parboiled white rice has been processed before milling and thus retains most of its nutrients. There are many local differences within this species. and is enclosed by a hull. However. The idea of transplanting seeds is very important to the success of rice as a crop. Lack of water supply is a frequent problem for Chinese farmers. White rice has had both the bran and hull removed during the milling process. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 6 More Information Rice is a member of the Graminae family. The rice seeds are first sown in beds. If you are following a recipe that calls for long grain rice. When we think of China and rice the image that comes to mind are fields of rice paddies. For example. and need to use medium or short grain rice instead. containing protein and several minerals. with the former being the most common. By contrast. There are two species of cultivated rice. the better their chances of survival. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. brown rice has had only the hull removed. The result is a much more nutritious dish. A harvested rice kernel contains a bran layer. BANTAYAN. the Chinese were the first to develop the idea of growing rice in wet areas such as coastal plains and river deltas. Orzya sativa and Orzya glaberrima. remember that rice grains have different absorption rates Faculty Research April 2010 . and then transplanted to an aquatic environment when they are about 25 30 days old. as are weeds that compete with the rice plants for the available water supply. Similarly. which produces fluffier rice. Rice Types The Chinese normally use long grain rice.

giving them a brown or blackish color. Sri Owen (1993). A layer of bran covers the rice grains. It is not considered to be very edible. particularly the purplish-black variety. black rice is considered to have numerous health benefits.htm.ST. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. red rice is a member of the glutinous rice family. but there is a great deal of interest in the potential health benefits of red rice extract. Luh (1991). as it is believed to help lower cholesterol levels and improve blood circulation. (http://chinesefood. and brewer's use. For example. Like red rice. Faculty Research April 2010 .about. In China. processed foods. the rice is soaked for at least two hours. Black rice is used mainly in Chinese. Grown in China and Thailand. (Glutinous rice is available at most Asian grocery markets). and Bor S. where glutinous rice is a staple food. BANTAYAN. Jeffrey Alford and Naomi Duguid (1998). glutinous or "sticky" rice is used mainly for snacks and sweets. and then steamed. It is then dipped in one of the courses and you use a finger to collect some of the course. Detailed methods and recipes for rice food preparations were described by Bor S. February 12. black rice is also a type of sticky rice. Thai and Filipino desserts. Luh (1999). (In this case you would reduce the amount of water by 1/4 to 1/2 cup per cup of rice). Grown throughout Asia.com/library/weekly/aa081399. in other parts of Asia it is used in place of regular rice. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 7 and adjust the amount of water accordingly. Two less well-known types of rice are black rice and red rice. People take the steamed rice and knead it in a ball. However. 2010 Preparation and Consumption Rice consumption falls into the following three categories: direct food use. You'll often find it in health food stores. a reader who shared his experience living in Laos and northern Thailand.

or parboiled rice. and now has become more and more popular in the United States and Canada. fish. Therefore. husks. There are some rice varieties with an attractive aroma. is of high quality. but the parboiled rice produced in the United States now. but not for Thai jasmine or japonica rice with low amylose content. The lot-of-water technique is good for arborio. chewy texture. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 8 Direct food use. Parboiled rice was originally produced in Asia. BANTAYAN. People in the Middle Faculty Research April 2010 . insects. American wild rice is a coarse grass (not a true rice by taxonomy). Rice cooking methods also include rinsing. Generally there are three rice cooking methods: large-amount-of-water method. and pressure-cooking. and steaming method. which should be cooked by steaming. Americangrown rice does not require washing or rinsing before cooking because these "cleaning" processes further remove nutrients. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. Non-glutinous rice is somewhat transparent and is less sticky than glutinous rice when cooked. absorption method. such as by the company Uncle Ben's. basmati. has a soft texture for the human palate and stomach. Rice is easy to prepare. Either uncooked rice or fully cooked rice combines well with other protein-rich foods such as meat. such as basmati. rice has gained popularity as "the pasta of the 1990s" in the West. and other impurities. baking. Rice is cooked by heating (either boiling or steaming) soaked rice for full gelatinization of the kernels and evaporation of excess water. including vitamins and minerals that were added before packaging by fortification or enrichment. roasting. and has the ability to absorb flavors while retaining its texture. and eggs because rice is bland in flavor and carries the flavor of the mixed ingredients. Juliano (1985) indicated that rice cooking methods vary with different countries. It is grown in shallow waters and has medium to long grains and a nutty flavor. can be used to make risotto. poultry. It is customary to wash rice before cooking to remove dust. frying. Both the short-grain japonica and the long-grain indica rice include non-glutinous and glutinous types. boiling. cheese.ST. because of its creamy. Arborio rice has large tan grains with central white dots and.

or other additions in clay pots or high-pressure metal pots to make thin or thick congee (or juk) or gruel (okayu. Rice can be cooked with curries (in India and Malaysia) or sauce (in the Philippines) or combinations of various ingredients. Korea. Japan. Pakistan.ST. add rice to cold water for cooking. shrimp. Mixed steamed rice also varies among countries. Brazil. Chile. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 9 East lightly fry rice before boiling. and Peru. and the Philippines. BANTAYAN. Iranians steam rice with oil or with butter. such as France. Parboiled rice: Parboiling is popular in India. chicken. tempering. Steamed rice can be served plain or mixed with other ingredients. Presoaking is a common practice in India. Mexico. color sorting. and vegetables (in China) (Boesch 1967). currently. Rice can be steamed in a bamboo steamer or. including pork. Thailand. vegetables. such as the H. and Italy. The leftover rice is good for stir-frying into egg fried rice with chopped carrots and the like. grading. seafood. and Japan add extra water to cook rice into porridge (thick gruel) or congee (thin soup). Ecuador. People in China. or margarine to soaked rice. steeping. For example. Some countries. Parboiling changes rice starch from the crystalline form to an amorphous form by a series of procedures including cleaning. milling. Germany. Americans often add salt. Problems of off-color and offflavor that resulted from conventional parboiling procedures have been overcome by various inventions. and finally packaging. and sometimes with yogurt. Malaysians steam glutinous rice with mixed meat in a bamboo joint over a fire. The treated rice can be dried by the steam or sun. steaming. Korea. Burma. in Japanese). Conversion and Malek Faculty Research April 2010 . Cambodian kralan is steamed rice mixed with grated coconut and beans. Sri Lanka. Rice can also be cooked with certain amounts of water and meat. while rice is cooked with water and oil in Brazil. the United States. drying. Detailed descriptions of recipes from different countries for cooked rice are provided by Virmani (1991). in an electric metal steamer. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. It involves the treatment of grains in cold water and then hot water with low pressure. Rice can be kept as long as five days in the refrigerator. soaking. butter. Steamed rice is preferred in some countries because more vitamins and minerals are retained. R.

and cooking. is used to make pastry products in Italy. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 10 Processes (D. longer cooking time. Rice bread is a good substitute for other gluten-containing cereal flour. which makes it possible to store the rice for longer periods of time. rice flour is widely used in making baby foods. and waffles. breakfast cereals. nonfat dry milk. The quality of yuan zi preparation depends on the amylopectin content. H. Therefore. greater difficulty in milling. the softer and more sticky the rice flour becomes when the same amount of water is added.) Yuan zi is fried with vegetable oil or thoroughly cooked in boiling water and served with sugar or other condiments. Major advantages of parboiling over ordinary milling include easier dehulling. washing. Faculty Research April 2010 . Also. higher retention of nutrients after milling. and the recipe for the fillings. greater hardness. snack foods. Formulation is important in making rice bread by adjusting the levels of sucrose. and other additives. 1986). BANTAYAN. water. and additional cost (De Datta. made by adding 10 percent rice flour to wheat flour. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. a composite baking flour. as some people are allergic to these flours. parboiled rice gelatinizes the starch and makes better consistency. less breakage in milling. The main disadvantages of parboiling include greater rancidity during storage.ST. Rice-flour products: Rice flour does not contain gluten and therefore its dough cannot retain gases during baking as wheat flour does. unbaked biscuits. and better vitreousness of the kernel. 1987). and better resistance to insect and fungus infestation. pancakes. The medium-and short-grain rice varieties are preferable to the long-grain type for making rice bread. Rice-flour products are exemplified by the following foods: yuan zi (or tong yuan) is a popular food in China. It is made from glutinous rice flour and water by adding sweet or savory fillings to the rice dough. Grist. (The higher the amylopectin content. yeast. the flour particle size. For example.

DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 11 Processed foods. rice should be fully cooked with butter. soy sauce. They can be made either from glutinous or non-glutinous rice by soaking and steaming. baking. steaming. sesame. flavor. sugar. meat or chicken. pounding. and other seasonings. Moreover. various ingredients can be added for more flavor. green vegetables. rice noodles are consumed in soups or as snacks. Japan. To make rice fries. and aroma. grinding. To add flavors and color to rice crackers. and packing. BANTAYAN. it can be stored up to two years. and drying. Rice fries can even compete with the French fries made from potatoes because rice fries have a crisp exterior crust and fluffy interior. cutting. high-quality. kneading. sen mee in Thai. and other Asian countries. Mi fen is served with water. cooling. refined oil should be used for oil-fried crackers. The rice cracker is a typical rice snack. mung bean is added to rice to make a special rice noodle called fung-shu (or tong-fun) that is more resistant to texture changes during reconstitution. steaming. The Japanese soft rice cracker made from glutinous rice is called arare or okaki in comparison with the less popular and tougher senbei (the rice cracker made from non-glutinous rice). In Thailand. red peppers. food pigments. The production of rice crackers is now developed as a continual process that takes place within 3–4 hours. Rice snacks: Rice snacks have an attractive taste. Rice cakes: Rice cakes are popular in China. seasoning. If dehydrated. and spices. grinding. kneading. non-glutinous rice also can be used for making some rice snacks. In Asia. Mi fen is often produced from nonglutinous rice by soaking. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. and other ingredients. Rice noodles: Rice noodles are called mi fen in Chinese. such Faculty Research April 2010 .They are often made from glutinous rice because of its sticky characteristics and easy expansion into a porous texture.ST. and harusame in Japanese. drying. The production process involves washing. the following ingredients are often added: seaweed. However. salt. Before steaming. texture.

It is produced either from glutinous rice or from nonglutinous rice. such as sesame seed. monosodium glutamate. It is often used to make rice cakes. fried garlic.ST. fermented rice cakes. some minor ingredients. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. bound with string. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 12 as sugar. and crushed taro. and served with honey or sugar. and packing. For better taste and flavor. Other ingredients include mushrooms. monosodium glutamate. neng gao is sometimes sweetened with sugar or enriched with lard and cinnamon flour. Vegetables such as cucumber and seasoning gourd also can be put in the middle of the rolls. sugar. BANTAYAN. and shellfish. and free from cholesterol. soy sauce. black pepper. can also be made from non-glutinous rice. steaming. and Vietnam. northern Thailand. kneading. is made from glutinous rice and soda ash. the same as chimaki in Japan. Puffed rice cakes are popular in China and the United States because they are rich in taste. The main production procedures involve soaking. sherry wine. wrapped in bamboo leaves to form a tetrahedron. The Chinese rice cake zong zi. cooking oil. and shrimp meat. Neng gao or nian gao (mochi in Japanese) is also a special rice cake for the celebration of the Chinese Lunar New Year. salt. crushed mung bean (for lu du gao. There are two main categories of zong zi: chien zong and rou zong. Laos. In Japan. To make puffed rice cakes. should be added to brown rice. shrimp. squid. crushed radish. such as fakau in China and bibingka in the Philippines. low in calories. bonito. and salt. sushi is a rice cake or rolls or cube topped with raw fish or other delicacies and served with wasabi (Japanese horseradish). a special cake in China). Glutinous or waxy rice is very sticky when cooked and is mainly consumed in northern Burma. The difference between chien zong and rou zong is that pork or ham and other ingredients are added to rou zong to enrich the flavor and nutritional value. However. Fresh raw fish used in sushi include tuna. which Faculty Research April 2010 . millet.

The preparation of frozen cooked rice includes soaking. Now. such as Japan. However. the United States. canned and frozen rice are produced in Japan. rice pudding has become a popular dish for children. For example. After precooking. rice should be precooked by gelatinizing the rice starch in water and/or steam and then dried. Completely precooked rice requires no further cooking. BANTAYAN. boiling. Rice puddings were served to the rich during the time of the ancient Romans. cuchinta (or kutsinta). Rice puddings: Rice can be made into creamy puddings by mixing cooked rice with milk and sugar. Faculty Research April 2010 . DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 13 are then wrapped with seaweed (nori). microwave heating is a common practice. Quick-cooking rice: The preparation and cooking of conventional rice takes about one hour. suman. and other Western countries. freezethaw-drying. Now. There are many other types of rice cakes made in Asia. Sushi usually is served with rice vinegar and soy sauce (shoyu). canned rice is sold by wet pack and dry pack. Quick-cooking rice mainly is produced by the soak-boil-steam-dry. biko. the United States. To produce quick-cooking rice. puto. and gun puffing methods. Canned and frozen rice: For convenience of consumption. prepared from eight different kinds of fruit and steamed glutinous rice with honey. and other countries. steaming. To serve the frozen cooked rice. expansion–pre-gelatinization. Frozen rice also can be made into freeze-dried rice by sublimation under high vacuum. and freezing. Indian consumers sweeten rice pudding with palm sugar. and other rice cakes are made in the Philippines.ST. quick-cooking rice product is popular in developed countries. draining. Korea. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. quick-cooking rice often requires five to fifteen minutes for cooking. This rice has a long storage life of one to two years. A delicious Chinese pudding is the Eight Jewel Rice Pudding.

The procedure consists of heating. and other foods. Gun puffing is a traditional method and is still practiced in some Asian countries. which breaks down starch into dextrin and oligosaccharides. and low crude fiber content. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 14 Rice breakfast cereals: Some rice breakfast cereals require cooking before eating. cooking with high pressure in a sealed chamber or gun. it is suitable for baby food. enriching. shredding. rice bran has high-quality protein. The key to making this type of cereal is ensuring the ease of reconstitution with milk or formula without forming lumps. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. Instead. net protein utilization. precooked infant rice cereal is the most common use of rice for baby food. and shredded rice. dibasic calcium phosphate. BANTAYAN. Rice-bran products: Rice bran can be sprinkled on a dinner salad or used as a major ingredient of ready-toeat cereals. and dietary fiber components. Baby foods: Rice has highly digestible energy. fortifying. Oven-puffed rice is made from short-grain rice with sugar and salt by cooking. Although baby foods can be in the form of rice flour or granulated rice.ST. rice polishings. Ingredients in this baby food include rice flour. and pyridoxine. Like oat bran. and suddenly releasing the high pressure. Sometimes. Therefore. fruit is added to these precooked rice cereals. and packaging. tempering. riboflavin. They commonly are fortified with minerals and heat-stable vitamins. gun puffing is less popular in developed countries. tempering. pasta. and ease of controlling product density. The production of extruded rice can be accomplished by extruding superheated and pressurized doughs. Because of the lack of continuity in processing. such as niacin. glycerol monostearate (emulsifier). and packing. thiamine. baked products. riboflavin. while others can be eaten directly. making extruded rice has high and continuous production rates. and niacin or niacinamide. such as China. drying. The ready-to-eat breakfast cereals include oven-puffed. sugar. great versatility in product shape. gun-puffed. laxative properties. extruded. Rice bran can lower serum cholesterol in humans and reduce Faculty Research April 2010 . The starch is converted from crystalline to amorphous form by the addition of amylase. drying. cooking. rice oil. Shredded rice is produced by washing.

