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IHow to Cui Screw Thr,e,ads in 'the Lathe

Price 10 Cenls Po.~paid ~oAn'tAddr.u ~I fit' Sbmptl of AIrt C-"'t Aec.ptN






T he his t O'I}" (I i the 0 ri~ in iiml d~""~lol"lm ent of the sue", l h read I_' lost in an ~ i rt Hi cy, 1-1 owever I it is known that screw threads were used rnrrre thnn 2000 YC'"3,r:; 3~'.f anrl that screws aud bolts were used iQI" ra~tf."lling tugether \'3rltll..l;; Ila r[;; of the armor worn L'r' ancient Rornun warriors. Threaded (ledc,e::; were .,];<0 used to I)IWll and close heavy rl~j(WS and dr~whl'irl.~l·~ (If ancient castles,

The rlcvclnpmcnt of modem mechanical devices has been marle r"o~"ibTr by the invention and devclopmel1t or the screw thread, The mO",L hnporrant u-e uf threads i;\ for fash"niml; pnns or machillrl'Y ami C~lll:pmti1t to.L!;t'thCL ,nIh screws and lIuH3 parts cart easily be, a::ls(~lII1Jltd anti iukea upart wilh,"l1 I.bJlt\a~, but WheJ.1 fastened by other methods, "llc-ll ns welrline, riw'1!'-, nails, etc .. thls i.=; not possible.

Srrf'l\-~ <Il'e also used Ior tr.!JIl:,;miLlin~ mm ion, such as the Iead SCT('W, ('1'0';;;' {t'~d I:;cn:w, etc. or d 1:1 l h u, also Ior ]f~.'er~:ge as in I;K k screws, v lsesnn d ctnmps. The screw "is atsn used [11 pl'e.r.["iOI1 measuring lnstrurnenr-; -uch as mi(mmt'"~~r calipers, CrL'l~S 1f'f'J ~.d lathe. ere.

H ow to (ut Screw 'Tl~re,ad:s ~ n .h,e Lat,he

Cuttlnr; screw !lul'';:Lds in the lathe is accomplished by connecting the headstock spindle or the ~Hlhe wilh the lead screw by a series oI goC1Lr~ so that a pnsi1i'"c c a rriage fl'ed is ob tnined 1n'TId the lead screw LS dri ven al the requi ref! spN'd wi t h ]'elaHon to the headstock spindle,

The gearing b(:'~\veen the hearlsrock spindle and lead ::;r-rc'\\" may be ... rranzcd :::U l hat ~lny desired pitch of the threadmay be cut. for example, i~ the lead screw has fiibt UU(;, per inch ilild the ~C<Lr:s arc arranzed SA.) tbat the h".'J.L1;;:;tvck ~p'llulc revolves mur times while tile lend screw revolves once, the thread cut will he fom· rirnr-s as nne as, the thread on the lead screw Or 32' threads per inch,

Tile c.lIt1il~;!! tool is gmr!ncl io the sh<lptrefLtlillcd r(lr the iorm of the [intact to be rut, that 1S "V," . ..\, square. ere. The dep~b of the thread is determined by adj usting t he cross is H~ Ie.

Either right ]mrHl Dr ~dt hand threads rtl:.'ily he cut by n~\"l'r",jng the dlrection u[ rotation of the lead ~crew", Ttd$ may he accDmplishf'rl dther by ~dd;ll[l; or removing one idleL' gear in the Ch(111:11.(: zear train. or t~:r shifting the tumbler [It'lIi'S ~In ttl!.' hcadstock.


r"R'iIUI \


J) l.i1'l'lh r- '!~"Sl


F = 1"1" _ -

The XaLional Screw T'hrea.d Conunisslou in 19215 Wib;:; au1bOl'izcd by Congress ill' 1:.;;,1 ahlish a 5:talldanl !:oySIl'lll n] screw threads for use in the l-nLLed Sliollt~s, A:; ~L result this commission established the. \1l1t'l'ir;lrl :\ .. 1 iur1.n1 ::-;("[TW Thread S~'!!'.lelll whiclihm been 11 prl'''''''' 'N) by t h.-- f;C'l'fl':t~ ry "r ,\' il r. Sc c retary 0 f the K in.-,., and C ongress, am! u~ now ;!;cllel'ally used by nll shops in, the l'llil ed Sl:l,I(.~,

The rnrm of the thread :uklp1cu is ~]K1WIl above and tables {I)r both the Fine Tbrearl S('fL~~' and COlH~e Thread SE'I'irs £If,C J.(kerl un lhe oppositepage, The tabuI~li()n at the bottom of I)agt 3 li-as a number of special plrehes of ~C'rew threads that arc enmmonly userl. Huwever, the stnndnrrl sC',cw threads should always be used. ifpo"sible.

A report nf the ~iltLnn~l SC1'1i!'>l- Thread Commlssion ;'rp~_dll~ to screw I hrends, hfl-hs, l"IMchi'b'l8" screws, etc. defines the- [(JlIrm'ing terms,

Tenn'!\! Relating t·o 'Screw Threads

Screw Thread, A, ridge Ilr \Hlirurm section in the !·UL'lll. nf a h.·lix 'lit the 5uria,r.e fli a cylinder nr cone,

Elo:ile.!:'!lIlI.aud Inh~irua[ Threads, ,\n external thread is :;[ thread on the Clut~i(l(' I1f a member. Example: A threaded plug, An internal thread is a thread 011 the inside nf ~ m~mht:'r F:Y<lmr11e' A threaded hole.

M..1.jor Diameter (formerly known H::i ., outside d iameter" 'l, The 1a reest r.I i ame1 er irC the thread of the screw 01' nut, The term "major diameter" replaces ~he term "(lu1' side d ia 1:111 df'r" tL6 Flprl!1 it'd to the thread u r a screw an d also (he rerrn "ruH diameter" as applied to the t bread o[ ~ '[Jut,

Minor Diia.IIILlc:tC:Jr (Iorrnerly k no .... '11 a "r .... rc diumcter "}, 'The ~lIIaIL~~l diameter tlf the thread IJf uhe Sfl'CW or nul. The term "minor diameter" replaces the term "core Ji..'-lllitter" ;1~ ,wrHefi to the tlu!"au of <:I ~[rn.,... ,md also the term "inside diameter" <II~ .aIJpliet:l to fhe t b read of a n 1;It,

Phdli DiaJ!!'IckT. On a slraiuht screw thread, the ,liaTilcier of an imaginary evllnder, Illc surface of which would pass throuuh the threads al !inL~h J1(1illl~ !~~ In n;:lk-;" (''[11::11 the \\'i{~111 of the threadsund the width ol the spaces cut by the ~lIrf;l;;:e of the cylinder,

P.L~ch, The distance from n pniut on a :;Ui!:'W thread ttl a rllrr1'f'"";III,mling point on the next thre"d measured parallel to the axis,

L£ad.. Tha distance a screw thread ai!\·O.I.!I!.'"C':; axinllv iL1 one turn, On .. \ !'in~lethread screw, nw' lead ,!I)d pitch are identical; un :1 Ii";ubll',thread screw the lea~l if, twice the pirch ; on a triple-thread "crew, the lead is three times the pitch, etc,

AI!!i;';fi~i'i N!lliQ!llIl C:;lllf~'~ Thlr~>;:!dI S~~i~~ StalndalrdllhrEI!!d (NJ.c.)

F·ormerl'l U. S. S'!.!!rnd~~(;!

'N!:!J_ 4Jxr Diam.

No. iJ<r Din ....

