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PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE, BANTAYAN, DUMAGUETE CITY
CHAPTER 1 THE RESEARCH PROBLEM & ITS SCOPE
"Cutting stalks at noon time Perspiration drips to the earth Know you that your bowl of rice Each grain from hardship comes?"
-(Cheng Chan-Pao, Chinese philosopher)
Rice is the most consumed food on Planet Earth. The seeds of the rice plant are first milled using a rice huller to remove the chaff (the outer husks of the grain). At this point in the process, the product is called brown rice. The milling may be continued, removing the 'bran', i.e., the rest of the husk and the germ, thereby creating white rice. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rice#Preparation_as_food, January 26, 2010) There are some countries with high annual rice consumption per capita (up to 130–180 kg, equal to 55–80 percent of total caloric source) such as Bangladesh, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam (Chang 2000). Even in most parts of Africa, rice is a secondary staple food next to cassava, yams, corn, and millet. However, in the following African countries rice is consumed as a staple food: Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Madagascar, and part of Nigeria. By comparison with the rice production and consumption in Asian countries, Latin America is often overlooked. However, annual rice consumption in the following countries exceeds more than 32 kg per capita: Brazil, Columbia, Ecuador, and the Dominican Republic. Rice is the best cereal crop in terms of food energy per production area and is consumed in various forms, including plain rice, noodles, puffed rice, breakfast cereals, cakes, fermented sweet rice, snack foods, beer, wine and vinegar. Rice starch is used as a thickener in baby foods, sauces, and desserts or can be made Faculty Research April 2010
ST. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE, BANTAYAN, DUMAGUETE CITY
into sweet syrup. However, most consumption of rice is as cooked rice served simultaneously with vegetable, poultry, beef, seafood, and other dishes. Rice as a comfort food is economical, delicious, nutritious, versatile, easy to prepare, and bland enough to pair with other foods. Rice is convenient to store on shelves in cupboards and pantries. In the Filipino culture just like the other cultures of the world, it is very hard to exaggerate the importance of rice. To the Filipinos, rice is a symbol of life itself. There are many sayings that demonstrate the status of rice. Some people commonly greet each other by asking "Have you had your rice today?" A person who loses his job is said to have had his rice bowl broken. And when you are a dinner guest it is considered bad manners not to consume every grain of rice in the plate or bowl. The Filipino eats rice at every meal. Mostly it is steamed, each kernel distinct from the other, with a flavor so mild it compliments almost any dish. But rice is so valued that other ways of eating it have been devised. It is steamed and then fried, fried and then sweetened, ground, sweetened and steamed, or used as stuffing for fowl or vegetables. It is even made into a potent wine for celebrations and rituals. (Centro Escolar University, 2009). The people of Negros Oriental have also a culture of their own about rice being the staple food in every Oriental Negrense family. Rice plantations abound all over the province apart from sugarcane and coconuts. The place is blessed with this food since it is rich in water resources which provide irrigation to the rice farms. White rice is common among the towns while upland rice as the red rice of the town of Zamboanguita in the south of the province and some other upland barangays and towns planting the same type of rice. The methods and practices among Oriental Negrenses might vary from town to town. The people of each town have their own practices and methods of Faculty Research April 2010
ST. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE, BANTAYAN, DUMAGUETE CITY
cooking rice, making it into different delicacies distinctive of the aspirations and traditions of every town that comprise the province. This study provides an output of rice recipes distinct of being an Oriental Negrense. The rice recipes that will be featured at the end of this research work symbolize the uniqueness of the people of Negros Oriental as one people and as one community. Statement of Objectives This study is expected to achieve the following objectives: 1. To determine the rice cooking practices of the people of Negros Oriental. 2. To determine the methods used by Oriental Negrenses in cooking rice. 3. To identify what type of rice recipes are produced out of the cooking practices and methods used; and, 4. To find out what other ingredients are added in the methods of preparing rice recipes. Significance of the Study This study is important because its findings can be used in promoting the culture and traditions of the people of Negros Oriental. Specifically, the results of the study will benefit the following: The University. Research findings will guide the university in boosting the Hotel and Restaurant Management program. Provincial Government. The result of this study will provide impact to the province’s efforts in strengthening local tourism and provides avenue to implement Faculty Research April 2010
ST. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE, BANTAYAN, DUMAGUETE CITY
programs related to cultural and community programs and projects particularly on rice production and rice-recipe promotions. Provincial/City/Municipal Tourism Office. The result will provide the officers and staff of the local tourism offices in Negros Oriental the necessary information about rice cooking practices and methods of the Oriental Negrenses particularly the methods and practices of their own city or municipality thus enabling them to make necessary steps to develop them. The Faculty. Research findings will provide additional inputs to teachers that will be used to increase students’ learning particularly on any Hotel and Restaurant Management subjects specifically on Culinary Arts module. The Researchers. The present study will interest the researchers of this study to study further the cultures and traditions of the people of Negros Oriental. Scope and Limitation of the Study The locale of the study comprises the different cities and towns of Negros Oriental specifically Dumaguete City, Tanjay City, Bais City, Bayawan City, Guihulngan City, Canlaon City, Sibulan, San Jose, Amlan, Pamplona, Mabinay, Manjuyod, Bindoy, Ayungon, Tayasan, Jimalalud, La Libertad, Vallehermoso, Valencia, Bacong, Dauin, Zamboanguita, Siaton, Sta. Catalina and Basay. The study was undertaken for two (2) semesters of SY 2009-2010 to ensure that the data gathered on the areas investigated are valid and reliable. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A Brief History The precise origins of rice are lost to history, but experts believe the plant probably got its start in India. Certainly, archeological evidence indicates that the Faculty Research April 2010
and the Spanish in turn introduced the Italians to rice in the 1400's. The Moors took rice with them when they invaded Spain. 2009). the incidence of malaria had no impact on rice's status in China.ST. Needless to say. Rice soon spread outward from southern Asia into China and beyond. this meant northern Europeans were less than eager to make rice a staple in their diet. the domestication of rice triggered the rapid growth of the Philippines pre-colonial society. While rice wasn't one of the staples the Pilgrims packed on the Mayflower. and many people believed the swampy conditions needed for rice production contributed to the spread of the disease. From there it quickly spread through southern Europe. In the olden times.160 BC. Fortunately. (The lack of similar references to rice in either Jewish scriptures or the Bible add to the case for rice originating in southern Asia). It is slightly older in Thailand which was dated at about 4000 BC. rice is not the first thing that springs to mind when you think of British cuisine . The reason for this probably stems back to medieval times. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. Today. Archaeological records show that rice cultivation took place in our country around 3240 +/. (Centro Escolar University. It is thought that the Greeks were introduced to rice when Alexander the Great brought it home with him from his travels to India in the 4th century BC. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 5 southeast Asians were the first people to cultivate rice: artifacts imprinted with rice grains dating back to 4. Speaking of the Mayflower.or even French cuisine for that matter. it has been a staple crop in the United States since the late 1600's. China is one of the countries that make up the rice bowl. Faculty Research April 2010 . an area that produces the majority of the world's rice.000 BC have been discovered in Korea. There are several references to rice in Buddhist scriptures. BANTAYAN. Malaria was prevalent in southern Europe in the 1500's and 1600's.
There are two species of cultivated rice. A harvested rice kernel contains a bran layer. and is enclosed by a hull. the Chinese were the first to develop the idea of growing rice in wet areas such as coastal plains and river deltas. White rice has had both the bran and hull removed during the milling process. the separation of Australia from New Guinea when a land bridge disappeared means that Australian rice has its own unique characteristics. The shorter the period of time the rice seedlings are in this environment. and need to use medium or short grain rice instead. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. and then transplanted to an aquatic environment when they are about 25 30 days old. brown rice has had only the hull removed. Similarly. Chinese rice is different from rice grown in South Asia. Rice Types The Chinese normally use long grain rice. For example. with the former being the most common. parboiled white rice has been processed before milling and thus retains most of its nutrients. The rice seeds are first sown in beds. When we think of China and rice the image that comes to mind are fields of rice paddies. remember that rice grains have different absorption rates Faculty Research April 2010 . DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 6 More Information Rice is a member of the Graminae family. the better their chances of survival. By contrast. as are weeds that compete with the rice plants for the available water supply. containing protein and several minerals. The result is a much more nutritious dish. In fact. BANTAYAN. which produces fluffier rice.ST. If you are following a recipe that calls for long grain rice. However. There are many local differences within this species. Orzya sativa and Orzya glaberrima. Lack of water supply is a frequent problem for Chinese farmers. The idea of transplanting seeds is very important to the success of rice as a crop.