and in some cases. Other rice wines include tapuy in the Philippines. The major carbohydrates in the rice bran are cellulose. BANTAYAN. and moonshine rice wine and ba-xi de (a glutinous rice wine) in Vietnam. China has a long history of making rice wine. 47 percent of its riboflavin. degumming. lao rong in Thailand. Brewer's use: Rice alcohols include rice beer and rice wine. oleic. rice bran oil has greater stability than any other vegetable oil. Rice wine is distilled spirits having about 20 percent alcohol content. Monilia. and starch. containing Rhizopus. alcohol. the following treatments are necessary before it is processed as a food: indigenous lipase inactivation by parboiling. and fatty acid composition. Rice bran has 16–32 percent oil. including 78 percent of its thiamine. Nepal also has a slightly sweet rice wine called nigar. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. Rice oil also can be used in cosmetics and paints. rice bran can be processed into rice oil of the highest quality in terms of cooking quality. neutralization. lactic acid. and deodorization. linoleic. It is made from steamed glutinous rice. The bran also contains most of the vitamins in the rice kernel. shelf life. such as wang tsiu ("Shao Shing rice wine"). including palmitic. Mucor. Rice bran has hydrolytic rancidity after milling. Oil extraction can be carried out with a variety of solvents using a hydraulic press or specially designed extractors before refining by dewaxing. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 15 the risk of cardiovascular disease and colon cancer. Jiu qu. bleaching. and sugar. After these steps. or moisture-added or dry extrusion. which is usually served at weddings and other annual rituals. winterization. Therefore. and other fatty acids. tian jiu niang is a popular mixture of rice grains.ST. hemicelluloses (or pentosans). yeast or bacteria. or other alternative methods. Faculty Research April 2010 . mukhuli in Korea. and 67 percent of its niacin. Therefore. Aspergillus. is used to ferment the steamed rice. In China.

DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 16 Sake is a brewed alcoholic beverage having 14–16 percent alcohol content.. and miso (soy bean paste). setting. Furthermore. and phosphorus. a trace of fat. such as beriberi (thiamin deficiency). and vitamin A deficiency. heating. and about 160 calories per cooked cup. and sake's yeast. BANTAYAN. Nutritive. The production of sake began in third century Japan. and it has been demonstrated that rice bran oil can lower both the total and the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in nonhuman primates (Nicolosi et al. aging. The processes to make sake can be summarized as the following: (1) saccharification: conversion of the starch in cooked rice into glucose with koje or koji. calcium. Rice can be included in a weightloss diet because it has no cholesterol. (2) fermentation: conversion of the rice sugar into alcohol by sake's yeast. marasmus. iron. many fewer people are allergic to rice than to wheat or other cereals. and bottling. Sakamai or shinpakumai rice should be selected for sake production for better quality because of its high starch content and its large and soft grain. 1990). Fermentation for 20–25 days (three or four times longer than the fermentation in normal wine production) produces a balanced taste and fresh flavor from a wide variety of amino acids and low alcohol content (8–15 percent). vitamin E. and Psychopharmacological Value Rice ranks high among the most nutritious foods available because brown rice provides high levels of fiber. koje. which leads to rich flavor. certain B vitamins. Sake should be preserved in a cool and dark place without any exposure to light and open air. Some health problems. Sake is made from highlypolished rice. and (3) further steps including filtration. growth retardation. lysine. complex carbohydrates. Recent studies have indicated that rice hull or bran contains antioxidants such as isovitexin (a C-glycosyl flavonoid). PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE.ST. water. Another important ingredient is the spring water. can Faculty Research April 2010 . shoyu (soy sauce). Koje are microbes similar to those used in the production of cheese. Health-Related.

BANTAYAN. Rice water (a decoction of rice) is prescribed as an ointment for skin inflammation. Powdered rice is used to treat certain skin ailments. 1999).com/topic/rice-as-a-food. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This part of the study is composed of research method. vitamins. spleen-pancreas. The Chinese believe that rice can increase appetite and cure indigestion. Glutinous rice is believed to strengthen the kidneys. Since rice is low in sodium and fat and free of cholesterol. 2010) Although not scientifically proven.ST. research respondents. 1985). Random sampling is being done in every town or city. data gathering procedures and statistical treatment of data. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. research procedures.answers. February 23. The Chinese also believe that rice mixed with honey butter and water can build energy and blood and counter emaciation and other disorders (Wood. rice is believed to have medicinal uses. Research Method This study will use the quantitative survey method. (http://www. from which a portion of the proteins and most of the fat. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 17 result from consumption of only white rice. research instruments. Rice bran (tiki-tiki) is used to cure beriberi in the Philippines. and boiled rice "greens" are used as an eye lotion in Malaysia. A thick paste made from rice grains and water is used in India for massage for curing arthritic pain. Faculty Research April 2010 . Rice starch can substitute for glucose in an oral rehydration solution for infants suffering from diarrhea caused by a spleen-pancreas deficiency (Juliano. and stomach because of its easier digestion compared to regular rice. and minerals are removed. Rice oil is believed to reduce the likelihood of ischemic heart disease. it can help relieve mental depression.

93% 2.93% 2.23% 2.93% 6.93% 6. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 18 Research Respondents The respondents come from the different towns and cities in the province of Negros Oriental.93% 2.23% 2.93% 100% Faculty Research April 2010 .93% 6. Table 1 Distribution of Respondents N=273 Frequency Towns (f) Dumaguete City 36 Sibulan 8 San Jose 8 Amlan 8 Tanjay City 17 Pamplona 8 Bais City 17 Mabinay 8 Manjuyod 8 Bindoy 8 Ayungon 8 Tayasan 8 Jimalalud 8 La Libertad 8 Guihulngan City 17 Vallehermoso 8 Canlaon City 17 Bacong 8 Valencia 8 Dauin 8 Zamboanguita 8 Siaton 8 Sta. Ages of respondents vary from as young as 15 years old to as mature as above 60 years old and above.93% 2.93% 6. Catalina 8 Bayawan City 17 Basay 8 TOTAL 273 % 13.93% 2.93% 2. Random sampling is used to determine the number of samples to be surveyed in each town.23% 2.93% 2.23% 2.23% 2.19% 2. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE.93% 6.93% 2.93% 2.93% 2.ST. BANTAYAN.93% 2.93% 2.93% 2.