Tnroild'i' Ollt'l<id~

p'!:!'- Diam .. l,,·r

I.rlt::h. (ij :5f:i"!!'W

I 2 1

4 s 6

M ,on

S6 ,08.6

4B ,~

32 24 24

.20 18 16

14 13 12

I! Ul 9

1,(100 1.12, 1.250

· III 'I)

.IH 38

,1138 36

.IM 29

,F)1) .2;

· 116 ~t>

,:250 .31.lS, .. H'

.43'S. .:500

· 5{..~5

,62$ ,750 ,Elf)

0_ 136.0' 0_1495 I1i I 77f1,

Am~fi~i!liI Ni!I·tiQJ!~1 Frfi!~ lhr'i!<ld S!ui~~, Sta IrIdla rd Th1reald' (N .IF.)

ftlM1l;1,{1y S~ A. E. 1I'~f!ladl

N" .• ". Diarn.

nH~i!dI~ OlJ.t&i.d!!l l T "po

P"r [)i;vl!!':·~e. Dl"i.11

~:-:_ tl<f Sotrew I :Si"~,,

so ,000 9€~

71 OB 53

M ,0806 50

5>6 .099 45

o I 2

,HiS !~ a; {I, 1<)0(;

,500 2j~O, 4S ~1

,~625 {U062 O. 5'1.1ti~

28 14 .24-

.20 10 18

3 I Q

O,2n[~ o szzn O.n2[)

{I 10 I~

,111 41

,1250 },

,U~ 33

. '164 29

. ~90 .:! I

,.n() 14

,2~O .nzs .375

18 16 14

.·521 ,:;lSO ,an

[Utili] (I H'.I'l7 II~ 06fo1i5< {I, 8{l20 0 M2~)

1 .. 000 1,125- 1.2:;'0

D ... d",,,l Eq'Jiv~:" leo;t ·tor


II} 1l4!W (] 0-5095 0_0700 0_OS.20

o ~)\l3J Q IU~O 0.1130

'0.1360 O.15~O I), H:lZD

('.'.1274 ~ 'n74

12~i 1_0*

D11;(1 1_17nS

Talbl~5 ,of; American NlatiQMI S'f;N!lCij:01l~ Sen:w Til'nre'lld Pi((;he$ (NLS.), and Re,commnld~d TOI'p D'riU Si1Qi;,

5} 0 .. 0595

50 O.070Cl

4"7 O.01F!S

QJJ~IJO e.nns 0_1005

7 O_lOW

F 0.1:570 ~" 0_3~.2.'

u O. JIJ.BO ~r.i1 (D1l19

~1r.'1 Q.48'13

I~.~ O. BRl 21';:;' 0.6561 ~%1. 0_7656

% 0 875 r.~~1 o. 9~~3, 1'1;1 1 . I U9}

Threads O~t;!!id~

p.i":lJ'" :1-:'i;il,mf'::~f'T

l. nch 04 S;;:rcw


14 u 32

10 27 J2

1~1 17


l4 11

D(Od",al EC]lli\i'a" l,en~ of


~I:i. 0_ 3lfll R 0.31900

--- _-----~


x 0.3971)

Y (U04(l

No_ (Or Dj""" ,


T],....,~<L" Out"i.)"

i""T D~II.m"'t e, r

~ ncb oj 5"te"'c

'f"P Drm 5iLe.9

D&.:i" .. al t::.qui v a" Icnr of


~;"I 0 4119

""~I 0 4') ~ !

_--::-::--:::-:::- _I"'~_ .!:! 4(.l:Jl

jf.21 ~':r:L 0 BIZ () ~,,,,-

~~ 'f'.n7 (l_6719 CU187 0_7%9' e.ezs:

II) 8437

o Q21~'

o '1M:i7

12 14 27 V t2 2'1

12 27 !1 III 2:1'


;J~~ I'~/

_____ '_I:I_


4 1].209'0

.i:}U j u .• nw

!~ O .. lH~]

] ~t'i 0 _l(jj(>

.3125 J 0_271(1 'I~ 0 .. 1812

12 n


_o:II!:VE:ASi~_ L!.IJ' ~

!:leu ..... _..... CE,I"R

F.i ~~ .t.1 ~ ~ ~hlldt.' .!,l''!'I..Iir jll'll: l cs- !elil U iJlJ:;' 5.CI'C'w' ·t h.n·i1Id!=i f"i'nl .Fi ~~l1ItTfil'!lJ] I.: hill"llf:c ,tJ.~iU' Itil tl!!~~.

Settilng Up Stand,ard C~lalnge Gealr tath,e f,or Cutting Screw Thlfeads

Screw threads art:" (lit "II Ilil' Siandarrl Cham.')' (;~";Il' t ..... uhe by f'llgallinp;' theapron half nuts wlih 111r I!'~d ~(n"\', The pitch !.Ii t hrenrl In hl' cut is determined by the num 1:w.1· ,-)f ~ !"("~ h in L he: change ~~ars used fI n j he revers e Sl ud all d I' he lead sere w.

To set up t111;.: lathe hll' nLltlnr; d t'.crew thread, first determine the nuajber of threads 1"11:'1' ind, io be cut, By referring t n the imlex chan att;ll'berll0 the lathe (Fig. 5) 1 he ClKtlL~ ¥t'<lr:; f"t'lllIir,".'d can be determined. The thread tn be cud .hl)ulf! !jC ]0- cared in the lir::<l column under the heading "Threads l'l Cut." Tn the second. column unrler the JH:adin~ "Stuil Gear" is llsred the number or teeth in the change ~ear which should be placed Of] the l'eo\'NSf' stud oi he lathe, L No. Fiw- 4, and Ii) In the third column under llw h .. ~uJill~ '·:;(1'4'1\ (rl·"r'· is listed L'Ii.~ number n] teeth ill t1le :::::ear 10 U~ placed 1111 the lead screw,

Ai h' r se 1 eel ing l he c 1:1 a 11).(e gea ["5 Ilee e=a rr f LI r cut 11t) g the dee i red I h'-(·;I rl J pluce L hem an the reverse stud and 11.:'<111


15Qi!lTIi !1'i~ BEllm

oc_lN_GI_NI""",' ~"1)UTHU

- .. ,,"t= ~.T1I. II l!I;iW.,


-t. !II.... 3,%

1~-~4-·~1I ~ «<I 4. "'_.&-4.-1511

" IZ 3rZ :9-6.1-"1:;

110 ~~ 4Q 11-:U-4.Ii 111,1~ :1IZ ~~ 1;li-;U-41!l 13 3111 '5,2 1~-31;Z --I~' II; :u ,; ...

11!-:lI!-U ~o 312 ~,ti n-I'B,-4011 2.. bi ~·I ~It- ,6-1:lJ ~7 ,~ ,."" 1i!!-I'n-~,!II ;j,iII 16 6D u- 1;-64 lil! I~ n &(I-!I-II)

Fill'. Ei.ln;d",,, "Iato 'f01' !Ji .... .un...! In Ii" l!:Ith~3.

=crew respect h-E!ly and connect them "'L[h theidler f'f'~r. as shown in fi~s, 4 and 6.

This .. rru n.;remNl t is k 110W L~ as simple ,gearing alii! I'; us ... ·d for cuttlng ~JI screw threads 01:1 L he ~IH:lll er si lei'< of hi he", Xote that the ~':'lr On the koHl. screw h in line wi! h I he- ;'::~;lir 011 the J\C\-~r".c· 51 101 !.I , and lht''';{'' two ~f'ars are connected ~)y a simple itlJ~L" ~(,LLr. The spacill),!: cullar for the leau screw is. ill t hi ~ GI se placed outs i de ni the chance grar.

