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Name :Mu¶adz bin mohdfauzi Matric no :IES 080 037
THE DEFINITION OF MICROLALGAE There are a lot of definition that many researchers did about microalgae.For example Microalgae are prokaryotic or eukaryotic photosynthetic microorganisms that can grow rapidly and live in harsh conditions due to their unicellular or simple multicellular structure.1.Some researcher define it as Microalgae are sunlight-driven cell factories that convert carbon dioxide to potential biofuels, foods, feeds and high-value bioactives2.To summarize this definition,we can say that microalgae is the one of microorganism that are able to convert light energy from sunlight into chemical energy within in such as lipid and this substance need to undergo several phase of process to produce the an important thing in our economy,and it is biodiesel.
POTENTIAL SUBTANCES WITHIN IT The term lipid is sometimes used as a synonym forfats, fats are a subgroup of lipids called triglycerides. Lipid,commonly known as fats,are the valuable substances in biodiesel production.Lipids is the general term and are cover a lot of others compound and fats is one of them that are subgroup of it an called triglycdcerides.It is form by the mixation or bonding between 2 types of molecules,which isthree fatty acid molecules and a molecule of glycerol.The bonding between them can be called esterification bond.
Transesterification need to be done in order to produce the biodiesel.It is the reaction of an ester with an alcohol in order to replace the alkoxy group and it is used in the synthesis of polyesters and in the production of biodiesel. 3.In this reaction, 2 type of catalyzer can be used,wheter it is alkali or acid.But by using sodium and potassiumhydroxide as the alkali catalyzed,it it more rapidly reaction and approximately 4000 times faster thanthe acid catalyzed reaction4 and lipase enzyme also assist in this reaction. The others condition that must be fulfilled in Alkalicatalyzedtransesterificationis,it must
Teresa M. Mata ,Anto´ nio A. Martins , Nidia. S. Caetano ,Microalgae for biodiesel production and other applications: A review , 14 (2010) 217±232 2 Biodiesel from microalgae ,Chisti,Y,Biotechnology Advances 25 (2007) 294±306 3 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/transesterification, 20/2/2011 4 Biodiesel from microalgae ,Chisti , Y ,Biotechnology Advances 25 (2007) 294±306
becarried out at approximately60°Cunder atmospheric pressure, asmethanolboils off at 65 °C at atmospheric pressure. Under theseconditions, reaction takes about 90min to complete5
THE DEFINITION OF BIODIESEL Biodiesel,the new technology that are been revealed by some of scientist nowadays . The main motivation that made them to explore this new technologies is to reduce the air pollution by combustion of engine and to get the same matter as petroleum as the renewable resource. A lot of experiment and research has been done to overcome this situation and it¶s to make sure our future less of pollution that may risk a lot of living organism and our ecosystem. Biodiesel have a lot of definition. 1Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil- or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, propyl or ethyl) esters. Biodiesel is typically made by chemically reacting lipids (e.g., vegetable oil, animal fat (tallow)) with an alcohol.6 2- fuel for diesel engines made of renewable organic raw materials as opposed to fossil hydrocarbons7 3- Produced through a process in which organically derived oils are combined with alcohol (ethanol or methanol) in the presence of a catalyst to form ethyl or methyl ester. Biodiesel can be made from soybean or Canola oils, animal fats, waste vegetable oils, or microalgae oils.8 As a summarize to these definition , we can define that the biodiesel is the matter that are have a potential to replace a long term renewable resource which mean the petroleum because it has similar chemical compound to the petroleum and need some chemical process to produce it.