You'll often find it in health food stores. Thai and Filipino desserts. a reader who shared his experience living in Laos and northern Thailand. In China.ST. and then steamed. Grown in China and Thailand. particularly the purplish-black variety. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 7 and adjust the amount of water accordingly. in other parts of Asia it is used in place of regular rice.com/library/weekly/aa081399. (Glutinous rice is available at most Asian grocery markets). and Bor S. Black rice is used mainly in Chinese. Luh (1991). glutinous or "sticky" rice is used mainly for snacks and sweets. (In this case you would reduce the amount of water by 1/4 to 1/2 cup per cup of rice). Faculty Research April 2010 . However. processed foods. Like red rice. and brewer's use. A layer of bran covers the rice grains. BANTAYAN. giving them a brown or blackish color. It is not considered to be very edible. (http://chinesefood.htm. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. as it is believed to help lower cholesterol levels and improve blood circulation. Luh (1999). 2010 Preparation and Consumption Rice consumption falls into the following three categories: direct food use.about. but there is a great deal of interest in the potential health benefits of red rice extract. It is then dipped in one of the courses and you use a finger to collect some of the course. Grown throughout Asia. Jeffrey Alford and Naomi Duguid (1998). For example. Sri Owen (1993). People take the steamed rice and knead it in a ball. Two less well-known types of rice are black rice and red rice. February 12. the rice is soaked for at least two hours. where glutinous rice is a staple food. black rice is also a type of sticky rice. black rice is considered to have numerous health benefits. red rice is a member of the glutinous rice family. Detailed methods and recipes for rice food preparations were described by Bor S.
Non-glutinous rice is somewhat transparent and is less sticky than glutinous rice when cooked. absorption method. The lot-of-water technique is good for arborio. American wild rice is a coarse grass (not a true rice by taxonomy). cheese. poultry. Arborio rice has large tan grains with central white dots and. which should be cooked by steaming. can be used to make risotto. is of high quality. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. because of its creamy. Therefore. Both the short-grain japonica and the long-grain indica rice include non-glutinous and glutinous types. and now has become more and more popular in the United States and Canada. There are some rice varieties with an attractive aroma. has a soft texture for the human palate and stomach. Rice is easy to prepare. boiling. and pressure-cooking. frying. chewy texture. fish. Either uncooked rice or fully cooked rice combines well with other protein-rich foods such as meat. basmati. or parboiled rice. It is customary to wash rice before cooking to remove dust. and eggs because rice is bland in flavor and carries the flavor of the mixed ingredients. and other impurities. Parboiled rice was originally produced in Asia. and has the ability to absorb flavors while retaining its texture. and steaming method. Rice is cooked by heating (either boiling or steaming) soaked rice for full gelatinization of the kernels and evaporation of excess water. BANTAYAN. such as by the company Uncle Ben's. including vitamins and minerals that were added before packaging by fortification or enrichment. Generally there are three rice cooking methods: large-amount-of-water method. baking. roasting. It is grown in shallow waters and has medium to long grains and a nutty flavor. Rice cooking methods also include rinsing. husks. Juliano (1985) indicated that rice cooking methods vary with different countries. rice has gained popularity as "the pasta of the 1990s" in the West. but the parboiled rice produced in the United States now. such as basmati. Americangrown rice does not require washing or rinsing before cooking because these "cleaning" processes further remove nutrients. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 8 Direct food use. insects. but not for Thai jasmine or japonica rice with low amylose content.ST. People in the Middle Faculty Research April 2010 .
and the Philippines. Japan. soaking.ST. Americans often add salt. or margarine to soaked rice. Parboiled rice: Parboiling is popular in India. Rice can also be cooked with certain amounts of water and meat. or other additions in clay pots or high-pressure metal pots to make thin or thick congee (or juk) or gruel (okayu. R. seafood. Rice can be cooked with curries (in India and Malaysia) or sauce (in the Philippines) or combinations of various ingredients. butter. color sorting. and Japan add extra water to cook rice into porridge (thick gruel) or congee (thin soup). Problems of off-color and offflavor that resulted from conventional parboiling procedures have been overcome by various inventions. Korea. currently. steeping. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. Rice can be kept as long as five days in the refrigerator. shrimp. and sometimes with yogurt. Mixed steamed rice also varies among countries. including pork. Sri Lanka. For example. It involves the treatment of grains in cold water and then hot water with low pressure. Thailand. milling. Mexico. Steamed rice can be served plain or mixed with other ingredients. tempering. Conversion and Malek Faculty Research April 2010 . such as the H. drying. Presoaking is a common practice in India. while rice is cooked with water and oil in Brazil. Steamed rice is preferred in some countries because more vitamins and minerals are retained. Chile. and Peru. Brazil. Malaysians steam glutinous rice with mixed meat in a bamboo joint over a fire. Detailed descriptions of recipes from different countries for cooked rice are provided by Virmani (1991). steaming. vegetables. chicken. grading. BANTAYAN. in an electric metal steamer. Burma. The treated rice can be dried by the steam or sun. and finally packaging. Cambodian kralan is steamed rice mixed with grated coconut and beans. such as France. add rice to cold water for cooking. Iranians steam rice with oil or with butter. The leftover rice is good for stir-frying into egg fried rice with chopped carrots and the like. the United States. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 9 East lightly fry rice before boiling. People in China. in Japanese). Korea. and Italy. Pakistan. Some countries. Ecuador. Germany. and vegetables (in China) (Boesch 1967). Parboiling changes rice starch from the crystalline form to an amorphous form by a series of procedures including cleaning. Rice can be steamed in a bamboo steamer or.
as some people are allergic to these flours. The quality of yuan zi preparation depends on the amylopectin content. and the recipe for the fillings. parboiled rice gelatinizes the starch and makes better consistency. Formulation is important in making rice bread by adjusting the levels of sucrose. For example. rice flour is widely used in making baby foods. unbaked biscuits. made by adding 10 percent rice flour to wheat flour.) Yuan zi is fried with vegetable oil or thoroughly cooked in boiling water and served with sugar or other condiments. Also. and additional cost (De Datta. greater hardness. greater difficulty in milling. breakfast cereals. is used to make pastry products in Italy. (The higher the amylopectin content. Rice-flour products: Rice flour does not contain gluten and therefore its dough cannot retain gases during baking as wheat flour does.ST. and better vitreousness of the kernel. Faculty Research April 2010 . longer cooking time. the flour particle size. The main disadvantages of parboiling include greater rancidity during storage. It is made from glutinous rice flour and water by adding sweet or savory fillings to the rice dough. and cooking. nonfat dry milk. Therefore. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 10 Processes (D. snack foods. Grist. and waffles. washing. and better resistance to insect and fungus infestation. pancakes. higher retention of nutrients after milling. which makes it possible to store the rice for longer periods of time. BANTAYAN. Rice bread is a good substitute for other gluten-containing cereal flour. yeast. water. 1987). less breakage in milling. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. Major advantages of parboiling over ordinary milling include easier dehulling. a composite baking flour. The medium-and short-grain rice varieties are preferable to the long-grain type for making rice bread. 1986). Rice-flour products are exemplified by the following foods: yuan zi (or tong yuan) is a popular food in China. and other additives. H. the softer and more sticky the rice flour becomes when the same amount of water is added.
rice should be fully cooked with butter. However. grinding. sesame. pounding. food pigments. Rice noodles: Rice noodles are called mi fen in Chinese. and other ingredients. refined oil should be used for oil-fried crackers. kneading. cooling. Before steaming. and packing. and other Asian countries. soy sauce. rice noodles are consumed in soups or as snacks.They are often made from glutinous rice because of its sticky characteristics and easy expansion into a porous texture. baking. grinding. and harusame in Japanese. To make rice fries. Rice snacks: Rice snacks have an attractive taste. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 11 Processed foods. it can be stored up to two years. texture. meat or chicken. various ingredients can be added for more flavor. BANTAYAN. seasoning. In Asia. non-glutinous rice also can be used for making some rice snacks. and drying. and aroma. Rice cakes: Rice cakes are popular in China. steaming. sugar. If dehydrated. Mi fen is served with water. The Japanese soft rice cracker made from glutinous rice is called arare or okaki in comparison with the less popular and tougher senbei (the rice cracker made from non-glutinous rice). To add flavors and color to rice crackers. and other seasonings. Japan. Moreover. They can be made either from glutinous or non-glutinous rice by soaking and steaming. flavor. Mi fen is often produced from nonglutinous rice by soaking. The production of rice crackers is now developed as a continual process that takes place within 3–4 hours. and spices.ST. red peppers. mung bean is added to rice to make a special rice noodle called fung-shu (or tong-fun) that is more resistant to texture changes during reconstitution. The rice cracker is a typical rice snack. sen mee in Thai. steaming. drying. In Thailand. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. The production process involves washing. high-quality. cutting. the following ingredients are often added: seaweed. such Faculty Research April 2010 . kneading. salt. Rice fries can even compete with the French fries made from potatoes because rice fries have a crisp exterior crust and fluffy interior. green vegetables.