Fi;r _ c~ I!::h :tL1 Il~ ItC"ilir' CiCll.dpliu~n't' U~i1 d ~HI )Jt:...lll' ,,!ll~frlSt, 6'" 11- II.II:.,'II~~

Compound :ge:_rilll:" as illLlsLnLlcd aho\'l~ in b~. 7. i;; user] fill" cutting Ime pitchc of ~CFCW threads {It] hrg('· 1;lIhe::. havina coarse j.itch lead SDT'I/I,·:" .. .\ compound ld·lf'r ;:::e'lr havina it two Ln UTIC ratio is inserted h~!wf'!"n llli: stud ~rar anrl k:Hl ,:nl'W gear so Ib:ll 111~1 1 \\ ice as many threads per inch ,\·LlI be cut :'I..' if ~im!llei.J:r-;lrin!.(\n:-re used,

Tile index I!l;.,te illustrated i" Fi~. 8 at tile rit.:ht ~111)","~ the arnmg~]'rH:,nt or the (:hrmC"t' ~c[lr'" fur rut' j·ng ::nt'\\, threarl-, on the 1.1" and 16'/ South nmt[ Standard Chan.c:e ~'l""r Lathes. Simple gearil1;f, us dl.:_;.crihL~i un L'''~C .1. is fm 1. 1£1 20 I.hrt:arls per inrh, C ·l1mpnLlml ).!.r;jrin~ is indicated [nr tlm';ltl< 21 to 4:0 per inch, wliich are Iistcd hf"luw l he heavy Ilne.

:-':-ote lhut the ~]1arillg collar on the k;ld screw is placed helWPHo nil' change !.(t'~1r ;lIU! the 11'~Hl screw hrnckct ',U that il,r ,~~a~ '1111 L lit' l't"ad ~(L"'e"Y m~ly ·1 u~ ~', ID1HttlNi with rhe -mall compoum] ).l"l"ar ! hrnuuh an idkr gl':Ir.

If .il i~ ll('l't~~~,1 ry tit cut rhr old!; fliltl' lIMIl'W l't-!" inch '11\ u Standard Ch:m;.!"l' (_;l'ar Lathe. S[lt'l ia] 1!l'~H'in~ j~ required. This W;Il:La,~ ("011::>[51.:> "f .nldltinnal chanue ~;Irs or addit ional compound ~ears to permit settina 1111 Ihe lathe [or the clL'C";[L"€'ll pitch of thread, l-"ig-. 1) at ri!:!;ht ~h(m's an ~l'Idex chart f((ot" cutl in~ fine ~!I"l·\\· threads frlllt1 44- to f!.O p~T inr-h t·1I1 ;! 0" ur l I" South Beml Standard rhallj!e CC:1r 1£1111(, lI~illg a cumpuund i(lkr !-'"l!1I1l".


I .... -....,I·if-ICI.

'HI](oU!~ .~,..'iI '- u!!tJj'

'I'~~ I:~U ~~i.1,.

:I '';!:t ~a.

'_~ •. __ I!:d

.oil -48 ~:il ~-d--.I.iJ ,f. ..dl!! "'.I!I, "!·-U--S-. II .• ~ ....

'.-~"--'I'i. II) ~" ,,1:1 ,,-~ .. -- .. ~11"'i:,I.t:I .411 la-:z:oiII--~" I..!II Z.IIl !!I ~ ",-2"--S~ IE 1.. U '!I-Z4-~1

il!tj 2:,i, !5-~

22 ;l.4"'1·~-..:Ijl

.z.ilI. ,.;.4 I-,i: .1:1';'

~6 - :!.&-I·!-~~ I' 7_41 'Z' &.4 2&-~"_1 ~-'~I .g ~",,~ la 31 -:Z~"'I-Z-"4 2I.J:l Z~ I-Ill'!: ." _'1:4_I_Z_!!!I1'l

"F'i((.8.lndcxl'l. .... · r .. rI ~'. ..,.,1 16" lat h e s,

~l'(O;I.~.rfij 1!1l1UU IJ!ooo;;ii;oi;~ .. "'~ __ -11

'r:::~r :~:, :::: '~~:

4,& Ni 1-2: 414-

.oiI.i, - "'. -i~~ - ~,; I -4111 'It: 1-2 4i8. i!;:! -1,& _I-~ -s·i S.... I" 1-:1: 5.4 ~Eo-1'~-I'=-!>C; i" L' ~.!l; io;, 1Ii"'-I&-I'~-;.II

~~-'::-~~-~; I

ri ~.S. Fi[1~ H,...,.,,j cuuill ~ jll1ldCll: p;~rL~,n_

The point of the cutter bit must l~~ ground to all ,Inll"h~ of 60 for clltl.ill~ screw threads in i he lathe .

• B shown i·n ri~, 10 at right, _.'\, center ~Flgl.! Of a 1l.!I1e gage' is used for gdnding t lie 10'-11 to the ex.ret ;)J\~le required. The lUI' 01 the tool i .. usuullr .!:!;rouml flat, with no "Ide rake nr back rake. Hower er. for Clllliu.2" t hreads in steel, sldr- rake is sometimes lli'of,d,

A termed threarllne tool i~ usually u-ed if considerable thl'('~ldl[lt; ie' to be r!.mc, Fj,:.;~ 1 I lind 11 : lIu,,1 rate l wo ~ood types or Iurrned .hrt'IHliLl~ tools. Thl' furl11('d

'f'i!:~ 10 .. Coen.I.>er iJ".iLJe ~.Ii:ll!c::.dI (ub' !f.:hiflCldi"'ig: rllna:l~ uif i:'UU~I~ h.~: !Jt'ofi.t!lnd .Or ~!.01 ~ ~!inllll: ~lInl!'~ Ilul['::!ldti.

t·iz. IO.A.. Sid" 'Vi"w Q! I. tile !.fllU~ ICNJlU:I.:I~ ~ .. ~iI. ;ffLJ!IIJI~dI !ftJr tL!U'I• i 111: '101':-"1'1'; d hr.t!oI tla.

I'i.', 10-1'1, "'rid] V,"w orl;!ithc- t{ itillii.tlr ~I! gpo,,;;d rOT o:,,~ • Illbf:' ~';:II"~~ lhR~u:i:S._

threadine lO(II.;> require ,l!rjn(]lrl~ un

top edge only io ~hal"pl';'n and therefore nlwar~ t"<l'l"l'I;qln inn- 141 Inrm .Hirl 4·0rn:,,'t annle.

for cutting \Illi'rium ~aUonal. Standard Screw Threads filler l111]n 10 pel' inr-h, Uw [11.jlll II' the 1(1111 is usually left Sn;'lfr'l or with a vury small nul to prn"jfne clearance at the bottom of the ihread, Bowen"" fnr cutting; C:O<L·rSef pi~chc::; uf threads and when maximum strength is dcsi red , the point of the tool luar be ~"olll1d flat, as ~]l{)WIl1 in .li"ig_ U. 'The Hat nn ihe poilu ;If tlu- 1 mil "hmd~1 IlE' nne-r-ight h of th r- pih-h_ r~(':€ lig. 1, Pa;!!f! 2.)