THE ADVANTAGES OF USING BIODIESEL There are several advantages of using the biodiesel that we are able to take and give a lot of benefits to our economy and ecosystem.In the aspect of ecosystem,it might save the planet.This is because our planet
Biodiesel from microalgae ,Chisti , Y ,Biotechnology Advances 25 (2007) 294±306
en.wiktionary.org/wiki/biodiesel en.wiktionary.org/wiki/biodiesel 8 www.biorenew.iastate.edu/resources/glossary-of-biorenewables-terms.html 20/2/11
nowadays has face the critical problem and it is global warming.Global warming will affect a lot of living organism and ecosystem as we be inform lately. The second advantages is it can help the environment and can make the money at the same time.This is because,as we know,the green plant which contain the valuable pigment called chlorophyll can convert light energy into chemical energy.There are less investment but can get a huge profit.This is because,the main thing that algae need as a food is the sunlight and carbon dioxide. Let we think in a easy way, there are no need to us to buy sunlight and we can get it free and by manipulate the situation now,which is the fluctuation of global warming gaseous which is carbon dioxide,we can help t reduce this harming gaseous and the consequences of this sequence will make us rich and in the same way help the environment. The third advantages is,it very promising technology and it could changes people¶s lives.,This is because,there are a lot of successful experiment and research has be done.There are a lot of product from algae or in easy word is biodiesel.It can save our economy because our economy are more or less depend on fuel price.Fuel become a necessary resource to us because if there are insufficient fuel,we can go or travel to the far destination and it will affect a lot of our work.So why not we invest in biodiesel technologies which consume the microalgae that took low price compare to buy the fuel from the others countries. The fourth advantages is the traditional diesel engines can be run on biodiesel without any kind of modification or nominal modifications.So, the problem now is focusing on the technologies that are able to convert microalgae into the biodiesel.So,the government must take note this problem to make sure our citizen get the benefits as the government motto ³ rakyatdidahulukan,pencapaiandiutamakan . The fifth advantages is handling biodiesel is also very safe as this is non-toxic in nature and is biodegradable too.So it can reduce some pollution such as water and air pollution because it can be eliminate or treat in easy way because it biodegradable an non toxic..The sixth advantages of microalgae that be used in biodiesel production is it can increases the life of the engine because the lubricating factor present in biodiesel is higher than other fuels.
WHY CHOOSE MICROALGAE IN BIODIESEL PRODUCTION And now,we will look the advantages of using microalgae rather than use others foodstock in the biodiesel production.Firstly, they are easy to cultivate which mean,itcan grow with little or using
the low quality of water and they are easy to obtain nutrients. Microalgae reproduce themselves
using photosynthesis to convert sun energy into chemical energy, completing an entire growth cycle every few days.9
Secondly,they can grow anywhere and no need very suitable environment.Some of them are able to adapt to the new environment.It¶s not like the others feedstock such as soybean,sunflower and others,whichis,they need the suitable environment and it might give the difficultness to the farmer to find or to preapare it.10 Third,the growth rate of this microalgae are very fast compared to the others.The table below will prove and show us how far and very effectiveness of this microalgae in the oil production
MAKING BIODIESEL AT HOME There are several phase of process that may be need to undergo by microalgae to transform it into biodiesel. And I will explain on how to make it at our home and it is based on vegetable oil.We can use this product (biodiesel) in our diesel engine without modify it. Firstly, the reagent we need to prepare is 5g of sodium hydroxide that can be found in 100% lye,drainer opening,250 ml methanol in heet ,one type of autocar product and can be pursue at autocar shop.Then vegetable oil and must be cholestrol free and the distilled water. Firstly,we mix 5g of sodium hydroxide with 250ml methanol in standard measured jar.Seal the top tightly and begin swirling the mixture in bottle untill the lye is dissolve.Be carefull because this mixture
Teresa M. Mata ,Anto´ nio A. Martins , Nidia. S. Caetano ,Microalgae for biodiesel production and other applications: A review , 14 (2010) 217±232 10 Teresa M. Mata ,Anto´ nio A. Martins , Nidia. S. Caetano ,Microalgae for biodiesel production and other applications: A review , 14 (2010) 217±232 11 http://greenworld2day.blogspot.com/2010/11/energy-from-algae-ray-of-hope-for-power.html 20/2/11
are very sensitive to the outside solution.Then a litre of vegetable oil are measrured and need to heat it up under 130 celcius in small lab stove.Then pour it into 2 litre of plastic bottle or glass bottle.It need to be shaken for 4-5 minutes. After that,leave it for half an hour an we could see that the solution change.The change that we will observe is darker layer at the bottom of the solution and it is glycerine and the lighter layer which indicate the biodiesel on the top of the solution.And we leave this solution overnight. To filter the solution the we don t need which is gylcerin (dark layer ),we must add 500ml warm distilled water into the mixture before.The main objective is to separate the soap naturally occur from Biodiesel.The tecnhnique we used is we invert the bottle that have the seal on the the other bottle and slowly loose the top untill the solution slowly flow out.This technique need to be done 2-3 times or even more to make sure the soap are filtered. Final tecniques is,leave it without seal the bottle in open area for one day.Then,it is ready to used in diesel engine.12 CONCLUSION For the conclusion,we can say that there are a lot of advantages of using biodiesel and it is the new hope of our economy and environment.It will give a lot of profit to us in the aspect of economy and ecosystem.The problem that we most faced now is the realization of this subject and the technology we need to create.Biodiesel from microalgae is the one of the term that we always use and it is ³The Power of Green
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