fried garlic. should be added to brown rice. It is produced either from glutinous rice or from nonglutinous rice. sherry wine. northern Thailand. a special cake in China). Fresh raw fish used in sushi include tuna. crushed mung bean (for lu du gao. salt. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 12 as sugar. For better taste and flavor. can also be made from non-glutinous rice. some minor ingredients. The difference between chien zong and rou zong is that pork or ham and other ingredients are added to rou zong to enrich the flavor and nutritional value.ST. cooking oil. and packing. millet. and served with honey or sugar. neng gao is sometimes sweetened with sugar or enriched with lard and cinnamon flour. and crushed taro. sugar. soy sauce. bonito. monosodium glutamate. such as fakau in China and bibingka in the Philippines. fermented rice cakes. black pepper. and salt. is made from glutinous rice and soda ash. and shrimp meat. However. wrapped in bamboo leaves to form a tetrahedron. which Faculty Research April 2010 . The Chinese rice cake zong zi. steaming. There are two main categories of zong zi: chien zong and rou zong. squid. monosodium glutamate. Other ingredients include mushrooms. the same as chimaki in Japan. The main production procedures involve soaking. It is often used to make rice cakes. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. Puffed rice cakes are popular in China and the United States because they are rich in taste. In Japan. Vegetables such as cucumber and seasoning gourd also can be put in the middle of the rolls. sushi is a rice cake or rolls or cube topped with raw fish or other delicacies and served with wasabi (Japanese horseradish). and Vietnam. To make puffed rice cakes. low in calories. crushed radish. Glutinous or waxy rice is very sticky when cooked and is mainly consumed in northern Burma. Neng gao or nian gao (mochi in Japanese) is also a special rice cake for the celebration of the Chinese Lunar New Year. bound with string. and free from cholesterol. such as sesame seed. Laos. and shellfish. BANTAYAN. shrimp. kneading.
and gun puffing methods. the United States. There are many other types of rice cakes made in Asia. This rice has a long storage life of one to two years. canned rice is sold by wet pack and dry pack.ST. After precooking. Frozen rice also can be made into freeze-dried rice by sublimation under high vacuum. Faculty Research April 2010 . canned and frozen rice are produced in Japan. Now. Korea. Rice puddings were served to the rich during the time of the ancient Romans. quick-cooking rice product is popular in developed countries. suman. However. puto. quick-cooking rice often requires five to fifteen minutes for cooking. draining. Rice puddings: Rice can be made into creamy puddings by mixing cooked rice with milk and sugar. Quick-cooking rice: The preparation and cooking of conventional rice takes about one hour. and freezing. such as Japan. prepared from eight different kinds of fruit and steamed glutinous rice with honey. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 13 are then wrapped with seaweed (nori). Quick-cooking rice mainly is produced by the soak-boil-steam-dry. BANTAYAN. To serve the frozen cooked rice. microwave heating is a common practice. Now. rice should be precooked by gelatinizing the rice starch in water and/or steam and then dried. Canned and frozen rice: For convenience of consumption. steaming. The preparation of frozen cooked rice includes soaking. rice pudding has become a popular dish for children. cuchinta (or kutsinta). To produce quick-cooking rice. biko. and other countries. boiling. A delicious Chinese pudding is the Eight Jewel Rice Pudding. and other rice cakes are made in the Philippines. the United States. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. Indian consumers sweeten rice pudding with palm sugar. For example. freezethaw-drying. expansion–pre-gelatinization. Completely precooked rice requires no further cooking. Sushi usually is served with rice vinegar and soy sauce (shoyu). and other Western countries.
pasta. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 14 Rice breakfast cereals: Some rice breakfast cereals require cooking before eating. fortifying. drying. They commonly are fortified with minerals and heat-stable vitamins. tempering. Because of the lack of continuity in processing. Sometimes. while others can be eaten directly. rice polishings. drying. extruded. Instead. and pyridoxine. and other foods. and packing. laxative properties. The starch is converted from crystalline to amorphous form by the addition of amylase. Baby foods: Rice has highly digestible energy. The key to making this type of cereal is ensuring the ease of reconstitution with milk or formula without forming lumps. shredding. Rice-bran products: Rice bran can be sprinkled on a dinner salad or used as a major ingredient of ready-toeat cereals. great versatility in product shape. gun-puffed. dibasic calcium phosphate. fruit is added to these precooked rice cereals. sugar. glycerol monostearate (emulsifier). The ready-to-eat breakfast cereals include oven-puffed. BANTAYAN. Ingredients in this baby food include rice flour. Shredded rice is produced by washing. tempering. cooking. gun puffing is less popular in developed countries. net protein utilization. baked products. enriching. Therefore. The production of extruded rice can be accomplished by extruding superheated and pressurized doughs. and shredded rice. Gun puffing is a traditional method and is still practiced in some Asian countries. riboflavin. it is suitable for baby food. such as niacin. Although baby foods can be in the form of rice flour or granulated rice. cooking with high pressure in a sealed chamber or gun. and niacin or niacinamide. Like oat bran. thiamine. and packaging. and dietary fiber components. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. Rice bran can lower serum cholesterol in humans and reduce Faculty Research April 2010 . rice bran has high-quality protein. riboflavin. making extruded rice has high and continuous production rates. such as China. Oven-puffed rice is made from short-grain rice with sugar and salt by cooking. precooked infant rice cereal is the most common use of rice for baby food. and suddenly releasing the high pressure.ST. The procedure consists of heating. which breaks down starch into dextrin and oligosaccharides. and low crude fiber content. and ease of controlling product density. rice oil.
yeast or bacteria. China has a long history of making rice wine. After these steps. 47 percent of its riboflavin. In China. BANTAYAN. Monilia. hemicelluloses (or pentosans). the following treatments are necessary before it is processed as a food: indigenous lipase inactivation by parboiling. which is usually served at weddings and other annual rituals. lactic acid. and other fatty acids. oleic. Rice bran has 16–32 percent oil. and starch. winterization. rice bran oil has greater stability than any other vegetable oil.ST. shelf life. Nepal also has a slightly sweet rice wine called nigar. degumming. Rice oil also can be used in cosmetics and paints. such as wang tsiu ("Shao Shing rice wine"). is used to ferment the steamed rice. Aspergillus. Therefore. and sugar. The bran also contains most of the vitamins in the rice kernel. linoleic. Therefore. or other alternative methods. including palmitic. Other rice wines include tapuy in the Philippines. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. Oil extraction can be carried out with a variety of solvents using a hydraulic press or specially designed extractors before refining by dewaxing. and 67 percent of its niacin. and in some cases. mukhuli in Korea. containing Rhizopus. rice bran can be processed into rice oil of the highest quality in terms of cooking quality. bleaching. The major carbohydrates in the rice bran are cellulose. alcohol. neutralization. Brewer's use: Rice alcohols include rice beer and rice wine. tian jiu niang is a popular mixture of rice grains. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 15 the risk of cardiovascular disease and colon cancer. Faculty Research April 2010 . and fatty acid composition. Jiu qu. or moisture-added or dry extrusion. lao rong in Thailand. including 78 percent of its thiamine. and deodorization. Rice bran has hydrolytic rancidity after milling. and moonshine rice wine and ba-xi de (a glutinous rice wine) in Vietnam. Mucor. It is made from steamed glutinous rice. Rice wine is distilled spirits having about 20 percent alcohol content.
koje. heating. shoyu (soy sauce). BANTAYAN. complex carbohydrates. The production of sake began in third century Japan. water. Sake is made from highlypolished rice. setting. and (3) further steps including filtration. Sakamai or shinpakumai rice should be selected for sake production for better quality because of its high starch content and its large and soft grain. many fewer people are allergic to rice than to wheat or other cereals. vitamin E. and vitamin A deficiency. and about 160 calories per cooked cup. Furthermore. iron. The processes to make sake can be summarized as the following: (1) saccharification: conversion of the starch in cooked rice into glucose with koje or koji. a trace of fat. and Psychopharmacological Value Rice ranks high among the most nutritious foods available because brown rice provides high levels of fiber. such as beriberi (thiamin deficiency). Rice can be included in a weightloss diet because it has no cholesterol. Sake should be preserved in a cool and dark place without any exposure to light and open air. Koje are microbes similar to those used in the production of cheese. growth retardation. Recent studies have indicated that rice hull or bran contains antioxidants such as isovitexin (a C-glycosyl flavonoid). Nutritive. and bottling. (2) fermentation: conversion of the rice sugar into alcohol by sake's yeast. which leads to rich flavor. Some health problems. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. and it has been demonstrated that rice bran oil can lower both the total and the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in nonhuman primates (Nicolosi et al. lysine. Health-Related. and sake's yeast. calcium.. can Faculty Research April 2010 . DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 16 Sake is a brewed alcoholic beverage having 14–16 percent alcohol content. Another important ingredient is the spring water. certain B vitamins. and phosphorus. aging. marasmus. 1990). and miso (soy bean paste). Fermentation for 20–25 days (three or four times longer than the fermentation in normal wine production) produces a balanced taste and fresh flavor from a wide variety of amino acids and low alcohol content (8–15 percent).ST.
research instruments. research respondents. it can help relieve mental depression. (http://www. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 17 result from consumption of only white rice. vitamins. Random sampling is being done in every town or city. 1999). BANTAYAN. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE.ST. Rice oil is believed to reduce the likelihood of ischemic heart disease. and minerals are removed. 1985). rice is believed to have medicinal uses. Rice starch can substitute for glucose in an oral rehydration solution for infants suffering from diarrhea caused by a spleen-pancreas deficiency (Juliano. Since rice is low in sodium and fat and free of cholesterol. A thick paste made from rice grains and water is used in India for massage for curing arthritic pain. and boiled rice "greens" are used as an eye lotion in Malaysia. The Chinese believe that rice can increase appetite and cure indigestion. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This part of the study is composed of research method. spleen-pancreas. Research Method This study will use the quantitative survey method. from which a portion of the proteins and most of the fat. 2010) Although not scientifically proven. data gathering procedures and statistical treatment of data. Glutinous rice is believed to strengthen the kidneys. Faculty Research April 2010 .answers. February 23.com/topic/rice-as-a-food. and stomach because of its easier digestion compared to regular rice. Rice bran (tiki-tiki) is used to cure beriberi in the Philippines. research procedures. Rice water (a decoction of rice) is prescribed as an ointment for skin inflammation. Powdered rice is used to treat certain skin ailments. The Chinese also believe that rice mixed with honey butter and water can build energy and blood and counter emaciation and other disorders (Wood.
23% 2.93% 6.93% 2. Catalina 8 Bayawan City 17 Basay 8 TOTAL 273 % 13.93% 2.93% 100% Faculty Research April 2010 . Table 1 Distribution of Respondents N=273 Frequency Towns (f) Dumaguete City 36 Sibulan 8 San Jose 8 Amlan 8 Tanjay City 17 Pamplona 8 Bais City 17 Mabinay 8 Manjuyod 8 Bindoy 8 Ayungon 8 Tayasan 8 Jimalalud 8 La Libertad 8 Guihulngan City 17 Vallehermoso 8 Canlaon City 17 Bacong 8 Valencia 8 Dauin 8 Zamboanguita 8 Siaton 8 Sta.93% 2.93% 2. Random sampling is used to determine the number of samples to be surveyed in each town.93% 2.93% 2.23% 2.23% 2.93% 2.93% 2.ST.23% 2.93% 6.93% 6. BANTAYAN.93% 2.23% 2.93% 6. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 18 Research Respondents The respondents come from the different towns and cities in the province of Negros Oriental. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE.93% 2.93% 6.19% 2.93% 2. Ages of respondents vary from as young as 15 years old to as mature as above 60 years old and above.93% 2.93% 2.
the researchers together with some volunteer HRM students from each town administer the final questionnaire to respondents. analysis and interpretation. sex. Guided Survey Questions – This section covers the questions to get facts regarding the various methods. common recipes. Statistical tools that will be used are percentage and standard mean. Moreover. Research Procedures Foremost is to secure a permission to conduct the research study at the Office of the Research Director thru a written letter requesting permission thereof. tabulated. Statistical Treatment of Data The data will be treated in relation to what was asked in the specific objectives. the questions in this section are guided.ST. The formulas read as follow: Faculty Research April 2010 . Respondents’ Profile – This section covers the demographic profile of the respondents including their address. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 19 Research Instrument This research study used a questionnaire which was made up of two parts: A. usual ingredients and favorite recipes of the respondents. Every question asked in the questionnaire was being translated to vernacular and being explained to respondents before the researchers would write the respondent’s answer on the survey sheet. occupation and civil status. BANTAYAN. the data is properly arranged. After accomplishing all the questionnaires. analyzed and interpreted. practices. tallied. and is subjected to statistical treatment for presentation. B. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. These data will be tabulated. age. Once approved.
DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 20 Percentage: ( Part / Whole ) x 100 Mean: X X Where: X = X = N = Mean Sum of Cases Number of Cases = N Faculty Research April 2010 .ST. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. BANTAYAN.
BANTAYAN.79% 2. The following tables present the profiles of respondents in terms of: A. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 21 CHAPTER II PRESENTATION.64 percent have ages 15-20 with the rank of 1 followed by almost 11 percent with ages of 26-30 and 36-40. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA This chapter has two (2) parts which constitutes the presentation. common recipes.99% 8. The first part presents the demographic profile of the respondents while the second part reveals the methods.64% 8.79% 10. Age Table 2 Age of Respondents N=273 Frequency (f) 70 24 30 24 30 28 24 8 12 23 273 Respondents' Ages 15-20 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 51-55 56-60 61-above TOTAL Percentage (%) 25.5 4 7 10 9 8 Table 2 above presents the ages of the respondents and also reveals that 25.5 respectively.93% 4.ST. usual ingredients that are being used by the respondents in cooking rice. analysis and interpretation of the data gathered by the researcher. This proves that most of the respondents are mostly adolescents which are mostly requested or trained by parents to cook rice for their family. practices.79% 10.42% 100.99% 10.5 2.5 2. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. both with the rank of 2.26% 8.00% Rank 1 5. Faculty Research April 2010 .40% 8.5 5.
Table 4 above reveals that majority of the respondents with 51 percent are married while almost 41 percent are single and almost 9 percent are widows. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 22 B. Civil Status Table 4 Civil Status of Respondents N=273 Frequency (f) 111 139 23 273 Percentage (%) 40. Faculty Research April 2010 .00% Gender Female Male TOTAL Table 3 reveals that majority of the respondents are females with almost 77 percent while male respondents is 23 percent.66% 50.56% 23.44% 100.ST. C. On the succeeding page is Table 5 which presents that data on the different occupations of the respondents. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE.92% 8.00% Civil Status Single Married Widow TOTAL The table above presents the civil status of respondents. Hence. This is followed by students with the frequency of fifty-eight (58) or almost 22 percent with the rank of 2.42% 100. It reveals that majority of the respondents are housewives which comprised almost 30 percent of the total respondents or having a frequency of seventy-seven (77). Gender Table 3 Gender of Respondents N=273 Frequency (f) 209 64 273 Percentage (%) 76. Most of the respondents that the researchers surveyed belong to a family. BANTAYAN.
DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 23 D.52 percent of the respondents are entrepreneurs or businessmen with the frequency of 26 and with the rank of 3.21% 0.73% 28.37% 0.52% 1.37% 0.5 13 24.37% 2.10% 1.10% 0.37% 1.49% 2.73% 1.5 10 18.37% 1.5 18. Occupation of Respondents Table 5 Occupation of Respondents N=273 Frequency Occupation (f) Accountant 1 Bank Teller 1 Bookkeeper 1 Carpenter 3 Chef Cook 14 Driver 6 Entrepreneur/Businessmen 26 Farmer 3 Food server 3 Government Employee 15 House helper 7 Houseboy 2 Housewife 77 Husband at home 2 Labandera 3 Mall Manager 2 Marketing Manager 1 Nurse 3 Nursing Aid 1 Pensioner/Retired 7 Private Employee 3 Sales clerk 1 Saleslady 5 Seaman 2 Secretary 2 Student 58 Teacher 18 Teacher Aid 2 Vendor 4 TOTAL 273 Percentage (%) 0.5 18.5 24.10% 5.ST.00% RANK 24. BANTAYAN.73% 0.10% 5.56% 0.37% 1.5 13 24.56% 1. Faculty Research April 2010 .5 2 4 18.5 24. Table 8 above reveals that 9.5 13 6 9 3 13 13 5 7.59% 0.10% 0.5 13 18.20% 9. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE.5 10 In addition.47% 100.13% 2.5 24.25% 6.73% 1.73% 21.73% 0.5 1 18.10% 0. The occupations of the respondents are well represented in all walks of life.83% 0.5 7.
25% 21. Table 6 Practices Used in Measuring the Amount of Water needed to Cook Rice N=273 Cup(s) of Rice 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-above 1st line (f) 218 158 129 60 % 79.85% 57.10% 10. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 24 The succeeding tables present the second part of this research which is the guided survey questions.00% Based on Table 6 above.00% 100.99% 12. It begins with the best practices that the respondents apply when cooking rice up to the usual ingredients that are added to their rice recipes. Still the table presents that in 5-6 cups of rice.76% 30 180 65.03% 3 114 41. It is very evident based on the survey that the people of Negros Oriental are using the lines of their middle fingers as basis for the amount of water to be used in cooking rice depending on what type of recipe they are cooking. the first line of the middle finger served as the basis of measurement as to the amount of water to be used Faculty Research April 2010 . PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE.09% TOTAL 100. Some with 20 percent or a frequency of 55 said that in cooking 1-2 cups of rice they are going to measure the amount of water up to the second line of their middle fingers. BANTAYAN. majority of the respondents or almost 60 percent said that they are using the first line of their middle finger to indicate the amount of water while 41 percent put water up to the 2nd line of their middle fingers. Table 6 below presents the practice used by the respondents in terms of the methods used of measuring the amount of water needed to cook rice.88% 47.00% 1. With 3-4 cups of rice being cooked.93% 33 % 0.00% 100. majority of the respondents with almost 80 percent or a frequency of 218 used the 1st line of their middle fingers as to the amount of water to be used in cooking 1-2 cups of rice.00% 100.15% 0 112 41.98% Using Middle Finger 2nd line 3rd line % (f) (f) 55 20.ST.
Presented below in Table 7 are the other practices used by the people of Negros Oriental and it reveals that almost 28 percent of the respondents or with a frequency of 76 are using the 1:1 ratio meaning in every cup of rice is a cup of water which means for example if there are 3 cups of rice. Table 7 Other Practices Used in Measuring the Amount of Water needed to Cook Rice N=273 Other Practices 1:1 1:2 F 76 1 % 27. it means 3 cups of water and so on and so forth. However. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 25 with almost 48 percent followed by almost 42 percent of the respondents using the 2nd line of their middle fingers. On the other hand. This suggests that there are respondents who are cooking porridge or “lugaw” since there is more amount of water.84% 0. The table also reveals a very little percentage of . the table indicates that the 2nd line of the middle finger is used as basis of the amount of water if there are 7 and above cups of rice with almost 66 percent. Faculty Research April 2010 . BANTAYAN.37 percent or only 1 respondent among the total respondents is using the 1:2 ratio meaning putting 2 cups of water in a cup of rice.ST. there are respondents who are using other practices in measuring the amount of water needed to cook rice apart from the use of the lines of the middle fingers.37% Presented next is a graph which reveals if the respondents would stir the rice while the water is boiling to aid in fully-cooking the rice. The graph further reveals that there are also respondents who are using up to the 3rd line of their middle fingers as indicated on Table 6 from 3 and above cups of rice. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. Stirring is a practice which requires the use of a ladle made up of aluminum or steel or the shell of the coconut with a bamboo handle called “luwag” in vernacular.
37% 2. In this situation.ST.21% 1. Table 8 Practices made when Rice being cooked is Half-cooked or Uncooked N=273 Practices to do if the Rice is Half-cooked or Uncooked Add hot water Add tap water Cook again Fry it Put a damp cloth on top of the cover Put banana leaf on top Put bondpaper on top of the cover Put fire on top of the cover Put plastic on top of the cover Put salt on top of the cover Put spoon/fork Stir it TOTAL Frequency (f) 106 77 4 1 6 2 1 1 1 60 1 13 273 Percentage (%) 38. There are situations in which the rice being cooked becomes half-cooked or uncooked. “Do you stir the rice while the water is boiling to aid in fully-cooking the rice?” As indicated on the graph above.47% 0.73% 0. majority of the respondents or 67 percent stir the rice while the water is boiling in order to evenly cook the rice while the rest of the respondents or 33 percent just leave the rice while the water is boiling until cooked without stirring. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. BANTAYAN.00% Rank 1 2 6 10 5 7 10 10 10 3 10 4 Faculty Research April 2010 .37% 0.98% 0. Table 8 presents the practices done by the respondents or the people of Negros Oriental on how to cook the uncooked rice. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 26 Graph 1 Number of Respondents who Practiced Stirring in Cooking Rice 33% N=273 YES NO 67% Graph 1 above reveals that majority of the respondents said yes when asked with the question.37% 21.37% 4.83% 28.37% 0.76% 100.20% 0.
2 percent placing it rank 5. removing cover while boiling. plastic and even banana leaf on top of the cover are unique practices to the Oriental Negrenses. This is a common practice to make the rice smells good and fresh to eat. Presented on Table 9 on the next page are the other practices mentioned by the respondents.ST. frying the rice in order to cook it. putting bond paper on top of the cover. Others practiced by putting a damp cloth on top of the cover which has a frequency of six (6) or 2. It’s a practice that has been passed on from generation to generation. Placing at the 4th rank which has each a frequency of three (3) or 7. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 27 Table 8 on the previous page revealed that majority of the respondents or 38.5 percent include boiling the water before putting the rice. Putting salt on top of the cover has long been a practice among the people of Negros Oriental. and putting spoon/fork on the rice while cooking it with moderate fire. This is being followed by the practice of adding tap water to the uncooked rice with almost 30 percent or rank 2.47 percent. Rank 3 is putting salt on top of the cover which reveals almost 22 percent or a frequency of sixty (60). putting plastic on top of the cover. All these practices signify rice cooking culture in the southern part of Negros. other practices indicated on the previous table covering ranks 7 to 10 include putting banana on top of the cover. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. Ranking 4th or almost 5 percent is the practice on stirring the rice in order to get into the other portion which is not being cooked. This practice is a tradition and has become part of the culture among the Oriental Negrenses. steaming and stirring it constantly. BANTAYAN. Ranking 9th with a frequency of two (2) each or 5 percent include Faculty Research April 2010 . In addition. The reason behind this practice lacks scientific proof but is already considered as a way of life among the people. Some folks have to cook again the uncooked rice and place it over the fire with the frequency of 4 or 1. Ranking first or almost 23 percent on the other practices is putting “pandan” leaves on the rice.33 percent add hot water to the uncooked rice with a rank of 1. The placing of a piece of paper. placing banana leaf inside the kettle.
This is a tradition among Negrenses to warm their stomachs on a very early morning work as a substitute for expensive coffees.5 14.50% 7.ST.00% 2.50% 7.00% 2.” reduce the fire when boiling.50% 2.50% 2. BANTAYAN. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 28 “tinughong. “Tinughong” is usually being eaten by farmers early in the morning before going to the farm.50% 5.00% RANK 14.5 4 14.5 4 1 9 4 4 4 9 9 9 14.00% 5.50% 5. using rice cooker and using charcoal.5 The practice of ‘tinughong” is being done when uncooked or cooked rice is being cooked again with more amount of water and being added with sugar to taste. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE.50% 5.50% 22.50% 7. Table 9 Other Practices in Cooking Rice N=40 Frequency Other Practices (f) "Sinanduloy" 1 "Taphan" 1 "Tinughong" 2 Addding magic sarap 1 Boil the water before putting the rice 3 Bring the water to boil before adding rice 1 Hanging rice 1 Placing banana leaf inside the kettle 3 Put pandan leaves 9 Reduce the fire when boiling 2 Remove cover while boiling 3 Steaming 3 Stirring it constantly 3 Use firewood 2 Use rice cooker 2 Use charcoal 2 Washing rice 1 TOTAL 40 Percentage (%) 2. The other practice which is the use of firewood in cooking is a common Faculty Research April 2010 .5 14.50% 2. This practice is being done to make an even cook among the grains of rice inside the kettle.50% 7. Reducing the fire when boiling on the other hand will prevent overcooking and even undercooking.50% 100.00% 5.5 9 14.00% 7. using firewood.
PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. An experience is needed to determine the cooked ‘puso’ or the uncooked one which further needs boiling under a small yet continuous fire. ”Taphan” is a practice to remove the husks of the rice grain and other sediments like small stones over the rice with the use of a “bilao”. hanging rice or “puso” is a very common practice among the respondents. adding ‘magic sarap.” hanging rice (“puso”).” “taphan. “Sinanduloy” is a rice cooking practice where vegetables are added on the rice when cooking especially with leafy vegetables like the saluyot and the malunggay. Another significant practice is placing the water to Faculty Research April 2010 .’ placing the water to boil before adding the rice. Rice is being placed inside the heart-shaped coconut leaves and being placed inside a big kettle and allowing the water to boil until the ‘puso’ is being cooked. Ranking 14. “Bilao” is an oblong-shaped material made up of rattan or bamboo woven together where the rice is being put. “Magic sarap” is a food seasoning which contains ingredients to make the rice and other recipes taste better. Adding ‘magic sarap’ to the rice is a practice being done lately to add taste to the rice. and washing the rice thoroughly before cooking. These are edible leafy vegetables which contain high percentage of proteins and other minerals and very good substitutes of meat. On the other hand. It is a street food and ideal to match with delicious pork ‘tocino’ and other dishes. According to them. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 29 practice among people who want to cut costs in electric bills. BANTAYAN. cooking using firewood and even cooking using charcoal yield more tasty rice as compared to pressurized cooking using rice cooker. Putting stick at the center of the ‘puso’ will determine if the ‘puso’ is already cooked or not. According to the respondents.ST. cooking with firewood or charcoal will produce “dukot” – a cooked rice which is brownish in color at the bottom of the kettle but it is very tasty especially when place and mix with a hot soup.5 percent on Table 9 include “sinanduloy.5 with a frequency of one (1) each or 2. “Puso” is a traditional term of hanging rice which is being cooked with the use of young coconut leaves woven like a shape of a heart or “puso” in Tagalog pronounced as pu-so where the accent is on the middle of the word pu but hanging rice is pronounced as puso’ with the accent at the end of the word.
This is to ensure that the rice to be cooked is clean and safe for eating. Table 11 on the succeeding page presents the common rice recipes being cooked by the respondents using the different methods mentioned in the previous table and discussion. Faculty Research April 2010 .72% 19. BANTAYAN. This is being followed by stirring with a frequency of eightythree (83) or almost 31 percent.05 percent is the steaming method. It reveals that boiling is the number one method used with the frequency of two-hundred sixty seven (267) or almost 98 percent. Ranking 3rd with a frequency of one hundred twenty-three (123) or 45. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE.05% 30.40% 11.ST.73% 45. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 30 boil before adding the rice is commonly being done when cooking with more amount of rice particularly when there are events like fiesta.78% 0. Finally.37% Methods of Rice Cooking Boiling (pabukalan) Frying (paga-sanlagon) Steaming (pasingawan) Stirring (paga-ukayon) Baking (paga-hurnohon) Grinding (paga-galingon) Soaking (paga-huluman) RANK 1 2 3 4 6 5 7 Other methods include grinding. washing the rice thoroughly before cooking is a universal practice. and among others.80% 74. baking and soaking which correspond to ranks 5. Table 10 on the next below presents the various methods used by the respondents in cooking rice. 6 and 7 respectively. Frying followed next with a frequency of two hundred four (204) or almost 75 percent. Table 10 Methods of Cooking Rice N=273 Frequency (f) 267 204 123 83 32 54 1 Percentage (%) 97. These methods are being used by the respondents to be able to cook their favorite rice recipes which are being presented on the next table.
DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 31 The table reveals that cooking “champorado” is the most common recipe being cooked among the respondents.83% 58.53% 70. It has a frequency of two hundred fifty-three (253) or almost 93 percent of the total respondents.50% 78. Furthermore.85% 69. and evaporated milk.33% 49. “Champorado” is a rice recipe using either glutinous (pilit) or plain rice with a mixture of a chocolate (tsokolate) or commonly called “tablia” from cacao seeds or from cocoa seeds with coconut milk.01% 35.08% 79.67% Common Rice Recipes Ampaw Aros ala Valenciana Bibingka Biko Bodbod Dinoldog Fried rice Kan-on/Luto Lugaw Palitaw Pospas Puso Puto Sinagaksak Sinanduloy Sushi Tsamporado RANK 13 14 11 6 9 3 2 4 7 12 5 10 8 16 15 17 1 Faculty Research April 2010 .97% 16. it is very interesting to note based on the table below that almost 93 percent of the total respondents are cooking and eating “Tsamporado. BANTAYAN.ST.” Table 11 Common Rice Recipes N=273 Frequency (f) 78 71 97 192 136 220 235 218 189 86 215 106 161 44 52 43 253 Percentage (%) 28. “Tsamporado” is ideal for breakfast and even during snacks time for the whole family.75% 92.82% 80.59% 86.75% 38. sugar. vanilla. It is also economical where even one cup of rice can fill the empty stomach of the whole members of the family.05% 15.23% 31.57% 26. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE.12% 19.
Faculty Research April 2010 . BANTAYAN. The inclusion of ‘biko’ in the set of meals in every important family gathering becomes a tradition since ‘biko’ is a sticky food. The 3rd most common recipe among the respondents is “dinoldog” with a frequency of two hundred twenty (220) or 80. It’s an ideal recipe for the whole family. “Dinoldog” is also a favourite delicacy among Negrenses which contain other ingredients such as banana (saging) particularly the ripe saba (pronounced sab-a).” and some added vanilla extract to make the ‘biko’ smells good and delicious to eat.08 percent is fried rice. the common plain rice or “kan-on/luto” in the local dialect is placed only at rank 4 with a frequency of two hundred eighteen (218) or 79. New Year and even on birthdays. ube. This rice recipe is usually being made up using glutinous rice with the use of coconut milk. sago.33 percent with a rank of 6. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 32 Next with a rank of 2 with a frequency of two hundred thirty-five (235) or almost 86. Filipinos really love sweet food and this craving for sweetness is being manifested by the local rice recipe known as “biko.85 percent. gabi. black sugar known as ‘mascubado’. The “kan-on” or “luto” is the staple food among Filipinos where people usually eat with viands and soups. Usually it is being cooked with meat bones particularly the bones of chicken or beef and of course with meat plus other ingredients which will make the “pospas” very delicious to eat. Placing fifth on the rank with a frequency of two hundred fifteen (215) or 78. Usually fried rice is being served in the morning among Filipinos. other root crops and etc.75 percent is “Pospas or Arroz Caldo. This rice recipe is usually present in most occasions especially on Christmas Eve. However. Filipinos cooked fried rice particularly on the rice which was a leftover from the previous meals and common ingredients added to fried rice are also presented later on the next table.ST.” “Pospas” is another porridge food which is best served when it is hot. it signifies that the family members will be closer to each other like ‘biko’ which is not only sweet but very sticky. ginger or “luy-a.” “Biko” has a frequency of one hundred ninety-two (192) or 70. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE.59 percent.
PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. Aros de Valencia is quite having expensive Faculty Research April 2010 . Based on Table 11. Another sticky food made up glutinous rice is bod-bod. Almost everywhere in Negros Oriental we can find ‘puto. The Filipino family culture of being attached with each other and the longtradition of ‘pakikisama’ is being manifested with the common recipe known as ‘puso’ or hanging rice.23 percent with a rank of 7.” It is being cooked uysing glutinous rice or also called “pilit” commonly with “pilit puti” or “pilit tapol.” ‘Pilit tapol’ usually yields a violet-colored ‘puto’ while ‘pilit-puto’ yields a white-colored ‘puto. ‘Bod-bod’ is being cooked with a banana leaf.” This rice recipe is best served with “tsokolate” and even with ripe mango. The ‘ampaw’ or puffed rice is very popular in Cebu particularly in Car-car but also a recipe in which the people of Negros Oriental are fond of.97 percent is “puto. palitaw. BANTAYAN. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 33 The presence of Chinese in Negros Oriental has contributed to the traditions and cultures of Negrenses particularly on their favourite food which is “lugaw” or porridge. These recipes are indicative of the Negrenses’ creative and innovative cultures. ‘Puso’ has a frequency of one hundred six (106) or 38. One place in Negros Oriental called Tanjay City put ‘tsokolate’ over the ‘bod-bod’ which makes it very sweet and delicious to eat.83 percent with a rank of ten (10).” As their song goes.82 percent. This rice recipe is commonly being brought over to picnics and parties because of its being handy. “lugaw” has a frequency of one hundred eighty-nine (189) or 69. ampaw. sinagaksak and sushi respectively.ST.’ lami gayud kanunay. This ‘bod-bod’ is called ‘Bod-bod sa Tanjay. Bibingka and palitaw are common picnic food and ideal for snacks and every Negrense family cannot miss in every get together occasion. It is being cooked by boiling and as presented in the earlier discussion that it is being cooked using young coconut leaves in the form of a heart.’ However both yields are very delicious especially during dawn or morning. aros de valenciana. Placing 8th on the rank with a frequency of one hundred sixty-one (161) or 58. Ranks 11 to 16 include bibingka. Commonly babies are being feed with “lugaw” and even elderly who can hardly chew food. ‘Bod-bod sa Tanjay. (‘Bod-bod in Tanjay is forever delicious.’) It is ranked 9th with a frequency of one hundred thirty-six (136) or 49. sinanduloy.
Table 12 Common Ingredients Added to Rice Recipes Common Ingredients Added to Rice Recipes Ahos (garlic) Carrots Chicken Coconut milk Ginger Ginisa Mix/Magic Sarap Greenpeas Hotdog Karne (Meat) Kinagid Lubi Pepper Sago Salag-on Salt Sibuyas (onion) Sibuyas dahon Sugar Tsokolate Vetsin Water N=273 Frequency (f) 231 150 194 202 159 263 108 160 168 125 151 155 133 257 203 212 251 195 176 237 Percentage (%) 84. sushi.94% 71.66% 91.62% 54.56% 58. BANTAYAN. ‘Sinanduloy’ and ‘sinagaksak’ are native food in which the first is being cooked with the addition of leafy vegetables and even with young corn while the ‘sinagaksak’ is being cooked with added camote or ’balonghoy’ and other root crops.43% 64.79% 55. Finally.34% 39.81% RANK 5 17 10 8 14 1 20 13 12 19 16 15 18 2 7 6 3 9 11 4 Faculty Research April 2010 .54% 45. is a rice recipe commonly served only during important occasions particularly with the affluent families or to those who can afford.78% 48.36% 77.14% 74.99% 58.ST.61% 61. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE.47% 86.24% 96.72% 94. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 34 ingredients but it’s a very delicious delicacy to serve.95% 71. These two recipes are common among towns in the province particularly to those families who are on the average class and specially those falling below the poverty line.06% 73.31% 56.
This also reveals that almost 97 percent of the total respondents are using this ingredient when cooking with rice recipes.66 percent.ST. Rank 6 – Sibuyas dahon with a frequency of 212 or 77. Based on the table it reveals the following Top 10 ingredients arranged accordingly: Rank 1 . This further reveals that not all of the respondents used salt in their recipes. Rank 2 – Salt with a frequency of 257.99 percent.14 percent of the total respondents used salt. pospas. It is commonly used as ingredient of champorado. It shows that this ingredient reflects with the common recipes mentioned in Table 11 like fried rice. These mentioned recipes require the use of garlic to season the menu. only 86. This reflects the fact that ‘tsamporado’ as the number 1 common recipe requires sugar as main ingredient. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 35 Table 12 in the previous page presented the various ingredients needed while cooking the various recipes presented in Table 11. Ginisa Mix and Magic Sarap are competing brands of seasoning which when used produce a very seasoned taste of menu. puto. aros de Valencia and among others.51 percent used this ingredient.62 percent. BANTAYAN. it shows that not all rice recipes require water as main ingredient. it reveals that 91. Rank 3 – Sugar with a frequency of 251. biko and the like. Rank 4 – Water with a frequency of 237. dinoldog.94 percent among them used sugar as an ingredient. It shows that only 94. Rank 5 – Ahos (garlic) with a frequency of 231 or 84. Based on the total number of respondents.36 percent.Ginisa Mix/Magic Sarap with a frequency of 263. Rank 8 – Coconut Milk with a frequency of 202 or 73. As reflected on its frequency. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. bodbod. Thus. Faculty Research April 2010 . This is also being followed by Rank 7 – Sibuyas (onion) with a frequency of 203 or 74.
50% 6.50% 6. This is the best ingredient when cooking Aros ala Valenciana and pospas or arroz caldo. Moreover. This ingredient is very much needed when cooking ‘champorado’ and being a side drink when eating ‘puto. Table 13 Other Ingredients Added N=16 Frequency Other Ingredients Added (f) Chilli Gabi Jackfruit Kalamansi Kangkong Oil Oyster's sauce Pandan leves Soy sauce Star margarine Ube Vanilla extract Young coconut meat TOTAL 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 16 Percentage (%) 6. BANTAYAN.25% 12. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE.00% Table 13 reveals the use of vanilla extract. Faculty Research April 2010 .25% 12. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 36 Rank 9 – Tsokolate has a frequency of 195 or 71. rank 10 – Chicken with a frequency of 194 or 71.’ Finally.50% 6.25% 6.25% 6.25% 6.25% 6.43 percent.ST. pandan leaves and kalamansi and among other ingredients as presented on the table as secret ingredients to make the rice recipes more delicious distinct of being an Oriental Negrense delicacy.25% 6.25% 100. Table 13 below presents the other ingredients mentioned by the respondents apart from the ingredients listed in the survey questionnaire as presented in Table 12.25% 12.25% 6.06 percent.
5. BANTAYAN.ST. Most of the respondents when cooking 7 and above cups of rice used the 2nd line of their middle fingers as to the amount of water to be used. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 37 CHAPTER 3 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS. 3. 7. 8. Majority of the respondents or 38.97 percent added hot water when the rice being cooked becomes uncooked. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary of Findings: This section presents the findings of this research: 1. 10. Majority of the respondents are housewives with 28 percent followed by students with 21 percent and entrepreneur or businessmen with almost 10 percent.50 percent of the respondents as another practice involved in cooking rice. Faculty Research April 2010 . Most of the respondents are females. 2. There is a significant number of respondents of almost 28 percent who practiced the 1:1 ratio between cups of rice and amount of water to be used. 4. 6. Majority of the respondents when cooking 1-6 cups of rice used the first line of their middle fingers as to the amount of water to be used. Majority or 51 percent of the respondents are married. 9. 67 percent of the respondents practiced stirring in cooking rice.Putting pandan leaves on the rice constitutes 22. Majority of the respondents have ages which fall within the bracket of 15-20 years old followed by 26-30 and 36-40 age brackets.
There are also other ingredients that respondents added to rice recipes such as vanilla extract.34 percent. kalamansi and among others. 14. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. The people of Negros Oriental have distinct practices in terms of rice cooking such as the use of fingers particularly middle finger in deciding as to the amount of water to be used versus the number of cups of rice to be cooked. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 38 11. There are also practical people in Negros Oriental who don’t practice the use of fingers in measuring the amount of water instead use the 1:1 ratio between cups of rice and the amount of water to be used. There is more water when cooking porridge food such as “lugaw.67 percent have found tsamporado as the most common rice recipe.80 percent among the respondents is practicing it. 3.Ginisa Mix or Magic sarap is the common ingredient added to rice recipe with a frequency of 231 or 96. pandan leaves. BANTAYAN. 13. In most families in Negros Oriental usually it’s the housewives who have more experiences in the kitchen particularly on various rice recipes with the help of their children most particularly females whose age bracket falls from 15-20 years old and can be relied upon to cook rice recipes.Most of the respondents or 92. 2.ST. 12. The amount of water to be used depends upon what recipe to cook.” “dinuldog. Conclusion: 1.Boling is the number 1 method used in cooking rice with 97. 4.” “champorado” and among others. Faculty Research April 2010 .
Tsamporado is the best rice recipe that can be found in almost all homes in Negros Oriental. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 39 5. It only means that the varying taste of rice recipe among the various places in Negros Oriental proves the uniqueness of the people living in one area within the province.The province has unique rice cooking methods. Schools. 11. Paul University Dumaguete shall conduct community extension trainings to housewives and out-of-school youth on how to cook various rice recipes which can be a great source of livelihood and additional income for their families. Adding hot water to the uncooked rice is a common practice among the people of Negros Oriental in order to cook the remaining uncooked grains of rice. 10. Stirring is another practice performed by Oriental Negrenses while cooking rice recipes in order to cook it thoroughly while placing pandan leaves on the rice to make it tastes better and smells good. 6. Faculty Research April 2010 .ST. 8.Each town and city of the province of Negros Oriental has a distinct practice of its own especially on adding other ingredients to their rice recipes. This tradition is a new practice which clearly manifests the innovativeness of tastes among Oriental Negrenses. 7. colleges and universities like St. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. Recommendations: 1. Most homes in Negros Oriental when cooking rice recipes used the synthetic seasoning such as Magic Sarap and Ginisa Mix. practices and recipes worthy of preservation and recognition. People of Negros Oriental are used to the method of boiling when cooking rice recipes. 9. BANTAYAN.
DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 40 2. nationally and globally. A separate study shall be conducted finding out the unique rice recipe per town or city within the province. A rice recipe book shall be produced showcasing the various rice recipes made by the people of Negros Oriental. BANTAYAN. 3. 6. Conduct further study on the use of commercial seasonings like Ginisa Mix and Magic Sarap as to health issues and life span among the people of Negros Oriental compared to the traditional ways of seasoning rice recipes in the olden days. 5. 8. colleges and universities shall help promote the methods and practices of rice cooking by sponsoring various competitions which will use rice as the main ingredient. A different study shall be conducted on the implication of the use of fingers as a measuring tool for the amount of water to be used necessary to cook certain cup(s) of rice. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. Showcase and promote the rice recipe pride of Negros Oriental which is “Tsamporado” in various food fairs locally. It is recommended that the Sidlakang Negros Village management shall install at least one stall selling different rice recipes produced by the people of this province. 4. 9. 7. The Tourism Office of each town and city with the guidance of the Provincial Tourism Office shall conduct promotional activities showcasing the local rice recipes produced and shall include the same in the list of activities during the Buglasan Festival. Faculty Research April 2010 .ST. Schools.
2. Add the coconut milk and sugar to taste. Faculty Research April 2010 . While boiling add the 6 pieces of Tabliya. Wash the cup of rice and bring to boil. and 5. 4. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 41 OUTPUT OF THE STUDY Name of Recipe: TSAMPORADO Ingredients: 6 pcs Tabliya 1 cup coconut milk ½ cup sugar 1 small can evaporated milk 1 cup rice 6 cups water Procedures: 1. Add the minced garlic and finely chopped onions into the pan/wok and sauté for about 30 seconds. Add the evaporated milk to make it creamy. Name of Recipe: FRIED RICE Ingredients: 2 pcs medium size eggs 4 cloves garlic 1 bulb onion Cooked rice 4 pcs hot dog 1/2/ cup green peas 2 tbsp cooking oil Pinch of salt Procedures: 1.ST. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. 3. BANTAYAN. 2. Serve wile it is hot. In a large sauté pan/wok add 2 tbsp of cooking oil.
Faculty Research April 2010 .ST. finely chopped carrots. Wash and soaked the Japanese rice for 30 minutes. 6. Prepare the bamboo mat. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 42 3. Add the cooked rice and sauté for one minute. 5. 3. Name of Recipe: SUSHI Ingredients: Nori sheet 2 cups Japanese rice Sake wine Peeled shrimps Chopped carrots 1 pc cucumber Sliced onion (bamboo mat) material 2 tbsp olive oil Procedures: 1. 4. Cook the rice with sake wine. In a sauté pan. Best served with a sauce/dip to taste. Add the slice hotdog and green peas. Together with the nori rolled the Japanese rice with the shrimps and vegetables. Add salt to taste and serve while it is hot. put oil. BANTAYAN. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. peeled and devein shrimps. put nori sheet on top and add enough amount of Japanese rice with the shrimps and vegetables arranged in a straight line. 5. 4. and strips of cucumber and wait until vegetables are tender but not overcooked. then sliced onions. 2.
roll the pilit in a form of small rice balls and after a while flatten the rice balls and set aside. Name of Recipe: CONGEE (POSPAS) Ingredients: 1/4 kilo flakes chicken breast 1 ½ cup of rice thinly-sliced ginger salt to taste Ginisa Mix/Magic Sarap chopped onion leaves Procedures: 1. Remove the flattened rice and roll it over in the grated coconut. Put sesame seeds and a teaspoon of sugar on top before serving. Serve it cold. 6. 3. BANTAYAN. 8. bring water to a rolling boil. 2.ST. In a regular stock pot. 5. Faculty Research April 2010 . DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 43 Name of Recipe: PALITAW Ingredients: ground pilit rice sesame seeds grated coconut white sugar Procedures: 1. Using the palm of your hands. Wash the rice and with enough amount of water bring it to boil. 7. Grind the pilit. Soaked the rice overnight (pilit/malagkit) and drain the water after soaking. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. Put the flattened rice balls into the boiling water and wait until it will settle at the top. Once it settles at the top it means it is already done. 4.
3. Make syrup out of the coconut milk. When the syrup becomes quite thick. Faculty Research April 2010 . BANTAYAN. 5. put rice and sprinkle coconut seasoned with milk occasionally. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 44 2. chicken while stirring occasionally until the rice becomes tender. add slowly the ground cooked pilit rice in a pan. Name of Recipe: ESPASOL Ingredients: 1 ½ cup ground cooked “pilit” rice 2 ½ cups sugar 2 ½ cups powdered toasted malagkit 1 cup coconut milk Procedures: 1. Add salt and Ginisa Mix/Magic sarap to taste. Serve it hot with tsokolate. Wash the rice with water and then drain it. add ginger. Name of Recipe: PUTO Ingredients: rice (pilit) coconut milk ginger salt to taste Procedures: 1. Once in a while. Add the sliced onions and serve hot. 2. while boiling stir it and then again sprinkle with coconut milk. Continue boiling until the rice is cooked. 4. 4. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. In a casserole/steamer. 3. When boiling.ST. 2.
4. Sprinkle with the remaining powdered “pilit” rice to keep from sticking. Then slowly add the powdered toasted “pilit” rice until mixture is dry enough to roll. milk and sugar into a pan and place it over a low heat. Stir occasionally. Soak ground rice (pilit) for two (2) hours or overnight. 4. When brown sugar is dissolved. 5. stirring constantly then add vanilla extract. Then transfer it to a board sprinkled evenly with the powdered ‘pilit’ rice. Faculty Research April 2010 . Add brown sugar. 3. 6. Put rice. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 45 3. BANTAYAN. Name of Recipe: CINNAMON RICE Ingredients: 2 cups cooked rice 1 cup evaporated milk Sugar to taste ½ teaspoon cinnamon 2 tablespoons of butter or margarine Procedures: 1. Name of Recipe: KALAMAYHATI Ingredients: 2 cups ground rice (pilit) 2 cups coconut milk 2 cups brown sugar 2 teaspoon vanilla extract Dash of salt Procedures: 1. boil coconut milk for at least 30 minutes or until “latik” is produced. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. 2. Roll with a rolling pin and cut into rounds or any desired shape. add soaked rice and stirring constantly until it thickens and holds the spoon.ST. In a deep fry pan.
When the coconut milk is already in a running boil. 3. Cook first the “pilit” rice with water over a low fire. put sugar and stir occasionally. 4. 2. Faculty Research April 2010 .ST. 3. Serve hot over a banana leaf. PAUL UNIVERSITY DUMAGUETE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION VETERANS’ AVENUE. When the mixture of coconut milk and sugar becomes a little sticky. 5. Add crushed ginger with vanilla extract. BANTAYAN. add gradually the cooked pilit rice then stir occasionally until the rice becomes coated with the syrup. Name of Recipe: BIKO Ingredients: 3 cups of rice (pilit) 3 cups of coconut milk 3 cups of water salt to taste 3 cups of black sugar (maskubado) Crushed ginger 1 teaspoon of vanilla extract Procedures: 1. add slowly the butter and cinnamon while stirring occasionally until all the ingredients have combined. Then. set aside while putting coconut milk over a pan in a low fire. DUMAGUETE CITY PAGE 46 2. Serve hot and with a cream. After cooking.
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