Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2008) 39:64–73 DOI 10.
A new approach to surface roughness and roundness improvement in wire electrical discharge turning based on statistical analyses
Aminollah Mohammadi & Alireza Fadaei Tehrani & Ehsan Emanian & Davoud Karimi
Received: 16 August 2006 / Revised: 17 May 2007 / Accepted: 19 July 2007 / Published online: 22 August 2007 # Springer-Verlag London Limited 2007
Abstract In this paper, the effects and the optimization of machining parameters on surface roughness and roundness in the turning wire electrical discharge machining (TWEDM) process are investigated. In the TWEDM process, a new machining parameter, such as rotational speed, is introduced, which changes the normal machining conditions in conventional wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM). By the Taguchi method, a complete realization of the process parameters and their effects were achieved. The Taguchi method has not been used in TWEDM by other researchers. The surface roughness and roundness were measured to verify the process. In addition, the open-circuit voltage, pulse-off time, open arc voltage, and the inter-electrode gap size, which are replaced by power, time-off, voltage, and servo, respectively, and also wire tension, wire speed, and rotational speed were chosen for evaluation by the Taguchi method. An L18 (21 ×37) Taguchi standard orthogonal array
A. Mohammadi (*) Educational Workshops Center, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111, Iran e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org A. F. Tehrani A. Fadaei Tehrani Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111, Iran e-mail: email@example.com E. Emanian Farakoosh Sepahan Co., Isfahan Science and Technology Town, Isfahan, Iran e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org D. Karimi Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran e-mail: email@example.com
was chosen for the design of experiments. The level of importance of the machining parameters on the surface roughness and roundness was determined by using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The optimum machining parameters combination was obtained by using the analysis of signalto-noise (S/N) ratios. The variation of surface roughness and roundness with machining parameters was mathematically modeled by using the regression analysis method. Finally, experimentation was carried out to identify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The presented model is also verified by a set of verification tests. Keywords TWEDM . Surface roughness . Roundness . Statistical analysis
1 Introduction The wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) process removes the workpiece material by a series of electrical sparks between the workpiece and the wire electrode. These sparks generate craters and the recast layer on the surface of the electrical discharge machining (EDM) workpiece. The surface integrity describes the mechanical, metallurgical, topological, and chemical condition of the surface region. A comprehensive description of the surface integrity on the EDM surface involves the measurement of surface roughness, depth of the heat-affected zone, micro-hardness, size of the surface crater, residual stresses, and endurance limit . Qu et al.  evaluated the surface integrity of cylindrical WEDM parts by proposing a mathematical model. An estimation of the surface finish and roundness of cylindrical WEDM parts was presented by using the model. This study investigated the surface integrity and roundness of cylindrical WEDM parts and explores
Figure 1 shows a rotary axis which was added to a conventional five-axis wire EDM machine in order to produce cylindrical forms. regression analysis established a relationship between factors and responses . This study investigates the surface roughness and roundness of turning parts via the WEDM process and explores possible ways to adjust its parameters to achieve better surface roughness and roundness by statistical methods. servo. The surface finish was measured using a mobile roughness measurement (Mahr Perthometer M2) for each section with a 0.4 to 3. signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio analysis was conducted to find the optimal settings and factor levels . The roundness of machined parts was measured using a coordinate measuring machine (ZEISS Prismo 5 CMM). and more efficient experiments. it was employed to perform the experimental design. A proper design of experiments (DOE) was conducted to perform more accurate. *For more details about the units of these factors. In order to predict the performance characteristics of the WEDM process.  investigated turning by WEDM to evaluate the effects of machining parameters on the material removal rate. Experiments were employed in this study to consider the effects of power. in the present research. time-off. Gokler and Ozanozgu  investigated the surface roughness and relative machining parameters for the WEDM process under various experimental conditions. and rotational speed on the surface roughness and roundness.2 to 0. refer to “ONA TECHNOLOGY. 1 Setup of the five-axis wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) machine
possible ways to adjust process parameters in order to achieve better surface integrity and roundness. An investigation on the feasibility of improving surface integrity via a novel combined process of EDM with ball burnishing using the Taguchi method was
Table 1 Factors and their levels Factors
carried out by Lin et al.
