Presidential Decisions

Commander-in-Chief
As Commander-in-Chief of the United States' armed forces, the President is ultimately at the head of the chain of command for the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines and the Coast Guard. While many former military generals such as Washington, Jackson, Grant and Eisenhower have served as president, there is no requisite of former military service to become Commander-in-Chief. This is an important concept in the Constitution, making the ultimate head of the armed forces an elected civilian and not a member of the forces directly under his command. Civilian control of the military serves to balance the needs of defense and security with accountability to the democratic populace.

Chief Executive
As Chief Executive the president is technically the head of all Federal agencies, departments and bureaucracy within the executive branch. Examples of these would include the Department of Justice and the agencies of the FBI and the ATF under that department's control, the Internal Revenue Service and hundreds of other government offices. The president issues executive orders to these agencies and directs the enforcement of the laws as passed by Congress and interpreted by the Supreme Court. The president also appoints and removes the government officials responsible for heading these various and diverse government offices.

Head Diplomat
As Head Diplomat the president represents the United States in negotiations with foreign countries. Article II of the Constitution grants the President the power to negotiate and sign treaties on behalf of the United States (treaties do require ratification by the Senate to take effect). The president also extends or removes recognition of nations and their governments. As head diplomat the president sets US foreign policy, to be carried out by the Department of State, via the Secretary of State, US Ambassadors and US envoys around the globe.

Chief Lawmaker
As Chief Lawmaker the president's main responsibility is proposing the federal budget. By directing the spending of the federal government the president effectively determines what programs and policy areas are to receive funding priority. The president also proposes legislation to be considered by Congress. While it is

Congress's role to craft and pass all legislation, proposals from the president are usually given special consideration and have been the origin of many of our significant laws and policies throughout US history. Finally, the president has the power of the veto, or the rejection of legislation passed by Congress, giving him the power to strike down proposals with which he does not agree. While vetoes can be over ridden by Congress, the veto remains a power lawmaking weapon.

Special Judicial Powers
As a check on the judicial branch of government, the Constitution endows the president with a few special judicial powers. The president has the ability to pardon anyone convicted of a crime, effectively nullifying their conviction and freeing them from their sentence. Also given the president is the power to grant amnesty from a type or class of crime. In the case of amnesty, a general forgiveness for all persons convicted of a particular crime is granted, not to a specific individual. These two judicial powers are used sparingly by most presidents and usually only in special circumstances, as they effectively overturn an indictment or conviction in a court of law and potentially grant guilty parties their freedom.

Head of State
As the Head of State, the office of the presidency serves as the symbolic or ceremonial representation of the United States. An analogy can be made to the Queen of England or the Emperor of Japan, individuals who serve to represent the government to its people, or to represent that government symbolically to the world. In this capacity the president may attend ceremonies or funerals for the heads of foreign governments, or toss the first pitch on baseball's opening day.

Bully Pulpit
The concept of the Bully Pulpit is not found in the Constitution or any actual law, it instead developed as an extension of the president's position and meaning in American society. Coined by President Teddy Roosevelt, the bully pulpit is the use of the prestige and public authority of the president to advocate for a particular agenda or idea, not by legislation but by persuasion of the American people. Public speeches in which the president may ask the American people to undertake a specific request, not because of a government action, but because of a presidential appeal, is an example of the bully pulpit. The ability to use the 'Bully Pulpit' is based purely on the president's moral authority and respect for the office of the presidency.

Introduction to U.S. Government
A good portion of the United States History and Government curriculum is based on the ideas and principles of American government. These ideas and principles are best exemplified by the United States Constitution.

A Constitution is a country's plan of government. The discussion of the US Constitution focuses on the features that make our plan of government unique and enduring. US Government review focuses on these eight main areas:

Foundation Highlights the roots of the American system and the unique history of United States political though that gave rise to the Constitution. Convention Focuses on the dynamics of the Constitutional Convention of 1787 in Philadelphia, the differing point of view and eventual compromises that gave birth to the document itself. 3 Branches Examines the three branches that compose the Federal Government, their unique powers and roles, as well as how power is separated in order to keep one branch of government from dominating the system. Checks and Balances Examples of the system of checks and balances in action. Examples of how each branch is endowed with the power to temper the power of the other two. Federalism Identifies the unique balance between federal and state power, as well as the types of powers identified in the Constitution. Amendments Discusses the process for amending the Constitution, as well as a discussion of the Bill of Rights, the other amendments and their historic roots. Unwritten Constitution Explains the features of the Constitution that are considered implied or "unwritten". Provides examples of these features in action, as well as a reasoning behind their implementation. Laws (Legislation) A selection of significant legislation from American history, focused on the provisions of the laws and their historic roots.

The 13 Enduring Constitutional Issues The thirteen enduring Constitutional issues are considered to be the core of what the Regent's examination in United States History and Government will test on the topic of government. It is recommended that you familiarize yourself with these 13 issues. As you progress through your government review be aware of how what you know about government relates to one or more of these enduring Constitutional issues. 1. National Power The Constitution created a "limited government" with clearly delegated powers, however over time federal power has grown to include a greater amount of implied as well as "necessary and proper" powers.

6. economic or political. Rights of Women The Constitution does not specifically address the rights and status of women. At the same time we have struggled to balance the rights of the accused with the general welfare of the nation and the rights of the victim. be it social. 11. Property and Economic Rights The government provides for the general welfare and protects the rights of the . each with specific and unique powers. however in the recent past Constitutional protections assumed for men have been extended to fully include women as well. Presidential Foreign and Wartime Powers Presidential power has increased as the nation as grown and expanded. Separation of Powers The Constitution set up three branches of government. 9. 4. Over time the federal government has grown to meet the demands of a more complex society.2. however in recent history there has been a greater push to extend Constitutional protections to a greater number of groups. Crime and Rights of the Accused The Constitution (in the Bill of Rights) very specifically details the rights of the accused and the limits on the government in prosecuting accusations. 8. 5. Representation The Constitution provides for voting rights. Civil Liberties An on-going discussion in American history has been the delicate balance between the civil rights of the individual with the security. The Judiciary As interpreter of the Constitution and its changing meaning over time. reinterpretations of the Constitution have helped to better define the meanings of "equality". save for the 19th amendment. Equality as a Constitutional Value The Constitution does not outline the specific ways in which equality is to be defined. Rights of Racial and Ethnic Minorities The Constitution has in many ways failed to protect the rights of ethnic and racial minorities. which have been expanded over time to include a greater amount of the population. how do we preserve the balance of federalism while meeting these demands? 3. 7. 10. the Judicial Branch has a unique power to shape the Constitution and its protections in order to adapt to the changing needs and challenges of society. welfare and needs of American society as a whole. Federalism The Constitution attempts a balance of power between the federal government and those of the states. The growth of political parties also has aided in the growth of representation in government. As the nation has progressed. reaching their peak during times of war and national emergency. as well as system of checks and balances designed to limit those power s. 12.

However. When a government fails to protect rights and consent is revoked. Government The roots of American democracy stretch back beyond the formation of the United States. Locke maintained that citizens grant governments the power to rule. Thomas Jefferson and the founding fathers borrowed many of these ideas when crafting . Baron de Montesquieu was an enlightenment philosopher who wrote of the benefits of dividing power in a government among more than one branch. the ONLY example of directly elected officials in the original Constitution was election of representatives to the House of Representatives. based on the previous ideas of Locke. It held that a social contract existed between government and the people. 13. The upper house of the US Congress is the Senate in ode to this ancient ideal.people to own property and exercise economic freedom. the government can be changed or replaced with a revolution. as the President is in-directly elected by the electoral college and senators selected by state legislatures. Locke declared that all men are born with the natural rights of "life. Influences of the Enlightenment The thinking of the founding fathers (especially Thomas Jefferson) was heavily influenced by the intellectual changes occurring in 1700's Europe. in order to protect their natural rights. Constitutional Change and Flexibility The Constitution as a "living document" with the ability to amend and be reinterpreted to meet changing times. The European Enlightenment focused on reason. The United States was founded as a representative democracy in which qualified citizens elect representatives to carry out their will in government. Foundations of U. as well as colonial injustices under the English. The Romans developed the concept of the representative democracy (one in which the citizens elect representatives to act of their behalf in government). a revolution was justified. the Enlightenment. having origin in ancient Greek thinking.S. This thinking in government is best seen in the work of Locke. It further stated that when government broke the contract by failing to serve the will of the people. Ancient Influences on American Democracy The ancient Greeks in the city-state Athens created the idea of the democratic government. liberty and property" and no government can revoke these rights. Jean Rousseau developed the idea of the social contract. This was best exemplified by the Roman Senate. Rousseau and Montesquieu. human thought and experience as opposed to the divine reasoning of religious thought. practiced as a direct democracy (government in which all citizens had say via participation in voting).

In Massachusetts. land-holding men were allowed to participate. Finally. The Articles of Confederation Fail During the years immediately following the Revolutionary War. This became known as the period of salutary neglect or the ignoring of the colonies for their own health.the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. separation of powers is integrated into US government along the three branch system and protected by the system of checks and balances. During this period of salutary neglect the colonists began to develop their own forms of government. It was soundly rejected by the colonial governments as a threat to the democratic institutions that had created in the absence of direct British rule. it was the lessons learned under the articles that helped . the colonies organized themselves into a new American government. many towns relied upon a New England style town meetings in which all white. the House of Burgesses developed as a representative democracy in which elected officials served as the voice of their regions within the state. During this era the English government had no specific policy of direct governing of the colonies. In Virginia. The notion of replacing a government that fails to maintain consent is cited as justification for the American Revolution against the English. Colonial Democratic Developments Democratic developments during the colonial era date back to the landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth rock. in which the Pilgrims consented to be governed and to abide by the decisions of their government. Natural Rights appear in the declaration as "life. The Articles of Confederation (1781-1789) served as the foundation for this first attempt at a national government and while a failure. during which they developed forms of self-rule. Ben Franklin's Albany Plan of Union in 1754 was the earliest attempt at organizing the 13 colonies against the French. liberty and the pursuit of happiness". The Mayflower Compact was the earliest example.

no set exchange disrupted trade among the states Failure of direct leadership resulted in indecision Smaller states with low populations had disproportional power Complete inability to correct the failures under the articles Change in Constitution Federal Government is given the power to raise and maintain a standing army Congress is granted the power to tax.strengthen the government formed by the Constitution. Weakness in Articles of Confederation No Standing Army Example In ability to deal with the threat of "Shay's Rebellion" States did not pay debts to Congress and so federal gov't had no $$ States minted money. The 1787 Constitutional Convention completely replaced the Articles rather than amending them Required Unanimous Vote to Amend Constitutional Convention . impose duty and raise tariffs No Federal Taxation No Single National Currency Congress is granted sole power to coin money No Executive Leadership A strong executive (President) is created Each State had Equal Vote in Congress Bicameral Legislature with proportional representation in the House of Reps.

THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION FAIL: THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION IS CONVENED: Meeting at Independence Hall in Philadelphia. James Madison and Alexander Hamilton (a strong contributor and delegate from New York) all were in attendance. George Washington (elected president of the convention). Ben Franklin. 55 delegates from all the states except Rhode Island. It quickly became apparent that amending the articles was unworkable and discussion soon turned to replacing them with a new government. It was only by carefully crafted compromise that a final document was achieved. political and economic differences threatened to jeopardize the process. Despite the greatness in leadership. the crafting of a new constitution proved a long and difficult task. THE GREAT COMPROMISE: One of the first issues to be resolved was representation to the new government. The smaller states feared losing say in the federal government and so continued to support equality in representation. despite size or population and this did not sit well with the largest states (Virginia. . met to rework the failing Articles of Confederation. New York. Many of our greatest founding fathers attended the convention as delegates from their respective states. Pennsylvania). The Articles of Confederation had allowed each state equal representation and equal say. Regional.

power is divided among the federal and state governments.These are powers that are are specifically NOT allowed to either the federal or state governments.Concurrent means "at the same time". Within these principles.To delegate means to specifically assign. Divided Powers in US Government The US Constitution specifically states what types of powers are to be granted to what governments. a state could not pass a law that directly contradicted a law passed on the federal level.To reserve is to save. Within this system the Federal Government is superior to the State Governments. I. however it was deemed necessary and proper to form a bank to aid in Congress's power to coin money and regulate the economy. Reserved Powers . Federalism within the United States system is the balancing of power between a Federal Government and State Governments.S. Government Federalism The concept of Federalism is one that underlies all concepts about the power of government in the US system. The founding fathers feared a national government that would overstep its bounds. 8). Again. For example. Examples include: o Hamilton's creation of the National Bank . in this case delegated powers are those powers specifically assigned to the Federal Government. Shipping. in this case concurrent powers are those that both the federal and state governments have simultaneously. sec. Concurrent Powers .These are powers that are NOT specifically delegated in the Constitution. this listing of denied powers was a specific way in which the founding fathers attempted to create a limited government. Examples of Divided Powers in US Government . These are also referred to as enumerated powers.Federalism in U. so they took care to only allow the national government very specific powers. Maryland 1819) o Regulation of Railroads. Implied Powers .no power to create banks is delegated the Federal Government. • • • • • Delegated Powers . (see Gibbons vs.Congress is delegated the power to regulate interstate trade and as such it is implied that Congress also has the power to regulate interstate transportation by which interstate trade is made possible. but are understood to be necessary or allowed. (see McCullough vs. Ogden 1824) Denied Powers . Highways . in this case all powers not specifically delegated the Federal Government are to be reserved or saved for the State Governments. The elastic clause or necessary and proper clause allows these by stating that Congress has the power "to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers" (art.

• • Power to tax Maintain courts Borrow money Regulate intrastate trade Establish schools Establish local governments Pass statewide laws (ex.Delegated Powers: Those powers specifically granted the Federal Government by the Constitution. o Reserved Powers: Those powers not delegated to the Federal Government or denied the states are reserved for the states. o o o o o o o o o Regulate interstate and international trade Coin money Declare war Maintain an armed forces Establish a postal system Enforce copyrights Sign treaties Concurrent Powers: Powers that are shared by both the Federal and State Governments. there are however a few methods to accomplishing these significant changes. Amending the Constitution should rightly be a difficult task. safety belt laws) Run elections • o o Amendments to the Constitution Amending the Constitution One of the most important features of the Constitution is the ability to amend or change the document in order to adapt it to changing times and conditions. Method 1 Amendment Proposed by 2/3rds Vote in Each House of Congress APPROVAL: Ratified by 3/4ths of the State Legislatures OR APPROVAL: Ratified by Constitutional Conventions in 3/4ths of the States .

