Background of AIDS 1. In the history of AIDS there are three periods. The first is the clinical manifestations in the early 80s, when AIDS began in gays, followed by Haitians, people in Africa, and then hemophiliacs resulting in various opportunistic diseases such as pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), unexplained persistent lymphadenopathy, taxoplasmosis and Kaposi's sarcoma. These people showed increased susceptibility to rare opportunistic infection. Following which it was identified that these infections were highly resistant to treatment. When AIDS became rampant in US individuals suffered a complete collapse of the immune system. The second is the molecular diagnosis period, when scientists discovered the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). It was found that the virus caused impairment of the cell-mediated immunity (CMI). This was due to the loss or destruction of a large number of T-helper cells, which bear the CD4 marker on the surface. The third is the political period which dates to 2000 2. Definition of AIDS Short for acquired immune deficiency syndrome. An infectious disease of the immune system caused by an human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). AIDS is characterized by a decrease in the number of helper T cells, which causes a severe immunodeficiency that leaves the body susceptible to a variety of potentially fatal infections. The virus is transmitted in infected bodily fluids such as semen and blood, as through sexual intercourse, the use of contaminated hypodermic syringes, and placental transfer between mother and fetus. Although a cure or vaccine is not yet available, a number of antiviral drugs can decrease the viral load and subsequent infections in patients with AIDS.

3. Causative Agent

Human Immunodeficiency Virus, known as HIV, is a retrovirus generally believed to be the causative agent for AIDS. HIV is a tricky virus to diagnose and treat, due to the fact that there are actually two forms of it:
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HIV-1 is the most common form, and is also stronger. HIV-2 is found in limited areas, mostly in western Africa, and is less potent ± but no less alarming.

In order to understand how HIV leads to AIDS, it¶s important to understand how a retrovirus works. A virus, in general terms, is anything that invades cells and uses them for its own survival; a retrovirus simply refers to the genetic material of the virus (a retrovirus has RNA versus DNA).

However. both sides suffer from severe gum hemorrhage and infection as the cause of the blood that was probably not saliva. or from mother to child such as through breast milk) The virus attaches itself to certain cells. albeit with very little probability of infection is. which have a weakness in them that makes it easy for HIV to enter. are . nausea. 5. They are often mistaken for flu or a mild viral infection. which Center for Disease Control (CDC) gives them as the warning signs of infection of HIV. tiredness. while others do not. 4. so were caught.2 Blood HIV. 4. the amount of HIV in saliva is very low. many hemophilia patients were infected with the virus. Some of the early signs and symptoms of Aids include fever. the risk of HIV transmission by blood transfusion is very low. and enlarge lymph nodes (neck. vaginal. blood transfusions and in the past. anal or oral sex can take place during such as saliva during kissing hot transfer. headache. the virus through the placenta or the milk from the mother carrying baby transmission. HIV in the blood with heat-ROM detection and destruction methods before developing the virus. called CD4+T. and millions of registered AIDS cases in the world only 'a' grain of transmission method is kissing.1 Birth HIV. The CD4+T cells are part of the human immune system. sperm. armpits and groins).The actual process of infection is as follows: y y y The virus is introduced to the body (most common causes are sexual intercourse. vaginal discharge or other body fluids are infected with. In this case. This leads to a weakened immune system that puts the infected person at serious risk for diseases. Today. their partners who use syringes among intravenous drug addicts spreading rate is very high.1 Early manifestation Some people experience signs and symptoms of Aids as soon as they become infected with HIV Virus. diarrhoea. direct contact with infected blood. Mode of Transmission 4. This case. 4. The virus multiples using the CD4+T cells for its own purposes. Rarely infected needles in health personnel as a result of accidental bat caught the virus can be seen.3 Sex Someone with HIV the virus into the body's blood. Manifestations 5. 5.2 Late Manifestation Some of the signs and symptoms of later stages of AIDS. killing the cells in the process.

recurring fever. If AIDS has developed the body will be suffering various medical conditions and even the smallest illness can be fatal.rapid weight loss. AIDS develops when a person¶s CD4 count drops below 200 meaning their immune system is virtually non existent. People who have developed AIDS will have contracted the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prior to developing AIDS as long ago as 10-20 years. depression and other neurological disoreders. Disease Process Person can develop AIDS as a direct result of a HIV infection and AIDS are often considered as a defined possible end result of the HIV infection. There are certain drugs you can take to slow the virus down and minimize the damage potentially extending your lifespan by around 20 years. 7. The HIV virus uses these cells to multiply and in doing so destroys the CD4 cell¶s ability to fight the virus or any other possible infections. HIV will destroy the immune system allowing AIDS to develop. profound and unexplained fatigue. memory loss. Unfortunately. pneumonia. AIDS can also be diagnosed when a person falls ill with one or more opportunistic infections that are otherwise uncommon or rare. HIV attaches itself to the body¶s CD4 cells which are required as part of a healthy immune system. dry cough. µHow does AIDS affect the body?¶ once AIDS has developed this can be answered easily. 6. whereas AIDS is the resulting lack of defense your body has and the rare conditions you therefore suffer. once you have contracted HIV there is no way to get rid of it. Diagnostic Tests . The longer HIV is present in your system the more damage it will do to your immunity making you susceptible to various ³Opportunistic Infections´.

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