B. Once approved. Guided Survey Questions – This section covers the questions to get facts regarding the various methods. and is subjected to statistical treatment for presentation. sex. common recipes. the questions in this section are guided. analyzed and interpreted. Statistical Treatment of Data The data will be treated in relation to what was asked in the specific objectives. Statistical tools that will be used are percentage and standard mean. practices. usual ingredients and favorite recipes of the respondents. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 19 Research Instrument This research study used a questionnaire which was made up of two parts: A. tabulated. After accomplishing all the questionnaires. The formulas read as follow: Faculty Research April 2010 . the researchers together with some volunteer HRM students from each town administer the final questionnaire to respondents. Moreover. Research Procedures Foremost is to secure a permission to conduct the research study at the Office of the Research Director thru a written letter requesting permission thereof. BANTAYAN.ST. analysis and interpretation. Respondents’ Profile – This section covers the demographic profile of the respondents including their address. the data is properly arranged. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. age. occupation and civil status. tallied. Every question asked in the questionnaire was being translated to vernacular and being explained to respondents before the researchers would write the respondent’s answer on the survey sheet. These data will be tabulated.

PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 20 Percentage: ( Part / Whole ) x 100 Mean: X X Where: X = X = N = Mean Sum of Cases Number of Cases = N Faculty Research April 2010 . BANTAYAN.ST.

79% 10. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 21 CHAPTER II PRESENTATION.5 5. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA This chapter has two (2) parts which constitutes the presentation. analysis and interpretation of the data gathered by the researcher.5 respectively. This proves that most of the respondents are mostly adolescents which are mostly requested or trained by parents to cook rice for their family.93% 4.00% Rank 1 5. The following tables present the profiles of respondents in terms of: A.64% 8. usual ingredients that are being used by the respondents in cooking rice. practices.5 4 7 10 9 8 Table 2 above presents the ages of the respondents and also reveals that 25. both with the rank of 2. common recipes.79% 2.5 2.5 2.99% 8.99% 10. Faculty Research April 2010 .ST.42% 100. BANTAYAN.79% 10. The first part presents the demographic profile of the respondents while the second part reveals the methods. Age Table 2 Age of Respondents N=273 Frequency (f) 70 24 30 24 30 28 24 8 12 23 273 Respondents' Ages 15-20 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 51-55 56-60 61-above TOTAL Percentage (%) 25.26% 8. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE.64 percent have ages 15-20 with the rank of 1 followed by almost 11 percent with ages of 26-30 and 36-40.40% 8.

Gender Table 3 Gender of Respondents N=273 Frequency (f) 209 64 273 Percentage (%) 76. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 22 B.66% 50.44% 100.00% Civil Status Single Married Widow TOTAL The table above presents the civil status of respondents. Hence.00% Gender Female Male TOTAL Table 3 reveals that majority of the respondents are females with almost 77 percent while male respondents is 23 percent. Most of the respondents that the researchers surveyed belong to a family. This is followed by students with the frequency of fifty-eight (58) or almost 22 percent with the rank of 2.92% 8. Faculty Research April 2010 . C. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. BANTAYAN.56% 23. It reveals that majority of the respondents are housewives which comprised almost 30 percent of the total respondents or having a frequency of seventy-seven (77). Civil Status Table 4 Civil Status of Respondents N=273 Frequency (f) 111 139 23 273 Percentage (%) 40. On the succeeding page is Table 5 which presents that data on the different occupations of the respondents. Table 4 above reveals that majority of the respondents with 51 percent are married while almost 41 percent are single and almost 9 percent are widows.ST.42% 100.

5 10 In addition.37% 0.5 18.10% 0.20% 9.5 2 4 18.00% RANK 24. Faculty Research April 2010 .37% 1.49% 2.73% 0.10% 0.10% 5.10% 1.59% 0.56% 1.83% 0.5 24.13% 2.73% 28.5 24. Table 8 above reveals that 9.5 7.10% 5.73% 1. BANTAYAN.25% 6.47% 100.73% 0.37% 0.ST.37% 1.5 18.5 13 24.56% 0.5 1 18.5 13 18.52 percent of the respondents are entrepreneurs or businessmen with the frequency of 26 and with the rank of 3. The occupations of the respondents are well represented in all walks of life.21% 0.37% 2.5 24.5 10 18. Occupation of Respondents Table 5 Occupation of Respondents N=273 Frequency Occupation (f) Accountant 1 Bank Teller 1 Bookkeeper 1 Carpenter 3 Chef Cook 14 Driver 6 Entrepreneur/Businessmen 26 Farmer 3 Food server 3 Government Employee 15 House helper 7 Houseboy 2 Housewife 77 Husband at home 2 Labandera 3 Mall Manager 2 Marketing Manager 1 Nurse 3 Nursing Aid 1 Pensioner/Retired 7 Private Employee 3 Sales clerk 1 Saleslady 5 Seaman 2 Secretary 2 Student 58 Teacher 18 Teacher Aid 2 Vendor 4 TOTAL 273 Percentage (%) 0.5 13 24.37% 1.5 13 6 9 3 13 13 5 7.73% 1.52% 1. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 23 D. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE.10% 0.73% 21.

PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE.10% 10.25% 21.88% 47.99% 12. majority of the respondents or almost 60 percent said that they are using the first line of their middle finger to indicate the amount of water while 41 percent put water up to the 2nd line of their middle fingers.03% 3 114 41.00% 100.00% 100. Some with 20 percent or a frequency of 55 said that in cooking 1-2 cups of rice they are going to measure the amount of water up to the second line of their middle fingers. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 24 The succeeding tables present the second part of this research which is the guided survey questions.93% 33 % 0. BANTAYAN. It begins with the best practices that the respondents apply when cooking rice up to the usual ingredients that are added to their rice recipes. majority of the respondents with almost 80 percent or a frequency of 218 used the 1st line of their middle fingers as to the amount of water to be used in cooking 1-2 cups of rice.09% TOTAL 100.00% Based on Table 6 above. the first line of the middle finger served as the basis of measurement as to the amount of water to be used Faculty Research April 2010 . Still the table presents that in 5-6 cups of rice.00% 1.15% 0 112 41. With 3-4 cups of rice being cooked. Table 6 Practices Used in Measuring the Amount of Water needed to Cook Rice N=273 Cup(s) of Rice 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-above 1st line (f) 218 158 129 60 % 79. Table 6 below presents the practice used by the respondents in terms of the methods used of measuring the amount of water needed to cook rice. It is very evident based on the survey that the people of Negros Oriental are using the lines of their middle fingers as basis for the amount of water to be used in cooking rice depending on what type of recipe they are cooking.98% Using Middle Finger 2nd line 3rd line % (f) (f) 55 20.76% 30 180 65.ST.85% 57.00% 100.

The table also reveals a very little percentage of . PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. Stirring is a practice which requires the use of a ladle made up of aluminum or steel or the shell of the coconut with a bamboo handle called “luwag” in vernacular. On the other hand. BANTAYAN. This suggests that there are respondents who are cooking porridge or “lugaw” since there is more amount of water. the table indicates that the 2nd line of the middle finger is used as basis of the amount of water if there are 7 and above cups of rice with almost 66 percent. The graph further reveals that there are also respondents who are using up to the 3rd line of their middle fingers as indicated on Table 6 from 3 and above cups of rice. it means 3 cups of water and so on and so forth. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 25 with almost 48 percent followed by almost 42 percent of the respondents using the 2nd line of their middle fingers. Faculty Research April 2010 .ST.37 percent or only 1 respondent among the total respondents is using the 1:2 ratio meaning putting 2 cups of water in a cup of rice. However. there are respondents who are using other practices in measuring the amount of water needed to cook rice apart from the use of the lines of the middle fingers.37% Presented next is a graph which reveals if the respondents would stir the rice while the water is boiling to aid in fully-cooking the rice. Table 7 Other Practices Used in Measuring the Amount of Water needed to Cook Rice N=273 Other Practices 1:1 1:2 F 76 1 % 27. Presented below in Table 7 are the other practices used by the people of Negros Oriental and it reveals that almost 28 percent of the respondents or with a frequency of 76 are using the 1:1 ratio meaning in every cup of rice is a cup of water which means for example if there are 3 cups of rice.84% 0.