It is the Bill of Rights that stands till today as the greatest guarantee of these rights and liberties upon which America was founded. Additionally.Method 2 Amendment Proposed at a National Constitutional Convention APPROVAL: Ratified by 3/4ths of the State Legislatures OR APPROVAL: Ratified by Constitutional Conventions in 3/4ths of the States The Bill of Rights The most significant amendments to the Constitution are the first ten. the English 2 Right to Bear Arms • . The fear of a dominating federal government. many early settlers (such as the Pilgrims) Separation of Church and State came to America in search of religious (no national freedom. such as the colonists had experienced under English rule. religion) Right to keep and bear arms In the period prior to the revolution. also known as The Bill of Rights. assembly and press rights in an attempt to quell the growing colonial discontent. These amendments were added to the Constitution at the insistence of the Anti-Federalist forces during the debates over ratification. All of the amendments in the Bill of Rights were adopted together in 1791. led many to demand assurances that specific rights and liberties were going to be protected. Amendment • • • Right(s) Freedom of Religion Freedom of Press Freedom of Speech Freedom of Assembly Historic Roots 1 Freedoms • • The English gov't had suppressed speech.

were jailed without being accused of a crime. in an attempt to suppress Warrants require organizations cause and must working towards a revolution.attempted to limit militia activity. It was also not uncommon for a person in the colonies to be tried under the laws of Britain. as they rightly feared preparations for a coming revolution. . • 3 No Quarter Right to protection from troops being quartered in homes during peacetime Right against unreasonable search and seizure The Quartering Act passed by English Parliament required the colonists to house and feed British troops stationed in the colonies. without regard to the local laws passed within the colonies. • 4 Search and Seizure • British troops often search houses and property at will. be specific Accused must be indicted by a Grand Jury Cannot be tried for the same crime twice (double jeopardy) Cannot be forced to testify against yourself Right to a fair trial with all proper legal rights enforced (due process) Right to fair compensation ($ $) when the gov't takes your property for public use • • • 5 Rights of the Accused • • Many accused under British law in the colonies.

Right to a British courts could speedy and keep a suspect in public trial jail without Right to an accusing him/her of impartial jury a crime or bringing Right to face them into a court of witnesses against law. Excessive fines were levied Right to for small offenses protection and extended against excessive sentences were bails and fines given colonists perceived as threats for even the most minor offenses. (a lawyer) only to be found innocent an released.• • 6 More Rights of the Accused • • • • Right to be informed of the charges against In the era prior to you the revolution. Even given that English laws applied to the colonies. Many suspects you in court sat in prison for Right to counsel years awaiting trial. 7 Rights in a Civil Case • • 8 Cruel and Unusual Punishment • . Right to call witnesses in your defense This provision protected the idea of trial by jury (a Right to a trial fundamental notion by jury in a civil in both English and case (nonAmerican law) and criminal case) extended it to all cases private or public. English Right to run colonial courts protection did not enforce the against cruel and law evenly or fairly unusual in the eyes of punishment many.

Many of the founding fathers feared the Guarantee that domination of the the people and people and the the states have states by a all of the powers powerful federal not specifically government. As this was State Immunity • Allows a done. To delegated the insure the federal containment of this government power. Provisions/Rights Historic Roots • Limits the ability of a person to sue a The judicial system state was left up to Congress 11 to create. Those amendments which are considered the most significant to review for the exam are highlighted with colored backgrounds. clarification was (1795) person to sue needed. • 10 Reserved Rights Other Amendments Outside of the Bill of Rights there are 17 other amendments to the Constitution. 12 Electoral confusion in the Election of College are to Electoral College President and Amendment . if a state denies their rights • Electors to the In the election of 1800. people and (reserved states are granted powers) all the powers that the federal government is not.• 9 Unenumerated Rights The founding Guarantee that fathers wanted to rights not be certain that enumerated rights articulated in (listed) in the the Bill of Rights Constitution are were not thought to still protected be the only possible rights. All of the remaining amendments are outlined in the chart below.

(1804) • 13 Abolition of Slavery (1865) • • 14 Equal Protection Under the Law (1868) • • 15 • cast one vote for President and separate vote for Vice President resulted from the The House requirement that the elects the runner-up for president President of become president. Confederate debt null and void Insures black Despite this . The final result was the election of Thomas Jefferson The Senate elects the Vice and the 12th President of amendment. from holding disability acts and office other actions designed to protect minority Declares rights.P. Declares that all citizens are guaranteed This has proven one of equal the most significant treatment and amendments outside protection the Bill of Rights. no candidate Further confusing was gets an the fact that electors electoral could cast votes for majority (each Vice Presidential state w/ 1 candidates for vote) President. under the law Equal protection is the Bars former basis for all modern Confederates civil rights laws.• V. no candidate gets an electoral majority The end of the Civil War saw a series of Slavery is three amendments illegal designed to grant greater equality to former slaves.

Women are Women such as Susan granted the B. designed to increase people's participation in government. to states based on population The original Constitution provided for Senators to be Senators are to elected by state be elected by legislatures.Right to Vote (1870) • 16 Income Tax (1913) • 17 Direct Election of Senators (1913) • • 18 Prohibition (1919) 19 Women's Suffrage (1920) • amendment. Grants Congress the power to The Populists had long collect taxes fought for the taxation on income if income as a way of leveling out the great economic disparity Money collected does between rich and poor not have to be that developed during reapportioned the Gilded Age. The temperance movement had gained support in the rural areas of the nation. somewhat in reaction making or to the growth of urban transportation areas and the of alcohol is temptations cities illegal brought. Anthony (for whom right to vote the amendment was named) fought for a . This was a the people Populist cause. The sale. This was repealed (overturned) by the passage of the 21st amendment. poll taxes and literacy tests would attempt to deny males the right black males voting to vote rights in the southern states for nearly 100 years.

All other more than presidents continued to twice serve no more than two . As a result office on Jan.• 20 Presidential Inauguration (1933) • 21 Repeal of Prohibition (1933) • 22 Presidential Term Limits (1951) • voting right amendment for over 40+ years. nearly 5 months went 20th (moved by during which the from March "lame duck" 4th) presidency of Hoover did little to alleviate the suffering of the Great Depression. Prohibition was regarded as a huge failure. The election occurred in November. During the heart of the depression voters chose the New Deal policies of FDR over the policies of then president Hoover. Many feared disrespect for Alcohol is the prohibition laws again legal would cause disrespect for all law. and the 18th amendment was revoked. but President and presidential terms Vice President began in March of the are sworn into next year. Bootlegging and speakeasies The 18th allowed liquor to flow amendment freely. and created a (prohibition) huge network of is repealed organized crime. This amendment shortens the "lame duck" time by moving inauguration up by 2 months. No person George Washington may serve as had sent the precedent President of two terms.

Residents of the capitol did not have any Grants political voice in Washington federal government. a clearer the presidency chain of ascension to and vice the nations' highest presidency offices was needed.C. (1961) • 24 Abolition of Poll Taxes (1964) • • 25 Presidential Succession (1967) 26 Voting Age (1971) • terms. During the era of the Establishes a Cold War and in the clearer wake of JFK's succession to assassination. voting is a fundamental lowered to 18 hypocrisy in the American voting system became clear. to the House. To college today Washington D. but could . 18 year-olds could be drafted and forced to fight in war. there was widespread support for a formal limit on presidential terms. but an amendment was required to outlaw the poll tax. 3 This amendment grants electors to the them the minimum electoral number of electors.C.23 Voting in Washington D. Literacy federal tests were already elections illegal by the 1960's. Many Southern states had used poll taxes and literacy tests to Poll taxes are limit black voting after illegal in the Civil War.C. up until FDR was elected a record four times. D. The age of In the wake of protests eligibility for over the Vietnam war. After his administration ended. has no Senators or Reps.

Proposed to In the Supreme Court case outlaw the Texas v. It keeps a current Congress from raising their own pay. but failed to become law are listed below. This proposal has come up many time in the 1990's and continues . Johnson (1990). burning of the the court ruled that US flag burning the US flag was protected speech under the 1st amendment. Failed Amendments to Know Of the hundreds of amendments to the Constitution that have been proposed over the past 200+ years.R. It was eventually deemed unnecessary. as the Proposed a Supreme Court has guarantee of interpreted the 14th equal rights amendment's equal for women protection provision to apply to women and other groups of minority status. effectively accomplishing much of what the E.R. would have provided. A few notable amendments that have gained popularity. • 27 Congressional Pay Raises (1992) Congressional pay raises do not take effect until after the next Congressional election The process for this amendment was begun in the 1790's.) • Flag Burning • This amendment gained popular support following the feminism movement of the 1960's and 70's. Proposed Provisions/Rights Amendment Historic Roots Equal Rights Amendment (E. outlawing such speech would require an amendment.A. As such.A. only 27 have become part of the Constitution.not cast a vote for the politicians who were determining their fate.

Change or Provision Constitutional Principle Provided for the settlement of the Northwest Territory ***NOTE: This one of the of the new nation and few acts of legislation passed Northwest Ordinance established guidelines such under the Articles of (1787) as protection of civil Confederation that was liberties in the territory. Monumental Legislation Introduction Many of the most significant changes in American history have been brought about or resulted in legislative changes. the United States the creation of the bank was advocated for a National (1791) justified by the necessary Bank in order to aid in the and proper clause of the running of the US economy. statehood eligibility and schools. Constitution. safeguard civil liberties or maintain the American system is a fundamental notion in the Constitution. Constitutional principles of The Bill of Rights Many of the rights we rights of the accused and (1791) expect our government to freedoms of the individual defend were added to the that are fundamental to our Constitution later as the first system. Missouri Compromise Established a line dividing The Constitution made no (1820) the fee and slave territories clear provision for the Legislation .to be a proposal under consideration. Many disagreed over the Alexander Hamilton who constitutionality of the was serving as Washington's Charter of The Bank of National Bank. Served as the founding list of rights and liberties to be The Bill of Rights itself guarded by the new established many of the American government. 10 amendments. While there are literally thousands of laws passed in American history. The power of the law to positively effect the lives of the American people. They are examples that commonly appear on the regents examination. there are a few major pieces that stand out as noteworthy for the changes set in motion or the Constitutional principles exemplified. considered a success. In the end Secretary of the Treasury.

The of the growing United compromise served as a short States. extension of these powers Serving as an example of Congress was granted under increased reform and the Constitution the power to regulation of the regulate trade. these acts facilities increased the trade (1906) require government in manufactured foods and & inspection of meat drugs. Civil Rights Act A culmination of the Civil The 14th amendment's equal (1964) Rights movement of the protection under the law 1950's and early 60's. term "fix" to the larger issues that would explode into the Civil War. The New Deal attempted to provide for the Other actions such as the (1933-1938) general welfare by combating creation of the Securities the suffering of the Great and Exchange Depression with work relief. The New Deal laws government and the people. Congress took a role in Pure Food and Drug Act processing facilities and regulating ingredients and (1906) require that ingredients in processing in order to foods and drugs be clearly safeguard public health. It was the 1964 act established commissions that once and for all finalized .expansion of the nation. The New Deal laws such as the Social Security Act The Constitution provides would fundamentally that the government is to change the relationship provide for the welfare of the between the federal people. Commission would forever economic recovery and change the relationship fundamental reform. as Jim segregation in public places Crow (segregation) laws once and for all. The regulation of monopolies in all areas of (1890) monopolies was seen as the US economy in the late necessary and proper 19th century. labeled. between the federal government and business. Congress was granted many Outlawed "combinations in powers pertaining to restraint of trade" as a way economic control and Sherman Antitrust Act of regulating the growth of regulation. the provision was never fully 1964 Civil Rights Act ended realized in the South. As modern Meat Inspection Act Progressive era. It also persisted. As the nation grew so did the argument over slavery.

) . foreign made products. Following the Vietnam was in which unlimited military power was given the president by the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (1964). While the president is commander-in-chief of the armed forces. tariffs were also applied in the 1920’s and are seen as a contributing factor in the great depression. Board of Education (1954). the United States Government has passed protective tariffs to 1. Over time we have seen the expansion of Constitutional protections by legislation.) have seen the greatest gains in legal protections. Age of Jackson: Question 1 of 7 At times. Congress passed the War Powers Act as a way to reign in presidential military powers. Americans with Disabilities Act (1990) Safeguards civil liberties on behalf of those persons with a disability in American society. 4. it is Congress that declares war. also requires that armed forces withdraw after 60 days if no extension or declaration war is issued by Congress. Native Americans. This concept has been applied many time in US history (it was part of Hamilton’s economic plan. This protects the domestic manufactures from having to compete with lower priced. The imported goods then have a higher total price (after the tax) then similar goods manufactured within the nation itself. the process begun by Brown v. Minority status groups (such as women. encourage foreign trade help the nation’s manufacturers reduce the cost of consumer goods improve the quality of goods Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: Tariffs are taxes placed upon goods being imported into a nation. Also establishes that "reasonable accommodations" be made in order to provide access and opportunity to persons with disabilities. etc. 2..and councils to increase black opportunities and equality. 3. blacks.. War Powers Act (1973) Requires that the president notify Congress within 48 hours of ordering military action. the Tariff of 1828 was highly unpopular. persons with disabilities.

. 4. . are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers. the American continents. 1823 Which President later built on the idea expressed in this quotation? 1. discourage United States trade with Latin America defend the Panama Canal from Great Britain prevent further European colonization in the Caribbean region provide economic aid to Latin American nations Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: Age of Jackson: Question 4 of 7 During the presidency of Andrew Jackson. 2. 3. 3. federal laws being nullified by the states elected officials rewarding their supporters with government jobs all free males being given the right to vote the end of political corruption in the federal government Correct Answer Number: 2 .” — President James Monroe. 2. 4. . 3. the spoils system resulted in 1. . Abraham Lincoln Theodore Roosevelt Harry Truman Richard Nixon Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: Age of Jackson: Question 3 of 7 A major reason for the issuance of the Monroe Doctrine (1823) was to 1. by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain. 2. . 4.Age of Jackson: Question 2 of 7 “.

3. the Nullification Doctrine of South Carolina centered on a dispute involving an 1828 tariff that many Southern states sought to undo.Explanation: Age of Jackson: Question 5 of 7 One way in which the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (1798) and the South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification (1832) are similar is that each 1. 4. 4. claimed that individual states have the right to interpret federal laws formed part of the unwritten constitution supported the federal government’s power to declare war provided a way for new states to enter the Union Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (authored by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison) focused on countering the Alien and Sedition acts that had been passed by the Federalists under President John Adams. 3. coal reserves as well as ready timber forests fueled the early growth and industrial capabilities of the US during the early 1800's as the nation emerged from the 'Era of Good Feelings' brought on by the War of 1812. Age of Jackson: Question 7 of 7 . 2. a restriction on European immigration the end of the slave labor system an abundance of natural resources the availability of electricity Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: Waterways. which factor contributed the most to the start of the Industrial Revolution in the United States? 1. Age of Jackson: Question 6 of 7 During the early 1800s. 2.