The illustration <11 Lht" h"ullm uf the ]u).:,f., Fig. 14, ~h(lws. n ~ap;o!? \'\ 11 'Ie 11 may be used for _gril1diu:e:: 1 hr(';Hiin~ tools t(~ the exact angle required ~or standaed "Cl'CW tht""Cll.J~. :';("Jt.C" that the I!:age silo ..... " the .fl:lt. lor the point 1)[ the tonl as well ~(~ the e-au anale and dept h o r t hrend ,

Fi.!.:r 14. S't~l'Iida. .. d !=I(!~'(:'W' H,1Jofl.:rid !.oGI S'.,,~~ of",. ([~I~.diilt tb"", .. dj"E lool s.,

FI!. I 1, l""nnod tltl· ... ~<I.~" Il t .. B·D. ~ .. Idd !1I1'"".

ric:. I.Z; 1r ... IIIII-=U 1.llrl'-iI,l;.llll~ l{l{Jia, .hr"~bh!:, ty'PiP_



·~11l1'u t·.rIUil1y ,~Ch'jr' Iltr-"(j~/", il~ ,.ft'l'/ U.~ .. ' plt'n'!} -t vil ~'f!jl a ~mu(Jlli lilnofr(/ r",m resnl),

(Qlr,red Pos:it,i,on of Lat,~~ Tao! fOlr CutUlIlg Screw Th.n~alds

The top oj the thl:~nflil!1i'( tool should ber~Llcffi e~:Ictl~'v I'm cen ter . as .:>11'I.)wl] in Fig. l S atri;!!b t. r (J[ ell 1- tLnrJ: exaernal screw tbreads. N ote that the ~.op 01 the tool 15 grOtlllrl flat and ls in exact aH:i!llmentl/l.'tth the httlll' center. This isuecesaary to obtain the 1:f1l'I'f'rt an~kofll]~~tl:m'::IJ.

The t~r-em.iillg tuol must be ~l sqmll'e with the wo1'l" as ::;howil ill Fig,. ]6, The center ;."agc 15 used to adjust the point of the thread~n~ 1001 anti if the too] is carefully set 11. perfect thread will result. or course. if the tbreadingMol h UDi set perIectly squ:ar-e with the '!Hll'k, the 11l1;Kle 01 the thread wlll be incorrect.

The point of the threading tuol is al .. 1l r~~irnl f' ... ~('Hy .,n f'fnf"l" :L' ShDW"1l b1 F;~. 17 al ri~ht fvr r..llHillg iH\:crrml screw threads. The l)flr~t Hi lItl" t,r),11 Illust lie. set r~f.:!r t rc tl y StllU~He "~'l~h thework. This m~y he ~K[(Jmf"llb,he() hy ~ltlhJ1.1111.' !lllinl ui Ihf' tool intu the center p::tge, :1:; shown Jt1I FlA" HI at ri~ht.

Whe!l adiustlm; the thre~ding tool r or l:lltt.lrU!;LB l e mal threads. allow ~uflkie'l'lt clearance l)f![wecn rbc tonl and the in." kl c d ianl~t~'I' of the hole 11) r~e'rrll il b1lickin i'!; Ollt the t IlnJ W 111' I~ I be end o( the cut has been reached, However the boring bar should be as large in diameter ami as .:'l10 rt aspossi.hlc tu prevent spril:l::(ing.

t·i,~. U. 1f'''~ .,f ~"H'w b It i~ .. uM DC .• "t,,~ en I"~ I ~~ !: Ultt~[J'biC' 5oC.1."e:~ diJt'.:-.~~[.8.


F" ~Jr. 1 G_ c..1_1·~'''''1· i~ j ~ B-hCJuld be- s.::-I ~ql!lIl',1"111 ...... :.11. """-IIrk I iJ5 ..";ih u'WilJ -1.1 b'!)'I.·I!"F ~ or c~II:I:I.I~;Iil !FI~ l.'Ii'I,:-..1 .J:I'!.iJ"!!!W' ll~~iilds..

:FI~. H. F" .. r cwthn~ in. ~t:l'11i:1j] ::IiCIl"~W 'th 1l'1i" t(lP .::.f 1:.l,ILfll!L" I:II~ t ~1hI(]uld IE" l5<~t~~<Li.(d)' IllH t:.(-rMt' .. r'.

F~8". 'IS. CuttC'1" li~l S.'h;u;i:ll~,;m llc t5-"!:l'~ ~q!.:I;a'r.~ wlith W(j1"~'~ lI1,jII ~~~~f!. ,UlIJ !:I'I!'~ f~r C!UJUilii ~ in:teit'n:."1~ ,i=i!CHlW tEt.t.~:-B!d~_.,


P'ositiolill of Compound IRest' for (uUilnlg Screw Thr,eads:

In manularr nrinz pl:tlll~ where -uuximum 1Il'I}rilicLion is desired it is customary lO pbu: the fnml'Hl\md rest of the lathe at an :.Ingl!J of 2~ lor cutting screw threads, The compound r~~L is SWLLJlg ,UfllIIHI Lo the ri,;.;h.: a~ shown ill Fi).!::;, If) fln!l 20, \rhl'll till.: cumpuund rest is ~N in this positinn and the compound rest ~lH'W LS used i4~r adjusting the depth .tJI cut. must oi the metal is rvmoved by the Ht side of the thr .. adlllg tno]. t See l'iw:. :n.) This 1,cttI1Lt.;; +bc d'ip Lo curl nut of the W<lY b~1tCT than if tool b led straight ill, ~H1d prt'\ ents lr:lri~lg ¢ht' thread. Since the ,m~le on the 'iJe of the threading l(l(ll is 30', the ri~ht side of the lllill will shave the urrcurl smooth. and produce (l nice fmJ~h, although it docs not remove cnoush nu-rnl 1" illlr·d(:'~1.: "illL

the main chip whirh j.... ruken by tlll' left side ot the lool

Cutter Bit!

Fti.a:'~ 21. ,A.~"OI1 of I.bread ClIJ1IU[!i:. 1001 Wil!£!h t·'~HJI!iiI(!-un.d "'Hilt tH :-LtJ t ;n~ aGIO ril' a:1..,.

f"hr. 20. CI~I'I't'C't ilIngl(l gl com- 1'~lJnd .. ",I (B. t1o ..... "d ,[u'ltl'''l!.


Fils: I 22. C'li b I jnl: il :5.'11'1:"" ttJ.ri:':nll!1 "iii 3i 'Pnll:.t!.iOfi I];.,,~d g .. ~~,

"Ig. 23·, i'lU'L",d ,t"ttlnof .I"J' ~Hachc<i to do,".I"jl "I un·dl."

011 account of the los! mot.ion caL]~(:'d by the play necessary [or smooth operation I>j' tale cll .. H1lo\e ~t:al'5, [eudscrew, hull nuts, etc., 1 he I hread cutting hlill must lJC 1\'[1 h(rl'el \~'Jl quickly [It theend of each cut, hefore the lathe ~pjl:ldle ls fc\'er!'ocd 10 return th~ tool Lv the t;t,uliJlg' point. If t~is is Dot done the POLlLt nI the tool \\·ill l];~ intu the thread and may be broken off. The ihrend cuttinc ~[(IP' m(l;' be used i". r,r,U:;llbHil'l~ the depth vi eacb successive chip,

The pvini I~f tne lli'JJ should nr~l br- bt.:L ~n that it just 14'11I,;he~ l he work, then lick the: thn.'L1u·ll~ stop and tum Ihe rlrreud Clillin,:.:; 5'tO]) :f\CLCw uuril the shoulder ls tight. agall1sl 1 he ~ll1[1, \YlwrI r.·"tly tlJ take I h(' i'lrH chip run the tool rest hack hy turning the cross fL--cJ screw t o the It'fl several times anrl move ~he tool Lo Lh€ point where the thread is 10 start. Then turn UlI: cross fred screw tl' the ri!::ht unt il Ihe thread cutting stnp screw ~trtkl'"~ the thread cnu il1::l; stup. Th(, tool rest is now in tile nr itrinul PO:;itlOH. and by urrning the cumpuunrl rf"~l feed screw in .002" M .0(oY' rhe tool will be in 1I. pusition tn Lakr thr- Iirs] cut ,

Mi!l';rom'~h:r Collalr MillY IBe Us.ed in !PlaG e of Stop

'fh~ mictometer collar 1")11 the cross ieed screw "f (he ];llnf' may be used in place or till.: thread cut tLn~ stop, ]f desired, To do this" nr"t bring; the !xdnt of lhn'ldinJ! t(H)1 up i-i:I t.hut it j'~l~,t touches till: \Yolk, then arljl1=,t the micwme!ct (ollar on the cross I!"<"a ~Cr(·\\" to ~iTU.