2 Experimental setup and equipment In this research. Ramakrishnan and Karunamoorthy  developed a mathematical model using the response surface methodology. voltage. analysis of variance (ANOVA) to help one determine significant factors . Thirdly. wire tension. surface roughness. the rate at which wire moves through the guides. ARICUT-ARION manual”
10 7 100 30 14 7 16
. Taguchi’s technique has been used widely in DOE lately [11–13] and. Voltage (C) (v): indicates the potential difference during ionization of the gap. Servo (D) (v): indicates the theoretical voltage difference between the wire and the workpiece during erosion. Kilogram force (Kgf) proportion) Wire speed (F) (m/min). there is a corresponding average current between the wire and the workpiece. The experiments were aimed at considering the effects of several controllable factors on surface roughness and roundness. wire speed. all experiments were conducted on an ONA R250 wire EDM machine.Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2008) 39:64–73
Fig. Firstly. Three different analyses were performed on the data obtained from the experiments. The arithmetic average surface roughness (Ra) of the WEDM-processed workpiece was about 0. Wire tension* (E) (level of mechanical stress. Some investigations have been carried out to analyze and improve the surface integrity of parts created by WEDM [3–4].4 μm for tool steels  and 1.
Factor levels 1 2 11 8 110 50 16 8 30 3 12 10 120 55 18 9 45
Power* (A): for each power level.9 μm for metal matrix ceramic composites . Secondly. less costly. Mohammadi et al. The measurement of roundness was done according to ISO 12181:2003. The material removal rate. . Mathematical models relating to the machining performance were established using the Gauss elimination method for the effective machining of Al/SiC-MMC . Rotational speed (G) (rpm).8-mm cut-off length (according to DIN EN ISO 3274:1998). Time-Off (B) (μs): time interval between one discharge and the next. and wire wear ratio optimization method using Taguchi’s robust design approach was proposed for the WEDM operation .
001 6. Here.677 4.788 4.5 36. For each factor. only the main effects of factors are of interest and their interactions are excluded from the data analysis.2 23.752 5. and rotational speed on the surface roughness.S.025 5.937 5.S.: rotational speed
.5 23.076 3. This figure serves the purpose of graphical assessment. along with the data acquired for surface roughness (Ra) and roundness (responses).
4 Data analysis 3 Design of experiments The factors and their levels are shown in Table 1.779 5.9 34. by increasing power.5 35.566 4. W.7 34.6 40. wire speed. In addition. 1 :
DOF¼ ðno: of factor levels À 1Þ Â ðno: of factorsÞ¼2 Â 7¼14
Table 3 Assigned orthogonal L18 with the acquired data Run order P T V S W. The factor effect is defined as the difference between the two extreme values of the response obtained for the corresponding factor .5 Replicate 2 40.185 5. The corresponding data can be eliminated by calculations.5 47.92 5. and rotational speed are adopted as factors (independent variables) which vary during the experiments. Power.042 5. Figure 2a shows the effect of power on surface roughness.0 37.865 5. Also. the degrees of freedom (DOF) for this experiment is calculated as in Eq.139 3.9 36.9 35.5 48. Note that the data mean is used to determine each factor’s effect.446 4.914 – 6.4 32.: wire speed.68 5.954 5.3 29.8 42. W.0 27.951 4.9 29.9 41.922 5.5 27. and the number of their levels .9 43.7 29.861 3. wire tension.