Base your answers on their statements and on your knowledge of social studies. 4. This encouraged regional specialization among the Northern. as goods. Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: The 'Transportation Revolution' of the early 1800's saw the growth of canals (such as the Erie Canal of New York State). Federalist Era: Question 1 of 16 The speakers below are discussing foreign policies that the United States has followed at various times. 3. 2. Which speaker states a policy most similar to the foreign policy advice given by President George Washington in his Farewell Address? 1. but will not provide military aid. 2. . Farmers could more easily ship grain to eastern markets. He also sent warnings about the dangers of political parties and the factions they could create. Railroads were forced to reduce their shipping rates. Southern and Western regions of the nation. but to continue economic ties with the continent. 4. crops and manufactured items flowed more easily between areas.What was an immediate effect of the completion of the Erie Canal in 1825? 1. turnpikes (toll roads constructed by many states) and later into the 1830's and 1840's rail. Speaker A: Steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world. A B C D Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: In his farewell address George Washington warned the fledgling America to stay clear of “entangling alliances” with the Europeans. Speaker D: The United States can take over other countries to help them become more like us. Speaker C: The United States must prevent the growth of communism. Prices increased for food products along the Atlantic Coast. 3. Speaker B: The United States will give economic aid to needy countries anywhere in the world. A territorial conflict began with Canada over the Great Lakes. dividing the American people.

As Chief Justice. 2. 4. Federalist Era: Question 3 of 16 Alexander Hamilton’s argument that the government has the power to create a National Bank is based on which part of the Constitution? 1. The bank would remain a divisive issue in early American history as opinions differed over the legality of its creation. In the case of the National Bank. Gibbons v. allows Congress to expand its powers beyond the actual text of the Constitution in order to carry out its duties of running the nation. 4. 3. Hamilton argued that creating the bank fell within the realm of a necessary and proper action. United States Supreme Court decisions tended to strengthen the power of 1. the National Government state and local governments labor unions trusts and monopolies Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: John Marshall had been nominated by John Adams and was a strong Federalist judge. needed to effectively manage the US economy. Marshall moved the Supreme Court to decisions that favored and strengthened the Federal Government and its superiority over the states. Ogden (1824) and others are testimony to this expansion and protection of the federal government.Federalist Era: Question 2 of 16 When John Marshall was Chief Justice. Decisions such as McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) and the “Bank War” under President Andrew Jackson. Maryland (1819). It was the center of the Supreme Court case McCulloch v. Federalist Era: Question 4 of 16 . the Preamble the elastic clause guarantees to the States the Bill of Rights Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: The elastic clause or the necessary and proper clause in the Constitution. 2. 3.

" -Alexander Hamilton The author of this quotation suggests that 1. . . They will check the unsteadiness of the second. The first are the rich and well born. The people are turbulent and changing. This is evident in the Constitution as ratified in 1789. . . the other the mass of the people. Give therefore to the first class a distinct permanent share in the government. 2. He enacted policies such as the creation of the National Bank (part of Hamilton’s financial plan) and the use of federal troops to quell the Whiskey Rebellion to effectively use the powers of a strong federal government. 4.). 3. . establishment of strong political ties with other nations liberation of many enslaved persons failure to create a sound financial program for the country strengthening of the Federal Government Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: Washington was a supporter of a strong national government. the will of the majority should guide public policy wealthy people are too preoccupied to rule well the common people cannot be trusted to run a stable government poorer people must work harder to gain access to economic and political power Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: Alexander Hamilton and many within his Federalist supporters distrusted the uneducated. . Federalist Era: Question 5 of 16 Actions and policies of the Government under President George Washington generally resulted in the 1. 2. 4. rural population of America and did not wish to extend them too much say within government. Senators were originally selected by the legislatures of the states and the president in-directly elected by an electoral college."All communities divide themselves into the few and the many. 3. . as the only direct election called for was for the lower house of Congress (House of Reps.

" Speaker B:"We must recognize the increasing interdependence of nations and join the United Nations. 2. . ." -George Washington President Washington made this statement to warn against United States involvement in 1. Federalist Era: Question 7 of 16 "Our true policy is to steer clear of permanent alliances . . 3." Speaker D:"Involvement in European affairs would be a mistake. European military conflicts international trade the race for overseas colonies westward expansion . We must be willing to do whatever is necessary. 4. Speaker A Speaker B Speaker C Speaker D Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: In his farewell address George Washington warned the fledgling America to stay clear of “entangling alliances” with the Europeans. 3. 4. We should not jeopardize our peace and prosperity over issues that Europe’s ambitions and rivalries control." Which speaker best describes the basic foreign policy of the United States until the late 1800’s? 1.Federalist Era: Question 6 of 16 Speaker A:"We must take action even if we are not sure it will work. but to continue economic ties with the continent. To do nothing to stop them would be a repeat of the Munich mistake. 2." Speaker C:"Stopping the spread of communism can and must take several forms. This policy of neutrality in Europe (and in most external affairs) remained a fixture of US foreign policy up until the growth of US imperialism in the late 1800’s.

however many Constitutional scholars agree the founding fathers meant the Supreme Court to have this power. Federalist Era: Question 8 of 16 The significance of the Supreme Court case Marbury v. 3. This policy of neutrality in Europe (and in most external affairs) remained a fixture of US foreign policy up until the growth of US imperialism in the late 1800’s. labor unions manufacturing agriculture slavery Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: . 4. Madison (1803) effectively cemented the Supreme Court’s claim to judicial review. 2. Federalist Era: Question 9 of 16 Alexander Hamilton urged Congress to pass a protective tariff to encourage the growth of 1.Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: In his farewell address George Washington warned the fledgling America to stay clear of “entangling alliances” with the Europeans. advanced civil rights for minorities upheld the constitutionality of a national bank limited Presidential control of foreign policy established the power of judicial review Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: The specific power of Judicial Review is not addressed in article 3 of the Constitution. but to continue economic ties with the continent. Madison is that the decision 1. 2. The court’s decision in Marbury v. 3. 4. in which the court first stated the right to declare laws unconstitutional.

2. Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: Federalist Era: Question 11 of 16 “It is emphatically the province and duty of the judicial department to say what the law is. . The system of slavery was weakened. courts must abide by a strict interpretation of the Constitution federal laws must be approved by the courts before they can take effect the judicial branch must have a role in the amendment process the power of judicial review belongs to the courts Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: Federalist Era: Question 12 of 16 Alexander Hamilton’s financial plan helped to establish the credit of the United States government by 1. 2. 2. 4. 4. Madison. . Antitrust laws were upheld. The rights of workers were supported. 3. 1803 This statement expresses the Supreme Court’s claim that 1. 4. providing for the payment of the nation’s debts taxing only the people most able to pay favoring agriculture over industry encouraging spending for national defense . 3. . The federal government was strengthened.Federalist Era: Question 10 of 16 What was the result of many of the Supreme Court decisions made under Chief Justice John Marshall between 1801 and 1835? 1.” — Marbury v. 3.

improve the economic position of the United States government help state governments collect taxes make loans available to owners of small farms reduce foreign investment in the United States Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: Federalist Era: Question 15 of 16 A major reason the Antifederalists opposed the ratification of the United States Constitution was because the Constitution 1. 3. distribution of power between the federal and state governments spread of slavery into the western territories control of interstate commerce acquisition of lands from France and Spain Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: Federalist Era: Question 14 of 16 One major reason that Alexander Hamilton proposed a national bank was to 1. created a national bank 2. 2. 4. 3. 4. 2.Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: Federalist Era: Question 13 of 16 One factor that led to the formation of the first two political parties in the United States in the 1790s was the conflict over the 1. lacked a provision for a federal court system .

4. 2. 2. that the internment of Japanese Americans such as Fred Korematsu was legal because the posed a potential threat to the United States. . the United States needed time to gain economic and military strength treaties were prohibited by the Constitution the United States should not expand by force alliances should be established with both France and England Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Question 1 of 36 Which idea is illustrated by the Supreme Court cases Schenck v. such as wartime. The free speech rights of Communists have often been violated. The rights of protestors have been preserved even in times of national stress. limitations on civil rights have been upheld by judicial action. Economic interests of foreign nations are frequently upheld in United States courts. 3. During wartime. Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: The Supreme Court ruled that Schenck’s protests against US involvement in WWI were a “clear and present danger” to the United States. United States and Korematsu v . 3. This illustrates the idea that freedoms of liberty and speech can and have been restricted during the extreme cases. 4. The court also ruled during WWII. changed the balance of power between the state and national governments Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: Federalist Era: Question 16 of 16 President George Washington pursued a foreign policy of neutrality during his administration primarily because he believed that 1.3. failed to provide for the direct election of members of the House of Representatives 4. United States? 1.

3. 2. Arizona decision that established a suspect’s right to be informed of his or her rights. and Escobedo v. Gideon v. 2. Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Question 3 of 36 The decisions of the United States Supreme Court in Miranda v. Sanford (1857) that blacks were not citizens and that slaves were property and could be taken anywhere. 4. Ohio (right against illegal search and seizure) Gideon v. This decision was ultimately nullified by the passage of the 13th amendment feeing the slaves and the 14th amendment establishing citizenship and equal protection under the law. This also served to declare the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional due to its establishment of free/slave state borders. the power of the Supreme Court does not extend to cases of race Congress could not pass a law depriving territorial residents of their property a national vote should be held to decide the legality of slavery the economic well-being of the western states depended on slave labor Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: The Supreme Court ruled in Dred Scott v. 4. Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Question 4 of 36 . Wainwright. Illinois all advanced the 1. regardless of a state’s status as free or slave holding. 3. The most famous of these was the 1966 Miranda v. voting rights of minorities guarantees of free speech and press principle of separation of church and state rights of accused persons Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: In numerous decisions the Warren Court was active in expanding the rights of the accused. Many cases such as Mapp v.Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Question 2 of 36 The Dred Scott decision on the issue of slavery upheld the Southern viewpoint that 1. Arizona. Wainwright (right to counsel) and others further helped establish Earl Warren’s legacy as an activist Chief Justice.

Wainwright (right to counsel) and others further helped establish Earl Warren’s legacy as an activist Chief Justice. Butler (1936) was that 1. they were exercising a check upon the Legislature and the Executive branches by declaring laws of the Congress and actions of the President unconstitutional. Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Question 5 of 36 Under Chief Justice Earl Warren. the Supreme Court was considered "activist" because of its 1. US case and the 1936 US v. Many cases such as Mapp v. Both tactics failed and the resulting backlash against FDR's attempt to usurp the Court resulted in a loss of support for The New Deal programs in Congress. The most famous of these was the 1966 Miranda v. 4. United States (1935) and United States v. 2. Arizona decision that established a suspect’s right to be informed of his or her rights. some aspects of the New Deal were declared unconstitutional State governments took over relief agencies ) Congress was forced to abandon efforts to improve the economy the constitutional authority of the President was greatly expanded Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: When the Supreme Court struck down several provisions of FDR’s New Deal in the 1935 Schecter Poultry v. He first attempted to pass a retirement age for justices (which would have forced many to step-down) and later attempted to increase the number of justices to 12. Ohio (right against illegal search and seizure) Gideon v. Ferguson case Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: In numerous decisions the Warren Court was active in expanding the rights of the accused. Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Question 6 of 36 . Butler decision. 3. FDR's reaction to these events was an attempt to "pack the court" with his supports. 4. 2.An immediate result of the Supreme Court decision in Schechter Poultry Corporation v. reluctance to overturn state laws insistence on restricting freedom of speech to spoken words expansion of individual rights in criminal cases refusal to reconsider the issues of the Plessy v. 3.

The freedoms guaranteed in the Bill of Rights are virtually unlimited 2. . Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Question 7 of 36 “The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theater and causing a panic. Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: The civil liberties granted by the Constitution. free speech and governmental authority the use of search warrants and the rights of the accused state powers and Federal powers religious freedom and separation of church and state Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: Schenck’s speech was anti-government and ant-war (WWI). Government has the right to suspend any rights at any time. The Bill of Rights does not safeguard individual liberties. usually in cases of national emergency (examples include: suspension of habeas corpus by Lincoln during the Civil War. 3. the Bill of Rights and other amendments are not absolute. limiting of freedom of speech and press during World War I and the internment of Japanese-Americans without dues process during World War II). United States illustrates the continuing conflict between 1.The "clear and present danger" ruling of the Supreme Court in Schenck v. United States? 1. The Supreme Court can eliminate freedoms listed in the Bill of Rights. 2. 3. 2. 4." -Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes ”Which interpretation of the Bill of Rights does this statement illustrate? 1. The needs of the government are more important than civil liberties. This means that they may be limited or suspended depending on circumstance or situation. Constitutional protections of liberty are not absolute. 4. The ruling established the ability of the government to suppress speech and press that present a danger to it or its efforts. Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Question 8 of 36 Which generalization is consistent with the ruling of the United States Supreme Court in Schenck v.

The balance between individual rights and the general social welfare almost always favors individual rights. 4. Madison is that the decision 1.3. Madison (1803) effectively cemented the Supreme Court’s claim to judicial review. 3. Board of Education The effect of this Supreme Court ruling was to 1. Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Question 10 of 36 "Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal. 3. however many Constitutional scholars agree the founding fathers meant the Supreme Court to have this power. 2. 2. The Court’s decision in Marbury v." -Brown v. 4. in which the Court first stated the right to declare laws unconstitutional. The ruling established the ability of the government to suppress speech and press that present a danger to it or its efforts. establish affirmative action programs in higher education require the integration of public schools desegregate the armed forces and the military academies force states to spend an equal amount on each public school student . advanced civil rights for minorities upheld the constitutionality of a national bank limited Presidential control of foreign policy established the power of judicial review Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: The specific power of judicial review is not addressed in article 3 of the Constitution. Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: Schenck’s speech was anti-government and ant-war (WWI). Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Question 9 of 36 The significance of the Supreme Court case Marbury v. Individual rights can be limited in the national interest 4.

Ferguson (1896) established that “separate but equal” facilities were legal (thereby upholding the Jim Crow laws of Southern states) and was later overturned in the Supreme Court’s 1954 Brown v. Madison (1803) established the power of the 1. 2. and Miranda v. Wainwright. Kansas ruling. The system of slavery was weakened. 4. The federal government was strengthened. . 3. Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Question 13 of 36 Supreme Court decisions in Mapp v. The rights of workers were supported. 4. Gideon v. Ohio. 3. Board of Education of Topeka. Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Question 11 of 36 The decision of the United States Supreme Court in Marbury v.Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: The ruling in Plessy v. Antitrust laws were upheld. House of Representatives to impeach the president Congress to override a presidential veto president to veto congressional legislation Supreme Court to determine the constitutionality of laws Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Question 12 of 36 What was the result of many of the Supreme Court decisions made under Chief Justice John Marshall between 1801 and 1835? 1. 2.

2. 2. integration of public facilities rights of the accused presidential powers equality in the workplace Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: . and Miranda v. eliminating the poll tax as a voting requirement preventing the use of organized prayer in public schools requiring equal pay for men and women performing the same job expanding the constitutional rights of people accused of crimes Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Question 14 of 36 As a result of the Supreme Court ruling in Miranda v. 4. Arizona all expanded 1. 4.Arizona affected individual liberties by 1. Gideon v. 3. 4. a person accused of a crime is entitled to 1. 3. 2. 3. Wainright. Ohio. Arizona (1966). a speedy trial reasonable bail a reading of his or her rights at the time of arrest protection against cruel or unusual punishment Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Question 15 of 36 The Supreme Court decisions in Mapp v.