An adjlB~Ung for Dhl;lillill~ the- desired dL·pHI of cut should be done with the cum[Hi!1I'Id rt:;t screw, Wilhdraw the lor,1 at the end of f!rtl:h em by tumrllg Hll' C[I}i;!! Ieed screw to the Ieft one com rick tum. return; tuol to the st<nting point and turn the cross Il.'I.:d screw to the- rishr nne iurn, :;;toppin:;( ell zero. The campuund IT5t feed screw may Lh~'ll he ;1(l]II-"\1't.1 rCI]' any f~l"~irfd depth of chip.

t"]..J:'. 24. Mh:~ilfill~t~r il!:Dllillr !O:n .c:.r-o:s:'.l It!ed ~§.I:::n!1# I'i'f l.':4t~Le-.

T'i!i~~ ligh~ Tlrill~ Cut to Check Li;l~he' Se~· u p

Alter setting up Ihe lathe, as explained on ihe pl'(':[cd[n~ p.ages, take a very light trial cut just rit'f'l' f'l"lrlligh to "'C ribe a I ine o n t h€ surface of the work, tIS shown in fig. 25_ The purpose of this trial CUl is to check lip and make sure that lho: l.une j" arrauzrd lor cu1(ing' the ,di?sirNi pitch uf thread,

T41 check the" number of threads per inch, place a-calc <!!o;ain::-t the wurk, as sho .. m in Fi,:r. 26 so that the rud nl the srjlk re.=;ts on the poinr or the thread or all one uf the scrlbed lines,

Count the spaces bel ween the end 01 the scale and the flr:z.t inch mark, ",rll.J tl1i~ \\ ill JJ;h. c you the number of threads pCI' inch.

It i5 quite diffIC.uII [I) accurately count fine pitches of screw threads, 3.£ described above, .\ screw thread J!:~l~-e as illustrated ill Fl~. 21 is \"ery convenient for checking the nlL~r pitches of screw threads, This ~age consists of ~ number of sheet metal phles til which are cut the exact form (Ii the \-ariou; pitches of threads and each plate Is ;,tampE!d with a number i:nclicatirtt; lhe number uf threads ~'I- Inch fw l\,hich it I;; ro he used.

The !'LILa I check Ior bl.)th thediamcter and pitch or rhe thread may be made win .. the nut that b til be iLS~ or with a dn~ thread gage, if one is available, fip;. 2g sJ1IJWS how the aut m'Lr be used tor checking the thread, The nut should fit .. II ugly without play nr shake bUL should not bin.d on tile thread at any IXl1n1-

T r the :mr:;le f) I Ihe thread i", en rreci amI! t he tbre~d t:.; cut 1(1 Lin' CQrn-'U \h:jJlh it will fa It1'1e nllt perfectly, However, [r the angle 0] the threarl is incorrect or the lead is incorrect. the thread may ap[l!'::Ir to fu .he nut but \"111 only be touching at a lew points. For thi5 reason the thread should he cheeked by other methods in addltion to the l'lul or 't"Lng g:l~C.


Fig. 2S_ T"il'll ~Ll.I, t .. th,,~1t: ee I-up 10,. rtti .... Ll .. ~.:J i!;

F;g. <:11. S~N!'W tb"""d 1"."I'".Ii' IiUO<I UjI i'll.!1t~

f[~. 29' .'l)lm~ 1~l'd .. ,I ·to weele · ... dt~ son,,,11 p .. int ~nl~" whdle- CLLUfi1l:!' tOl"f'"I!,W' .b.-.cad5 It'i n Ln....,l ~te;cl LBW'"<"ad &;tl!:of"~

Use Lud 'Od When Cutting Screw T~ rea cis in Ste'el

Lard oil. shoulr] he used when cLluin~ screw [hrOl'rl,J~ m "lee! ill ordur [0 produce ,.1 smooth Ilm>~ld. I r lhp nil is nci us .. d a very rouah finish .... ill be c.!l.lI:M'd by l~.aring lie the steel by the cutring tool.

if lard oil is no: available an ~()od cutting uil ur rnar-hinr- '.Iil Illa} hi! ll'.l'(L If trouble 1S experienced in producing a smooth tlrread, a 1iU]~ '110\1,TI~H'rl sulphur m:L)' be added to : he oil.

The uil should be applied generuuely preceding 'tach cut .. \ small paint brush i" i!~r;I' tor applying the oil \\JI4.:'n cutting external screw threuds, ~15 illustrated above, S~l1ce Ian! oil is quite expensive, many msehanlcs piac!! a small tray or cup just ilBlow tIll' cutting too] on the cross slide of the lathe to cntch the surplus oil which drips off the wurk_ III manufacturbur plaors where Ihe lathe is to be used exclusively Iur cuttina screw threads in 51~el it i" <,II:;tunmry to equip the lathe with an oil pan and I)i~ pump to provide a cnnt inuous flow of oil.


Use of T:hr,ead Diaf ~ndj,ator in (utt~n9 Se,r'€"w 'Th r'¢,ads

A thread dial indicator or 1hre;ld.itl![ tI'H..:I, is U5H.Illy used fflr C;L!ltLng ]l)i1g screw lhrc~~{b. l'hL~ device permits disengfl.ging the b:Ji~-nl~t5 CIt the end or the cut, returning the c a n~i1\J1)e 10 11Hl starting point by hand, and then ~L1- gaging the half nuts at the correct time ~o that the 1001 will folkl',\' the Drj~in;ll cut. This 53\'C's time 0011 ]Oll~ threads and It aJ;;o cllminates the necr~".Ll}' or rcn:r::;iilg t~H;: lilt he spindle ,

The lhf~dtlin~ dial rnnsists of a worm wheel wllich is attached lei llie lower e1HI ~I.r :I 5haft and meshed with the l@JD screw, On rbe upper ersd of tll~ sh,~it is the: dial. .h the lC8d screw revolves the dial j.:; turned and the numbers on [he dial indicate l)(lLnl~ at

which Ihe ball' nuts may be ell~1\gcd,

Fir.. 3T, F~,,~ .. i tl"'o"d d I-I'! 1~"H"~t.,,..

When cULting short threads it is bCH(']' lo leave the h~lf.-nut::; engag,ed wirh the lead screw, arid when the end of the CLIt. i;; 1"I'!'~ld-u:"d, withdraw the tool and reverse the lathe spindle 10 return tbo tool to the starting 1.YlLrit.

For all even numbered threads, close the half mil;:; at any line nn the dial.

For ,111 odd t~ 1I mbe red til reads, close [he haH[juts at any n \1m bered line DI] dial. For ;IH threads involving enc-half of ;) thre .. d in each inch, sHe'll as 1 n. J-j, close

Ihe- half nuts at any odd numbered line.


Rcsettirrn's the 10011 ,Aftell' the: lhread Ha,s B'eeIH Staded

H tile- thread cut Ling tQoJ should need re-sharpen LUI! l ur if for 1I.t1y oihe r re1l:,1J11 h is necessary to remove the thread cutting tnol before the thread hns h(!L"I~ completed, the tool must be ca:relljl1:'-1 readjusted so that it ~"[11 Iullcw ihe original g:rM\'c WhCH it is 1'1'pl,u;-ed til the lathe. "[here are several me<lhCHJ~ Lr ~\,.bid~ [his cau be aC>Cfj.tnpli~hi!;(l.

Hdol"€ adjnstil1~ the tool, sei the point of the cutter bit square with the W(J rk. as descr j bed vu pa1-,>C ']. and lake up all the lw;tmotlon ill file change ~'t',HS, llalf nuts, etc. by ]1ullilip; the belt


I'I:!!. ~i2_ A,dJu"~~h!l' ,,"'Ol t !lIf thr ... adi .. g i ..... '.:.'1 rt.'ilJ Ij,ljJ.lLfv.l ... whit Ll~rlt~d.,

If the lathe ha- a compound rest, rhe compound rest top may be set at .U1 ltllg]e, ana by ad'j!J::;;tjl1~ the ("r0;:;S leed screw ,H1J compaund rest f'l.:ed screw .. tmultaneouslv the paint of the tno] can be made to enter exactly itHo the original tlm!l\.'f',

Hit 1:; not nimll,"'lliel'1l tn use the cnrnpound rest for l"e.i'I.djnsling the threading tool, the lathe du~ may he ~oo~~oed, the work turned !'.o that the Lhrelluiu:!!: tool w[JI match the groove and ~hc lathe cllJ~ tLI!:;hu:tl~d .

.. \nolhcl' merhod rhat is mmf'I'ime::; used [5 to disconnect the revetse !!e'-[fS or the CI,J.Uiio':~ ~("(l!!i-, iurn the he~ld~ll),k spindle unti] the point of the threading tool enters ~he grvovc in the wnrk , and then recnmrect the gears,

The end of the thread may he fi.!li~h· CQ uy any OL1'l: o{ severalmethods. The 45" chamfer OUll the: end 1lf lh~ thread, ,at; 5hQ\\~r.J ill Fig, 33 ,i5 commonly used hrr holts C;Ir screws, etc, For mach] ned [lans and srecial S('i'~V''S the- enrl " often fm:i;:,]u:!d by rounding ~\-ith a runnin~r Lool, as i>ho-wn in fig, .14.

. [t i~uim.cuh Lo 5101' the thl't"ading toed abruptly so ~(}me provieion is tl5u<ltly mudc for clcaruncc 1Lt. HlI; ead of the c-,IJL In FIg_ ,n a hole iH,G been d.l"ill{'(1 in the end or rhe shaft. and ill f:il!"_ 34 a fled:. or j,(rMve has been cut around the sbaft. The !!l'OO\'e Is prefer, able as the lath .. must be Tun very ~]o[I~l'Iy ill order to ohl!lLll ~a1i~J,~ciI1ry results with the drilled hole.

Fi 11_ &.~" Fill i .h.'" ~ end "r th '''."d """"it6 'I.&:e ~~ulillT'll"= 1"' •


FL!'I_ .34. f>1ni';h;Il_~ .'Bd, ,,~ tb,.,."CI w·idl. ~i!:!'rm Ili!IilL

J1ultiple screw thrcuds LIre used fm ,1<1- j usti L1 L: ~C rews and ut her applica t i LJIlS \\ lu-re <l coarse lead is desired. The depth of tbe thread is less than for a thread of' pqu:\l lead. makin~ .1 ::\.r(1l~~t:T -crcw,

,\ multiple thread having two grooves i~ known as a double thread, one huvinz thre€ ~rOd\-Cs a triple thread. etc .. lSr~~ Fig .. ~ S.) The pitch urul lead 1)[ ::t multiple thread should nnt lw cuufuscd. The pil~.h ls the dis-

Flt!'. 35. A mult,p'lic .~ th ...... ,;!1 h .. ·v'''~

l .. ., g.~ .. ~~" ([I~ t:.I., Th.~"d l

ranee fiuJLJ :I ,"Iilll (III U[W thread to the UJr-

respuruling point on lhe next threrul, \\hlll' [hi: lr .. ul ii. the di~t'H1ll' [I screw thread all\'aI1Cf'''' III 11111.' II I'll.

Whell nil I iag multi] Ill: threads in tilt' 1 ... 1 he the first thread is U.lL to the desired rl~pth. The work is then l'f.\'!~ln·J part oj a turn, ;ll1rl the second thread cut, etc, In order 10 obtain an exact ?;parrng it i~ <lr1vb:.ut~llt to mill as many equally spaced slots in the face plate fur the lathe doc as there are multiple threads tt) be cut. [J')T 1Il don b 1 e 1 h read, 1 \\" o slots: a t ri ~ll.. l 11 read. ill rf'(, ~~ut!:i. I.:! t c. H it is not con veniem lu cut slots in the fan' plntc. t'Ll~l~IHy s],:u:ed ,;tur!!' m~y be attached to the b(;~ libte and a struiuht t~il lathe dor,:: used,

Another m('lh~1(1 l(lr indt'xing- the work when curtlng rilllhirJle threads i!'l to disrng:agc the thaJll!e g~m'~ after the flrst thl'f'ad h:b been completed and turn the spindle to the required position ior !;lllflin~' Lilt" next em. ]I a Juubl(' thread L::i hem;::!; cut and then .... are 4g teeth in the stud gear, the spindle should be turned until 11 t~C'lh han: been pn~:;-ccl, 1 hen the c::r.:lt"~ tli~n~d .. !lui Lhe :!d:"L1d thread. cut .

• >\ lefl 'hJI,d screw is one that turns counter- ~-clotkwlse when advancin~ (Iooking al bead or serew) as shown til Fi.!g. 37. This is just the I)Ppn- :_

s.Lte of 11 I"i~ht hL1I~J ::;c-r~w. Left hand threads arc :-:used Ior (he cross it:'ct.i screw," of lathes, the krl

hand emf. of axles for automobiles and wa~om;, OIl(' md 4)i a turnbuckle, surne ripe lhrf';.!rJ:,., etc,

In cuttinz left hand screw thrtad~ [Ill' lathe is set up exactly the s~nl1C as iDr CUlling ri~hL hnnd &re'" threads. except that the lath!!' must be arranged to Iced the tool fmm If'il \0 ri!ditills.l!!,;H11!rr.llm-ei~ht to left. when the spindle is revolving Iorward.


F~~_ ,alu .Jr.\ (i!'ft h.o:LLld :S;C.IfC:'W :lid"';a,'fIo[iilf"!I '\¥11~lfI ri.,IN"Ii!.:,d (:,mujlifllf--i;loflil!;'k·",,;Sl.IlI_

III France and 1J'l]llT partsol Enrope the Int ernat i unal .~ Landa rd ~ld ric Screw Thread,' are USf'11_ Th~;;f'lhrf";:l'ls

are used extenslvely on mi[f'tl:;.coI,14:~, telescopes and other optical [W~~ scientific Instruments. also many surgi(:,11 llL~h UHJl'Jlb "hkh arc lJ11PorLcd Irom Lur' .... l'c.

Fut. 38_ T,.t.,." "tio,,~1 S1~,,,l_" .• d Mel..-i" ::;'C '-"''''' TI,,,,,.~d .Farm.


i'lietric 'Lilrealis are measured ill lhe:Hl:!lric Svstern il1:;!oI_':lll of in the EIl~lii5l1 System, and ill orlJc.l· ln cut them un ,;:t lathe ha .... il1~ ali Engltsh lead screw, metric t,.al:l!'.Pf') in~ geltr!;,mll"t bC'· used, The ratio bf'l wl'Cnl he r~n::(lish SY~LlC'm and )Jt'tric .. ";"Slf"m of measurement j,; such that compound H'Lll1~[)n~illg !rea 1'3 ha \'1[1 M' 121 l~I..'1 h a i1(1 100 1 eeth url17 teeth and 50 teeth Inay l)l~ U~f'rl, (lepel1(lil1~ on 11le- pitch of the lead screw, 'ic~ Figs. 41 and 42.

AddiLiumd ch'lI'Igl' ~errr;;. are nc« :'o~;lry 111 onlcr i~~ cut the vnrioue phdu" nf standard metric screw threads. Th{' chart. Fi)!. 40. 51-111\\'~ the chan~t :;l;l'ar., used for CUll ;ng stanrlard nWlric threads _5 tn R [11111, pitch 011 the q" \'"'_Jrkshop uthc.

FilE_ 51i9~ 2.-S Mm. rilc-1"l 'i!III:)tl'~!I::

"Hew 1" I'i>"d_

The form [If the nu-tric thread is similar ~(I the .\rncri'caIl Xilti"n~l Screw Thread form bayin:: 'I~.o inclurled a.n~lc and a fial at the wr' and bottom 01 illL" thread, (::)(,1: f'i.w:_ 3o_)

lilt'Lrk screw threads .ue alwavs measured ill millimeter pi.leh am.l net til j hre a ds per ('('Ill imeter. The 1 ilff,,,d shown itt Fi~. Y) is 1.5 inm, pit ch,

Internatio,nlllil SI~l'Iciardl Mc·ir,ic SCf~W Thrud

IErrUC nun 'CllHlNb ~HUT

1!'lg.1 iii" 'W'+!Ii1FtI •• Llr.HG

Iiri"';' ·~WIt ~mu,'l 5.ZJa 'i nAn n NIl ~!!. ~Ijj iH-IOI I.Q ,J'!,_ il4r - i7r-IJJI_M L. U 10>-10'" 1.:1 L.U - -4.i!I -= In"'(It-~ i.~ lAo 1r.'-I!lI' "I' u.'!!I--t.! =1iil' .. LilC'-~ ~, ;u IZHU '"' I;§ -2l-W-J"-~Z JJ,. il-I t.,;?i!"".G 4[l 1.1, - ~I-l~'''l!~-~. 4.. 38 IZT..IIU i:1;I U ~ ~~ -1Jl"~~'-:!.

: t~ -:!-~~~=~

: s, ~~ 1l:r~QI ell 6.~ -u -1i'I'~QI-IQ '1_ 1~ !if1'-1QI '"

: t~ -:~! -~~~:: -:'

Fig .. 40_ Mod";.: 'ThnBod
n' .... l'IIl~'r1 F l'IT'H .111-1,'," ll:k '·ITC~~ J)J ..... IETl!lZ I'j-n-n C"l~lll!]: Ch;o,-L
~I ... "La, .. ~'\I..., }t.:.I., ::. Ii ...... ~[_"I.
6 1.0 20 zs 1~ ~ o
7 HI 1? 13 . , s o
S i.,~~ H s.o 5(~ 5};
9 ~7 J_() 00 5.5
11) 13 30 .L5 6-1 b.O
i t 1-5 ,U I • es tl,U
- ,.)
12 !.is .3(, -LO - , 0 .. '
, -
N H) .~') -LD 7~~ 6,S
in H,I J.~ -i.E :c-:O r. 0
18 ' . .j.~ U
.. ~ ... f't!l:,~.I. '~ 1...,t,'I(: 'fr- .... TI,;po~:in:ll;' G~iliJl" A~tRlt.;h .. m~~.~. Eor' [II" Wt"'lI'lubflP Laahe.

- f'i~. ~2. M'·LIi:~ T"-~ll:liipi"il!liiintr G~iU·

A L t~ l:inLi'1IL""~'I' '~t' D f1.... J_n.llu:~


Fi!!d 4~, :p.lIi:"llfi~ 'fri:!lns.po..!iin~ G ... ~Ii'4.

F,u.,d 'I~ L~'b;;"

F.:I~. 1-11~ Latin:. «I.:.~ ... llIvwJ..11 u..: litlll, when 'Work i~ m.,ulllllfd be:I:'¥a'C:UI\ Utf.i Ilithe ceu tm·;r. hlil· ~gll tiTli~ s a:.t L"'W dllr~ilId::i.

Mounting the: W,ork in ,the lathe:

lYhf'lL [J]01lDlIJI;:: work bl"l ~\'I'~n tbe lath .. ci-nkn; fllr r un in« ';1"T!-'\\ thrcaels. mnlce sure ihe lm he doe 1:, securely ;1 i ta ched bf'i fIre ~ [ .. I rt in)! to eu t t!1:; thread. Ii the dow: should ,:.Iir t lu- tlm'ad will be rui ned, I" ever re11]O ve ill I' b III c do g frcli'n the

work until th(' thread h;l been completed, and

if it I;: necessary hI remove the work [rom the lathe bufore the I hrend i" fmisllrd make sure that l he 1<1 the dll)! is replaced i It the same "lIlt ill the fac1.: llhllC.

Wh('11 threadim; \, ork ill I he- l.fltlH~ chuck make su re i he chuck ju w s an" I iJi;h t and the work i ~ well supported. The chuck must be': I i::!ht enuuah OIL the :;pindlc to prevent unscrewing when lilt! lalhe is reversed. '\('1,.1"1" I"PIll,we Ihl! \'-"1"1..: frolU the chuck until the r hreurl is fmisherl.

Wllell tlnemiing ]1)n1!' ,,1f'nd("1' :.h:tfls, use <t iol- 1nwer rest, as shown in Fig, '1;, The (,(,I1[(:"r rest may be used for ~u]lporlin~ l~lll~ work such as pipe whkh is til Ill' threaded lIn Lhe inside, (:lec Fig, 41'1,)

Fill. in ~ Cui Ufi1: ,a ~D.n. :c l>llii (111:'1' ecr-ew 11u, .. ~··~d. wi t]lI lh~ .iliid al J!i rQua..,. e1' 1r'!I-':\I,


~ ., ...... "bo,,:ld be tI:o:J-ot .... .,G~ cut~lnlt I'lC~W LtII .... ci1lrl~.

Adjus,ung Leven of Qukk (~imge Gea,r Box For (utting V,arious Pitc.,he.s of S,crew Threads

The only dirr~rel1Oc' u,c'~W(,"('1l the Quick Chance Gear Ltlhe and the Standard Chang,e Gear lathe is that the Quick Change Geal' la~ne it; fitted with a gear box \1;'hic"b. permits obt:!i.ining variOllS phehes OL screw threads \,1~1 hQ\lt the tI~i: or 10 ">Be change gears. (Sec .Fig, 49.)

The scnw thread chart is attached [0 the gf'."Ir hox, as S11UWl1 in [ijg. SO betow.

This chart reads directly in thread ... ['11"1' inch. It is only necessary to arrange the levers 01 tile gear bux as iudicated on the index plate in nrd~. III ubl'lin V.::1fiml'; 5crm,,' l hreads and feeds,

Th1' plt{:h ur the thread 10 he cut is determlMu by shiHmg the sliding gear A; top 1 eve', II and rumbler l€V(!T C Qil he quick chaage ,-o:€[ll" III X ,0 that they con f orm wit h the IbrC[lu cutting chart. r or example, to cut,) threads per inch the sliding gear A i~ pushed in, the top Iever B on the gear lJ,IJX is pushed 1 o the extreme lelt positiou and the ~ II ntbler In'er C L;; placeil j list be- 1",,'1' the column in

which the thread JIJpears on U-,!J in dox (bart. (See Figs. 49 and 50.)


H OW 'h) Caleulaht Ch an'ge Gea rs lfor' Cutting Screw Tlhreads

If it is necessary to cut a special thread that does not appear (It'll the index chart ul a lathe ur if fill index chart is available, the geal's required can ea!'.ily he calculated. All South Bend Lathes are eren geared; that is, the stud ~ear revolves the same number of revolutions as the headstock spindle, and when gears of the same size are 1I.I;:;.('u on Loth the lead screw and stud, Ihe J,r'arl ~,ftf:\',- 'Iml spindle r'f>Vnlvf' thp .... nne number of revolutions, so it j::; not necessary to consider file ~('::Iring between the h('-(laslock spindle and the stud ~ear when caleulating change gears.

It simple ge::irmg is to be userl .• Hl shown in Fig. 51, the ratio of the number of 1 ret h in t h e ('i1.''I11 ~e gears used will be the ~/.H'I1e as the ra tio bet ween the thread to be lui and the thread OIl the lead screw, For example, if 10 threads per inch are to be ~nt r)11 a lathe hewing d lcarl screw with 6. threads per inch, the ratio or the change gears would he 6 to 10. These numbers may be mult!plied by ::trw common multiplier 10 obtain the number I,f teetl1 in the chanee u:ears that should 'be used ..

Rule TI, calculate d1ali[.!;c !!Cars. multiply the number nf threads per in h to be (tit anrl the 11 umber uf thtCLU.JS per inch in the lead screw hy lhc same number,

E:-;;ampJe-; Problem To cut 10 threads per inch on lathe l1i'lving lead screw ""'hh (j. threads per inch.

Solution-s- 6 x !-l - 41': - X o, (It teeth in gear on stud.

10 x g == :RO - Xo. of teeth ill gear on lead !jere".,·_

If these !!('(I~ are nut to be Iound jn the change !'!:C<l1' set, any other number may he used 1.15 II cnmmcn multlplier, such 1,1:::; ]. S, 7. etc.

\\'h(,'11 (:lm1pHund gearing, as shown in Fig, 52, is used, the ra.tio (If the cornl"H)Ul\(,1 idler ge~\T5 must also he taken into consideratioa but otherwise the calculaLions are the same 3;0; for simple gearing'. l"slially, thecompound idler gear ratio is 2 to 1. so that thl' thrClids cut are just 'Nice the number per inch as when simple ~1'(!:Jxing i~ used.

US~rIig Tapsillnd D~e5 ,to (ut Screw Thre"ads ~nl the Lalth~

Taps and dles are often used for cutting screw threads in the latlw, ,es.pecially in Iactmic~ where maximum psoductlon t::; i mpurta nt, There are several ways. In which t]H~ ~.:f!tl)€ V/1f!.ybe set up for thls kind or work, as illustrated below,

Fig. 5.'1 shows !!.L (:11I1:HflOn hand tap being used l.o thread ~l nut which is held In tile lathe chuck. The handle uJ rhe tepwrench rests again~l the V way of tile Itltl:ie- bed, and as the lathe spindle re\;n!ves slowly the tail-stock hand wheel is turned to fee(~ the tap through the nut, Plenty of oil should be used 0.1] the tap i~[h~ nur :i~ made L)f steel.

Fig. 54 shows a self-lIp13aJng dLC mounted ill the railtsack spindle Qf the lathe Ior cuWng- threads on studs, Alter slarting the Jathe spmdle tile taill1toclt is pllshed by n!ll.tiiu ~T()l'1Ig the lathe bed umil the tie takes "hold and starts 1.0 cut the thread, arte'l' which the ~]it wlll pull Ute taLh:tDck along. A lILe hJiJM~r can bemade for tile l<lil:s~ock to hold common button dies, butt if they are used it is necessary tn l"fve'us.e the lathe spindle when the end of the thread has been reached.

F.~g. 55 ehows <L die mounted In the tool rest ",f rhe Iathe. \;l,~henmountr.d in thls manner th~ lead screw and l1,tlf I.l1,LiS of the lathe ll'l.F.J.y he ~LSW to I'fed tbe di~ ::'0 a perfect lead h ohtained in the du'eaJ cut,

F~g_ S6 shows a lathe equipped with special TIxturefor bo'[(ling" thework fin the race plate, and it tllrret fOT holding driljs, horillg bar and l"r~ for lnoril1g alld threading the tu)le,

p:!::; •. 53.. U.fl~nl:· ·EII la'p tor tlJ:r.,~-;o,~~iI1i1::' i:l. nut: !n ~!l~ ~<Jlj;~.

fi.!:',:;~. [lion moJ>u"t e- Ji en I~·.I"~ u.r~l;; r~ ~o(j,!" t'tiU .. iJlif SI e C_JLl~,I.'C !:~~"I:l1iIi ds,_

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F~g_ ~i6. Tal' mQu",·!",d 'n .'lath", ·t .. ...,.,t :~~F ·Ij,~e~o!ii~.~ ill>~~j!<~ ftW t~.

Standard Screw Thread forms

A.MBRK.Lr :1i c fTrQN.U· SCREW tuues» {FQ;rmCl'l~' I;, S. Staml;Lrd S<r~w~'hn:H!) H)Il"lL·J_.\

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BULliE'fIN MO.. 35

Snows How to Grind. Co.rr;e!(lt Shape., Clearanc(l, and lRaM.

Thi s hQQklct win be a big hel p to the beginner in Lathe ","or'!!: .~,s i-= shows j use hen ... !;;) grind .find. sharpen Iathe tool cutter bits for VOIriOi4JS classes (l·f work. CGl:"it~i.lfl.(; ~ fuU eiec pa~·t~~h of .r;t .gll.~ii: for gfinding the eorrect clearanee. rake, ElllJli1c, etc, on cutter bits.

Knowi.[lghow to grind Lutterbi.ts ~orp;ctly is esse [Itial if metals are tQ be madtil'led e.ffi.ci8itilly ..

The .amRt:cur machiais t ''11m £Ild this hooklet valuable as & handy reference 0[1 ~11 tte r h t girl nJi ng. C::l~lt<J.j t!!;; 16 p,ct','(!~~. size 6~ x: 9" and 50 inu!:>tr:;l!l;ioI1J8·-

Price Io,e 'post IJ-:l.! d. COll1 or stamps of any country ... c,cc:ptcd._

.lJLLn .... f"lii:I.l:I

HI1:I'w"", G,ri n ell il,(n!u~ 1100 I (IUner Bil'!'ii

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~Qm~ '3W.O L r .. ~ '~"l:!H~

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32nd ED['l[']ON

A V!!llh.~,~b19 lRe£ererlce Book on Lathe Work

"How to RUIlL a Lathe" ]$ an 8Jut!,orativt! and insrrucrive manUAl] completely covering dlLe eare and operation of a 6ack~geared. !;.Crew I:;lJ,uing [O!.lhe amI gives the fllnda.mentals of ~.,_dH: opcrat]onin d.::t~jl widS. i]]u~tra:tion:!l. Cm'lt~.i!lJs I(lO pages, size 5},~" x 8· .,nd rnore than 300 illu,sb;<l.~iOi:ls.

M·o~ I;b.g,nl.500'.OOO .cOpiC3 of th.i e, 6-'Xlk have been printed and are in U~ throughout the, WOJ>]d, Editions h.ave been printed. in Ellgl i!;h. Span ish. fll1!dug~~p. fll'1l rI Ch ;l'''''~''. T1.i:;! book ill used as til. handy rd~i!'cnce book: by;:hiIl!!'>t$ <lind. :;;J,ppn;:,_ll:t]('li5 inindu:str~al p[an~s.a_nd also used. as a text bMb:: by students in educarional ins6mtiQn;s.

A 'copy of "r'k,W' to Run OJ, L~.ihe" wi:H be ma.iled.""nywhr;p; !.!1.the WQ·rld postpaid. 2S!; for tlw 'p<lper bound. coPy. and. 7 Sc. ~oor the i,eBoth~r.f:tte bound c!O'py_ Coin or stamps 01 any ·country ~OJ;!ptecl.