Surface roughness (Ra) (μm) Replicate 1 Replicate 2 4. voltage.1 36. note that one of the replicates in run 16 is missed due to the wire breakage.0 30. V: voltage.457 4. These factors are set apart from the experiment. It indicates that power has the most significant effect on surface roughness (Ra).7 47.458 6.122 4.6 46.543 Replicate 3 4.3 42.349 4. wire tension.7 34.5 30.529 4.2 25.85 5. and they are neither presumed to have an effect on the process nor can they vary because of the equipment setup.4 40. none of the factors have a significant effect on surface roughness except wire speed. T: time-Off.7131 cemented steel 2 10
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An orthogonal L18 (21 ×37) array is selected based on the DOF.111 6. Therefore.S.4 22.9 23. servo.7 22. S: servo. W.557 5.435 4. three levels are deliberately chosen and set during the experiments according to the DOE.179 5.7 43.223 4.5
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
10 10 10 11 11 11 12 12 12 10 10 10 11 11 11 12 12 12
7 8 10 7 8 10 7 8 10 7 8 10 7 8 10 7 8 10
100 110 120 100 110 120 110 120 100 120 100 110 110 120 100 120 100 110
30 50 55 50 55 30 30 50 55 55 30 50 55 30 50 50 55 30
14 16 18 16 18 14 18 14 16 16 18 14 14 16 18 18 14 16
7 8 9 9 7 8 8 9 7 8 9 7 9 7 8 7 8 9
16 30 45 45 16 30 45 16 30 16 30 45 30 45 16 30 45 16
3.3 Replicate 3 29.4 46.736 3.446 4. R.7 40.546 5.4 24. R.504 3.494
P: power.273 4.433 4.9 35. wire speed.
Figure 2 depicts the plot of factor effects on surface roughness.205 3.1 28.312 4. time-off.842 5. Note that the run orders are used randomly during the experiments. the number of factors.: wire tension.946 4. power has direct proportion to the surface roughness.158 4.7 35. Table 3 shows the assigned orthogonal L18 array.9 21.3 35.2 29.1 36.44 4.503 3.2 39.517 5.T.31 4. Figure 2b–g present the effect of time-off. servo.1 35.66 Table 2 Fixed factors (non-variable parameters) in this experimentation Parameter Maximum cutting feed rate (mm/min) Depth of cut (mm) Diameter of specimens (mm) Workpiece hardness (HRC) Material Depth of uniform hardness (mm) Machining length (mm) Value 1 2 10 60∼62 1.7 28.154 4.9 34. Fixed factors are presented in Table 2. The main effects are calculated and shown in Table 4. voltage. that is.3 25.237
Roundness (μm) Replicate 1 29.8 – 38.T. the surface roughness increases significantly. As shown. The same conclusion as the graphical assessment can be drawn.413 3.S.068 4.
In this figure: Pk ¼ KÀ1 2 N ð2Þ
Table 4 Main effects of factors on surface roughness (Ra) (μm) Factors Power (A) Time-off (B) Voltage (C) Servo (D) Wire tension (E) Wire speed (F) Rotational speed (G) Factor effects 0. the assumptions used during this analysis are verified as follows.14641 0. so it is concluded that the error (residual) is normally distributed.07438 0. the error normality is considered to be valid. since it covers the shortcomings of graphical assessment. Again. ANOVA has been often employed by experimenters. while there are N data points in total . since the p-value calculated based on the AD statistic is higher than the αlevel of confidence (0.
The normal probability plot of residuals for surface roughness.10288 0.10078 0. The p-value is higher than α-level of confidence (0. servo. Figure 3a. it can be seen that. A normal probability plot is just a graph of the cumulative distribution of the residuals on normal probability paper. Figures 6 and 7 show the plot of residuals versus fitted values for surface roughness and roundness.Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2008) 39:64–73
Fig. Anderson-Darling (AD) statistic. and wire speed are more significant than other factors. Two of these shortcomings are inaccuracy in the inferences made and that the inferences are only comparatively valid. that is. Before conducting ANOVA.03433
in which Pk is calculated for the kth point. 2 a-g Effects of factors on surface roughness (Ra) (μm)
The same procedure is employed for roundness. Figure 5 shows the normal probability plot of residuals for roundness. The factor effects are listed in this table. and p-value are displayed in Fig. The same conclusion can be drawn using Table 5.d.f implies that the effects of power. graph paper with the ordinate scaled so that the cumulative normal distribution is plotted as a straight line.