2. Ohio Roe v. United States (1971) both involved a government’s attempt to limit 1. Wade Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Question 17 of 36 The Supreme Court decisions in Gideon v. Wainwright Mapp v. Carr Gideon v. Arizona (1966) have been criticized because these rulings 1. freedom of religion freedom of the press the right to bear arms the right to counsel . Baker v. 3. v. 3. Which Supreme Court decision may be used to rule this evidence inadmissible in court? 1. 4. 4. 3. expanded the rights of the accused granted more powers to federal judges lengthened prison sentences for the guilty reinstated the use of capital punishment Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Question 18 of 36 The case of John Peter Zenger (1735) and New York Times Co. 4. Wainwright (1963) and Miranda v. 2. 2.Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Question 16 of 36 The police enter an individual’s home without invitation or a warrant and seize evidence to be used against the individual.

Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Question 19 of 36 The Supreme Court cases of Tinker v. 3. freedom of the press the rights of students in school freedom of religion the rights of prison inmates Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Question 20 of 36 The decisions of the United States Supreme Court in Tinker v. v. Des Moines and New York Times Co. 3. protection of property rights . Wade (1973) was based on the constitutional principle of 1. 2. meaning of a republican form of government powers delegated specifically to Congress president’s right to executive privilege rights guaranteed by the 1st amendment Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Question 21 of 36 The Supreme Court decision in Roe v. United States were based on interpretations of the 1. Des Moines and New Jersey v. TLO involved the issue of 1. 2. 4. 4.

Board of Education (1954) . 4. United States (1971) and United States v. v. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal. 2. has unlimited use of the veto power is protected from unfair media criticism may not be convicted of a crime is not above the law Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Question 23 of 36 “We conclude that in the field of public education the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’ has no place. freedom of speech 3. right to privacy 4.2.” —Brown v. freedom of religion Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Question 22 of 36 The Supreme Court decisions in New York Times Co. Nixon (1974) reinforced the principle that the president of the United States 1. 3.

2. Arizona and Gideon v. Supreme Court decisions in the cases Miranda v. 3. Ferguson (1896). the accused women military veterans persons with disabilities Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Question 25 of 36 The Jim Crow legal system. Wainwright specifically protected the rights of 1. 2. 4. protection against double jeopardy equal protection of the law freedom of speech right of assembly Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Question 24 of 36 In the 1960s. which expanded in the South after Plessy v. was based on the Supreme Court’s interpretation of the 1. 3. 2.Which constitutional idea was the basis for this Supreme Court decision? 1. 3. 4. due process clause of the 5th Amendment states’ rights provision of the 10th Amendment equal protection clause in the 14th Amendment voting rights provision in the 15th Amendment . 4.

4. the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’ has no place.Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Question 26 of 36 “We conclude that in the field of public education. . Board of Education of Topeka This quotation illustrates the Supreme Court’s power to 1. 3.” — Chief Justice Earl Warren. 2. uphold previous decisions overrule state laws check the powers of the executive branch provide for educational funding Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Question 27 of 36 In Plessy v. . . the Supreme Court ruled that . Brown v. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal. Ferguson (1896).

2. United States (1919) stated that 1. 2. immigrants have limited rights freedom of speech is not absolute rights of the accused may not be limited women should be granted suffrage Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Question 30 of 36 The cartoonist is commenting on public reaction to the Supreme Court decision that .1. 3. states may not secede from the Union racial segregation was constitutional slaves are property and may not be taken from their owners all western territories should be open to slavery Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Question 28 of 36 Which headline illustrates the use of judicial review? 1. 4. “Congress Passes a Civil Rights Bill” “Conference Committee Meets to Finalize Budget” “New York State’s Reapportionment Plan Ruled Unconstitutional” “President Signs SALT Agreement with Russia” Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Question 29 of 36 The Supreme Court decision in Schenck v. 4. 2. 4. 3. 3.

Arizona (1966). Wainwright (1963) and Miranda v. 2. 4. denied due process of law denied a speedy and public trial victimized by illegal search and seizure sentenced to cruel and unusual punishment Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Question 32 of 36 The Supreme Court ruling in Dred Scott v. 3. restricted attendance in churches mandated home-based prayer declared school-sponsored prayer unconstitutional banned public observance of religious holidays Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Question 31 of 36 In Gideon v. the Supreme Court ruled that persons convicted of crimes had been 1. 3. 2. denied Congress the power to regulate slavery in the territories allowed for the importation of enslaved persons for ten years prohibited slavery in lands west of the Mississippi River gave full citizenship to all enslaved persons Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: The Dred Scott decision invalidated the Missouri Compromise of 1820 .1. 3. 2. 4. Sanford (1857) helped to increase sectional conflict because the decision 1. 4.

4. the Supreme Court decided that a “clear and present danger” to the country allowed the federal government to . freedom of religion freedom from unreasonable search separation of powers rights of the accused Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Question 34 of 36 Many of the decisions made by the Supreme Court while John Marshall was Chief Justice led directly to 1. a reduction of federal influence in economic affairs an increase in the power of the federal government over the states a greater role for Congress in foreign policy a limitation on slavery in the states Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Question 35 of 36 In Schenck v. Wainwright (1963) and Miranda v.by affirming the status of property to slaves no matter what part of the nation (slave or free) they were taken to. 3. Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Question 33 of 36 The Supreme Court cases of Gideon v. 3. 2. United States (1919). This essentially denied Congress any power to regulate slavery in the growing western territories and enflamed already growing tensions over the slavery that would soon ignite the Civil War. 4. 2. Arizona (1966) dealt with the constitutional principle of 1.

S. specific groups of people were being targeted based on race or ethnicity 2. Ferguson (1896) and Korematsu v. 4.1. federal laws segregating public transportation were upheld Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: Regents Prep: U. United States (1944) is that 1. 2. establish a peacetime draft restrict first amendment rights suspend habeas corpus limit minority voting rights Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Question 36 of 36 One similarity between the laws being challenged in the United States Supreme Court cases of Plessy v. 3. Graphics are easily downloaded by rightclicking on the desired image and selecting . History & Government Multiple-Choice Questions | Thematic Review | Multiple-Choice | Essays | Resources | Exam Overview | Old Exams | Study Materials | Use of Topical Archive Multiple-Choice Questions Teachers: Feel free to copy and paste any of the multiple-choice questions below for use in creating your own Regents-style assessments. immigrants were relocated to prison camps 4. state laws were declared unconstitutional 3.

the Articles of Confederation were drafted in order to ensure that a strong central government would not be a problem. This philosophy was adopted by Jefferson and incorporated into his writing of the Declaration of . reflections of the philosophies of the European Enlightenment. lack of debate over the ratification of the United States Constitution plan of government set up by the Articles of Confederation development of a Federal court system constitutional provision for a strong President Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: Colonists had fought a bitter war in order to achieve their independence from an oppressive British government.. Therefore. Formation of Government: Question 1 of 161 In the 1780’s. 2. Formation of Government: Question 2 of 161 "We hold these truths to be self-evident: That all men are created equal. adaptations of the laws of Spanish colonial governments in North America. limitations of the principles underlying most European governments of the 1700’s. . Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: Enlightenment thinker John Locke stated in his Two Treatises.either Save Picture As. 4. liberty. that people had natural right including life. liberty. (Internet Explorer) or Save Image As. 3. . mqany Americans distrusted a strong central government. and the pursuit of happiness. 4. 2." This quotation is evidence that some of the basic ideas in the Declaration of Independence were 1. (Netscape).. This distrust is best shown by the 1. adoptions of rules used by the Holy Roman Empire. that among these are life. . and property... 3. that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights.

4.S. Which part of the Government was instituted to respond most directly to the will of the people? 1. U. 3. Senate House of Representatives Supreme Court Presidency Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: Prior to the passage of the 17th Amendment in 1913. The President has been elected to office through the Electoral College since 1789. Senators. The Supreme Court looks at the “spirit” of the law and decides if an action or law is allowable under the Constitution. Formation of Government: Question 4 of 161 In the United States. the amending process. 3. 2. Senators were elected by state legislatures.S. and Supreme Court interpretations have resulted in 1. Formation of Government: Question 3 of 161 The authors of the United States Constitution believed that the voice of the people should be heard frequently. but that are not actually addressed in the Constitution (an example would be the regulation of monopolies). All of these have created a “living document” that is capable of changing over time to better fit the needs of the US people. 2. .Independence. members of the House of Representatives were the only Federal officials that were voted into office by a popular vote of the people. which provided for direct election of U. a general loss of individual rights a strengthening of the principle of separation of powers the Constitution being adapted to fit changing times the limiting of Presidential power in domestic affairs Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: Implied powers are roles and abilities allowed the federal government. Amending the Constitution involves adding to or changing what is in the document. Before 1913. the use of implied powers. 4.

" 3. creating a federal system. records. The president can “check” their actions by rejecting the legislation. . . “Every bill . shall appoint . “Full faith and credit shall be given in each state to the public acts. and . . . . The Constitution provides specific powers to each level. the President to veto a bill passed by Congress Congress to censure one of its members a governor to send the National Guard to stop a riot state and Federal gov-ernments to levy and collect taxes Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: Checking and balancing involves the ability of each of the three branches of government to regulate and monitor the power of the others. before it becomes a law. . . Formation of Government: Question 6 of 161 The system of checks and balances is best illustrated by the power of 1. Formation of Government: Question 7 of 161 . shall. . . . In this case the ability to veto a law ensures that the legislative branch is not passing laws the go beyond their duties or powers. . be presented to the President of the United States. 3. .Formation of Government: Question 5 of 161 Which quotation from the United States Constitution provides for a Federal system of government? 1. with the advice and consent of the Senate.“ 2.“ 4. . In this case the division is between the federal and state levels. . and judicial proceedings of every other state. 4. “He shall have power . . 2. . are reserved to the states . .” Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: Federalism is the division of power various levels of government. “The powers not delegated to the United States . .

Formation of Government: Question 8 of 161 A lasting impact of the United States Supreme Court under Chief Justice John Marshall is that the Court’s decisions 1. The ruling in Marbury v. appointing Justices to the Supreme Court granting pardons for Federal crimes submitting a treaty to the Senate for ratification consulting with the Cabinet Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: The unwritten Constitution has come about through custom and usage over the past 200+ years. but that have arisen as a natural extension of its use.Which Presidential action is an example of the unwritten constitution? 1. but has arisen over time as a means of advising the president. 2. insure that free and honest elections are held 3. nominate candidates for public office and conduct campaigns . 2. It implies that there are ideas. 3. 3. protect the American public from corrupt public officials 2. actions and concepts that are not actually in the Constitution itself. Madison (1803) established the court’s power to strike down laws as unconstitutional (judicial review). Maryland (1819) established federal supremacy in economic matters. The cabinet is not directly addressed in the document. extended the Bill of Rights to enslaved persons expanded the power of the Federal Government restricted the authority of Congress promoted the views of the President Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: The Marshall Court made decisions that served to expand federal power. Formation of Government: Question 9 of 161 The major role of political parties in the United States is to 1. The ruling in McCulloch v. Both of these worked to expand the scope and reach of the US federal government and ensure its supremacy over state governments. 4. 4.

3. all laws and rules regulating their actions have grown from the “unwritten” Constitution. The ability to “stretch” the Constitution implies a “loose interpretation” of the Constitution’s intent. As such. 2. making the Louisiana Purchase writing “State of the Union” messages receiving ambassadors commissioning military officers Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: It is not within the power of the president to spend monies without the approval of the House (in which all spending bills arise). Formation of Government: Question 11 of 161 Which factor has made the strongest contribution to the development of religious freedom in the United States? 1. 4. Formation of Government: Question 10 of 161 Adherence to a strict interpretation of the Constitution would have prevented President Thomas Jefferson from 1. A “strict interpretation” allows for only what is actually in the Constitution with no interpretations. Most citizens have shared the same religious beliefs. Guarantees in the Constitution have encouraged religious expression and toleration. 3. meet constitutional requirements for choosing the President Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: Political parties serve as the mechanisms for selecting and promoting candidates for public office. . Religious groups have remained politically unified.4. School prayer has been ruled constitutional by the Supreme Court. he was “stretching” the boundaries of the Constitution (a concept he personally opposed). When Jefferson negotiated the Louisiana Purchase (1803). Modern political parties have evolved over time and were not originally seen or addressed in the drafting of the Constitution. 4. 2. It also not within the president’s powers to negotiate the expansion of the US (that would fall to the Congress).

Formation of Government: Question 13 of 161 One way in which the United States Constitution differed from the Articles of Confederation was that the Constitution 1. .“ “. This . Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: The consent of the governed is an idea born of the enlightenment and the writings of John Locke. The US system expresses this notion by holding elections in which the people (the governed) select their representatives to govern (there by giving consent).. created a national government having three branches provided for the direct election of the President by the voters made the amendment process more difficult increased the powers of the states Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: The US Constitution attempted to address the failing of the Articles of Confederation by creating a 3 branched government with checks and balances. endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights “.. . 2. .” “. .. all men are . . that all men are created equal. Formation of Government: Question 12 of 161 Which phrase from the Declaration of Independence most clearly reflects the idea that the people are the source of government? 1. . . . 3. . governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes .. This is the idea that a government gains its power via the willingness of the people to support it. . 4.Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: The separation of Church and State is clearly delineated in the US Constitution. This safeguard has served to preserve religious expression and tolerance in the nation. . “. . . The government is expressly barred from state sponsored religions requirements or creating an “official” religion of the nation. 2. 3. 4. deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed.

“The Great Compromise” created a bicameral (or two-house) legislature (Congress) in which the upper house (the Senate) is based on equal representation (2 Senators from each state) and the lower house (The House of Representatives) is based on proportional representation related to population. Political parties would have less influence on Members of the House than on Senators. Formation of Government: Question 14 of 161 At the Constitutional Convention of 1787. At the convention. establishing a strong national executive levying taxes on exports popular election of Senators equal representation for the states in the national legislature Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: Smaller states such as New Jersey feared domination of the national government by larger. Larger states. Correct Answer Number: 1 . 3. argued for representation based on population owing to their greater numbers and larger economies. 2. The national budget should be determined solely by the House of Representatives. 4. Formation of Government: Question 15 of 161 Which argument did the authors of the United States Constitution use when they insisted that revenue bills originate in the House of Representatives? 1. more populous states. Frequent elections would make members of the House more responsive to the wishes of the voters. smaller states argued for equal representation in government as to ensure their power. 2. and also increased the power of the federal government and its superiority over the governments of the individual states. such as Virginia. delegates from the small states most strongly supported the idea of 1. 3.replaced the one branch federal government of the Articles of Confederation. Members of the House would have a superior understanding of economics. 4.

