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Engineering Principles

Waste Handling and Separation,


Storage and Processing at the Source
LO1: Prepare a plan for solid waste and
hazardous waste management
LO2: Analyze the legal requirements

Dr. Amirhossein Malakahmad


Civil Engineering Department
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Today’s objectives…

At the end of this session you will be able to:

 Define fundamentals in waste handling and


separation, storage and processing at the
sources.

 Evaluate storage of solid wastes at the


sources and its effects.

 Assess the processing of solid wastes at


residential dwellings .
Agamuthu, EU-Asia SWM Conference, 2008
Agamuthu, EU-Asia SWM Conference, 2008
Agamuthu, EU-Asia SWM Conference, 2008
Agamuthu, EU-Asia SWM Conference, 2008
Agamuthu, EU-Asia SWM Conference, 2008
Agamuthu, EU-Asia SWM Conference, 2008
Handling and separation of solid
waste at the source

 Handling: activities associated with


managing solid wastes until they are
placed in the container before collection.

 Separation: separation of solid waste


including wastepaper, cardboard,
aluminum cans, glass and plastic
containers at the source of generation.
Waste handling and separation,
storage and processing at the
source

 Characteristics of waste
 Following functional elements
 Public health
 Public attitudes
Waste handling and separation at
residential area

 Low-rise under four stories


 Medium-rise from four to seven stories
 High-rise over seven stories
Handling at low and medium-rise
apartment
Basement storage/curbside
collection
Basement storage room is provided for the
storage of solid waste. Typically a container can
be used for recycling.
Outdoor storage/mechanized collection:

Large waste storage containers are located


outdoors.

The large containers are emptied mechanically.


Handling at high-rise apartment

1. Wastes are picked up by building maintenance


personnel from various floors and taken to the
basement.

2. Waste taken to the basement by tenants.

3. Wastes are placed by tenants in specially


designed vertical chutes with openings located
on each floor. Then wastes are collected in
large containers.
Vertical chutes
Types and sizes of containers for solid waste collection
Storage of Solid Wastes
at the Source
Effects of storage on waste components

 Biological decomposition
 Absorption of fluids

 Contamination of waste components


Biological decomposition

 Food and other wastes placed in onsite


storage containers will almost immediately
start to undergo microbiological
decomposition (putrefaction) as a result of
the growth of bacteria and fungi.
Absorption of fluids
 The components that comprise solid wastes
have differing initial moisture content, re-
equilibration takes place as wastes are stored
onsite in containers.

 If watertight containers lids are not used,


waste can also absorb water from rainfall that
enter partially covered containers.

 Saturation of waste to their field capacity is a


common occurrence in tropical region where
it rains on most days.
Contamination of waste components

 The major waste components may be


contaminated by small amount of wastes
such as motor oils, household cleaner and
paints.

 The effect of this contamination is to


reduce the value of the individual
components for recycling.
Processing of Solid Wastes at
Residential Dwellings

 Grinding of food wastes


 Compaction
 Composting
 Combustion
Objectives in processing of solid
wastes

1. Reduce the volume


2. Recover usable materials
3. Change the physical form of solid
wastes
Food grinder
Grinding of food wastes

 Grinders cause the food preparation, cooking


and serving waste that passes through them
suitable for transport through the sewer system.

 Application of home grinder has resulted in


overloading many treatment facilities.

 In terms of collection operation, the use of home


grinder does not have impact on the volume of
solid waste collected.

 But it will make possible to increase the time


period between collection pick ups.
Waste compactor
Compaction
 Although the compactors can reduce the original
volume waste up to 70% they can be used for
only a small portion of generated solid waste and
the weight of course remain same.

 It is impossible to recover individual components


from compacted waste.

 Where incineration is used, the compacted


wastes must be broken up to avoid delayed
combustion in the furnace and high losses of
unburned combustible materials.
Backyard composting
Composting

 During the composting period the material


placed in the pile will undergo bacterial and
fungal decomposition until only a humus martial
called compost remain.

 Composting is an effective way of reducing the


volume and altering the physical composition of
solid wastes while at the same time producing a
useful by-products and can be used as a soil
amendment or mulching material.

 In terms of home composting on the volume of


solid wastes to be handled is relatively small.
Open burning
Combustion

Backyard incineration

Open burning

High-rise apartments incinerator


 Flue-fed incinerator
 Chute-fed incinerator
 Discuss the advantegaes and
disadvantages of each method
among your group members and
present in the class.