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1. Internet – global computer network (hardware) made up of thousands of

privately and publically owned computers and network that eventually, grew
and interlinked into one big network

2. Cyberspace – is used to refer to the internet; intangible, nonphysical

territory that encompasses the unlimited span of networks using same data

3. Internet backbone – network service providers such as: AT&T and Sprint

4. Interoperability – ability to work w/ a computer even if it’s a different brand

or model (internet is not limited to just Macs or PCs)

5. TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) – suite of protocols,

which supply the standard methods of packaging and transmitting info on the

i. -TCP – manages the assembling of a file into smaller packets

that are transmitted over the internet and received by a TCP
layer in the destination computer that reassembles the packets
into the original message

ii. -IP – lower layer; handles the address part of each packet so
that it get to the right destination

6. -Internet speeds:

a. Dial-up

b. Digital Subscriber line (DSL)

c. Cable access

d. Satellite access

e. Fiber-optic service (FiOS)

7. -World Wide Web – portion of the internet that contains billions of

documents; the web use the Internet as its transport, but it’s separate

a. -Web page – document or resource of information on a Web site

suitable for the WWW that is accessed by a browser (in HTML or XHTML

b. -Web browser – program on computer that displays a Web document

by interpreting the HTML
c. -Web site – collection of related web pages

8. -Hyperlinks (links) – words and images that bring other documents into view
when clicked.

9. -Hypertext uses links to move to additional related information.

10.-(Extensible) Hypertext Markup Language ([X]HTML) – language that

uses tag system of code to create web pages

11.-Plug-ins – software programs that allow you to derive the full benefits of a
web site like sound or video

12.-Web servers – computer running server software that returns requested

information or accepts inputted information

13.-Internet protocol address (IP) – numerical ID assigned to devices

participating in a computer network.

14.-Uniformed Resource Locator (URL) – string of characters that precisely

identifies an Internet resource’s type and location; made of 4 components

a. -Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) – internet standard that

supports the exchange of info in the web

b. -Domain Name – correlates the Web server’s IP address

i. -Domain name system (DNS) – links domain names w/

corresponding IP addresses

c. -Path – specifies location of document on the server

d. -Resource Name – gives the file name of the resource you’re


15.-Browsing web:

a. -Type a URL in address bar

b. -Click a tab in the browser

c. -Click a hyperlink

16.-Spiders (crawlers, knowledge-bots) – used by search engines to roam

the web, visit sites and databases, and keep the search engine database of
web pages up to date

17.-Subject guide – grouping web pages under headings like news or travel
18.-Search engines – index databases of Web pages to enable fast information

a. -Specialized search engines – index specific info like jobs

b. -Portal – gateway that provides a conveniently organized subject

guide to internet content, news, weather, etc

c. -Aggregators – collect info and put them in one spot

d. -Search operator – symbols or words used to advance searchers

i. -Inclusion operator – a “+” sign; makes it so that only web

pages including the criteria are retrieved

ii. -Exclusion operator – a “–“ sign; excludes criteria

iii. -Wildcards – symbols like * and ? that take the place of zeros or

iv. -Phrase searching – typing phrases within quotation marks

v. -Boolean searches – use logical operators (AND, OR, and NOT)

to link the words you are searching

e. -Evaluate information obtained through the Web carefully for accuracy

and validity.

f. -Fact-checking standards are not applied to many Web pages.

g. -Careful evaluation prevents use of biased or inaccurate information.

19.-Internet service – set of standards (protocols) that define two types of

programs – a client and a server; client requests info from the server

20.-Spam – unsolicited e-mail advertising

a. -Malware – malicious software

b. -Spyware – gathering data from a user’s systems w/o the user

knowing it

c. -Botnet – set of computers infected w/ a malicious program that

places the computer under the control of a bot herder

d. -Web beacons – alert the sender that the message has been opened

e. -Spimming – spam for IM

21.-Internet relay chat (IRC) – enables you to join chat groups called
channels, and participate in real-time, text-based conversation

22.-Usenet – worldwide computer-based discussion system accessible through

the Internet

a. Made of thousands of topically groups called newsgroups

b. -Thread – series of articles that offer continuing commentary on the

same specific subject

c. Categorized by:

i. -Standard newsgroups of high quality discussion

ii. -Alt newsgroups created by anyone

iii. -Biz newsgroups commercial uses

23.-Netiquette – guidelines for good manners when communicating on internet

24.-Electronic mailing list – list of email addresses, similar to newsgroups, but

they automatically broadcast messages to all individuals on a mailing list

25.-File Transfser Protocol – method used to transfer files over the internet

26.-E-Commerce – use of network or internet to carry out business of any type

a. -Business-to-Business (B2B) E-Commerce – refers to a business

providing supplies to other businesses via the Internet

b. -Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C) E-Commerce – refers to the

exchange of business between individuals. eBay is a good example.

c. -Business-to-Consumer (B2C) E-Commerce – refers to shopping

online rather than at a physical store.

