Engineering Principles

Waste Handling and Separation, Storage and Processing at the Source
LO1: Prepare a plan for solid waste and hazardous waste management LO2: Analyze the legal requirements

Dr. Amirhossein Malakahmad
Civil Engineering Department Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS

Today’s objectives…
At the end of this session you will be able to:

Define fundamentals in waste handling and separation, storage and processing at the sources.

Evaluate storage of solid wastes at the sources and its effects. Assess the processing of solid wastes at residential dwellings .

Agamuthu, EU-Asia SWM Conference, 2008

Agamuthu. 2008 . EU-Asia SWM Conference.

2008 . EU-Asia SWM Conference.Agamuthu.

EU-Asia SWM Conference. 2008 .Agamuthu.

EU-Asia SWM Conference.Agamuthu. 2008 .

Agamuthu. 2008 . EU-Asia SWM Conference.

 Separation: separation of solid waste including wastepaper. glass and plastic containers at the source of generation. aluminum cans. . cardboard.Handling and separation of solid waste at the source  Handling: activities associated with managing solid wastes until they are placed in the container before collection.

Waste handling and separation. storage and processing at the source     Characteristics of waste Following functional elements Public health Public attitudes .

Waste handling and separation at residential area    Low-rise under four stories Medium-rise from four to seven stories High-rise over seven stories .

Handling at low and medium-rise apartment .

Typically a container can be used for recycling.Basement storage/curbside collection Basement storage room is provided for the storage of solid waste. .

The large containers are emptied mechanically. .Outdoor storage/mechanized collection: Large waste storage containers are located outdoors.

Wastes are placed by tenants in specially designed vertical chutes with openings located on each floor.Handling at high-rise apartment 1. Waste taken to the basement by tenants. Wastes are picked up by building maintenance personnel from various floors and taken to the basement. Then wastes are collected in large containers. 3. . 2.

Vertical chutes .

Types and sizes of containers for solid waste collection .

Storage of Solid Wastes at the Source .

Effects of storage on waste components Biological decomposition  Absorption of fluids  Contamination of waste components  .

.Biological decomposition  Food and other wastes placed in onsite storage containers will almost immediately start to undergo microbiological decomposition (putrefaction) as a result of the growth of bacteria and fungi.

Absorption of fluids  The components that comprise solid wastes have differing initial moisture content. reequilibration takes place as wastes are stored onsite in containers.   . waste can also absorb water from rainfall that enter partially covered containers. If watertight containers lids are not used. Saturation of waste to their field capacity is a common occurrence in tropical region where it rains on most days.

Contamination of waste components  The major waste components may be contaminated by small amount of wastes such as motor oils. The effect of this contamination is to reduce the value of the individual components for recycling. household cleaner and paints.  .

Processing of Solid Wastes at Residential Dwellings     Grinding of food wastes Compaction Composting Combustion .

Objectives in processing of solid wastes 1. Change the physical form of solid wastes . Recover usable materials 3. Reduce the volume 2.

Food grinder .

 In terms of collection operation.Grinding of food wastes  Grinders cause the food preparation.  Application of home grinder has resulted in overloading many treatment facilities. the use of home grinder does not have impact on the volume of solid waste collected. . cooking and serving waste that passes through them suitable for transport through the sewer system.  But it will make possible to increase the time period between collection pick ups.

Waste compactor .

.Compaction  Although the compactors can reduce the original volume waste up to 70% they can be used for only a small portion of generated solid waste and the weight of course remain same. the compacted wastes must be broken up to avoid delayed combustion in the furnace and high losses of unburned combustible materials.  It is impossible to recover individual components from compacted waste.  Where incineration is used.

Backyard composting .

 In terms of home composting on the volume of solid wastes to be handled is relatively small.  Composting is an effective way of reducing the volume and altering the physical composition of solid wastes while at the same time producing a useful by-products and can be used as a soil amendment or mulching material. .Composting  During the composting period the material placed in the pile will undergo bacterial and fungal decomposition until only a humus martial called compost remain.

Open burning .

Combustion Backyard incineration Open burning High-rise apartments incinerator Flue-fed incinerator  Chute-fed incinerator  .

 Discuss the advantegaes and disadvantages of each method among your group members and present in the class. .

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