.75446 0.05).35777 −0. It is evident that data points are structurelessly distributed.05). respectively. 4.
Power is the only factor which presents a p-value lower than the α-level of confidence.68
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Fig. so ANOVA can be performed and the inferences made based on its table will be valid.8294 1. As can be seen. The p-value in Table 8 indicates that the estimated model by regression analysis is significant at the α-level of 0.2111 1.05. In the above discussion. This implies that at least one coefficient
. 3 a-g Effects of factors on roundness (μm)
This indicates that variance constancy and error independency are valid. error independency.0487 −1.
Table 7 presents the ANOVA table for roundness.6719 −2. the ANOVA table for surface roughness is presented.
5 Regression analysis Equation 3 presents the relationship between machining parameters and surface roughness. which is the result of multiple linear regression analysis:
surface roughness ðRaÞ ¼ À 3:26 þ 0:420 Power þ 0:0397 TimeÀoff þ 0:0139 Voltage À 0:00107 Servo þ 0:0522 Wire tension þ 0:107 Wire speed À 0:00210 Rotational speed
Table 5 Main effects of factors on roundness (μm) Factors Power (A) Time-off (B) Voltage (C) Servo (D) Wire tension (E) Wire speed (F) Rotational speed (G) Factor effects 2.0833
ð3Þ ANOVA is performed for regression analysis and is presented in Table 8.6824 1. In Table 6. variance constancy) are proved to be valid. So it is concluded that only power has a significant impact on surface roughness among all of the other factors adopted. ANOVA assumptions (error normality.4362 3. none of the factors used in the experiments exhibit any significant effect on roundness.
The rationale behind S/N ratio analysis is to find a setting of parameters in which signals are predominant. 35.
6 S/N ratio analysis To find the optimal factor levels. The kind of problem which matches surface roughness and roundness is “the-smaller-the-better” . Table 9 shows verification of the test results.
Fig. In this study. The purpose of the confirmation experiment is to validate the conclusions drawn during the analysis phase. 44. The optimal setting for surface roughness and roundness is listed in Tables 12 and 13. The predicted machining parameters’ performance is compared with the actual machining performance and a good agreement is observed between these performances. yi is the response.
values for surface roughness and roundness are presented in Tables 10 and 11. It is concluded from Tables 14 and 15 that none of the factors influence the sensitivity of the surface roughness and roundness within the process. For such type of problems. 7 Plot of residuals versus fitted values for roundness (μm)
. 4: " # n 1X 2 h ¼ À10 Â log y ð4Þ n i¼1 i in which η is the S/N ratio. and 47 are detected as outliers because they produced large residuals and were removed from the analysis. η (S/N ratio) is defined as in Eq. a new experiment is designed and conducted with the optimum levels of the machining parameters. after determining the optimum conditions and predicting the response under these conditions. The η 7 Confirmation experiments The confirmation experiment is the final step in the DOE process. ANOVA tables for surface roughness and roundness are shown in Tables 14 and 15. The above mathematical model for surface roughness in TWEDM is of great importance for the proper selection of machining parameters during the machining of the cylindrical parts. respectively. the S/N ratio analysis is used.Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2008) 39:64–73
Fig. and n is the number of replications. Note that test nos. The largest value of η indicates the optimal condition. 6 Plot of residuals versus fitted values for surface roughness (Ra) (μm)
is different from zero . ANOVA is performed to find out the factors which have a significant effect on the sensitivity of the process. 5 Normal probability plots of residuals for roundness (μm)
Fig. This rationale eventually leads to a situation in which the system is least sensitive to noises . respectively. 4 Normal probability plots of residuals for surface roughness (Ra) (μm)
Fig. respectively. The confirmation experiment is performed by conducting a test with a specific combination of the factors and levels previously evaluated.