Table 8 Practices made when Rice being cooked is Half-cooked or Uncooked N=273 Practices to do if the Rice is Half-cooked or Uncooked Add hot water Add tap water Cook again Fry it Put a damp cloth on top of the cover Put banana leaf on top Put bondpaper on top of the cover Put fire on top of the cover Put plastic on top of the cover Put salt on top of the cover Put spoon/fork Stir it TOTAL Frequency (f) 106 77 4 1 6 2 1 1 1 60 1 13 273 Percentage (%) 38.20% 0.21% 1.ST.76% 100. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 26 Graph 1 Number of Respondents who Practiced Stirring in Cooking Rice 33% N=273 YES NO 67% Graph 1 above reveals that majority of the respondents said yes when asked with the question.73% 0.47% 0.37% 2. BANTAYAN.83% 28. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE.37% 21. Table 8 presents the practices done by the respondents or the people of Negros Oriental on how to cook the uncooked rice.00% Rank 1 2 6 10 5 7 10 10 10 3 10 4 Faculty Research April 2010 . In this situation.98% 0.37% 4. “Do you stir the rice while the water is boiling to aid in fully-cooking the rice?” As indicated on the graph above. There are situations in which the rice being cooked becomes half-cooked or uncooked.37% 0.37% 0. majority of the respondents or 67 percent stir the rice while the water is boiling in order to evenly cook the rice while the rest of the respondents or 33 percent just leave the rice while the water is boiling until cooked without stirring.

DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 27 Table 8 on the previous page revealed that majority of the respondents or 38. The reason behind this practice lacks scientific proof but is already considered as a way of life among the people. Ranking first or almost 23 percent on the other practices is putting “pandan” leaves on the rice. frying the rice in order to cook it. plastic and even banana leaf on top of the cover are unique practices to the Oriental Negrenses. Placing at the 4th rank which has each a frequency of three (3) or 7. removing cover while boiling. Some folks have to cook again the uncooked rice and place it over the fire with the frequency of 4 or 1. placing banana leaf inside the kettle. putting plastic on top of the cover. other practices indicated on the previous table covering ranks 7 to 10 include putting banana on top of the cover. steaming and stirring it constantly.ST. Others practiced by putting a damp cloth on top of the cover which has a frequency of six (6) or 2. In addition. putting bond paper on top of the cover. This is being followed by the practice of adding tap water to the uncooked rice with almost 30 percent or rank 2.47 percent. All these practices signify rice cooking culture in the southern part of Negros. It’s a practice that has been passed on from generation to generation. This is a common practice to make the rice smells good and fresh to eat. This practice is a tradition and has become part of the culture among the Oriental Negrenses. The placing of a piece of paper.2 percent placing it rank 5. Putting salt on top of the cover has long been a practice among the people of Negros Oriental. Ranking 9th with a frequency of two (2) each or 5 percent include Faculty Research April 2010 . PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. and putting spoon/fork on the rice while cooking it with moderate fire.5 percent include boiling the water before putting the rice. Ranking 4th or almost 5 percent is the practice on stirring the rice in order to get into the other portion which is not being cooked. Rank 3 is putting salt on top of the cover which reveals almost 22 percent or a frequency of sixty (60).33 percent add hot water to the uncooked rice with a rank of 1. BANTAYAN. Presented on Table 9 on the next page are the other practices mentioned by the respondents.

5 4 14. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 28 “tinughong.50% 7.50% 7.50% 7.5 14.ST.00% 5. This practice is being done to make an even cook among the grains of rice inside the kettle.50% 2. BANTAYAN.50% 5. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE.00% 5.5 4 1 9 4 4 4 9 9 9 14. using firewood. using rice cooker and using charcoal. This is a tradition among Negrenses to warm their stomachs on a very early morning work as a substitute for expensive coffees.50% 5.50% 5.5 9 14. “Tinughong” is usually being eaten by farmers early in the morning before going to the farm.50% 100.50% 22. The other practice which is the use of firewood in cooking is a common Faculty Research April 2010 .50% 2.50% 2.00% RANK 14. Table 9 Other Practices in Cooking Rice N=40 Frequency Other Practices (f) "Sinanduloy" 1 "Taphan" 1 "Tinughong" 2 Addding magic sarap 1 Boil the water before putting the rice 3 Bring the water to boil before adding rice 1 Hanging rice 1 Placing banana leaf inside the kettle 3 Put pandan leaves 9 Reduce the fire when boiling 2 Remove cover while boiling 3 Steaming 3 Stirring it constantly 3 Use firewood 2 Use rice cooker 2 Use charcoal 2 Washing rice 1 TOTAL 40 Percentage (%) 2. Reducing the fire when boiling on the other hand will prevent overcooking and even undercooking.00% 2.5 The practice of ‘tinughong” is being done when uncooked or cooked rice is being cooked again with more amount of water and being added with sugar to taste.50% 7.5 14.00% 7.” reduce the fire when boiling.00% 2.

Ranking 14. ”Taphan” is a practice to remove the husks of the rice grain and other sediments like small stones over the rice with the use of a “bilao”.5 with a frequency of one (1) each or 2. It is a street food and ideal to match with delicious pork ‘tocino’ and other dishes.5 percent on Table 9 include “sinanduloy. hanging rice or “puso” is a very common practice among the respondents. Adding ‘magic sarap’ to the rice is a practice being done lately to add taste to the rice. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 29 practice among people who want to cut costs in electric bills. “Magic sarap” is a food seasoning which contains ingredients to make the rice and other recipes taste better. These are edible leafy vegetables which contain high percentage of proteins and other minerals and very good substitutes of meat. Rice is being placed inside the heart-shaped coconut leaves and being placed inside a big kettle and allowing the water to boil until the ‘puso’ is being cooked. Another significant practice is placing the water to Faculty Research April 2010 . “Bilao” is an oblong-shaped material made up of rattan or bamboo woven together where the rice is being put. According to them.ST. cooking using firewood and even cooking using charcoal yield more tasty rice as compared to pressurized cooking using rice cooker. According to the respondents.’ placing the water to boil before adding the rice. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE.” hanging rice (“puso”). BANTAYAN. Putting stick at the center of the ‘puso’ will determine if the ‘puso’ is already cooked or not. “Puso” is a traditional term of hanging rice which is being cooked with the use of young coconut leaves woven like a shape of a heart or “puso” in Tagalog pronounced as pu-so where the accent is on the middle of the word pu but hanging rice is pronounced as puso’ with the accent at the end of the word. “Sinanduloy” is a rice cooking practice where vegetables are added on the rice when cooking especially with leafy vegetables like the saluyot and the malunggay. On the other hand. and washing the rice thoroughly before cooking. An experience is needed to determine the cooked ‘puso’ or the uncooked one which further needs boiling under a small yet continuous fire.” “taphan. adding ‘magic sarap. cooking with firewood or charcoal will produce “dukot” – a cooked rice which is brownish in color at the bottom of the kettle but it is very tasty especially when place and mix with a hot soup.

Frying followed next with a frequency of two hundred four (204) or almost 75 percent.37% Methods of Rice Cooking Boiling (pabukalan) Frying (paga-sanlagon) Steaming (pasingawan) Stirring (paga-ukayon) Baking (paga-hurnohon) Grinding (paga-galingon) Soaking (paga-huluman) RANK 1 2 3 4 6 5 7 Other methods include grinding. Table 10 on the next below presents the various methods used by the respondents in cooking rice. washing the rice thoroughly before cooking is a universal practice.40% 11.05% 30. 6 and 7 respectively. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 30 boil before adding the rice is commonly being done when cooking with more amount of rice particularly when there are events like fiesta.78% 0. These methods are being used by the respondents to be able to cook their favorite rice recipes which are being presented on the next table. and among others.73% 45. Ranking 3rd with a frequency of one hundred twenty-three (123) or 45.ST. Faculty Research April 2010 . Table 11 on the succeeding page presents the common rice recipes being cooked by the respondents using the different methods mentioned in the previous table and discussion. BANTAYAN. baking and soaking which correspond to ranks 5. This is being followed by stirring with a frequency of eightythree (83) or almost 31 percent. Finally. It reveals that boiling is the number one method used with the frequency of two-hundred sixty seven (267) or almost 98 percent.80% 74.72% 19.05 percent is the steaming method. Table 10 Methods of Cooking Rice N=273 Frequency (f) 267 204 123 83 32 54 1 Percentage (%) 97. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. This is to ensure that the rice to be cooked is clean and safe for eating.

50% 78. sugar. It has a frequency of two hundred fifty-three (253) or almost 93 percent of the total respondents. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 31 The table reveals that cooking “champorado” is the most common recipe being cooked among the respondents. “Champorado” is a rice recipe using either glutinous (pilit) or plain rice with a mixture of a chocolate (tsokolate) or commonly called “tablia” from cacao seeds or from cocoa seeds with coconut milk.33% 49.59% 86. BANTAYAN.53% 70.82% 80. It is also economical where even one cup of rice can fill the empty stomach of the whole members of the family. and evaporated milk.ST.05% 15.01% 35.67% Common Rice Recipes Ampaw Aros ala Valenciana Bibingka Biko Bodbod Dinoldog Fried rice Kan-on/Luto Lugaw Palitaw Pospas Puso Puto Sinagaksak Sinanduloy Sushi Tsamporado RANK 13 14 11 6 9 3 2 4 7 12 5 10 8 16 15 17 1 Faculty Research April 2010 .75% 38.57% 26.” Table 11 Common Rice Recipes N=273 Frequency (f) 78 71 97 192 136 220 235 218 189 86 215 106 161 44 52 43 253 Percentage (%) 28. Furthermore.75% 92.85% 69. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE.97% 16. vanilla.83% 58. it is very interesting to note based on the table below that almost 93 percent of the total respondents are cooking and eating “Tsamporado. “Tsamporado” is ideal for breakfast and even during snacks time for the whole family.12% 19.08% 79.23% 31.

The 3rd most common recipe among the respondents is “dinoldog” with a frequency of two hundred twenty (220) or 80.75 percent is “Pospas or Arroz Caldo. New Year and even on birthdays. ube. Filipinos really love sweet food and this craving for sweetness is being manifested by the local rice recipe known as “biko. Faculty Research April 2010 . The inclusion of ‘biko’ in the set of meals in every important family gathering becomes a tradition since ‘biko’ is a sticky food.” “Pospas” is another porridge food which is best served when it is hot.33 percent with a rank of 6. other root crops and etc. The “kan-on” or “luto” is the staple food among Filipinos where people usually eat with viands and soups. BANTAYAN. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. However. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 32 Next with a rank of 2 with a frequency of two hundred thirty-five (235) or almost 86.08 percent is fried rice. It’s an ideal recipe for the whole family. sago.ST.85 percent. Placing fifth on the rank with a frequency of two hundred fifteen (215) or 78. Filipinos cooked fried rice particularly on the rice which was a leftover from the previous meals and common ingredients added to fried rice are also presented later on the next table.” “Biko” has a frequency of one hundred ninety-two (192) or 70. it signifies that the family members will be closer to each other like ‘biko’ which is not only sweet but very sticky. “Dinoldog” is also a favourite delicacy among Negrenses which contain other ingredients such as banana (saging) particularly the ripe saba (pronounced sab-a). This rice recipe is usually being made up using glutinous rice with the use of coconut milk.59 percent. ginger or “luy-a. This rice recipe is usually present in most occasions especially on Christmas Eve. Usually fried rice is being served in the morning among Filipinos. the common plain rice or “kan-on/luto” in the local dialect is placed only at rank 4 with a frequency of two hundred eighteen (218) or 79.” and some added vanilla extract to make the ‘biko’ smells good and delicious to eat. gabi. Usually it is being cooked with meat bones particularly the bones of chicken or beef and of course with meat plus other ingredients which will make the “pospas” very delicious to eat. black sugar known as ‘mascubado’.

ampaw.” As their song goes. This rice recipe is commonly being brought over to picnics and parties because of its being handy.’) It is ranked 9th with a frequency of one hundred thirty-six (136) or 49. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 33 The presence of Chinese in Negros Oriental has contributed to the traditions and cultures of Negrenses particularly on their favourite food which is “lugaw” or porridge. Aros de Valencia is quite having expensive Faculty Research April 2010 . PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. aros de valenciana. Based on Table 11. The Filipino family culture of being attached with each other and the longtradition of ‘pakikisama’ is being manifested with the common recipe known as ‘puso’ or hanging rice.” It is being cooked uysing glutinous rice or also called “pilit” commonly with “pilit puti” or “pilit tapol. These recipes are indicative of the Negrenses’ creative and innovative cultures. (‘Bod-bod in Tanjay is forever delicious. BANTAYAN. palitaw. Ranks 11 to 16 include bibingka. “lugaw” has a frequency of one hundred eighty-nine (189) or 69. sinanduloy.83 percent with a rank of ten (10). One place in Negros Oriental called Tanjay City put ‘tsokolate’ over the ‘bod-bod’ which makes it very sweet and delicious to eat. Bibingka and palitaw are common picnic food and ideal for snacks and every Negrense family cannot miss in every get together occasion. The ‘ampaw’ or puffed rice is very popular in Cebu particularly in Car-car but also a recipe in which the people of Negros Oriental are fond of. This ‘bod-bod’ is called ‘Bod-bod sa Tanjay.82 percent.” This rice recipe is best served with “tsokolate” and even with ripe mango.23 percent with a rank of 7. sinagaksak and sushi respectively. Almost everywhere in Negros Oriental we can find ‘puto.” ‘Pilit tapol’ usually yields a violet-colored ‘puto’ while ‘pilit-puto’ yields a white-colored ‘puto. ‘Bod-bod sa Tanjay. Another sticky food made up glutinous rice is bod-bod.ST.97 percent is “puto.’ However both yields are very delicious especially during dawn or morning.’ lami gayud kanunay. ‘Puso’ has a frequency of one hundred six (106) or 38. Commonly babies are being feed with “lugaw” and even elderly who can hardly chew food. Placing 8th on the rank with a frequency of one hundred sixty-one (161) or 58. It is being cooked by boiling and as presented in the earlier discussion that it is being cooked using young coconut leaves in the form of a heart. ‘Bod-bod’ is being cooked with a banana leaf.

36% 77.78% 48.ST.54% 45. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 34 ingredients but it’s a very delicious delicacy to serve. BANTAYAN. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE.14% 74.72% 94. Table 12 Common Ingredients Added to Rice Recipes Common Ingredients Added to Rice Recipes Ahos (garlic) Carrots Chicken Coconut milk Ginger Ginisa Mix/Magic Sarap Greenpeas Hotdog Karne (Meat) Kinagid Lubi Pepper Sago Salag-on Salt Sibuyas (onion) Sibuyas dahon Sugar Tsokolate Vetsin Water N=273 Frequency (f) 231 150 194 202 159 263 108 160 168 125 151 155 133 257 203 212 251 195 176 237 Percentage (%) 84. is a rice recipe commonly served only during important occasions particularly with the affluent families or to those who can afford.95% 71.43% 64.06% 73.31% 56.81% RANK 5 17 10 8 14 1 20 13 12 19 16 15 18 2 7 6 3 9 11 4 Faculty Research April 2010 .62% 54.47% 86.99% 58. Finally. ‘Sinanduloy’ and ‘sinagaksak’ are native food in which the first is being cooked with the addition of leafy vegetables and even with young corn while the ‘sinagaksak’ is being cooked with added camote or ’balonghoy’ and other root crops. These two recipes are common among towns in the province particularly to those families who are on the average class and specially those falling below the poverty line.79% 55.34% 39.56% 58.24% 96. sushi.94% 71.66% 91.61% 61.

66 percent. Rank 5 – Ahos (garlic) with a frequency of 231 or 84.94 percent among them used sugar as an ingredient.62 percent. This is also being followed by Rank 7 – Sibuyas (onion) with a frequency of 203 or 74. Faculty Research April 2010 . It shows that only 94. This reflects the fact that ‘tsamporado’ as the number 1 common recipe requires sugar as main ingredient.36 percent. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. It is commonly used as ingredient of champorado. As reflected on its frequency.14 percent of the total respondents used salt.51 percent used this ingredient. This further reveals that not all of the respondents used salt in their recipes.Ginisa Mix/Magic Sarap with a frequency of 263. Ginisa Mix and Magic Sarap are competing brands of seasoning which when used produce a very seasoned taste of menu. Rank 4 – Water with a frequency of 237. Based on the total number of respondents.ST.99 percent. BANTAYAN. it reveals that 91. Thus. biko and the like. Rank 3 – Sugar with a frequency of 251. puto. These mentioned recipes require the use of garlic to season the menu. only 86. Rank 8 – Coconut Milk with a frequency of 202 or 73. pospas. This also reveals that almost 97 percent of the total respondents are using this ingredient when cooking with rice recipes. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 35 Table 12 in the previous page presented the various ingredients needed while cooking the various recipes presented in Table 11. Based on the table it reveals the following Top 10 ingredients arranged accordingly: Rank 1 . Rank 6 – Sibuyas dahon with a frequency of 212 or 77. dinoldog. Rank 2 – Salt with a frequency of 257. it shows that not all rice recipes require water as main ingredient. bodbod. aros de Valencia and among others. It shows that this ingredient reflects with the common recipes mentioned in Table 11 like fried rice.

PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE.50% 6.’ Finally.25% 6.25% 100.25% 6.06 percent.25% 6. Table 13 below presents the other ingredients mentioned by the respondents apart from the ingredients listed in the survey questionnaire as presented in Table 12.25% 6. Moreover. pandan leaves and kalamansi and among other ingredients as presented on the table as secret ingredients to make the rice recipes more delicious distinct of being an Oriental Negrense delicacy. Faculty Research April 2010 . BANTAYAN.00% Table 13 reveals the use of vanilla extract.ST.50% 6.50% 6. rank 10 – Chicken with a frequency of 194 or 71.25% 6.25% 12.25% 12. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 36 Rank 9 – Tsokolate has a frequency of 195 or 71.25% 6.43 percent. This is the best ingredient when cooking Aros ala Valenciana and pospas or arroz caldo. This ingredient is very much needed when cooking ‘champorado’ and being a side drink when eating ‘puto.25% 12. Table 13 Other Ingredients Added N=16 Frequency Other Ingredients Added (f) Chilli Gabi Jackfruit Kalamansi Kangkong Oil Oyster's sauce Pandan leves Soy sauce Star margarine Ube Vanilla extract Young coconut meat TOTAL 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 16 Percentage (%) 6.

Majority of the respondents are housewives with 28 percent followed by students with 21 percent and entrepreneur or businessmen with almost 10 percent.ST. 10. 2.97 percent added hot water when the rice being cooked becomes uncooked. BANTAYAN. Majority of the respondents when cooking 1-6 cups of rice used the first line of their middle fingers as to the amount of water to be used. 4. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. Majority of the respondents or 38. 6. 3.50 percent of the respondents as another practice involved in cooking rice. Majority or 51 percent of the respondents are married. Most of the respondents when cooking 7 and above cups of rice used the 2nd line of their middle fingers as to the amount of water to be used. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 37 CHAPTER 3 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS. 9. 8. 7. Faculty Research April 2010 .Putting pandan leaves on the rice constitutes 22. Most of the respondents are females. 5. 67 percent of the respondents practiced stirring in cooking rice. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary of Findings: This section presents the findings of this research: 1. Majority of the respondents have ages which fall within the bracket of 15-20 years old followed by 26-30 and 36-40 age brackets. There is a significant number of respondents of almost 28 percent who practiced the 1:1 ratio between cups of rice and amount of water to be used.

Ginisa Mix or Magic sarap is the common ingredient added to rice recipe with a frequency of 231 or 96.” “champorado” and among others.ST. 4.67 percent have found tsamporado as the most common rice recipe.Most of the respondents or 92. There are also practical people in Negros Oriental who don’t practice the use of fingers in measuring the amount of water instead use the 1:1 ratio between cups of rice and the amount of water to be used.80 percent among the respondents is practicing it. pandan leaves.There are also other ingredients that respondents added to rice recipes such as vanilla extract. BANTAYAN. 2. In most families in Negros Oriental usually it’s the housewives who have more experiences in the kitchen particularly on various rice recipes with the help of their children most particularly females whose age bracket falls from 15-20 years old and can be relied upon to cook rice recipes. The people of Negros Oriental have distinct practices in terms of rice cooking such as the use of fingers particularly middle finger in deciding as to the amount of water to be used versus the number of cups of rice to be cooked. 12. 14. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 38 11.Boling is the number 1 method used in cooking rice with 97. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE.34 percent. Conclusion: 1. Faculty Research April 2010 . 13. The amount of water to be used depends upon what recipe to cook.” “dinuldog. kalamansi and among others. There is more water when cooking porridge food such as “lugaw. 3.

Each town and city of the province of Negros Oriental has a distinct practice of its own especially on adding other ingredients to their rice recipes.The province has unique rice cooking methods. Adding hot water to the uncooked rice is a common practice among the people of Negros Oriental in order to cook the remaining uncooked grains of rice. 7. Recommendations: 1. BANTAYAN. Tsamporado is the best rice recipe that can be found in almost all homes in Negros Oriental. Faculty Research April 2010 . 10. 8. Schools. 6. colleges and universities like St. 11. People of Negros Oriental are used to the method of boiling when cooking rice recipes.ST. Stirring is another practice performed by Oriental Negrenses while cooking rice recipes in order to cook it thoroughly while placing pandan leaves on the rice to make it tastes better and smells good. practices and recipes worthy of preservation and recognition. Paul University Dumaguete shall conduct community extension trainings to housewives and out-of-school youth on how to cook various rice recipes which can be a great source of livelihood and additional income for their families. 9. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 39 5. It only means that the varying taste of rice recipe among the various places in Negros Oriental proves the uniqueness of the people living in one area within the province. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. Most homes in Negros Oriental when cooking rice recipes used the synthetic seasoning such as Magic Sarap and Ginisa Mix. This tradition is a new practice which clearly manifests the innovativeness of tastes among Oriental Negrenses.

Schools. A separate study shall be conducted finding out the unique rice recipe per town or city within the province. 6. 3. A rice recipe book shall be produced showcasing the various rice recipes made by the people of Negros Oriental. 7. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 40 2. 9. Showcase and promote the rice recipe pride of Negros Oriental which is “Tsamporado” in various food fairs locally. colleges and universities shall help promote the methods and practices of rice cooking by sponsoring various competitions which will use rice as the main ingredient. 4. 8. Conduct further study on the use of commercial seasonings like Ginisa Mix and Magic Sarap as to health issues and life span among the people of Negros Oriental compared to the traditional ways of seasoning rice recipes in the olden days. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. It is recommended that the Sidlakang Negros Village management shall install at least one stall selling different rice recipes produced by the people of this province. 5. BANTAYAN. Faculty Research April 2010 . nationally and globally. The Tourism Office of each town and city with the guidance of the Provincial Tourism Office shall conduct promotional activities showcasing the local rice recipes produced and shall include the same in the list of activities during the Buglasan Festival. A different study shall be conducted on the implication of the use of fingers as a measuring tool for the amount of water to be used necessary to cook certain cup(s) of rice.ST.

ST. Faculty Research April 2010 . 3. Serve wile it is hot. and 5. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. 2. BANTAYAN. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 41 OUTPUT OF THE STUDY Name of Recipe: TSAMPORADO Ingredients: 6 pcs Tabliya 1 cup coconut milk ½ cup sugar 1 small can evaporated milk 1 cup rice 6 cups water Procedures: 1. In a large sauté pan/wok add 2 tbsp of cooking oil. Add the evaporated milk to make it creamy. Name of Recipe: FRIED RICE Ingredients: 2 pcs medium size eggs 4 cloves garlic 1 bulb onion Cooked rice 4 pcs hot dog 1/2/ cup green peas 2 tbsp cooking oil Pinch of salt Procedures: 1. Add the minced garlic and finely chopped onions into the pan/wok and sauté for about 30 seconds. Add the coconut milk and sugar to taste. 4. 2. While boiling add the 6 pieces of Tabliya. Wash the cup of rice and bring to boil.

5. Prepare the bamboo mat. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. finely chopped carrots. Wash and soaked the Japanese rice for 30 minutes. peeled and devein shrimps. Cook the rice with sake wine. 5. Name of Recipe: SUSHI Ingredients: Nori sheet 2 cups Japanese rice Sake wine Peeled shrimps Chopped carrots 1 pc cucumber Sliced onion (bamboo mat) material 2 tbsp olive oil Procedures: 1. 2. Add the cooked rice and sauté for one minute. put oil. then sliced onions. Faculty Research April 2010 . Add the slice hotdog and green peas. and strips of cucumber and wait until vegetables are tender but not overcooked. put nori sheet on top and add enough amount of Japanese rice with the shrimps and vegetables arranged in a straight line.ST. In a sauté pan. BANTAYAN. Best served with a sauce/dip to taste. 4. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 42 3. Together with the nori rolled the Japanese rice with the shrimps and vegetables. 6. Add salt to taste and serve while it is hot. 4. 3.

roll the pilit in a form of small rice balls and after a while flatten the rice balls and set aside. Using the palm of your hands. bring water to a rolling boil. 6. Faculty Research April 2010 . Grind the pilit. 5. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE.ST. Name of Recipe: CONGEE (POSPAS) Ingredients: 1/4 kilo flakes chicken breast 1 ½ cup of rice thinly-sliced ginger salt to taste Ginisa Mix/Magic Sarap chopped onion leaves Procedures: 1. 3. Put the flattened rice balls into the boiling water and wait until it will settle at the top. Wash the rice and with enough amount of water bring it to boil. In a regular stock pot. Once it settles at the top it means it is already done. 4. 7. Serve it cold. 8. Remove the flattened rice and roll it over in the grated coconut. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 43 Name of Recipe: PALITAW Ingredients: ground pilit rice sesame seeds grated coconut white sugar Procedures: 1. BANTAYAN. 2. Put sesame seeds and a teaspoon of sugar on top before serving. Soaked the rice overnight (pilit/malagkit) and drain the water after soaking.

Name of Recipe: ESPASOL Ingredients: 1 ½ cup ground cooked “pilit” rice 2 ½ cups sugar 2 ½ cups powdered toasted malagkit 1 cup coconut milk Procedures: 1. Once in a while. while boiling stir it and then again sprinkle with coconut milk. Add the sliced onions and serve hot. chicken while stirring occasionally until the rice becomes tender. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 44 2. 3. Wash the rice with water and then drain it.ST. Continue boiling until the rice is cooked. Add salt and Ginisa Mix/Magic sarap to taste. add slowly the ground cooked pilit rice in a pan. 5. Faculty Research April 2010 . BANTAYAN. When the syrup becomes quite thick. 4. put rice and sprinkle coconut seasoned with milk occasionally. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. 2. Name of Recipe: PUTO Ingredients: rice (pilit) coconut milk ginger salt to taste Procedures: 1. add ginger. In a casserole/steamer. 3. 4. 2. Serve it hot with tsokolate. Make syrup out of the coconut milk. When boiling.

Name of Recipe: KALAMAYHATI Ingredients: 2 cups ground rice (pilit) 2 cups coconut milk 2 cups brown sugar 2 teaspoon vanilla extract Dash of salt Procedures: 1. milk and sugar into a pan and place it over a low heat.ST. Soak ground rice (pilit) for two (2) hours or overnight. Faculty Research April 2010 . stirring constantly then add vanilla extract. boil coconut milk for at least 30 minutes or until “latik” is produced. Stir occasionally. Put rice. Sprinkle with the remaining powdered “pilit” rice to keep from sticking. 5. BANTAYAN. When brown sugar is dissolved. Then slowly add the powdered toasted “pilit” rice until mixture is dry enough to roll. add soaked rice and stirring constantly until it thickens and holds the spoon. 4. 6. In a deep fry pan. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. 3. Add brown sugar. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 45 3. Then transfer it to a board sprinkled evenly with the powdered ‘pilit’ rice. Roll with a rolling pin and cut into rounds or any desired shape. 2. 4. Name of Recipe: CINNAMON RICE Ingredients: 2 cups cooked rice 1 cup evaporated milk Sugar to taste ½ teaspoon cinnamon 2 tablespoons of butter or margarine Procedures: 1.

Then. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. When the mixture of coconut milk and sugar becomes a little sticky. add gradually the cooked pilit rice then stir occasionally until the rice becomes coated with the syrup. Serve hot and with a cream. Serve hot over a banana leaf. When the coconut milk is already in a running boil. Cook first the “pilit” rice with water over a low fire. 3. set aside while putting coconut milk over a pan in a low fire. BANTAYAN.ST. 2. After cooking. Faculty Research April 2010 . DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 46 2. 3. Name of Recipe: BIKO Ingredients: 3 cups of rice (pilit) 3 cups of coconut milk 3 cups of water salt to taste 3 cups of black sugar (maskubado) Crushed ginger 1 teaspoon of vanilla extract Procedures: 1. Add crushed ginger with vanilla extract. 4. add slowly the butter and cinnamon while stirring occasionally until all the ingredients have combined. put sugar and stir occasionally. 5.

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