CH 9

-Privacy – individuals ability to restrict or eliminate the collection, use, and sale
of confidential personal information

-Anonymity – refrers to the ability to convey a message w/o disclosing your

name or identity
-Cookies – small txt files that are written to your computer’s hard disk by many
of the websites you visit

-Global unique identifier (GUID) – identification number that is generated by

a hardware component or a program

-Web beacons – transparent graphic images, usually no larger than 1 pixel X 1

pixel, tha t are placed on a website or in an email used to monitor the behavior
of the user visiting the website or sending the email

-Employee monitoring – observing employees’ phone calls, emails, web

browsing habits, and computer files

-Identity theft – a criminal obtains enough personal information to impersonate


-Phishing – phisher acts as a legitimate company in an email or on a website in

an attempt to obtain personal information such as SS, user name, password, and
account numbers

-Spear phishing – also uses fake emails and social engineering to trick
recipients into providing personal information to enable identity theft

-Malware – malicious software designed to damage or infiltrate a computer’s

system without the owner’s consent or knowledge

-Spyware – software that collects your personal info, monitors your web
surfing habits, and distributes this info to a third party, often leading to
identity theft

-Adware – generates pop-up ads and targeted banner ads; usually

considered more of a nusiance than malicious

-Keyloggers – can record all the keystrokes you type – like passwords,
account numbers, or conversations

-Computer virus – hidden code within a program, designed as a prank or

sabatoge, tha t replicates itself by attaching it to other programs

-File infectors – viruses attach themselves to a program file on your USB

drive, CD, or DVD and give it to someone

-Wazzu virus – randomly relocates a word in a word document,

sometimes inserting the word ‘wazzu’

-Disk killer – virus that wipes out all the data on your hard drive

-Boot sector virus – propagates by an infected program, but installs

itself in the beginning tracks of a hard drive where code is stored that
automatically executes everytime you start the computer; does not need
a specific program to start it up, starting your system is enough

-Macro virus – takes advantage of the automatic command execution

capabilities found in some productivity software called macros (in a word
processing or spreadsheet, is a saved sequence of commands or keyboard
strokes that get recalled when needed with a single command or
keyboard stroke). It infects the data file that contains the macro.

-Spim – spam of IM

-Variant – copy of a self-modifying virus; slightly different from the virus

preceding it thus making it difficult to protect from

-Other rogue programs:

-Time bomb (logic bomb) – virus that sits harmlessly on a system until
a certain event or set of circumstances causes the program to become

-Worm – program that resembles a virus in that it can spread between

computers, however, a worm can propagate over a computer network and
doesn’t require and unsuspecting user to execute a program or macro file

-Denial of service (DoS) attack – form of network vandalism, attacker

tries to make a service unavailable to other users, generally by
bombarding the service w/ meaningless data

-Distributed Denial of service(DDoS) attack – when multiple

computer systems are involved in the attack

-Commandeered computers form a botnet

-Individual computers are called zombies b/c they do what the DoS
program tells it to

-Syn flooding – form of DoS attack whereby a hostile client

repeatedly sends SYN (synchronization) packets to every port on
the server, using fake IP addresses, which uses up all the available
network connections and locks them up until they time out

-Trojan horse – rouge program disguised as a useful program (game or

utility program), but contains hidden instructions to perform a malicious
task instead

-Memory shaving – removing some of a computer’s RAM chips but leave

enough for the computer to start up
-Cybergaming Crime – users or MMORPGs steal virtual property and hold it
ransom or sells it on ebay

-Tricks for obtaining passwords :

-Password guessing

-Shoulder surfing

-Packet sniffing – program that examines all traffic on a section of a

network, looking for passwords, credit card numbers

Dumpster diving – going through organization’s trash to find IDs and


Social engineering – decepting people into giving out sensitive


Superstar status

-Salami shaving – subtracts very small amounts of money from an account and
diverts money to shaver’s account

-Data diddling – insider modifys data by alter accounts or database records so

that it’s difficult or impossible to tell that they’ve stolen funds or equipment

-Forgery – making internet data appear to come form one place when it is
actually coming from another

-Hackers (white hats) – computer hobbyist who enjoy pushing computer

systems to their limits

-Crackers (black hats) – hackers who become obsessed with gaining entry to
highly secure computer systems

-Cyberstalking – using internet, social networking sites, or email to repeatedly

harass or threaten a person

-Corporate espionage – unauthorized access of corporate info, usually to

benefit a competitor, is on the rise; may eclipse all other sources of unauthorized

-Trap doors – security holes

-Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) – battery powered device that provies

power to your computer for a limited time when it detects an outage or critical
voltage drop
-Firewalls – program or device that permits an organization’s internal computer
users to access the external internet but severely limits the ability of outsiders to
access internal data

-Cryptography – study of transforming infor into an encoded or scrambled


-Encryption – coding of scrambbling process that renders an message

unreadable by anyone except for the recipient

-Digital signatures – technique that guarantees a message has not been

tampered with

-Digital certificates – method of validating a user, server, or website