1277 0.21 0.39 0.5950 2.72 75. Power.72 1.76 212.33 times. wire tension.3707 F 2.526 0.167
.8075 0. and servo on roundness are more significant than time-off.014
The results of the experimental confirmation using the optimal machining parameters are shown in Tables 16 and 17.96 136.82 11. and rotational speed. wire speed.90 p 0. The effects of wire speed.783. p: p-value
The final step is to predict and verify the improvement of the performance characteristics.50 83.56
0. wire tension.76
p 0. SS Adj. and rotational speed affect the surface roughness.40 0. A multiple linear regression equation is found and presented as Eq.17 0.841 0.9416 23. servo.186
DF: degrees of freedom.78 dB.26 0. The developed mathematical model for the different machining performance characteristics of the turning wire electrical discharge machining (TWEDM) process is successfully proposed for the proper selection of machining parameters
Table 8 ANOVA for regression analysis Source Regression Residual error Total DF 7 43 50 SS 7.097 0. Table 17 shows the comparison of the predicted roundness with the actual roundness using the optimal machining parameters.69 22.009 0.48 1.153.42 14.2805 27. the surface roughness and roundness values can be greatly improved by applying the approach.9086 0. F: F-value.49 135.75 67. power.
8 Conclusion The effects of power. SS: adjusted sum of squares.894 0.39 2. So.4038 0. 5:
k XÀ j¼1
hopt ¼ hm þ
hj À hm
where: ηm ηj k Total mean of the S/N ratios Mean S/N ratio at the optimum levels Number of main design parameters that affect the quality characteristics
roughness (Ra) is greatly improved by using the approach detailed in this paper.5941 2. voltage. wire tension. SS 5. wire speed.0410 0.420 0.75 41. time-off.48 dB.65 2. MS: adjusted mean squares.56 2. MS 40.37 44.83 29. Therefore.8009 0.9032 0.4548
F 5.2554 1. 3 for surface roughness (Ra).11 0.74 1.9409 Adj.67 F p
Power Time-off Voltage Servo Wire tension Wire speed Rotational speed Error Total
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 38 52
81. MS 2. time-off.494 0.63 23.6017 17. only power has a significant effect on the surface roughness and none of the factors have a significant effect on roundness. and rotational speed on surface roughness and roundness are experimentally investigated. voltage.4516 0.1414 0.2189 1.70 Table 6 ANOVA for surface roughness (Ra) (μm) using adjusted SS for tests Source Power Time-off Voltage Servo Wire tension Wire speed Rotational speed Error Total DF 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 38 52 Seq.772 0.39 2.0511 0. The improvement in S/N ratio from the initial machining parameters to the level of optimal machining parameters is 1. the surface
Table 7 ANOVA for roundness (μm) using adjusted SS for tests Source DF Seq. servo.1579 0. The experimental results confirm the validity of the utilized Taguchi method for improving the machining performance and optimizing the machining parameters. The improvement in S/N ratio from the initial machining parameters to the optimal machining parameters is 2.815 0. The predicted S/N ratio (ηopt) using the optimal levels of the machining parameters can be calculated as in Eq.4660 MS 1.54 40.2975 1.0789 0.153.676 0.50 46.89 0.88 106.19 56.47 29.87
0. Adj.313 0. Adj. SS 4.6017 17.23 times. Seq. voltage.56 212. The roundness is decreased by 1.2805
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Adj. Table 16 shows the comparison of the predicted surface roughness (Ra) with the actual surface roughness (Ra) using the optimal machining parameters.1023 0.20 0. The surface roughness (Ra) is decreased by 1. SS: sequential sum of squares.484 0. SS Adj. As the experimental results show.0749 0.5245 15.1546 0.