Formation of Government: Question 17 of 161 Which action is an example of the unwritten constitution? 1. Revenue bills originate in the House as to be a better indication of the wants and needs of the majority of citizens. 2. as well as reserving some powers for the state governments placed limits on the power of each. a loyal opposition through a two-party system a division of power between the national and state governments the establishment of naturalization laws the popular election of Federal judges Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: The founding fathers feared an all-powerful national government (as England had been).Explanation: Smaller states such as New Jersey feared domination of the national government by larger. Delegating some specific powers to the national government. such as Virginia. 3. smaller states argued for equal representation in government as to ensure their power. who’s tax monies are being spent. more populous states. Formation of Government: Question 16 of 161 One way in which the authors of the Constitution tried to create “limited government” was by providing for 1. argued for representation based on population owing to their greater numbers and larger economies. 4. “The Great Compromise” created a bicameral (or two-house) legislature (Congress) in which the upper house (the Senate) is based on equal representation (2 Senators from each state) and the lower house (The House of Representatives) is based on proportional representation related to population. 3. the Senate ratifying a peace treaty Congress passing a law regulating interstate commerce selection of a Presidential candidate by a nominating convention the President removing an Army officer from command for insubordination Correct Answer Number: 3 . At the convention. 4. Larger states. 2. So in creating the Constitution they felt a need to balance power between a national government and those of the states.

which comes about through custom and usage. the amending process allows the addition or removal of Constitutional provisions (ex. and judicial review are all methods by which 1. This is due to the ability to add.” -Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Which interpretation of the Bill of Rights does this statement illustrate? 1. The elastic clause allows Congress to “stretch” the powers of the Constitution to cover situations not foreseeable in 1789 (ex. Formation of Government: Question 19 of 161 “The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theater and causing a panic.Explanation: The Constitution makes no references to political parties or the manner in which they are to be set-up. . Madison). Even though there is no specific reference to political parties. the amending process. remove and amend sections of the document in order to adapt to changing times and conditions. the need for regulation of them is clear and allowable under the concept of the “unwritten constitution”. Constitutional protections of liberty are not absolute. 3. run or governed. As a result they fall under the “unwritten constitution”. The 19th amendment extends women the right to vote) and judicial review allows the Supreme Court the power to determine the Constitutionality of laws. The Supreme Court can eliminate freedoms listed in the Bill of Rights. Regulation of assault weapons). treaties and actions (ex. The needs of the government are more important than civil liberties. 2. Formation of Government: Question 18 of 161 The elastic clause. Congress may check the power of the executive branch the wording of the original Constitution may be altered state governments may limit the power of the Federal Government the Constitution may be adapted to meet changing conditions Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: The Constitution is referred to as a “living document”. 3. 4. 2. Marbury v.

the Bill of Rights and other amendments are not absolute. that among these are life. ratification of a constitutional amendment passage of a Federal law a Supreme Court decision a national referendum Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: The original text of the Constitution called for the election of a state’s senators to be dome by the state’s legislature.” This quotation reflects beliefs mainly derived from 1. the divine right monarchs of Europe 3. The Bill of Rights does not safeguard individual liberties. usually in cases of national emergency (examples include: suspension of habeas corpus by Lincoln during the Civil War. liberty.4. Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: The civil liberties granted by the Constitution. This means that they may be limited or suspended depending on circumstance or situation. 3. 4. and the pursuit of happiness. This was changed in the 17th amendment that called for Senators to be elected directly by the people of the states. Formation of Government: Question 20 of 161 Which action was necessary to change from the indirect to the direct election of United States Senators? 1. Formation of Government: Question 21 of 161 “We hold these truths to be self-evident. John Locke’s theory of natural rights . that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights. as well as a way of reducing the power and influence of political machines. 2. the Magna Carta 2. that all men are created equal. This was a key expansion of democracy and citizen participation. limiting of freedom of speech and press during World War I and the internment of Japanese-Americans without dues process during World War II).

3. State Governments and Local Governments all divide an share power. Locke called for “Life. Formation of Government: Question 23 of 161 The flexibility of the original United States Constitution is due mainly to 1. Marxist philosophy Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: The writings of John Locke and other authors of the Enlightenment expressed the idea of “The Consent of the Governed” and “Natural Rights”. 4. Natural Rights are those rights all men are born with and that should be protected by a fair and just government. as seen in the superiority clause of the Constitution. 3. In the US example the Federal Government. 4. Jefferson borrowed this idea for incorporation into the Declaration of Independence. 2. 2. its provision for the amending process and judicial interpretation its guarantees of freedom and justice for all people the ability to create new branches of government as needed the willingness of the states to accept Federal control Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: The Constitution is referred to as a “living document”. remove and amend sections of the document in order to adapt to changing times and conditions. the people elect national officials both national and state governments exist within the nation foreign policy is handled by state governments each state has equal represen-tation in the United States Senate Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: A federal system divides governmental power and control into varies levels. One other component of this is the superiority of the Federal Government’s power. The amending process allows the addition or removal . This is due to the ability to add. Liberty and Property” as natural rights.4. Formation of Government: Question 22 of 161 The United States Government is considered a federal system because 1.

2. oblige it to control itself. They criticized the Constitution for creating a national government that they feared would dominate and control not only the state and local governments. 4. 2. the Anti-Federalist forces (those opposed to the Constitution) feared the strong national government outlined in the document. Formation of Government: Question 25 of 161 “In framing a government which is to be administered by men over men. 3. Marbury v. as many Anti-Federalists pointed to the domination and control exercised by the powerful English government during the colonial era.” This passage from the Federalist Papers refers to the need for 1. 3. 4.of Constitutional provisions (ex. State legislatures President’s Cabinet delegates to the Constitutional Convention National Government Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: During the debates over ratification (acceptance) of the US Constitution. Formation of Government: Question 24 of 161 Antifederalists criticized the United States Constitution primarily because governing power was concentrated in the 1. This fear was not unfounded. a strong executive a system of checks and balances an independent military a national education system Correct Answer Number: 2 . The 19th amendment extends women the right to vote) and judicial review allows the Supreme Court the power to determine the Constitutionality of laws. Madison). you must first enable the government to control the governed. treaties and actions (ex. and in the next place. the great difficulty lies in this. but the lives and freedoms of its citizens.

right of citizens to vote if they are 18 years old or older rise of the two-party political system right to freedom of speech use of the electoral college system . In order to keep any one branch from dominating the national government. 3. 2. no one branch or one individual is able to dominate or control the federal system. 4. exclusive duties and powers. limited terms for Federal officials judicial review separation of powers States’ rights Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: The founding fathers feared an all-powerful national government (as England had been). 3. 4. Formation of Government: Question 27 of 161 An example of the unwritten constitution in the United States is the 1. each with specific. By keeping the people. This requirement is an example of 1. 2. each with specific. exclusive duties and powers. This also includes the provision referred to in the question.Explanation: The founding fathers feared an all-powerful national government (as England had been). So in creating the Constitution they felt a need to balance power between three branched of government. In order to keep any one branch from dominating the national government. a system of “checks and balances” insured that each branch had the ability to oversee the powers and actions of the others. Formation of Government: Question 26 of 161 A member of the United States Congress must resign from Congress if elected or appointed to a position in the executive or judicial branch. a system of “checks and balances” insured that each branch had the ability to oversee the powers and actions of the others. powers and actions of the three branches clearly separated. So in creating the Constitution they felt a need to balance power between three branched of government.

3. 2.Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: The Constitution makes no references to political parties or the manner in which they are to be set-up. The results of the . This allows for voters and party members to aid in the party’s candidate selection by participating in a primary vote. 2. unions. As a result they fall under the “unwritten constitution”. which comes about through custom and usage. influence legislation on behalf of special interest groups strengthen the power of political parties increase the speed and efficiency of the law-making process reduce the number of candidates in political elections Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: Companies. Even though there is no specific reference to political parties. 4. the need for regulation of them is clear and allowable under the concept of the “unwritten constitution”. 3. The concept of lobbying is to gain access to elected officials and present them with suggestions. organizations and groups of like-minded citizens use the lobby system to express their views to elected officials. proposed legislative actions or public policies that are agreeable to the lobbying group. 4. a primary system was established. run or governed. Formation of Government: Question 29 of 161 The two major political parties make their final selection of a Presidential candidate through 1. Formation of Government: Question 28 of 161 The main purpose of lobbying is to 1. delegates’ votes at a national party convention decisions of the electoral college actions of the State legislatures citizens’ choices in public opinion polls Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: In order to make the selection of party candidates more fair and open.

national laws must be passed by both houses of Congress powers are divided between the State and National Governments the States are guaranteed a republican form of government the President is selected by the electoral col-lege Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: A federal system divides governmental power and control into varies levels. One other component of this is the superiority of the Federal Government’s power. Albany Plan of Union Articles of Confederation Declaration of Independence United States Constitution Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: The Declaration of Independence is not a framework for government. 2. at which time the party’s candidate is selected. 3. State Governments and Local Governments all divide and share power. Formation of Government: Question 32 of 161 . Formation of Government: Question 31 of 161 The United States Government is considered a federal system because 1. 3. 2. 4.party’s primaries are tallied at a national convention. Formation of Government: Question 30 of 161 Which document is best described as a statement of democratic principles rather than a framework for government? 1. but simply is a formal declaration of the colonies’ break with England and an accompanying articulation of the basis for such a break and the specific reasons why. 4. In the US example the Federal Government. as seen in the superiority clause of the Constitution.

licensing drivers). Taxes are collected by the Federal and State Governments). run the post office). Reserved powers are the powers not specifically given the Federal Government and thereby reserved for the State governments or the individual (ex. For example. police powers reserved powers delegated powers concurrent powers Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: Delegated powers are those powers specifically delegated to the Federal Government (ex. 2. Formation of Government: Question 34 of 161 Which feature of the Presidency is a result of a constitutional amendment? 1. The coin money. Setting up school systems. 3. 4. These powers are called 1. 2. only Congress can declare war. Concurrent powers are those that both the Federal and State Governments both have at the same time (ex. 3. power to appoint ambassadors . Formation of Government: Question 33 of 161 Which action would be necessary before the government could deny a person a public trial by an impartial jury? 1. two-term limit in office 2.The United States Constitution grants certain powers only to the Federal Government. a national referendum passage of a law by Congress a unanimous ruling by the Supreme Court ratification of a constitutional amendment Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: A speedy and public trial by an impartial jury is guaranteed by the 6th amendment. declare war. Denying a right contained within the Constitution or a Constitutional Amendment requires a further amendment to the Constitution that specifically removes or adjusts the right in question. 4.

duty to act as Commander in Chief 4. which comes about through custom and usage. proposed legislative actions or public policies that are agreeable to the lobbying group. The concept of “lobbying” is to gain access to elected officials and present them with suggestions. run or governed. the need for regulation of them is clear and allowable under the concept of the “unwritten constitution”. Even though there is no specific reference. Formation of Government: Question 36 of 161 In the United States Government. Formation of Government: Question 35 of 161 Which aspect of lawmaking is a result of the unwritten constitution? 1. responsibility to nominate Justices to the Supreme Court Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: George Washington set the informal presidential precedent of serving only two terms. organizations and groups of like-minded citizens use the “lobby” system to express their views to elected officials. Senate 3. unions. The Constitution makes no references to lobbying. 3. members of the Cabinet are directly responsible to the 1. special-interest groups or the manner in which they are to be set-up. up until FDR war elected to four terms in the 1930’s – 40’s. Subsequent presidents followed this. Congress overriding the President’s veto special-interest groups lobbying to try to influence legislation bills passing both houses of Congress by majority vote revenue bills originating in the House of Representatives Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: Companies. 2. As a result of FDR’s administration the 22nd amendment was ratified in 1951 and formally limited the President to 2 terms of service. Supreme Court . As a result they fall under the “unwritten constitution”.3. 4. Congress 2.

Dept. Dept. as head of the executive branch. judges lack the necessary experience to hear capital cases 4. The Cabinet members serve as advisors and answer to the President. President Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: The Cabinet is composed of all the heads of the 14 “cabinet level” departments within the executive branch (ex. The court’s decision in Marbury v.4. however many Constitutional scholars agree the founding fathers meant the Supreme Court to have this power. trials are often delayed for trivial reasons Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: The 14th Amendment’s guarantee of “equal protection under the law” demands that application of law be the same regardless of the citizen it is being . Formation of Government: Question 37 of 161 The Supreme Court’s power of judicial review is a result of 1. tremendous differences exist from state to state in the application of capital punishment laws 2. an order by the President the Court’s own interpretation of the Constitution a provision in the Bill of Rights the Court’s decision to hear appeals regarding taxation Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: The specific power of Judicial Review is not addressed in article 3 of the Constitution. of State. 3. 2. of Defense). Madison (1803) effectively cemented the Supreme Court’s claim to judicial review. in which the court first stated the right to declare laws unconstitutional. of Justice. 4. Dept. Formation of Government: Question 38 of 161 The equal protection clause of the 14th amendment has been used to challenge the death penalty on the grounds that 1. media coverage severely limits a defendant’s ability to receive a fair trial 3.

forbid abortion. 2. President Dwight D. South Carolina seceded from the Union over the issues of slavery and States rights. .applied to. Eisenhower sent Federal troops to enforce the integration of public schools in Little Rock. Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: One “check” the Legislative Branch has upon the Judicial Branch (and over the Executive as well) is the approval of judges nominated by the President. The reason for this reaction would be the fact that only by changing (amending) the Constitution can it be assured that the Supreme Court will reconsider its decision on the legality of a law or action. sex and socioeconomic status and as a result fails to be applied in an equal manner. These proposals indicate that 1. Formation of Government: Question 40 of 161 Which historical event best demonstrates the operation of checks and balances? 1. President George Washington used the Army to suppress a tax rebellion by Pennsylvania farmers 2. Arkansas. the Constitution is an inflexible document amending the Constitution is a simple process some people disagree with certain Supreme Court decisions American society has been unwilling to deal with complex social issues Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: All three of the examples stated are clearly linked with decisions of the Supreme Court on desegregation of public school. In the case of the death penalty. Formation of Government: Question 39 of 161 Constitutional amendments have been proposed to ban forced busing. 4. protestors have claimed that system is biased by race. and prohibit burning the United States flag. a women’s right to choice/privacy and freedom of speech/expression. 4. 3. The Senate approved the appointment of Clarence Thomas to the Supreme Court. 3.