58 −13.07 −30.34 −30.54 −30.50 −13.20
Table 12 Optimal setting for surface roughness (Ra) (μm) Level Level number Factor magnitude Power 1 10 Time-off 2 8 Voltage 2 110 Servo 2 50 Wire tension 1 14 Wire speed 2 8 Rotational speed 2 30
Table 13 Optimal setting for roundness (μm) Level Level number Factor magnitude Power 2 11 Time-off 2 8 Voltage 1 100 Servo 2 50 Wire tension 2 16 Wire speed 1 7 Rotational speed 2 30
.27 −30.206 Ra (μm).12 Wire tension −13.88 −30.57 −30.11 0.34 Rotational speed −31.69 −13. model 4.810 5.12 0.355 Error (%) 0.27 Voltage −13.31 −30.5%
Table 10 η values (dB) for surface roughness (Ra) (μm) Level 1 2 3 Delta Power −12.65 Wire speed −30.78 Servo −30.53 −31.34 Wire tension −30.60 Rotational speed −13.43 −13.45 −30.72
Table 11 η values (dB) for roundness (μm) Level 1 2 3 Delta Power −30.03 Voltage −30.88 0.56 −14.81 0.26 −31.39 1.Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2008) 39:64–73 Table 9 Results of confirmation test for roughness (Ra) (μm) Level Power Timeoff 8 9 Voltage Servo Wire tension 16 15 Wire speed 8 9 Rotational speed 30 45 Ra (μm).72 −30. experiment 4.49 Time-off −13.55 −13.28 −31.62 −13.96 0.67 0.94 0.77 0.57 0.56 −13.41 −13.61 −30.34 −13.92 0.29 1.781 5.83 Time-off −30.34 Wire speed −13.49 Servo −13.90 −13.88 −13.66 1.75 0.6% 2.49 −13.54 −30.16 −13.
1611 0.6044 1.9965 0.68 A2B2C1D2E2F1G2 26.2854 0.6124 Adj. MS 3.9929 0.85590 0.4284 1.41056
F 8.4080 Adj.414 0.08867 1.8748 1.47 1.916 −11.2854 0.06 0.061 0.38509 1.0462 1.0457 0.20 2.665 0. SS 2.6946 0.25 0.33 2. SS 2.15 0.24 −28. SS 6.11575 0.250
Table 15 ANOVA for S/N ratios (dB) for roundness (μm) Source Power Time-off Voltage Servo Wire tension Wire speed Rotational speed Residual error Total DF 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 17 Seq.0887 1.28
p 0.83 −11.8559 0.772 0.8708 F 1.947 0.2317 12.8022 0.74 0.796 0.6044 1.272 0.2 −30.23151 0.69459 0.20
.549 0.54434 0.64 A1B2C2D2E1F2G2 3.02286 0.794 0.9929 0.68 Experiment A1B2C2D2E1F2G2 3.2176 2.0924 3.07 1.14 0.04572 0.7 −28.6124 16.72 Table 14 ANOVA for S/N ratios (dB) for surface roughness (Ra) (μm) Source Power Time-off Voltage Servo Wire tension Wire speed Rotational speed Residual error Total DF 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 17 Seq.34730 0.2315 0.3223 2.810 −13.387 0.7733 Adj.2142 0.48 p 0. MS 1.6427 0.19254 0.28 1.42795 0.0924 3.23169
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Adj. SS 6.231
Table 16 Results of the experimental confirmation for surface roughness (Ra) (μm) Initial machining parameters Optimal machining parameters Prediction Level Surface roughness (Ra) (μm) S/N ratio (dB) A2B2C2D2E2F2G2 4.38 Experiment A2B2C1D2E2F1G2 25.3851 1.4351 4.87484 1.4351 4.25 2.453 0.04 0.3223 2.4284 1.86
Table 17 Results of the experimental confirmation for roundness (μm) Initial machining parameters Optimal machining parameters Prediction Level Roundness (μm) S/N ratio (dB) A2B2C2D2E2F2G2 34.427 0.93742 0.
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