President’s duty to give Congress information about the state of the Union 2.Formation of Government: Question 41 of 161 During the debates over the ratification of the United States Constitution. Formation of Government: Question 43 of 161 One similarity between the United States Constitution and the New York State Constitution is that both . this was the only direct election of any Federal representative that the people participated in. The Presidential system was in direct via the Electoral College and Senators were selected by a state’s legislature. 2. division of powers between the national and state governments provision for admitting new states to the Union distribution of power between the Senate and the House of Representatives method of amending the Constitution Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: Federalists supported the Constitution and supported the creation of strong Federal Government. direct election of members of the House of Representatives for two-year terms 4. Federalists and Anti-Federalists disagreed most strongly over the 1. 4. electoral college system for choosing the President 3. headed by a strong President. process for proposing and ratifying amendments to the Constitution Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: Under the original provisions of the Constitution. The Anti-Federalists feared the power of a strong central government and preferred a system that granted greater control to the State Governments. Formation of Government: Question 42 of 161 Which constitutional provision was intended to give the people the most influence over the Federal Government? 1. 3.

provide methods for dealing with foreign powers authorize the coinage of money establish rules for public education separate the branches of government Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: United States Government is divided into a three-branch system. which comes about through custom and usage. Even though there is no specific reference to political parties. the personal fortunes of the candidates 2. Appellate and District Courts). 4. a Legislative Branch (NY State Legislature). The State Government of New York is similarly divided into three branches. a Legislative Branch (Congress). funds appropriated by Congress . run or governed. Formation of Government: Question 44 of 161 An example of the unwritten constitution in the United States is the 1. 4. Formation of Government: Question 45 of 161 The major political parties in the United States obtain most of their national campaign funds from 1. the need for regulation of them is clear and allowable under the concept of the “unwritten constitution”. 2. 3.1. an Executive Branch (Governor and State Agencies) and a Judicial Branch (Supreme. an Executive Branch (President and Federal Agencies) and a Judicial Branch (Supreme and Federal Courts). 2. As a result they fall under the “unwritten constitution”. state and local taxes 3. 3. sharing of power by the national and state governments development of the political party system separation of powers among the three branches of government guarantees of due process of law Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: The Constitution makes no references to political parties or the manner in which they are to be set-up.

4. 2. and also increased the power of the federal government and its superiority over the governments of the individual states. organizations and groups of like-minded citizens use the “lobby” system to express their views to elected officials. 2. The President would be selected by the direct vote of the people. Five enslaved persons would be counted as three free persons for the purpose of taxation 3. as opposed to the “hard-money” limits that regulated the amounts that can be donated directly to a candidate. This replaced the one branch federal government of the Articles of Confederation. the majority of lobby efforts are expressed via the donation of money to political campaigns and political parties. . unions. proposed legislative actions or public policies that are agreeable to the lobbying group. Formation of Government: Question 46 of 161 The Articles of Confederation are best described as a 1. The donations to parties are not little regulated and referred to as “soft-money”. the contributions of individuals and special-interest groups Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: Companies. The concept of “lobbying” is to gain access to elected officials and present them with suggestions. 3.4. More often than not. statement of principles justifying the Revolutionary War plan of union for the original thirteen states set of arguments supporting ratification of the Constitution list of reasons for the secession of the Southern States Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: The US Constitution attempted to address the failing of the Articles of Confederation by creating a 3 branched government with checks and balances. which compromise was reached by the authors to gain the support of the states with small populations? 1. Congress would consist of both a House of Representatives and a Senate. Formation of Government: Question 47 of 161 When the United States Constitution was written.

such as Virginia. Formation of Government: Question 49 of 161 Which action could eliminate the electoral college? 1. which comes about through custom and usage. 4. but imported goods could be taxed. 2. smaller states argued for equal representation in government as to ensure their power. more populous states. argued for representation based on population owing to their greater numbers and larger economies. Even though there is no specific reference to political parties. Larger states. As a result they fall under the “unwritten constitution”. Exported goods could not be taxed. run or governed. 3. a Supreme Court ruling a Presidential order passage of legislation by Congress ratification of a constitutional amendment Correct Answer Number: 4 . establishment of a postal system development of political parties direct election of Senators impeachment process Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: The Constitution makes no references to political parties or the manner in which they are to be set-up. At the convention. Formation of Government: Question 48 of 161 An example of the unwritten constitution is the 1. Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: Smaller states such as New Jersey feared domination of the national government by larger. 4. “The Great Compromise” created a bicameral (or two-house) legislature (Congress) in which the upper house (the Senate) is based on equal representation (2 Senators from each state) and the lower house (The House of Representatives) is based on proportional representation related to population. 2. the need for regulation of them is clear and allowable under the concept of the “unwritten constitution”.4. 3.

must obtain congressional approval of most executive decisions Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: The roles and powers of the President are specifically addressed in Article II of the Constitution. and military powers 4. Formation of Government: Question 50 of 161 "President Delivers State of the Union Address to Congress.Explanation: The Electoral College system is specifically created in the Constitution. Any revision or elimination would require and amendment to the Constitution specifically addressing this issue. 2. legislative." These headlines are evidence that the President of the United States 1. cancel state debts incurred during the Revolutionary War assist the southern states in their efforts to gain a manufacturing base promote the common goal of national sovereignty prevent the abuses of power that had existed under British rule Correct Answer Number: 4 . Many attempts at eliminating the Electoral College have been attempted and failed. The President is specifically granted powers as Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces." "President’s Appointee Will Enforce Federal Guidelines. has new added duties not specified in the original Constitution 2. generally following a presidential election that calls into question the system’s efficacy and fairness (see the election of 1876 and the election of 2000). exercises nearly unlimited power under the United States governmental system 3. Formation of Government: Question 51 of 161 The authors of the Articles of Confederation established a decentralized political system mainly to 1. 3. 4. as well as a variety of other roles." "President Mobilizes the National Guard To Quell Riots. as Chief Executive of federal agencies. as Chief Legislator to recommend legislation. has specific executive.

Formation of Government: Question 52 of 161 Senate ratification of treaties negotiated by the President is required by the United States Constitution as a way of 1. 2. 4. in order to keep it from dominating the states and the individual citizen. maintaining United States prestige in international affairs preventing Federal abuse of State power implementing the principle of checks and balances expanding the authority of the executive branch Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: In order to divide and balance power on the federal level. The number of . each branch has a variety of ways to “check” the others. membership in the House of Representatives the number of delegates to national nominating coventions Federal aid to localities agricultural subsidies Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: Representation to the House of Representatives is based upon population of a state. the Senate is granted the check of approval and the Supreme Court is granted the further check of judicial review over ratified treaties (to evaluate their constitutionality). Formation of Government: Question 53 of 161 The United States Constitution requires that a census be taken every ten years to reapportion 1. So in creating the Articles of Confederation. The census serves every decade to determine the states’ populations and assign representatives based upon that count. 3. The resulting system was however too weak to govern effectively and was replaced with a stronger more enduring system under the Constitution. While the President is specifically granted the power to make treaties. 4. 3.Explanation: The founding fathers feared an all-powerful national government (as England had been). 2. they felt a need to weaken the power of the Federal Government.

usually in cases of national ." This provision is evidence that the writers of the United States Constitution 1. 3. wanted the President to have unlimited power during wartime wanted to balance individual liberty with the needs of the nation did not trust the common people to obey the laws expected the American people to oppose most government policies Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: The civil liberties granted by the Constitution. differences between Senate and House of Representatives versions of a bill are usually resolved by accepting the version that is 1. 2. 2. Formation of Government: Question 54 of 161 In the United States Congress. 4.representatives has been “fixed” at 435 since the early 1900’s and as such any gain in a state’s number of representatives must be offset by the loss of representatives by other state(s). unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it. a reconciliation committee is convened with representation from both houses and an attempt is made at compromise between the competing versions which are then sent back for re-approval by the House and Senate separately. 3. the Bill of Rights and other amendments are not absolute. Formation of Government: Question 55 of 161 "The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended. preferred by a majority of the State legislatures supported by the Supreme Court preferred by the House in which the bill originated agreed to by a joint conference committee of both Houses Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: A bill cannot pass out of the Congress until both houses (House and Senate) have passed identical pieces of legislation. This means that they may be limited or suspended depending on circumstance or situation. When differences in House and Senate versions arise. 4.

4. the need for regulation of them is clear and allowable under the concept of the “unwritten constitution”. in order to keep it from dominating the states and the individual citizen. The resulting system was however too weak to govern effectively and was replaced with a stronger more enduring system under the . limiting of freedom of speech and press during World War I and the internment of Japanese-Americans without dues process during World War II). Even though there is no specific reference. Formation of Government: Question 57 of 161 Which idea had a major influence on the authors of the Articles of Confederation? 1. 2. As a result they fall under the “unwritten constitution”. Three branches of government are needed to protect liberty. 2. political conventions or the manner in which they are to be set-up. they felt a need to weaken the power of the Federal Government. So in creating the Articles of Confederation. run or governed. Formation of Government: Question 56 of 161 In the United States. All of the people must be granted the right to vote. A strong central government threatens the rights of the people and the states. activities such as Cabinet meetings and political party conventions are best described as 1. The central government must have the power to levy taxes and to control trade. political parties. Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: The founding fathers feared an all-powerful national government (as England had been). examples of direct democracy responsibilities of the executive branch features of the unwritten constitution requirements of the system of checks and balances Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: The Constitution makes no references to Cabinet activities. 4. which comes about through custom and usage. 3. 3.emergency (examples include: suspension of habeas corpus by Lincoln during the Civil War.

At the convention. Larger states. Formation of Government: Question 58 of 161 Speaker A:"States must be represented in the national government solely on the basis of population." Speaker D:"The national Congress should consist of two houses: one in which representation is based on population. 3.Constitution. 2. So in creating the Constitution they felt a need to balance power between three branches of government. a system of “checks and balances” insured that each branch had the ability to oversee the powers and actions of the others. 4. otherwise. The founding fathers feared an all-powerful national government (as England had been). no one branch or one individual is able to dominate or control the federal system. more populous states. smaller states argued for equal representation in government as to ensure their power. such as Virginia. In order to keep any one branch from dominating the national government. Declaration of Independence United States Constitution Covenant of the League of Nations Charter of the United Nations Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: Smaller states such as New Jersey feared domination of the national government by larger. argued for representation based on population owing to their greater numbers and larger economies. This also includes the provision referred to in the question." Speaker C:"States must accept the supremacy of the national government on all issues. . each with specific. It is indeed the only fair situation. By keeping the people. exclusive duties and powers." Which document was being written when this discussion most likely occurred? 1. powers and actions of the three branches clearly separated. “The Great Compromise” created a bicameral (or two-house) legislature (Congress) in which the upper house (the Senate) is based on equal representation (2 Senators from each state) and the lower house (The House of Representatives) is based on proportional representation related to population. and one in which states are equally represented." Speaker B:"The national legislature must be based on equal representation of the states to protect the interests of the small states. the system will fail.

more populous states. delegated powers. Constitution? 1. smaller states argued for equal representation in government as to ensure their power." Speaker B:"The national legislature must be based on equal representation of the states to protect the interests of the small states. the amending process 2. Formation of Government: Question 60 of 161 Which United States governmental principle includes the concepts of reserved powers. 2. It is indeed the only fair situation. At the convention.Formation of Government: Question 59 of 161 Speaker A:"States must be represented in the national government solely on the basis of population. 3." Speaker C:"States must accept the supremacy of the national government on all issues. such as Virginia. otherwise.S. Speaker A Speaker B Speaker C Speaker D Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: Smaller states such as New Jersey feared domination of the national government by larger. and one in which states are equally represented." Speaker D:"The national Congress should consist of two houses: one in which representation is based on population. 4. argued for representation based on population owing to their greater numbers and larger economies. the system will fail. and concurrent powers? 1. Larger states. judicial review . “The Great Compromise” created a bicameral (or two-house) legislature (Congress) in which the upper house (the Senate) is based on equal representation (2 Senators from each state) and the lower house (The House of Representatives) is based on proportional representation related to population." Which speaker’s idea about representation was actually included in the U.

4. Formation of Government: Question 62 of 161 The major reason the Bill of Rights was added to the United States Constitution was to 1. Setting up school systems. exercise jurisdiction in legal situations involving foreign governments advise Congress on the legality of bills mediate disagreements between states act on decisions appealed from lower courts Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: The Supreme Court serves mostly as an appellate court and hears the vast majority of its cases as appeals from lower Federal or State courts. The coin money. The Supreme Court does not determine guilt or innocence (point-of-fact) as a lower court may. 3. run the post office). Reserved powers are the powers not specifically given the Federal Government and thereby reserved for the State governments or the individual (ex. US vs. 2. Taxes are collected by the Federal and State Governments). but this is a very limited number of cases the court rules upon. federalism 4. This is the concept of Federalism (dividing power among a strong federal and lesser governments. Concurrent powers are those that both the Federal and State Governments both have at the same time (ex. instead the Supreme Court rules on the law itself or how the law was carried out (point-of-law). The Supreme Court does have original jurisdiction in cases of a state versus state matter or in a case of one branch of federal government versus another (ex. licensing drivers). Formation of Government: Question 61 of 161 The majority of cases heard by the United States Supreme Court come to the Court because of its constitutional power to 1. Nixon). declare war.3. limit the power of state governments 2. with the federal government being superior). the unwritten constitution Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: Delegated powers are those powers specifically delegated to the Federal Government (ex. protect individual liberties against abuse by the Federal Government .

to guarantee citizens protection from the power of a strong national government. the Anti-Federalist forces (those opposed to the Constitution) feared the strong national government outlined in the document. They criticized the Constitution for creating a national government that they feared would dominate and control not only the state and local governments. This fear was not unfounded. Formation of Government: Question 64 of 161 Which governmental practice established under the unwritten constitution was later included in the written Constitution by an amendment? . separate powers between the three branches of government Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: During the debates over ratification (acceptance) of the US Constitution. provide for equal treatment of all people 4. remove and amend sections of the document in order to adapt to changing times and conditions. as many Anti-Federalists pointed to the domination and control exercised by the powerful English government during the colonial era. 2. not unlike the existing English Bill of Rights or the Virginia Declaration of Rights. Changing a provision contained within the Constitution or a Constitutional Amendment requires a further amendment to the Constitution that specifically removes or adjusts the provision in question. but the lives and freedoms of its citizens. This is due to the ability to add. ratifying a new amendment convincing the states to ignore the amendment having Congress pass a law repealing the amendment having the President issue an executive order canceling the amendment Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: The Constitution is referred to as a “living document”.3. Formation of Government: Question 63 of 161 Once an amendment has been added to the United States Constitution. Many Anti-Federalists argued for the inclusion of a “Bill of Rights”. The first 10 amendments were added soon after ratification and became the US Bill of Rights. 4. 3. A Bill of Rights was promised during the ratification debates and was the deciding factor in swaying many Anti-Federalists into supporting the proposed Constitution. which process must be used to change that amendment? 1.

Formation of Government: Question 65 of 161 Which statement best explains why critics have called for a change in the electoral college system? 1. sexism should legally be ended . The system is a threat to the two-party system. As a result of FDR’s administration the 22nd Amendment was ratified in 1951 and formally limited the President to 2 terms of service. 3. not of men" has been used to express the idea that 1. up until FDR war elected to four terms in the 1930’s – 40’s. generally following a presidential election that calls into question the system’s efficacy and fairness (see the election of 1876 and the election of 2000). States with small populations have greater influence on Presidential elections than more populated states do. 4. 2. 2. Any revision or elimination would require and amendment to the Constitution specifically addressing this issue. Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: The Electoral College system is specifically created in the Constitution. the phrase "a government of laws.1. A person who did not receive the largest percentage of popular votes can be elected President. Electors often vote for candidates not listed on the ballot. 3. Subsequent presidents followed this. 4. Formation of Government: Question 66 of 161 In United States history. appointing members of the Cabinet exercising judicial review holding political party conventions limiting the President’s time in office to two terms Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: George Washington set the informal presidential precedent of serving only two terms. Many attempts at eliminating the Electoral College have been attempted and failed.

This idea is intended to remove any potential bias and descrimination from the application of law. Jefferson borrowed this idea for incorporation into the Declaration of Independence. stated that 1. The quote above refers to this ideal in modern American democracy. as developed in the United States Declaration of Independence. monarchs could rule autocratically. newly elected government Leaders should not be allowed to initiate changes in the law Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: The 14th Amendment’s guarantee of “equal protection under the law” demands that application of law be the same regardless of the citizen it is being applied to. all laws should apply equally to all persons 3. Americans were following the plan of government set up in the Declaration of Independence . government should guarantee equal economic conditions to all people Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: The writings of John Locke and other authors of the Enlightenment expressed the idea of “The Consent of the Governed” and “Natural Rights”. government should interfere as little as possible in people’s lives 4. Rousseau also maintained that a “Social Contract” existed between government and the governed and when government failed to protect rights. legislatures should have more power than kings 4. Formation of Government: Question 67 of 161 John Locke’s theory of the social contract. Formation of Government: Question 68 of 161 Which statement best explains why the Articles of Confederation established a weak rather than a strong central government? 1. but they had to grant certain rights to their subjects 3. Locke called for “Life Liberty and Property” as natural rights.2. the people should revolt against a government that did not protect their rights 2. a revolution was in order. Natural Rights are those rights all men are born with and that should be protected by a fair and just government.

4. So in creating the Articles of Confederation. 2. generally following a presidential election that calls into question the system’s efficacy and fairness (see the election of 1876 and the election of 2000). 3. 3. As in the election of 2000 and others. It calls for the in-direct election of the President by electors to the Electoral College who mostly are bound to cast votes for the candidate winning the majority of popular votes in the state they represent. Formation of Government: Question 69 of 161 Which action in the process of electing a President of the United States is provided for in the Federal Constitution? 1. it is possible for the candidate elected president to receive less popular votes that his opponent and still gather the majority of electoral votes needed to win the election. they felt a need to weaken the power of the Federal Government. in order to keep it from dominating the states and the individual citizen. Revenues were not adequate to support a strong central government. the next step in the process of adopting the budget is to submit it to the . Many attempts at eliminating the Electoral College have been attempted and failed. 4. The absence of national problems made a strong government unnecessary. Formation of Government: Question 70 of 161 After the President has proposed the Federal budget.2. The resulting system was however too weak to govern effectively and was replaced with a stronger more enduring system under the Constitution. the opening of a national nominating convention the President making an inaugural address the electoral college casting ballots a political party adopting a platform Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: The Electoral College system is specifically created in the Constitution. Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: The founding fathers feared an all-powerful national government (as England had been). Colonial experiences under Great Britain had created a fear of unlimited government.

Roosevelt and the United States Supreme Court over New Deal laws best illustrates the operation of 1. 2. 3. 3. Board of Education of Topeka Kansas ruling. 4.1. as to better represent the will of the majority of Americans and their monies. Formation of Government: Question 71 of 161 Which method resulted in both "separate but equal" public facilities (1896) and Miranda warnings against self-incrimination (1966)? 1. Arizona decision. 2. Formation of Government: Question 72 of 161 The clash between President Franklin D. 2. The “Miranda warning” issued to suspects upon arrest was established in the 1966 Miranda v. 4. 3. Ferguson (1896) established that “separate but equal” facilities were legal (thereby upholding the Jim Crow laws of Southern states) and was later overturned in the Supreme Court’s 1954 Brown v. federalism due process checks and balances the two-party system Correct Answer Number: 3 . 4. Internal Revenue Service Treasury Department Cabinet House of Representatives Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: The House must originate all spending bills. decisions of the United States Supreme Court proclamations of state governors executive orders of the President congressional actions Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: The ruling in Plessy v.

Formation of Government: Question 74 of 161 The 14th Amendment provides that no "state [shall] deprive any person of life. without due process of law. 4. 3." A direct result of this amendment was that 1. head of his political party Commander in Chief chief diplomat chief legislator Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: The roles and powers of the President are specifically addressed in Article II of the Constitution. US case and the 1936 US v. 2. 4. liberty. they were exercising a check upon the Legislature and the Executive branches by declaring laws of the Congress and actions of the President unconstitutional. or property. as well as a variety of other roles. nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. as Chief Executive of federal agencies. Butler decision. the process of amending the Constitution became slower and more complex the guarantees in the Bill of Rights were applied to state actions every citizen gained an absolute right to freedom of speech and assembly the power of the Federal Government was sharply reduced . as Chief Legislator to recommend legislation. as Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. 2. 3.Explanation: When the Supreme Court struck down several provisions of FDR’s New Deal in the 1935 Schecter Poultry v. The President is specifically granted powers as Chief Diplomat in which he serves the United States representative to foreign nations and negotiates treaties and agreements. Formation of Government: Question 73 of 161 "President Nixon Plans Trip to China To Meet with Chairman Mao" "President Carter Signs New Panama Canal Treaty" "President Clinton Concludes Trade Agreement with Japan" Each headline illustrates an action of a President fulfilling his role as 1.

Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: The 14th Amendment’s guarantee of “equal protection under the law” demands that application of law be the same regardless of the citizen it is being applied to. For example, in the case of a state's administration of the death penalty, protestors have claimed that system is biased by race, sex and socioeconomic status and as a result fails to be applied in an equal manner

Formation of Government: Question 75 of 161
The "clear and present danger" ruling in the Supreme Court case Schenck v. United States (1919) confirmed the idea that 1. 2. 3. 4. prayer in public schools is unconstitutional racism in the United States is illegal interstate commerce can be regulated by state governments constitutional rights are not absolute

Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: The civil liberties granted by the Constitution, the Bill of Rights and other amendments are not absolute. This means that they may be limited or suspended depending on circumstance or situation, usually in cases of national emergency (examples include: suspension of habeas corpus by Lincoln during the Civil War, limiting of freedom of speech and press during World War I and the internment of Japanese-Americans without dues process during World War II).

Formation of Government: Question 76 of 161
Under Chief Justice Earl Warren, the Supreme Court was considered "activist" because of its 1. 2. 3. 4. reluctance to overturn state laws insistence on restricting freedom of speech to spoken words expansion of individual rights in criminal cases refusal to reconsider the issues of the Plessy v. Ferguson case

Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: In numerous decisions the Warren Court was active in expanding the

rights of the accused. The most famous of these was the 1966 Miranda v. Arizona decision that established a suspect’s right to be informed of his or her rights. Many cases such as Mapp v. Ohio (right against illegal search and seizure) Gideon v. Wainwright (right to counsel) and others further helped establish Earl Warren’s legacy as an activist Chief Justice.

Formation of Government: Question 77 of 161
Which fundamental political idea is expressed in the Declaration of Independence? 1. The government should guarantee every citizen economic security. 2. The central government and state governments should have equal power. 3. If the government denies its people certain basic rights, that government can be overthrown. 4. Rulers derive their right to govern from God and are therefore bound to govern in the nation’s best interest. Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: The writings of John Locke and other authors of the Enlightenment expressed the idea of “The Consent of the Governed” and “Natural Rights”. Natural Rights are those rights all men are born with and that should be protected by a fair and just government. Locke called for “Life Liberty and Property” as natural rights. Jefferson borrowed this idea for incorporation into the Declaration of Independence.

Formation of Government: Question 78 of 161
In stating the principle of a "clear and present danger" in Schenck v. United States, the Supreme Court established that 1. 2. 3. 4. constitutional rights are not absolute the Constitution guarantees the right to privacy Congress can pass a law to eliminate any part of the Bill of Rights all individual rights are eliminated during wartime

Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: The civil liberties granted by the Constitution, the Bill of Rights and other amendments are not absolute. This means that they may be limited or suspended depending on circumstance or situation, usually in cases of national

emergency (examples include: suspension of habeas corpus by Lincoln during the Civil War, limiting of freedom of speech and press during World War I and the internment of Japanese-Americans without dues process during World War II).

Formation of Government: Question 79 of 161
When President Dwight D. Eisenhower sent Federal troops to Little Rock, Arkansas, during the 1957 school integration crisis, he was exercising his constitutional power as 1. 2. 3. 4. Chief Legislator Commander-in-Chief Chief Diplomat Head of State

Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: The roles and powers of the President are specifically addressed in Article II of the Constitution. The President is specifically granted powers as Chief Diplomat in which he serves the United States representative to foreign nations and negotiates treaties and agreements, as Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces, as Chief Executive of federal agencies, as Chief Legislator to recommend legislation, as well as a variety of other roles.

Formation of Government: Question 80 of 161
The significance of the Supreme Court case Marbury v. Madison is that the decision 1. 2. 3. 4. advanced civil rights for minorities upheld the constitutionality of a national bank limited Presidential control of foreign policy established the power of judicial review

Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: Judicial review allows the Supreme Court the power to determine the Constitutionality of laws, treaties and actions as first expressed in Marbury v. Madison (1803).

3. 4. 2. a national legislature to make laws federal control of commerce between the states federal power to impose and collect taxes the abolition of slavery Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 82 of 161 The amendment process was included in the United States Constitution in order to 1. absolutism despotism limited monarchy consent of the governed Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: . 2. remove government officials from political office check the power of the Supreme Court allow government to meet the changing needs of society preserve the federal system of government Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 83 of 161 Which concept from the European Enlightenment was included in the United States Constitution? 1. 3. 4.Formation of Government: Question 81 of 161 One similarity between the Articles of Confederation and the United States Constitution is that both documents provide for 1. 4. 3. 2.

4. slavery representation in Congress interstate trade taxation Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 85 of 161 A system of checks and balances was included in the United States Constitution because the authors were concerned about 1. 3. 3. 3. 2. one branch of government becoming too strong the states having too much power the people having a voice in government the military gaining control of the United States Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 86 of 161 The Bill of Rights was added to the United States Constitution to 1. 2.Formation of Government: Question 84 of 161 Delegates to the Constitutional Convention of 1787 adopted the Great Compromise to settle differences over 1. 4. 4. 2. provide the president with the power to enforce the laws protect individuals’ civil liberties establish a presidential cabinet guarantee voting privileges to all citizens Correct Answer Number: 2 .

” This statement is based on a person’s constitutional right to 1. face an accuser in open court protection against double jeopardy a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury protection against unreasonable searches and seizures Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 89 of 161 The Declaration of Independence was based on the ideas of the 1. 3.Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 87 of 161 The writers of the United States Constitution created a federal form of government primarily to 1. Romantic Era 3. 4. 2. Enlightenment 2. 4. 2. 3. limit the powers of the Senate develop a criminal justice system provide for civilian control over the military divide power between levels of government Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 88 of 161 “Illegally obtained evidence cannot be used in a court of law. Renaissance .

4. 2. elimination of debts from the Revolutionary War removal of all British troops from North America formation of a national policy relating to Native American Indians development of guidelines for the admission of new states into the Union Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 91 of 161 Which feature of the unwritten constitution is part of the system of checks and balances? 1. 2. 3.4. the cabinet judicial review political parties legislative lobbies Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 92 of 161 Delegates to the Constitutional Convention of 1787 agreed to the Three-Fifths Compromise as a solution to the problem of how to determine the . 4. 3. Age of Exploration Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 90 of 161 What was an important accomplishment of the central government under the Articles of Confederation? 1.

4. 4. the first ten amendments were added because many citizens felt the need for 1. 2. 2. 3. 4. 3. 2. strengthening the power of the federal courts ensuring the division of powers between the state and federal governments establishing a national bank protecting their liberties from abuses by the federal government Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 94 of 161 The Federalist Papers were a series of newspaper articles published in 1787 and 1788 to win support for the 1. number of representatives in the House from each state qualifications of Supreme Court justices tariff rates on exports length of the president’s term Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 93 of 161 Soon after the Constitution of the United States was ratified. 3.1. right of the colonies to rebel against Great Britain right of a state to secede from the Union ratification of the United States Constitution construction of an interstate canal system Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 95 of 161 .

and Congress should not be able to stop us from importing slaves to work on our . in which representation is based on population. Speaker B: Slaves should be counted because they are an important part of our state populations. Speaker D: Congress should tax imports so that foreign goods will not be cheaper than our manufactured products. . . .” 4. “All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States. States with more people should have more representation. . 2. Speaker C: We delegates from the small states insist upon a legislature in which each state receives equal representation. 4.Which statement from the United States Constitution is referred to as the elastic clause? 1. . ” 3. ” 2. to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers. . in which representation is based on population. States with more people should have more representation. . . and Congress should not be able to stop us from importing slaves to work on our plantations. Declaration of Independence Articles of Confederation United States Constitution Missouri Compromise Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 97 of 161 Speaker A: We favor the Virginia Plan. Which document addressed the concerns of all of these speakers? 1. Speaker B: Slaves should be counted because they are an important part of our state populations. . ” Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 96 of 161 Speaker A: We favor the Virginia Plan. . “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion. . . 3. “All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives.. . “Congress shall have power .

no warrants shall issue. states’ rights separation of powers implied powers limits on governmental power Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: . . 2. 3. creating a two-house legislature delegating most governing power to the states maintaining a balance in Congress between the slave states and the free states passing a group of constitutional amendments to protect individual rights Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 98 of 161 Which action illustrates the president’s power as commander in chief ? 1.” This section of the 4th Amendment to the United States Constitution addresses the issue of 1. 4. .plantations. 4.] The conflict between the statements of Speakers A and C was resolved by 1. 4. but upon probable cause. . 2. ordering American troops into a foreign country appointing the secretary of state entertaining a foreign leader at the White House delivering the State of the Union address Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 99 of 161 “. 2. and particularly describing the place to be searched. 3. 3. Speaker D: Congress should tax imports so that foreign goods will not be cheaper than our manufactured products. Speaker C: We delegates from the small states insist upon a legislature in which each state receives equal representation. and the persons or things to be seized. . .

4. 2. 3. 4. 4.Formation of Government: Question 100 of 161 A major objection to many lobbying groups is that they 1. 2. risked tyranny for the sake of effective national government copied the British constitution prized national unity above the sovereignty of the states feared a strong central government Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 102 of 161 The Declaration of Independence and the Bill of Rights are similar in that both 1. are illegal under the federal Constitution have too much influence on government are free from all government regulations have been controlled by the media Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 101 of 161 The lack of a national executive and judiciary under the Articles of Confederation suggests that the founders of the American republic 1. 3. support a federal system of government maintain the importance of a strong chief executive provide for a system of checks and balances support limitations on governmental power Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: . 2. 3.

government should be run by those representatives elected directly by the citizens so that the will of the citizens is expressed. Therefore. 4. Speaker D: Life is a struggle. and local governments. 3. power should be divided among national. state. power should be divided among national. Speaker C: History has taught us that the concentration of political power leads to the abuse of that power.Formation of Government: Question 103 of 161 Speaker A: A leader is not ultimately responsible to the people but to God. government should be run by those representatives elected directly by the citizens so that the will of the citizens is expressed. upholding the separation of church and state adding constitutional amendments to expand voting rights expanding the role of the Supreme Court in government providing for the direct election of the president . Therefore. Speaker D: Life is a struggle. from whom the leader derives the right to govern. Over the course of its history. Speaker B: Each citizen is entitled to a voice in government. Speaker C: History has taught us that the concentration of political power leads to the abuse of that power. state. 2. Those who seize and maintain political power represent the strongest and most competent of that society and earn the right to govern. Speaker B: Each citizen is entitled to a voice in government. The principle of federalism contained in the Constitution of the United States is most consistent with the ideas of Speaker 1. Therefore. the United States has advanced the goal of Speaker B by 1. 2. 4. 3. from whom the leader derives the right to govern. Therefore. and local governments. Those who seize and maintain political power represent the strongest and most competent of that society and earn the right to govern. A B C D Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 104 of 161 Speaker A: A leader is not ultimately responsible to the people but to God.

Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 105 of 161 Which statement describes a characteristic of democracy that is provided for in the United States Constitution? 1. 2. powers of government needed to be able to adapt to change rights of the states had to be protected powers of the Supreme Court needed to be checked rights of the citizens were the first concern of government Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 107 of 161 Delegates at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 agreed to create a bicameral legislature as a way to . 2. 3. 3. 4. Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 106 of 161 The implied powers suggested by the United States Constitution show that the writers recognized the 1. The president can require Congress to submit legislation for the cabinet’s approval. Citizens choose their congressional representatives. Political power in Congress is held by the ranking political party. 4. All bills passed by Congress are reviewed by the Supreme Court.

4. insure speedy passage of legislation assure the right to vote to all adult males address the issue of population differences among the states satisfy the different interests of the rich and poor citizens Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 108 of 161 Under the United States Constitution. Supreme Court United States Senate House of Representatives president Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 110 of 161 Which feature of the federal government is specifically described in the United States . 4. 2. state governments have the power to 1. 3. 3.1. 3. 2. coin money license teachers regulate interstate commerce establish term limits for members of Congress Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 109 of 161 The Constitution assigns the power to ratify treaties exclusively to the 1. 4. 2.

. 2. 2. . . . and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States. to make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers. . 4. 4. 4. Congress shall have power . 3. describe the powers of the three branches of government limit the powers of state governments guarantee the rights of individuals establish a system of checks and balances Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: . 2. veto power implied powers judicial review states’ rights Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 112 of 161 The basic purpose of the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution is to 1.Constitution? 1. 3. .” This statement from the United States Constitution is the source of 1. 3. president’s cabinet two-party political system congressional committee system Senate approval of nominations to the Supreme Court Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 111 of 161 “. .

4. exclude slaves from census counts forbid tariffs on imports establish a bicameral legislature limit the number of terms a president could serve Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 115 of 161 Which group had the most influence on the ideas stated in the Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution? 1. 3. 2. 2. 3.Formation of Government: Question 113 of 161 The United States Constitution corrected a weakness of the Articles of Confederation by 1. political leaders of Spain and Portugal religious leaders of the medieval period writers of the Renaissance philosophers of the Enlightenment Correct Answer Number: 4 . 3. 4. 2. creating three branches of government giving greater power to state governments providing a clear definition of states’ rights granting the right to vote to all white males Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 114 of 161 A significant compromise reached at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 was the agreement to 1. 4.

4. judicial review . and the establishment of a two-term limit for presidents are all examples of the use of 1. 3. “New York State Rejects Federal Regulations on Drug Testing” Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 118 of 161 The change to the direct election of senators. “Florida To Gain Two Seats in the United States House of Representatives” 3.Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 116 of 161 The writers of the United States Constitution included the requirement for a census every ten years primarily to 1. 2. “Albany County Receives $4 Million from Congress for Transportation Development” 4. the lowering of the voting age to eighteen. “Senate Rejects President’s Choice of Supreme Court Justice” 2. regulate numbers of immigrants determine representation in Congress decide when new states were needed set goals for population growth Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 117 of 161 Which newspaper headline shows the operation of the system of checks and balances? 1.

2.2. 4. A balance of power existed between the three branches of the central government. 2. the amendment process Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 119 of 161 One reason the United States Constitution is considered a flexible document is that it 1. 4. can be rewritten every ten years allows for the creation of a multiparty political system gives the states the power to change federal laws includes the elastic clause Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 120 of 161 Which statement best describes governmental power under the Articles of Confederation? 1. 3. A strong chief executive headed a unified central government. executive privilege 4. 3. checks and balances 3. Power was shared equally by the central government and the states. The states had much greater power than the central government. Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 121 of 161 The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 was important because it .

4. 4. 2. the Great Compromise resolved the issue of 1. ensured universal suffrage for all males extended slavery north of the Ohio River provided a process for admission of new states to the Union established reservations for Native American Indians Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 122 of 161 At the Constitutional Convention of 1787. 2.1. 3. 3. a bill of rights the ratification of the Constitution a weaker central government the abolition of slavery and the slave trade Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 124 of 161 . 3. representation taxation slavery control of trade Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 123 of 161 The Federalist Papers were published in 1787 and 1788 to help gain support for 1. 2. 4.

These events illustrate the use of 1.A republican form of government is described as one in which 1. 3. 2. 4. 3. 4. there is a two-party system representatives are elected by the people elected officials have limited terms government power is limited by checks and balances Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 125 of 161 The due process clause in the 5th Amendment and the right to an attorney in the 6th Amendment were designed to 1. 2. protect freedom of expression assure that laws are properly enacted ensure fair treatment for those accused of crimes provide for judicial review of laws Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 126 of 161 • Congress proposes an amendment legalizing an income tax. 4. 2. • The Supreme Court rules that the income tax is unconstitutional. delegated powers checks and balances judicial legislation the unwritten constitution Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: . 3.

Campaign advertising has no influence on voter turnout. a newspaper editorial written in 1887 an encyclopedia article on the Constitution the book. Americans fail to adequately support the expenses of political candidates. 4.Formation of Government: Question 127 of 161 What is the main idea of this cartoon? 1. allow for the admission of new states limit the powers of the president provide adequate powers for the central government prevent the development of military rule Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 129 of 161 Which information on the writing of the Constitution is considered a primary source? 1. Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 128 of 161 The main criticism of the Articles of Confederation was that they failed to 1. High campaign costs negatively affect the political process. 3. 3. 2. by Charles Beard notes from the Constitutional Convention taken by James Madison Correct Answer Number: 4 . 4. An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution. 4. Campaign costs are a major cause of the national debt. 2. 3. 2.

presidential cabinet 2. 3. 2. 3. limited monarchy . judicial review 3. sanctity of contract clause due process clause elastic clause writ of habeas corpus clause Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 132 of 161 Which concept found in the United States Constitution was a belief held by the social contract philosophers of the Enlightenment period? 1.Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 130 of 161 To avoid having too much power concentrated in one branch of government. 2. a bicameral national legislature division of power among different levels of government the system of two political parties the system of checks and balances Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 131 of 161 Congress established a minimum wage for workers and regulations on radio broadcasts by combining its delegated power to regulate interstate commerce with the 1. 4. the framers of the Constitution established 1. 4.

Anthony. 4. sovereignty of the people Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 133 of 161 To the Honorable Senate and House of Representatives in Congress Assembled. petition for redress of grievances protection against unreasonable search and seizure a speedy and public trial freedom of religion Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 134 of 161 “New Congress to Have Two Houses” “Slaves to Count as Three-Fifths of a Person” “President to be Chosen by Electoral Vote” Which conclusion about the Constitutional Convention is best supported by these headlines? 1. Correct Answer Number: 1 . in convention assembled. beg leave to submit the following resolution: Resolved. States with large populations controlled the outcome of the convention. respectfully ask Congress to enact appropriate legislation during its present session to protect women citizens in the several states of this Union. citizens of the United States.4. Matilda Joslyn Gage. 3. 3. — Susan B. 2. that we the officers and members of the National Woman Suffrage Association. The president and Congress would have equal power under the new constitution. The framers of the Constitution were able to compromise on important issues. 2. States that were small in area would lose power in the new Constitution. in their right to vote. and Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1873) Source: National Archives and Records Administration This resolution illustrates the constitutional right to 1. 4. but deprived of some of the privileges and immunities of citizens among which. We the undersigned. is the right to vote.

2. enacting immigration laws levying taxes granting patents and copyrights issuing passports Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 136 of 161 The unwritten constitution is best defined as the 1. . 4. 2. amendments to the United States Constitution powers that the Constitution reserves for the states powers that the Constitution denies to Congress and to the states practices of the government that are based on custom and tradition Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 137 of 161 “The Congress shall have Power . . expand federal control of interstate commerce . . 4.Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 135 of 161 Which power is shared by the federal government and the New York State government? 1. To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers. 3. . and all other Powers vested [granted] by this Constitution in the Government of the United States. or in any Department or Officer thereof.” This section of the United States Constitution was frequently used during the 20th century to 1. . 3.

3. 2. Thomas Jefferson was influenced most by John Locke’s idea of 1. impeach the president Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 138 of 161 New York State and the United States have republican forms of government because both have 1. overturn decisions of the electoral college 4. 4. 4. due process of law natural rights the rights of the accused the right to privacy Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 140 of 161 During the Constitutional Convention of 1787. the plans for Congress proposed by . 3. a bill of rights a written constitution an elected legislature three branches of government Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 139 of 161 In writing the Declaration of Independence.2. reduce the number of federal courts 3. 2.

delegates from New Jersey and Virginia differed mainly over the issue of 1. life terms of office or short terms of office appointed legislators or elected legislators equal state representation or proportionate state representation power to check other branches or power limited to lawmaking Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 141 of 161 Which governmental action illustrates the system of checks and balances? 1. a senator helping a governor solve a state problem the president negotiating a trade agreement with foreign diplomats the Senate ratifying a peace treaty Congress raising taxes to pay for federal programs Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 142 of 161 A major criticism of the electoral college system has been that 1. 4. 2. 4. party loyalty is weakened after a presidential election electors frequently fail to vote for a candidate members of the electoral college are appointed for life terms a president may be elected without receiving the majority of the popular vote Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 143 of 161 . 3. 2. 3. 3. 4. 2.

2. control the federal budget vote to end a tie in the Senate approve presidential appointments interpret the Constitution Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 145 of 161 The principles of government that Thomas Jefferson included in the Declaration of Independence were most influenced by 1. a strong president citizen participation in government elected judges to conduct trials a set of laws Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 144 of 161 The Supreme Court has the power to 1. 3. 4. 2. 3. John Locke’s social contract theory Adam Smith’s ideas of free enterprise Louis XIV’s belief in divine right William Penn’s views on religious toleration Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 146 of 161 .Which feature must a nation have to be considered a democracy? 1. 3. 4. 4. 2.

____________________________________ A. popular sovereignty equal representation flexibility ratification Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 147 of 161 One similarity between the Declaration of Independence and the Bill of Rights is that both documents 1. 4. 4. provide for a government with three separate branches discuss colonial grievances against the monarchy stress the importance of individual liberty criticize the practice of slavery Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 148 of 161 I. Taxation D. the amendment process. 3. Slave trade C. and the unwritten constitution are evidence that our constitutional system of government provides for 1. Representation B. 2. Election of the president Which heading best completes the partial outline below? 1. 3. Causes of the Revolutionary War .The necessary and proper clause. 2.

Which principle included in the United States Constitution shows that the framers agreed with Montesquieu? 1. separation of powers federal supremacy implied powers due process Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 150 of 161 Which statement is an example of the system of federalism? 1. 3. Revenue bills must begin in the House of Representatives. but states cannot. 1783 3. Cabinet members are appointed by the president. 2. 4. 4. Provisions of the Treaty of Paris. but the Senate has the power to ratify them. Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 151 of 161 . 3. Protections under the 10th Amendment 4. The president can negotiate treaties. Compromises at the Constitutional Convention Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 149 of 161 French Enlightenment philosopher Baron De Montesquieu praised the British political system because it divided the power of government between the monarch and the two houses of Parliament.2. The national government coins money. 2.

4. 3. House of Representatives president state legislatures Supreme Court Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: . states’ rights property rights rights of the accused rights of self-expression Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 152 of 161 At the Constitutional Convention of 1787. 4. the power to impeach a federal government official is given to the 1. 2. 3. 2. developing the method of electing a president designating control of interstate commerce outlining the structure of the federal court system establishing the formula for representation in Congress Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation: Formation of Government: Question 153 of 161 In the United States Constitution. 3. 2. 4.The first amendment of the Constitution deals primarily with 1. which problem was solved by the Great Compromise? 1.

Formation of Government: Question 154 of 161
In order to win ratification of the United States Constitution, supporters agreed to 1. 2. 3. 4. add a bill of rights admit new states to the Union establish an electoral college give the Senate the power to ratify treaties

Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation:

Formation of Government: Question 155 of 161
Which statement is accurate about congressional bills vetoed between 1961 and 1993?

1. 2. 3. 4.

Congress was usually able to override a presidential veto. Pocket vetoes were used more often than regular vetoes. The majority of presidential vetoes were upheld. The use of the veto increased steadily between 1961 and 1993.

Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation:

Formation of Government: Question 156 of 161
The data in the table illustrate the operation of

1. executive privilege 2. checks and balances 3. congressional immunity

4. federal supremacy Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation:

Formation of Government: Question 157 of 161
One accomplishment of the national government under the Articles of Confederation was the passage of legislation establishing 1. 2. 3. 4. a central banking system a process for admitting new states to the Union the president’s right to put down rebellions the ability of Congress to tax the states effectively

Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation:

Formation of Government: Question 158 of 161
Disagreement at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 over the Virginia and New Jersey plans was resolved by a compromise that 1. 2. 3. 4. guaranteed continuation of the slave trade for at least twenty more years limited the power of the federal government to wage war provided for construction of a new national capital in the south created a Congress made up of a Senate and a House of Representatives

Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation:

Formation of Government: Question 159 of 161
"Presidential Candidates Skip Campaigning in Low- Population States”; “Winner Of Popular Vote Loses Election” These headlines refer to controversial issues most directly related to

1. 2. 3. 4.

judicial review the electoral college impeachment checks and balances

Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation:

Formation of Government: Question 160 of 161
“The United States shall guarantee to every state in this Union a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion; and on application of the legislature, or of the executive (when the legislature cannot be convened), against domestic violence.” — United States Constitution, Article IV, Section 4 According to this excerpt, a goal of the framers of the Constitution was to ensure that the United States 1. 2. 3. 4. remained neutral during domestic conflicts involving the states supported the right of each state to resist presidential decisions provided for the common defense of every state approved a bill of rights to protect citizens from government tyranny

Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation:

Formation of Government: Question 161 of 161
An example of the use of the unwritten constitution is the creation of the 1. 2. 3. 4. presidential veto United States Navy federal postal system president’s cabinet

Correct Answer Number: 4 Explanation:

.Copyright © 1999-2010 Oswego City School District Regents Exam Prep Center RegentsPrep and StudyZone are FREE educational resources.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful