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STRUCTURES SUBJECTED TO REPEATED LOADING

Stability and Strength

**STRUCTURES SUBJECTED TO REPEATED LOADING Stability and Strength
**

STABILITY AND STRENGTH

A Series of Books Reviewing Advances in Structural Engineering Edited by R.Narayanan, The Steel Construction Institute, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7QN, UK The inspiration for this series comes from the recognition of the significant advances made in our understanding of the behaviour of structures as a result of research during the past decade. These advances have, in turn, set new trends and caused major changes in the design codes in many countries. Even the philosophy of design has seen a major shift from the permissible stress basis to the concepts of limit state. Much research effort continues to be directed towards a better understanding of the complex behaviour of structures in the post-elastic, post-buckling and ultimate stages. Nevertheless, the ultimate benefit to be derived from the substantially improved knowledge depends on its effective implementation. Much needs to be done to bridge the gap between the results of research and their effective use by practitioners of the art. The purpose of these books is to explain the current theories and to present material which has been (or will be) influential in the generation of design specifications. Each volume in the series is devoted to a central theme and contains a number of papers of the ‘state-of-the-art’ type on various topics within the selected theme. The aim is to present articles concerned with current developments along with sufficient introductory material, so that a graduate engineer with some basic analytical background and familiarity with structural stability concepts can follow it without having to undertake any substantial background reading. An effort has been made to limit the treatment to advances of practical significance and avoid lengthy theoretical discussions. Throughout the series emphasis has been given to the international aspects of structural steel research. In terms of both design codes and safety parameters, the experiences and practices in Europe, North America and Japan are widely referenced. All the authors are well known experts who are internationally recognised for their contributions in the relevant fields. Titles of published volumes: (1) Axially Compressed Structures (2) Plated Structures (3) Beams and Beam Columns

iii

(4) Shell Structures (5) Steel Framed Structures (6) Concrete Framed Structures (7) Steel-Concrete Composite Structures (8) Structural Connections

**STRUCTURES SUBJECTED TO REPEATED LOADING
**

Stability and Strength

Edited by

R.NARAYANAN M.Sc. (Eng.), Ph.D., D.I.C., C.Eng., F.I.C.E., F.I.Struct.E., Manager (Education and Publications), The Steel Construction Institute, Ascot, United Kingdom. and T.M.ROBERTS B.Sc., Ph.D., C.Eng., M.I.C.E, M.I.Struct.E School of Engineering, University of Wales College of Cardiff, United Kingdom.

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Barking.tandf. Roberts.. R. 1. “To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.172 ISBN 0-203-97504-9 Master e-book ISBN ISBN 1-85166-567-6 (Print Edition) Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Structures subjected to repeated loading: stability and strength edited by R. I. p. Includes bibliographical references and index. or otherwise. Structures. II.M. T. negligence or otherwise. electronic. stored in a retrieval system. 655 Avenue of the Americas. III. or from any use or operation of any methods. 2.Narayanan and T. 1946TA656. cm. All rights reserved.M. photocopying. INC. T. including photocopying outside the USA. Effects I. Strength of materials. 1. instructions or ideas contained in the material herein.. All other copyright questions. Roberts. II. Structural stability. R. Series 624. 2005. NY 10010. without prior written permission of the publisher. products. or transmitted in any form or by any means.eBookstore.co. Narayanan. recording.M. England This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library.uk.” Sole Distributor in the USA and Canada ELSEVIER SCIENCE PUBLISHING CO. No part of this publication may be reproduced. USA WITH 18 TABLES AND 153 ILLUSTRATIONS © 1991 ELSEVIER SCIENCE PUBLISHERS LTD British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Structures subjected to repeated loading. (CCC).S78 1991 624. Massachusetts. mechanical. Narayanan. Salem. Loads. should be referred to the publisher. Information can be obtained from the CCC about conditions under which photocopies of parts of this publication may be made in the USA.Roberts. Linton Road. New York. Essex IG11 8JU.ELSEVIER SCIENCE PUBLISHERS LTD Crown House. .1′7–dc20 90–14075 CIP No responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability. Special regulations for readers in the USA This publication has been registered with the Copyright Clearance Center Inc.

it can be followed by anyone with a basic knowledge of structural analysis. the book is aimed at the graduate student and the designer. Much research has been carried out in recent years. with a view to developing satisfactory techniques of quantifying fatigue effects. As with other books in the series. the ninth in the series of volumes on Stability and Strength of Structures. We sincerely hope that the book will be stimulating and useful to its readers. we wish to express our gratitude to all the contributors for their willing cooperation in producing this volume. Understanding fatigue damage consequent on repeated loading of structures.ROBERTS .NARAYANAN T. which would aid in safe and acceptable designs. this is followed by state-of-the-art reports on several facets of the effect of repeated loading. We have continued the practice of inviting internationally acclaimed experts to make contributions on several selected areas. influenced by a large number of independent and often unquantifiable variables. As Editors. becomes extremely important in view of the relatively low margins of safety implicit in present day designs using Limit State Codes.M. The book begins with an introduction to fatigue assessment and fracture mechanics applicable to structures. Fatigue is a complex phenomenon. R.PREFACE It gives us great pleasure to write a short preface to the book on Structures Subjected to Repeated Loading.

3.ALBRECHT Fatigue of Tubular Joints in Offshore Structures J. 22 48 63 90 111 158 182 210 245 .FISHER & C.KULAK Index vi viii 1 2.J. 9.Z. 5.MENZEMER Reinforced-Concrete Frames Subjected to Cyclic Load C. 7.TOLLOCZKO Case Studies and Repair of Fatigue-Damaged Bridge Structures J.MAEDAY.L.F.KAWAI & I.CONTENTS Preface List of Contributors 1. 8.OKURA Fatigue Strength of Adhesively Bonded Cover Plates P.J.C. 4.A. 6.MEYER Unstiffened Steel Plate Shear Walls G.WERNEMAN Effect of Residual Stresses on the Fatigue of Welds S.W.SMITH Fatigue Damage Accumulation under Varying-Amplitude Loads F.C.SARKANI Fatigue Cracking in Plate and Box Girders Y. Fatigue Assessment and Fracture Mechanics in Structural Engineering I.

Osaka 565. Suita. Columbia University. 2–1. Lehigh University. Yamadaoka. Washington. USA . USA J. Edmonton. Pennsylvania 18075.C.MENZEMER ATLSS Scholar. 2–1. University of Alberta. Suita. Japan C. New York 10027. University of Maryland. College Park. USA Y. Kawasaki Steel Corporation. T6G 2G7 Y. Canada.KAWAI Research and Development Center. Osaka University.ALBRECHT Department of Civil Engineering.KULAK Department of Civil Engineering. Maryland 20742. USA C. Chiba. DC 20052.SARKANI Department of Civil. Osaka 565.OKURA Department of Civil Engineering. Emeritus Professor.MEYER Department of Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics.L. Japan S.LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS P. Lehigh University.W. Mechanical and Environmental Engineering. Japan G. The George Washington University. USA I. Pennsylvania 18015. Yamadaoka. Osaka University.FISHER ATLSS Engineering Research Center.MAEDA.

Switzerland J.A.F.J.TOLLOCZKO Offshore Engineering Division. Lausanne. Silwood Park.ZWERNEMAN School of Civil Engineering.J.C.ix I. Federal Institute of Technology. UK F. USA . Berkshire SL5 7QN. The Steel Construction Institute. Ascot.SMITH ICOM. Stillwater. Oklahoma State University. Oklahoma 74078–0327.

fracture-mechanics methods enable quantitative analyses to be undertaken for associated problems which were previously solved more subjectively—such as decisions regarding inspection and repair. the two most important factors affecting the fatigue life of a structure are geometry and stress range. NOTATION a ai Crack length Initial crack length . Federal Institute of Technology. A summary of basic fracture-mechanics principles is presented and some applications in structural engineering are examined. erected.Chapter 1 FATIGUE ASSESSMENT AND FRACTURE MECHANICS IN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING I. Lausanne. Thus. Often. Also.SMITH ICOM. Aside from their obvious utility for strength calculations. the complexity of the design problem precludes the use of sophisticated approaches which are employed in other fields. discontinuities and stress gradients. inspected and maintained according to special criteria. Also. Although fracturemechanics concepts are gaining acceptance in structural engineering. fracture-mechanics principles increase the qualitative understanding of structures containing cracks. Switzerland SUMMARY Although fatigue is a complicated phenomenon.C. special conditions in structural engineering create opportunities for simplification. Variations in material properties of steels and environmental conditions are usually of secondary importance owing to built-in stresses. structures which are subject to fatigue loading need to be designed. fabricated.F. they should be used with caution when assessing large structures.

their simplicity precludes explicit consideration of all factors. chimneys. fatigue assessments should be based upon a rational evaluation of all factors which are relevant to the intended use. cranes. Therefore. This chapter reviews fatigue assessments for cases of large structures and discusses considerations necessary for good fatigue design and effective . Failures may occur in bridges. gantry girders.2 I.C. Fracture-mechanics (henceforth FM) principles enable a more detailed assessment of such elements to be carried out. Although standard fatigue-assessment methods provide sufficient information for good design under most cases of repeated loading. The cost of repairing a fatigue-damaged structure may exceed the initial capital investment. standard methods cannot evaluate the effects of cracks in structural elements. For example. transmission towers and marine platforms.1 INTRODUCTION Fatigue cracking may threaten structures and consequently fatigue has long been recognised as a design constraint.F.SMITH acr a0 ′a A CTOD d E J K ′K ′ Kth l m n N r t W Y ′ v σ σy σ yy ′σ Critical crack length Detectable crack length Crack length increment Crack-growth constant Crack-tip-opening displacement Crack opening Young’s modulus J integral Stress-intensity factor Stress-intensity factor range Threshold stress intensity factor range Length of attachment Crack growth constant Number of inspections Number of cycles Polar coordinate from crack tip Plate thickness Correction for stress field Correction for crack shape and plate edges Polar coordinate from crack tip Poissons’s ratio Stress remote from a crack Effective yield strength Local stress in y-direction Stress range 1.

mean stress. Unfortunately. stresses due to thermal gradients. grain size . spacing between elements. humidity. FM analyses for steel structures are better verified and probably more versatile than for concrete structures. Environmental factors include the effects of corrosive liquids or gases. stresses. lack-of-fit stresses. stress sequence.FATIGUE ASSESSMENT AND FRACTURE MECHANICS 3 management during post-design stages. These factors incude span. and weldingprocess discontinuities. Firstly. Material properties include stress-strain behaviour. Secondly. basic fracture mechanics concepts are described. Fortunately in most cases. and movement-induced stresses are important factors. stress concentrations. Some problems which are particular to structural engineering are outlined. impact stresses. there is general agreement in the engineering community regarding fatigue assessment of steel structures. Material properties determine how the structure reacts to factors in the other three categories. environment.2 FACTORS AFFECTING FATIGUE LIFE OF STRUCTURES 1. material properties. Geometrical factors determine where and how quickly fatigue failure occurs. Stress range. stress parameters often possess the greatest statistical uncertainty in a fatigue analysis. grinding marks. Also. Although the occurrence of fatigue cracking in concrete structures is increasing. orientation of elements. non-fatigue cracks. temperature.2. Factors in the stress category influence whether or not fatigue cracking occurs. as well as small discontinuities such as scratches. and examples of FM applications are presented. environmental factors can be neglected if protection is provided. residual stresses.1 Four Categories of Factors The factors which influence the fatigue life of structures can be placed into the following four categories: – – – – geometry. surface pitting. Environmental factors can induce fatigue cracking in an otherwise safe structure and can accelerate fatigue cracking through corrosion and creep mechanisms near the crack tip. discussions in this chapter are limited to steel structures for two reasons. joint geometry. hydrogen and irradiation. while corresponding procedures for concrete structures vary greatly. 1.

Furthermore. stresses caused by unwanted deformations during fabrication.F. they may magnify the applied stress by more than five times.2. This means that the structure behaves elastically during fatigue loading.SMITH and shape. chemical composition. for typical stress ranges. it is very difficult to avoid built-in stresses at crack locations.1) small weld-induced discontinuities are unavoidable. 1982).4 I. Fig.2 Simplifications for Large Welded Steel Structures In large welded steel structures. stresses near the tensile yield strength of the steel are present. ECCS (1985). real levels of stress are unknown in all but very simple structures. These factors are discussed next. and the behaviour of expansion joints contribute to these built-in stresses. Considering all these factors leads to the conclusion that even without applied loading. 1. the factors associated with fatigue cracking in large structures create a situation where simplifications are possible. Residual stresses due to welding. 1. Fisher (1977). In addition.1 shows three magnitudes of geometrical effects. homogeneity and microstructural discontinuities. Applied mean stress levels and stress sequence have little importance under such conditions. Fortunately. Such discontinuities are not easily detectable (their depth equals the thickness of an average piece of paper) but their presence eliminates any significant period of crack nucleation and short-crack growth (sometimes called crack initiation). such magnification is extremely localised in an area that. and lack-of-fit problems during erection can create situations where stresses near possible crack locations approach the tensile yield strength of the material. Different combinations of these factors create a wide range of fatiguecracking conditions. Elsewhere. applied stress range becomes the only significant factor in the stress category. the overall structural configuration. thermal gradients in the structure. Many international and national design documents already incorporate this simplification. the stress ranges are not magnified to similar degrees. Generally. effects of such attachments are very important.C. Even rigorous quality requirements have been unsuccessful in removing crack-like discontinuities less than 0·1 mm deep (Smith & Smith.1. For the middle magnitude. Fortunately. is only tens of grains large. hardness.g. Therefore. local stress concentrations are caused by details such as welded attachments. it should be assumed that at possible crack locations. can be such that differential settlement of supports. e. For example. Design strategies for one case may not be appropriate for other cases if the most dominant factors are not the same. the configuration of the structure may contribute to high stresses. energy absorption. BSI (1980a). For the smallest magnitude (Fig 1. The highest magnitude. it would be unwise to employ a given fatigue-design strategy for bridge design because it is known that the strategy suffices for aircraft. Other simplications are possible owing to the special geometrical factors for the middle and smallest magnitudes of Fig. 1. This . SIA (1979).

3 The Two Most Important Factors From the above discussion. the usual initial corrosion which is expected of weathering steels does not reduce fatigue lives of unpainted structures made from this type of steel. This has been verified experimentally (e. the fatigue process in the presence of crack-like discontinuities subject to elastic stress ranges. For the same reason.FATIGUE ASSESSMENT AND FRACTURE MECHANICS 5 FIG. Figure 1.2. Three magnitudes of geometric effects. Exposure to a mildly corrosive environment. does not usually mean that the fatigue life is reduced.2 summarises the . as discussed above. 1971). this is generally the case. the presence of crack-like discontinuities and predominantly elastic conditions reduces the effect of changes in environmental conditions.. Hirt et al.1. Secondly. leads to propagation rates which are known to be indepen dent of steel quality and yield strength for steels employed in large welded structures (Rolfe & Barsom. 1. The combination of these factors has two more important consequences. 1. 1977). it can be concluded that only two factors affect the fatigue life of large welded steel structures: stress range and geometry. Firstly. such as the humidity under a bridge over a river. This provides an important simplification as well as a justification for international harmonisation of design guidelines. changes in material properties do not affect fatigue life—provided that the steel is of standard structural quality. is especially true when built-in stresses are high.g. Therefore. sometimes called long-crack propagation.

1.C.2. These recommendations provide examples for bridges only. Moreover. Since many factors have a reduced influence upon fatigue lives of large structures.SMITH FIG. generalisation to all cases of fatigue cracking is not justified. Also.3 FATIGUE-RESISTANT DESIGN Good design practice involves special considerations in three areas: structural systems. In large structures. 1. For example. the relative importance of stress range and geometry is increased. Note that such simplifications are possible only under certain conditions. a complete documentation for all types of structures is beyond the scope of this chapter. Such selection can be called ‘fatigue-resistant design’ and it is discussed further in the next section. 1. Special conditions leading to simplifications of fatigue assessments. geometrical factors are becoming even more important to the integrity of structures subject to fatigue loading. and factors affecting fabrication and erection. the severity of geometrical effects can be minimized by judicious selection of dimensions and configurations for the largest and middle magnitudes of Fig. an unanticipated increase in use generally increases the number and magnitude of stress ranges during the life of the structure.6 I. . The following discussion provides recommendations for good fatigue design according to these areas.1. detailing. Therefore.F. reasons behind this conclusion. applied stress ranges are increasing in structures owing to the trend toward use of higher-strength steels. assessment of offshore structures requires a more detailed consideration of environmental effects.

For example. such as that between a beam and a diaphragm in a bridge. Fatigue critical details should be identified and remain accessible for regular inspection. details should be designed so that they have low stress concentrations and small discontinuities. Although such fixity. a railway-bridge structure should not be sensitive to wheel loads and dynamic effects. and the remaining redundancy of the structure after fatigue cracking has occurred should be evaluated. this redistribution may provide an early warning of a potential overall failure. The structure should be protected from corrosive effects of rain water. For example. dynamic effects are reduced if smooth surfaces over joints can be maintained throughout the life of the structure. they experience less dynamic stress magnification. they should be employed only if analysis demonstrates a need. de-icing salts and drainage which does not feed directly into the ground.3. Also.3. Certain structural systems can redistribute loads. Other engineering fields have termed this ‘fail-safe design’. fatigue cracking of a railway-bridge element supporting a rail may lead to derailment. Finally. This is achieved through avoiding . Decks which are correctly sealed and drainage pipes which avoid contact of the structure with rain water prevent corrosion-induced fatigue cracking.2 Fatigue-Resistant Detailing In general terms. 1. for example. On highway bridges. Components in structures should be analysed correctly for their service behaviour. structures should be designed to be tolerant of potential fatigue cracks. employing composite construction and using ballast. the number of expansion joints should be kept to a minimum. local failure may lead to unacceptable service behaviour.1 Fatigue-Resistant Structural Systems Structures need to be designed so that they are not subject to large numbers of high stress ranges. Wheel-load sensitivity can be minimised through avoiding short members. Several damage scenarios should be investigated. simplified force models do not usually provide enough information for analysis of skew bridges. therefore. service stresses can induce fatigue cracking at such connections. For example. Furthermore. This may require a review of foundation-design criteria and specification of reliable expansion joints. is ignored for ultimate-limitstate assessments. It is important that structures subjected to fatigue loading are designed so that they are easy to inspect and to maintain. Continuousspan bridges need fewer expansion joints and. partial fixity provided at the connection between two members should be included in the assessment. The model used during analysis should also be able to cope with deformation-induced stresses. in the event of local fatigue cracking.FATIGUE ASSESSMENT AND FRACTURE MECHANICS 7 1.

recommendations have been made for FM calculations of inspection intervals (ECCS.3 Factors Affecting Fabrication and Erection At the design stage. FM has been used directly by the engineer for evaluating non-destructive inspection (henceforth NDI) results. establishing communication links at an early stage encourages the transfer of new information concerning the structure during post-design stages. No modifications to designs should be made without approval of all parties.F. Such information may originate from modifications during erection. Such consultation identifies the most appropriate specifications for criteria such as quality assurance. Note that non-load-carrying attachments may in fact carry enough load to induce cracking. In all cases. load-carrying fillet welds. the key to fatigue-resistant detailing is a rational consideration of factors affecting fatigue life early in the design process. application of FM to failure of concrete structures is being investigated (Wittman. 1. sudden changes in stiffness. 1980b). built-in defects caused by lack of penetration are potential fatigue-crack sites. 1984). Consequently. FM analyses are used to examine a range of other structuralengineering problems. A fatigue check performed after details have been designed to other criteria may result in a costly and inadequate structure. 1. In all cases. code-drafting committees have employed FM calculations in order to evaluate specifications for quality assurance. Originally used to explain the rupture of . Also.4 FRACTURE MECHANICS IN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING Originally. In spite of all this activity. Sizes and shapes of discontinuities have been correlated to fabrication quality levels (BSI.3. fabricators and contractors should be consulted.8 I. For example. and intermittent welding. or from last-minute decisions regarding a change in use of the structure. 1985) and researchers are performing parametric studies in order to identify important geometric effects.SMITH details such as: web gaps at the end of stiffeners. Finally.C. partial-penetration welds. In such cases. Currently. when no specifications were applicable. FM remains a method of analysis which is used primarily by mechanical engineers. Also. most structural-engineering applications of FM were limited to inservice assessments of structures. this contact provides an opportunity to point out areas which are most sensitive to fatigue cracking. and to discuss special precautions. the designer should monitor closely fabrication and erection procedures. Furthermore. and probably most important.

In addition. 1986). A sharp stress concentration. Therefore. Review articles provide more detailed information (e. in combination with a crack may weaken a plate to a fraction of its uncracked strength. there is a risk that insufficient information and inappropriate use may result in unsafe and costly decisions. Academic journals.g. and several organizations propose a multitude of design approaches. design engineers are often confused by complicated mathematics.5 BASIC FRACTURE-MECHANICS CONCEPTS For simplicity. discussions are limited to cases where the load is applied remote from crack locations. 1. Considering case 1 to be the basis for comparison. The stress which this cross-sectional area would have carried is diverted to the uncracked area of the plate.3. 1977) and several mechanicalengineering books dealing with FM principles and applications have been published recently (e. When a remote stress σ is applied. This resembles closely the conditions of case 1 when the crack length is small compared to the plate width. robotic structures. Today. conference proceedings. the crack opens a certain distance d. turbine blades. This diversion creates a high concentration of stress . a traditional structural-engineering education does not provide the competence to choose the most appropriate approach. much of this information cannot be used by structural engineers. and normal to crack surfaces (mode 1). In order to decide what portion of the information is relevant to the particular application. It requires no knowledge of FM to agree that cases 1 to 5 are placed in order of increasing severity. the development of FM began in the 1940s after several catastrophic failures of ships and pressure vessels. and different boundary conditions. and many other components. (ii) the crack location at a plate edge (case 3). Case 5 is of greatest practical importance. 1. Broek. pipelines. Unfortunately. automotive parts. 1. all of which weaken the plate.FATIGUE ASSESSMENT AND FRACTURE MECHANICS 9 glass specimens (Griffith. allowable stress criteria used with net-section stresses are unreliable and often dangerous. 1. the following important FM parameters can be identified: (i) a longer crack (case 2).4.5.g. FM is used to assess elements in SPacecraft. trade magazines. 1921). A magnification of the area around a crack tip in an infinitely wide plate is given in Fig. The separated crack surfaces cannot carry any stress. such as an abrupt change in section. many empirical constants. an array of formulae. Rolfe. Note also that for these cases.1 How to Account for a Crack Five cases of a plate containing a crack are shown in Fig. These cases illustrate fundamental parameters considered in all FM analyses. (iii) the effect of bending (case 4).

and (iii) creates crack-tip plastic straining is the fundamental mechanism which weakens structures containing cracks or crack-like discontinuities. whereby an applied load: (i) causes a crack to open. A crack in an infinitely wide plate. plastic zones are formed because the strain exceeds the material’s ability to behave elastically. Theoretically. 1. FIG. Five different cases of a plate containing a crack.1) . When ′=0. 1.C.F. (ii) relieves crack surfaces of stresses.4. the stress in the y-direction is (1.SMITH FIG. in real materials. this stress is infinite at the crack tip but. a mathematical development employing special stress functions provides a solution using the coordinates r and ′ .3. How can one describe the stress field near the crack tip? Ignoring plasticity. in the vicinity of the crack tip.10 I. This process.

while W corrects for non-uniform local-stress fields caused by the presence of residual stresses. say less than 2% of plate thickness. These models are not yet well defined and no generally accepted design rules are available. crack length.FATIGUE ASSESSMENT AND FRACTURE MECHANICS 11 provided that the crack length a is much larger than the distance r from the crack tip. Equation (1. stress concentrations. microstructural properties. and size of uncracked ligament.4) where E is Young’s modulus and σ y is the effective yield strength. Occasionally.3) where Y corrects for the presence of plate edges and curved crack fronts. when stress concentrations cause localised plasticity. many practical cases cannot be solved analytically. 1985) and compendia (Rooke & Cartwright.. if this zone is much smaller. 1983): (1. A further restriction on K exists for small crack lengths where all of the approaches explained above lose their validity. stress gradients due to thermal effects. 1986). the models which . the material constant E is replaced by E/(1−v2) where v is Poisson’s ratio. These limitations are violated in many practical situations. The most common analyses use either expressions such as J in order to model the change in potential energy with respect to crack length.2) The advantage of this model is that any combination of stress and crack length can be characterised by a single parameter. 1985). elasticplastic analyses may be required. Other analytical solutions exist for particular geometrical configurations and loading conditions. etc. This numerator is called the stress intensity factor K: (1. Usually. the following expression is used to approximate K: (1. However. if the crack length is greater than about five grain diameters. 1976). such as grain orientation. Usually.1) is based on linear-elastic material properties and cannot account for the presence of plasticity at the crack tip. When plate dimensions are large enough to restrict behaviour to essentially two-dimensional straining (plane strain). may influence crack growth (Lankford. Furthermore. Microstructural FM models may then become necessary. such correction factors are determined using numerical methods. Further description of elastic-plastic analyses is available elsewhere (Broek. stress redistribution due to plasticity alters the stress field outside the crack-tip plastic zone. In such instances. the stress intensity factor K remains an acceptable model. CTOD. The numerator in eqn (1. Nevertheless. or the cracktip opening displacement value. When the size of the crack or initial discontinuity is of the order of the grain size. an equivalent K is calculated (Irwin.1) determines the gradient of the (theoretical) stresses as they rise to infinity when r approaches zero. these are summarised in handbooks (Tada et al. For example.

1. the curve straightens to a near-constant slope and becomes vertical again when the fracture toughness is approached at the maximum stress in the cycle. fatigue failure is often the result of slow crack growth from a discontinuity at a stress concentration. developments of low-alloy and fine-grain microstructures have increased the yield strengths of steels available for construction. thereby lowering fatigue strengths of connections. the Paris law is useful (Paris & Erdogan. For a constant-amplitude stress range.5) Equation (1. 1.2 Fatigue Crack Growth Fatigue cracking results from repeated loading and occurs most commonly in structures such as bridges.SMITH assume an isotropic continuum. the number of old structures which have exceeded their design life is growing exponentially.5) for particular magnitudes of crack length. if the fracture limit state is attained. The combined effect of these two trends is increasing the importance of fatigue assessments of new and existing structures. many structural elements remain equally susceptible to fatigue-crack growth. Material properties.5.3) to account for repeated loading. In this centre portion. This slope becomes the ordinate when plotted against ′ K in a doublelogarithmic representation—see Fig. In addition to higher-toughness properties. ′ σ this becomes (1. are sufficiently accurate. and environment have a greater influence on the vertical ends of the curve shown in Fig. Although today’s steel structures use higher-toughness materials and thus are more fracture resistant than ever before. the curve for crack growth (in steel) becomes vertical. e. Nevertheless. Therefore. and most include severe stress concentrators such as weld toes.5(b). Consequently.5(b) than in the middle. modern structures can be more susceptible to fatigue cracking than older structures. Such an occurrence is covered by the definition of the fatigue limit state. higher service stresses have been allowed in recently built structures. the threshold stress intensity factor. 1. which is obtained from the slope of the curve of crack-growth measurements—see Fig.5) is related empirically to the crack-growth rate. The values of ′ K are calculated using eqn (1. a. 1. Consequently. those employing K or J. 1963): . da/dN.5(a).12 I. it is most likely due to f atigue-crack growth after many years of trouble-free service. This growth may begin before the structure is put in service.F. towers and cranes. Furthermore.g. indicating a crackgrowth threshold at ′ Kth.C. Therefore. The stress intensity factor can also represent fatiguecrack growth by adapting eqn (1. previous practices of bolting and riveting have been replaced by welding. All structural elements contain metallurgical or fabrication-related discontinuities. stress level. At very low growth rates. At higher values of ′ K.

(a) Crack length vs number of cycles. Many structural applications involve repeated loading of over one million cycles and this requires a precise knowledge of slow crack-growth rates near ′ Kth—see Fig. .6) is extrapolated into this region.6) can be integrated to calculate the crack-propagation fatigue life N: (1.FATIGUE ASSESSMENT AND FRACTURE MECHANICS 13 FIG. These constants are reliable when similar materials. eqn (1. This ratio is often used to examine the effects of mean stress on crack growth. 1. the regression analysis is dependent upon the domain of crack-growth rates considered since the centre portion of the curve in Fig. 1. (1.5(b) is not perfectly straight. Also. The error resulting from the extrapolation is dependent upon the magnitude of the stress ratio R. The stress-intensity factor and fatigue-crack growth.l.7) where ai and acr are the initial and critical crack lengths.5(c). Conservative assessments result when eqn (1. and environments are studied. loadings.6) where A and m are constants which are determined by means of a regression analysis of test data. When ′ K is much larger than ′ Kth.5. (c) Magnification of the lower portion of the curve in (b). (b) Crack-growth rate vs the stress-intensity factor range.

1. interaction effects. Often. Some of these characteristics are presented in the following section. This difficulty influences the degree of sophistication possible in FM analyses. Usually. Fortunately. tiny crack-like imperfections may exist—see Fig. 1984). 1. Many models have been proposed when these effects are important. . the stress intensity factor remains a useful characterising parameter for conditions of fatigue-crack growth since discontinuities are large and a high percentage of crack growth occurs under conditions where K is valid. Furthermore. Temperature effects due to the sun and other heat sources can transform nominally compressive stresses into tensile stresses. The following paragraphs outline particular loading and fabrication factors. Usually. While this may be adequate for traditional static assessments. local stresses are high in a very small region around potential crack sites. the structure is not analysed in detail at the design stage. and discuss the consequences for design assessments.6 STRUCTURAL-ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS Structural-engineering applications of FM must consider many variables which are difficult to determine accurately. Stresses due to imposed deformations must be considered. Post-weld treatments which remove these discontinuities. such omissions are not recommended for FM evaluations.14 I.C. impact and other dynamic loadings are poorly defined and out-ofplane movements as well as other so-called secondary effects are neglected. frost. and erosion can lead to unexpected tensile stresses in some structures.6(a).SMITH Variable-amplitude loading may be assessed in a cycle-by-cycle integration. Discontinuities exist in every structure. Cracks are very sensitive to local stresses. appear effective (Fig. 1. having root radii which were measured by Smith & Smith (1982) to be less than 5μ m. Some discontinuities are very sharp. called either crack acceleration or crack retardation. Also. At typical structural details. However. such as grinding. structuralengineering applications have particular characteristics which reduce the occurrence of this anom alous behaviour. Further work is needed to identify those models which are most useful for structural-engineering applications. Even if a connection appears to be free of any discontinuity. are ignored.F. In doing so. This integration may follow a procedure comparable to the calculation of the equivalent constant-amplitude stress range which is recommended in some design codes. support settlement.6(b)). Non-conservative calculations may result if socalled short-crack behaviour occurs (Suresh & Ritchie. Small crack sizes and excessive plasticity may invalidate models which employ the stress intensity factor. such situations are not common when assessing large structures. An accurate definition of the loading on a structure can be the greatest challenge in design.

Attempts to reduce residual stresses by stress-relieving procedures are not always effective.6(c)). plate deformations are unavoidable and attempts to correct them may not be successful. non-destructive detection of surface discontinuities is impossible if they are less than 0·5 mm deep and difficult if they are less than 5 mm deep. The welding process introduces tensile residual stresses in areas where crack-like discontinuities may exist. Furthermore. Furthermore. Therefore. The previous discussion demonstrated that an accurate FM analysis is complicated in structural engineering.FATIGUE ASSESSMENT AND FRACTURE MECHANICS 15 FIG. Weld-toe discontinuities. as well as stresses due to imposed deformations. 1. their sizes . it is important that designs include detail configurations which avoid inspection difficulties. (a) As-welded. In any case. (b) After burr grinding. Determination of all stresses is very important. and service loads. residual stresses due to fabrication. (c) Magnification of (b). erection. consequently. Unwanted deformations may lead to lack of fit and additional tensile residual stresses. it is prohibitively expensive to prove that a large structure is completely free of discontinuities. Most steel structures contain welded connections and attachments. usual quality-assurance procedures may not be able to guarantee that new discontinuities are not introduced (Fig. Generally. Discontinuities are always present and. 1. this includes stresses due to all loading events. access to the connection can be so restricted that detection of even larger discontinuities is not practicable using the equipment available.6.

modelled by the parameter W in eqn (1. affects the crackgrowth rate.5). Stress concentrations may be high but steep gradients cause their effects to diminish as the cracks increase in length. Thus. some testing has supported the trend predicted by FM (Hirt. The possibility of sharp discontinuities prohibits consideration of a crackinitiation stage. Again. 1986). such as stress-range (hereafter SN) models. Relative fatigue lives were calculated by dividing the fatigue life by the value corresponding to a thickness of t=12·5 mm for each case. SN curves do not exist for every possible structural shape and detail. remain the most practical design tools for evaluating many structures. The stress concentration.7. First. FM analyses showed that increasing the plate thicknesses of connections employing transverse fillet welds (cruciform joints) reduced the fatigue life (Gurney. Similarly. 1. 1979. Since more parameters are explicit in FM analyses. approximately ten years ago. the concepts of FM enable the designer to increase his qualitative understanding of structures containing cracklike discontinuities. taking the form of a so-called thumbnail crack. a FM study revealed an increase in fatigue life with increasing plate thickness for longitudinal fillet-welded attachments (Smith & Gurney. Older concepts. Nevertheless. Also. steep stress gradients at stress concentrations preclude short-crack-growth effects during typical service loading.SMITH must be measured accurately. After testing verified this trend (e. designers can identify more easily those parameters which influence the strength of the structure. it is often possible to identify details which are similar to the one under consideration for a given structure. A comparison of theoretical and experimental studies is shown in Fig. unpublished data).1 Fracture Mechanics Used as a Qualitative Design Tool Engineering designers rarely use FM as a design tool. Initially.C. Connections classified in different detail categories (ECCS. Unknown static-load levels have two conse quences for FM assessments of fatigue-crack growth. 1984). In design guidelines. A parametric study using FM is able to determine whether the identification is correct or what extra effects are to be considered. Secondly.F. 1983) new code provisions were proposed (HMSO. a typical fatigue crack propagates very slowly into the plate thickness from the surface. Fatigue-strength assessments in structural engineering must remain simple for similar reasons. a poor definition of such important information precludes a high level of analytical sophistication.g. the intrinsic threshold stress intensity should be used regardless of the applied mean stress. Berge. 1979).6. 1985) may have different crack-propagation characteristics for the same fatigue life-see . 1. In many designs. For example. the effect of compressive loading cannot be excluded from the stress range unless it can be proved that this loading never causes any crack opening.16 I. simple linear-elastic fracture-mechanics models are sufficient for most structural-engineering designs.

FIG. The damage-tolerant-design concept is the major justification for . 1. Fig. The effect of thickness on fatigue life: comparison of theoretical and experimental studies. Nevertheless. Other factors.2 Quantitative Design Using Fracture Mechanics Many documents provide guidelines for employing FM during structural assessments. such as differences in inspection feasibility.8.FATIGUE ASSESSMENT AND FRACTURE MECHANICS 17 FIG. Thus.7. The detail with a lower-severity stress concentration (butt-welded plate) consumes a greater percentage of the total fatigue life during the propagation of a crack to a size a than the detail with a higher-severity stress concentra tion (attachment). influence the exact timing of crack identification. Comparison of fatigue crack-growth behaviour for two different details having the same fatigue life. 1. 1. the same size crack may be identified earlier at the attachment than at the butt weld.6. such crack-growth behaviour should be considered when fixing inspection intervals. 1.8.

Discontinuities are often rejected during standard fabrication controls although. transportation. the presence of many types of discontinuites does not influence the performance of the structure. in reality. Crackgrowth curves can be predicted for all critical details in a structure. as shown schematically in Fig. For example. experience. or even after several years in service. acceptance of certain aspects is apparent in structural engineering. Between the crack lengths when first detection is . 1. determination of intervals between in-service inspections does not consider the behaviour of the structure if it were to contain a crack. FM provides a more analytical method. Often. Qualityassurance clauses in many codes are based more upon accepted standard practice. The economic consequences of remedial measures can be severe. A few examples are provided below. the following terms imply that structural engineers recognise that structures may contain cracks or crack-like discontinuities: (a) Fitness for purpose (acceptance levels) (b) Engineering critical assessment (c) In-service inspection for cracks (d) Remaining fatigue life (e) Strengthening and repair of cracked elements (f) Local vs general fatigue failure (g) Fail-safe fatigue and fracture design Each term implies considerations and calculation which FM can rationalize.18 I.F.C. This concept accepts the possibility that an element remains useful when it has been subject to damage upon fabrication. and detection capability than upon scientific accuracy. The concepts of fitness for purpose and engineering critical assessment imply that discontinuities exist in structures after fabrication.SMITH the use of FM.9. Damage tolerance is now a standard design concept in some engineering fields.

The fatigue life of such a detail can be increased by more than ten times when using an appropriate improvement method. FM analysis will become an essential part of the assessment of these structures and. a0. the exact amount of improvement is not always known. so does the number of structures which have a high probability of containing fatigue cracks. some of which have been analysed thoroughly using FM. Standard SN curves found in codes cannot accommodate such parameters. repair and replacement. and fabrication conditions. . 1984). should be performed. Also. FM calculations offer a more rational approach to an empirical field. This is particularly true for offshore structures. Fatigue-life improvement methods give the designer the possibility of using an otherwise unacceptable structural detail (instead of reducing the stresses). FM analyses may assist in the assessment of complex structures not covered by test results. Finally. n.FATIGUE ASSESSMENT AND FRACTURE MECHANICS 19 FIG. consequently. As the number of structures which approach or exceed their design life grows exponentially each year. cracking in several NorthAmerican steel bridges was reviewed in a collection of case studies (Fisher. FM can be used to examine the performance of some improvement methods in order to develop quality-assurance technology for these applications. current practice in some engineering applications reflects this.9. as it depends upon the type of detail. the steel strength. Therefore. the decisions concerning their strengthening. 1. possible. A constant crack-length increment ′ a should be fixed rather than a constant time interval. and the critical crack size acr. Inspection intervals which shorten according to the time in service. More frequent inspections are needed as the structure ages. a set number of inspections. SN test data of small specimens may be inapplicable to large structures and to complex loading. The number of inspections should be determined using reliability considerations which include crack-detection probabilities and the consequences of failure. However. Recently. FM analysis may provide an alternative in many situations.

such as size effects and crack growth.1984. A concentrated effort is needed to design fatigue-resistant structural systems. The Hague. In terms of fracture-mechanics applications. S. J. Often. Elsevier.7 CONCLUSIONS 1. 4. 2. imposed deformations. (1986) Elementary Engineering Fracture Mechanics. 5. large structures need particular attention. Norwegian Institute of Technology. 1989. Achieving fatigue-resistant design requires careful and deliberate consideration of all factors which affect fatigue life. and therefore. MK/R 67.SMITH 1. to produce good detail configurations. In steel structures. London. develop improvement methods. Martinus Nijhoff. ‘Fracture mechanics in structural engineering’.Hirt who coauthored the following articles from which this chapter is derived: ‘Fatigue design concepts’. 3. perform remaining-life calculations. D. are thanked for their help in preparing this chapter. there may be poorly defined loading. (1983) Effect of Plate Thickness in Fatigue of Cruciform Welded Joints. these circumstances cannot justify the use of concepts more sophisticated than simple linear-elastic approaches. and many sharp discontinuities. Also. The two most important parameters in fatigue assessments of large structures are geometry and stress range.Kimberley. special considerations are needed for civil-engineering structures. Report. 12. assess complex design problems. Part 10: Code of Practice for Fatigue. 6. Fracture mechanics permits a greater qualitative understanding of parameters which influence fatigue. Steel Research. IABSE Surveys S-29. Trondheim. evaluate structures containing crack-like discontinuities. and to ensure adequate consideration of fatigue during postdesign stages. British Standards Institution. Construct. high built-in tensile stresses. the staff at ICOM. as well as Professor M. and ‘Fatigue resistant steel bridges’. BSI (1980a) BS 5400: Steel Concrete and Composite bridges. Calculations using fracture-mechanics models help to determine inspection intervals.A. BROEK.F. particularly G.20 I. REFERENCES BERGE. 1986.J.C. Fracture-mechanics concepts are primarily mechanical-engineering design tools. Steel Structures: Recent Research Advances and Their Applications to Design. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author is grateful to the Swiss National Science Foundation which sponsors research at ICOM in the area of fatigue. .

A. Royal Soc. (1979) Theoretical Analysis of the Influence of Attachment Size on the Fatigue Strength of Transverse Non-Load-Carrying Fillet Welds. 163–98. (1985) The influence of microstructure on the growth of small fatigue cracks. British Standards Institution. (1977) Bridge Fatigue Guide.. & ERDOGAN. (1983) A summary of fracture mechanics concepts. & CARTWRIGHT. P. (1984) Propagation of short fatigue cracks. American Institute of Steel Construction. Fatigue Fracture Eng. IRWIN. T. SIA 161. SMITH. New York. PARIS. S.T. Brussels. 8. (1984) Fatigue and Fracture in Steel Bridges. (1977) Fracture and fatigue control in steel structures. HMSO. & FISHER.A. (1921) The phenomena of rupture and flow in solids. S. & SMITH. & BARSOM. R. D. R. M. 2–15. Eccs (1985) Recommendations for the fatigue design of structures. Fatigue of Engineering Materials and Structures. ASME (Series D).C. (1986) Changes in the fatigue life of plates with attachments due to geometrical effects. GURNEY. I. T. London. Inst. Welding Institute. 5.R. J. London. & IRWIN. Metals Rev. ROLFE. Elsevier Applied Science.H. 97(ST7). G. Am. TADA.F. Testing & Evaluation..W. 11. FISHER. J. Swiss Society of Engineers and Architects. YEN. Structural Div. HIRT.. London. 56–65. T. G.W.W. & RITCHIE. 65.A. (1976) A Compendium of Stress Intensity Factors. WITTMANN. GRIFFITH.FATIGUE ASSESSMENT AND FRACTURE MECHANICS 21 BSI (1980b) BSI PD 6493: Guidance on Some Methods for the Derivation of Acceptance Levels for Defects in Fusion Welded Joints. D. Cambridge. Int.C. 43. Materials Structures. Publication No.. .244s-250s. (1985) The Stress Analysis of Cracks Handbook.M. ROOKE. HMSO. F. Steel Constr. J. London.R. Welding J. Trans. J. FISHER. SIA (1979) Steel Structures. 161–75. H.. Members Report 91/1979. A221. LANKFORD J. SURESH. New York. A. (1963) A critical analysis of crack propagation laws. 528–34. 29. 85. 1897–911. ASCE.J. J. Trans.Y. I. SMITH. P. Phil. J. PARIS. European Convention for Constructional Steelwork. 445–76. F.O. HMSO (1984) Offshore Installations: Guidance on Design and Construction. Eng.) (1984) Fracture Mechanics of Concrete.F. Louis. Amsterdam. 14.J. & GURNEY. 151–65. (ed. (1971) Fatigue strength of rolled and welded steel beams.R. (1982) Defects and crack-shape development in filletwelded joints.. Paris Productions Inc.P. St. D. Wiley.

methods are described for assessing.ZWERNEMAN School of Civil Engineering.Chapter 2 FATIGUE DAMAGE ACCUMULATION UNDER VARYING-AMPLITUDE LOADS F. To estimate the service life of a structure. NOTATION a ac an ap ao ao1 A C Cp Crack length Current crack length Total crack length after n cycles Crack length plus width of overload plastic zone Original crack length Crack length at end of overload application Empirical constant equal to the N-axis intercept on a plot of the logarithm of stress range versus the logarithm of number of cycles to failure Empirical constant equal to the da/dN axis intercept on crack-growth-rate plots Retardation parameter Constant dependent on plane stress or plane strain conditions Crack growth rate C1 da/dN . USA SUMMARY Fatigue tests conducted in the laboratory have traditionally been performed using loads which vary sinusoidally with time at a constant amplitude. an engineer must convert the variable-amplitude service loads to a form compatible with experimental data. but amplitudes of load cycles generally are not constant. In this chapter.J. on the basis of constant-amplitude data. fatigue damage caused by variable amplitude load-time histories. Loads carried by a structure in service also vary with time. Oklahoma State University.

FATIGUE DAMAGE ACCUMULATION 23

Ei K σK ′ Keff m

m′ n NB NC Ni ni Nt Pi Reff Ry Ryap Ryo1 Sreff Sri σ ap (σ c)max (σ c)max,eff (σ c)min,eff σ res σy (′ σ c)eff

Total number of cycles per block equal to or exceeding pi times the maximum stress in the cycle Stress-intensity factor Stress-intensity range Effective stress-intensity range Empirical constant equal to the slope on a plot of the logarithm of stress range versus the logarithm of number of cycles to failure; also the slope on a crack-growth-rate plot Shaping exponent Number of sizes of minor cycles or total number of cycles Number of complex cycles to failure Number of constant amplitude cycles to failure at the major cycle stress range Number of cycles to failure at stress range Sri Number of cycles applied at stress range Sri Total number of cycles to failure Ratio of minor cycle range to major cycle range Effective stress ratio Extent of current yield zone Plastic zone size needed to expand the current plastic zone outside the overload plastic zone Overload plastic zone size Effective stress range Stress range of the ith cycle Stress required to produce Ryap Current maximum stress Maximum effective stress Minimum effective stress Residual stress Yield stress Effective stress range 2.1 INTRODUCTION

Fatigue damage is produced by loads which vary cyclically with time, such as the loads applied to a bridge as a vehicle crosses or to an aircraft in flight. A record of service load versus time for such structures contains cycles of widely varying amplitudes and mean levels. Load-time histories used in laboratory tests, in most cases, bear only a vague resemblance to service load-time histories. In the laboratory, fatigue tests are generally conducted using loads which vary sinusoidally with time at some constant amplitude. To estimate the service life of a bridge or an aircraft, the engineer must either conduct fatigue tests using the

24 F.J.ZWERNEMAN

FIG. 2.1 Conversion of service load-time history to constant-amplitude history.

applicable load-time history or convert the applicable history to a form compatible with available constant-amplitude data. Since conducting fatigue tests is expensive and time consuming, it is preferable to make use of available constant-amplitude data. A variety of techniques have been developed to make the transition from variable-amplitude service loads to constant-amplitude laboratory data. Generally, the variable-amplitude cycles are analytically reduced to equivalent constant-amplitude cycles. Empirical models are then used to assess and sum the damage produced by the equivalent constantamplitude cycles. The process is illustrated in Fig. 2.1. In this chapter, a number of the more popular cycle-counting techniques and damage models will be described. A discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the various techniques will be presented to assist the designer in making the best choice for a specific application. Recommendations for design and suggestions for additional work are also presented.

FATIGUE DAMAGE ACCUMULATION 25

2.2 CYCLE COUNTING Fatigue-life estimates for structures in service are based on stress range versus number of cycles to failure curves or crack-growth-rate curves (see Fig. 2.2). In most cases these curves are generated in experimental laboratories using constant-amplitude load-time histories. Unfortunately, service loads seldom vary sinusoidally with time at a constant amplitude. An analytical method must be employed to reduce the variable-amplitude service load-time history to a combination of constant-amplitude cycles or to a single equivalent constantamplitude cycle. These constant-amplitude cycles should produce the same fatigue life as the service history they are replacing. Many such analytical techniques have been proposed. For the current discussion, the techniques will be categorized as peak counting, level crossing, and range counting (Schijve, 1963). Peak-counting techniques involve the counting of all maximum and minimum peaks in the load-time history. Minimum peaks on the positive side of the datum and maximum peaks on the negative side of the datum are ignored. A load range is defined as the difference between the peak and the datum. The technique is illustrated in Fig. 2.3. One weakness of this technique is that it artificially increases the range of some small load cycles. A variation to the basic peakcounting technique involves counting only absolute maximum and minimum peaks between consecutive datum crossings. This variation does away with the problem of increasing the size of small cycles, but creates the opposite problem of excluding some cycles from the count. The level-crossing technique involves counting each time the varying load crosses predetermined load levels. The restriction may be imposed that only crossings with a positive slope are counted on the positive side of the datum and only crossings with a negative slope are counted on the negative side of the datum. The technique is illustrated in Fig. 2.4. The number of peaks and range of cycles cannot be determined on the basis of level-crossing counts. Range pair, rainflow (Endo et al., 1974), and reservoir counting are three essentially identical range-counting techniques (Dowling, 1972; Hoadley, 1982). The rainflow technique is illustrated in Fig. 2.5. The load-time history is rotated so that the abscissa is vertical, with time increasing in the downward direction. An imaginary raindrop starts at the inside tip of each peak or valley and flows down the sloped ‘roof’. The raindrop falls until it comes opposite a peak or valley greater than the one from which it started, or until it contacts the path of another raindrop started from a higher peak or valley. A half-cycle is counted for each raindrop. The load range for a half-cycle is the difference between the load at the starting point of a raindrop and the load at the termination point. Halfcycles are counted between points 1 and 2, 2 and 5, 3 and 4, 4 and 3′ 5 and 8, 6 , and 7, and 7 and 6′. Full cycles are formed by combining half-cycles of the same load range, but opposite in flow direction.

26 F.J.ZWERNEMAN

FIG. 2.2 Fatigue-life and crack-growth-rate curves. (a) Stress range versus number of cycles to failure (S–N curve). (b) Crack growth-rate curve.

Range-counting techniques are generally preferred over peak-counting and level-crossing techniques. Range-counting techniques count each cycle without altering the range of any cycles and allow a mean load level to be assigned to each cycle. 2.3 DAMAGE MODELS Once the variable-amplitude history has been reduced to a combination of constant-amplitude cycles at known mean load levels, an empirical model can be used to assign a degree of damage to each cycle. This damage takes the form of either an increment of crack growth or a percentage reduction in remaining fatigue life. Damage produced by individual cycles is summed to arrive at an

FATIGUE DAMAGE ACCUMULATION 27

FIG. 2.3 Peak counting. All maximum peaks above the datum and all minimum peaks below the datum are counted.

FIG. 2.4 Level crossing. Positive-slope crossings are counted on the positive side of the datum and negative-slope crossings are counted on the negative side of the datum.

estimate of fatigue life. Models discussed here are grouped into categories of linear damage models, non-linear damage models, and interaction models.

1 Linear Damage Models In the context of fatigue-damage models. 2. It is assumed that all cycles are damaging and that cycles of different sizes do not interact to retard or accelerate growth.3. the user is assuming that the damage produced by individual cycles in a variableamplitude history can be calculated directly from the fatigue-life equation (N=A Sr−m) or the crack-growth-rate equation (da/dN=C ′ Km).5 Rainflow counting.ZWERNEMAN FIG. the word ‘linear’ refers to the amount of damage attributed to individual load cycles in variableamplitude load-time histories relative to the amount of damage attributed to these individual cycles in constant-amplitude load-time histories. .28 F. To determine total damage produced by the history. 2. damage produced by individual cycles making up that history is added linearly. When a linear damage model is used.J.

. Fatigue-life estimates based on the RMC model are shorter than estimates based on the RMS model. but accuracy relative to experimental data is not substantially different for the two models.3) The concept is illustrated in Fig. Miner. 1987). Setting where Sreff is the effective stress range: (2. Heuler & Seeger (1986) and .6. 2.1) where ni is the number of cycles applied at stress range Sri. failure occurs when (2. (1978) conducted an extensive series of fatigue and crack-growth rate tests and concluded that a good fit to their data could be achieved by using m=2·0.2) where Nt is the total number of cycles to failure. The method is demonstrated below: (2. 1924. If m is taken to be 2·0. the numbers of cycles used in this illustration are much lower than would be encountered in practice. Fisher et al. The relevant quantity in eqn (2. from the derivation. the model is referred to as the root mean square (RMS) model. If the mean stress level of the cycles has a significant effect on fatigue life. To improve clarity in the figure.7. not the stress magnitude. Use of the model is illustrated in Fig. 1978). If m is taken to be 3·0. this can be accounted for by allowing the N-axis intercept. to vary with the mean. The effective stress range calculated with either the RMS or RMC model should not be confused with the RMS of the stress history. (1985). Fisher et al. for the same number of cycles (Schilling et al. To apply a linear damage model. the model is referred to as the root mean cube (RMC) model. Effective stress range is the stress range of a constant-amplitude load-time history which will produce the same fatigue damage as a variableamplitude history. Barsom (1973) and Schilling et al. m should equal the slope of the S–N curve. The drawback to using m equal to 2·0 is that. the question of how to deal with cycles whose stress ranges are below the fatigue limit must be addressed. A. 2. The slope of this curve for most structural details is 3·0 (Keating & Fisher.3) is the range of stress under varying load. Swensson (1984). 1945) linear damage model. Schijve et al.FATIGUE DAMAGE ACCUMULATION 29 The best-known and most widely used fatigue-damage model is the PalmgrenMiner (Palmgren. (1983). According to this model. The Palmgren-Miner model can be combined with the standard fatigue-life equation to produce an expression for effective stress range. and Ni is the number of cycles to failure at Sri. (1983) used the RMC model to accurately estimate crack-growth rates for a series of variable amplitude tests.

2.ZWERNEMAN FIG. In accordance with this recommendation. not just cycles above the fatigue limit. the variable Sri in eqn (2. The linear damage models described above are relatively easy to use and understand. Dowling (1988) conducted tests with a large percentage of the cycles below the fatigue limit and concluded that these cycles are damaging when they are part of a variable-amplitude history containing some cycles above the fatigue limit. Fisher & Swensson have recommended that all cycles in a variable-amplitude history be linearly added in the damage summation. which probably accounts for much of the popularity and widespread .6 Palmgren-Miner linear damage model.J.3) includes all cycles in the history.30 F.

2.3. Whether this error is conservative or unconservative depends on the load-time history.2 Non-linear Damage Models Non-linear damage models are based on the assumption that all cycles in a variable-amplitude history do not cause the same damage they would if they were part of a constant-amplitude load-time history.7 Effective stress range. Albrecht calculates a Palmgren-Miner effective stress range based only on cycles above the fatigue limit. A non-linear model proposed by Albrecht & Friedland (1979) essentially ignores damage produced by cycles below the constant-amplitude fatigue limit. or the crack length at the time that cycle is applied. 2.FATIGUE DAMAGE ACCUMULATION 31 FIG. Linear damage models used indiscriminately can produce fatigue-life estimates significantly in error. Damage produced by individual cycles in variable-amplitude load-time histories is strongly affected by prior loading history. Damage produced by a cycle may be assumed to depend on such things as the range of that cycle relative to the range of other cycles in the history. The major weakness of linear models is that they do not account for the effects of cycle interaction. This type of model is still not an interaction model. the mean level of cycles within the history. The number of cycles to failure at this effective stress range is then determined from a constantamplitude S–N curve. use of these models. The total number . (b) Equivalent constantamplitude history. because damage is not treated as a function of prior load history on a cycle-by-cycle basis. (a) Variable-amplitude history.

(b) Variable amplitude load-time history. (a) S–N curve for constant-amplitude loading. Albrecht’s model estimates fatigue life to be 6% longer than the Palmgren-Miner model with the assumption that all cycles are damaging. Assuming cycles below the fatigue limit are nondamaging. Albrecht’s model can be used to calculate fatigue life for the stress-time history shown in Fig. There is a relatively small amount of data available in the vicinity of the limit. the eifective .9. The effect of Albrecht’s model on the S–N curve is shown in Fig. as proposed by Albrecht: N=(4×1012)(200)−3=5×105 Sreff=[(1·0)(200)3]1/3=200 N=(5×105)/(1/5)=2·5×106 (cycles above fatigue MPa (all cycles) limit) If it is assumed that all cycles are damaging and the Palmgren-Miner model is applied: Sreff=[(4/5)(50)3+(1/5)(200)3]1/3=119 N=(4×1012)(119)−3=2·35×106(all MPa cycles) In this example. When all cycles in the variable-amplitude history are above the fatigue limit. 2. 2. Notice that 1/5 of the cycles in the variable amplitude history are above the fatigue limit and 4/5 are below. is calculated by dividing the number of cycles to failure at the effective stress range by the percentage of cycles above the fatigue limit.2. the S–N curve plots as a straight line.32 F.8(a).8(b). including cycles below the fatigue limit. and there tends to be a great deal of scatter in the available data. When all cycles are below the limit.J.8 Number of cycles to failure for a variable-amplitude stress-time history. 2. of variable amplitude cycles to failure. One drawback to this technique is that an accurate knowledge of the fatigue limit is required.ZWERNEMAN FIG. If the S–N curve can be defined as in Fig.

a growth increment may occur. As illustrated in Fig. the S–N curve is non-linear on a log-log plot. 2. If the same size cycle is applied to a larger crack. on the basis of a fracture-mechanics analysis.9 Effective stress range versus number of cycles to failure based on non-linear damage models. If a small cycle is applied to a sufficiently small crack. as the crack increases in length the smaller cycles become damaging.FATIGUE DAMAGE ACCUMULATION 33 FIG. The rationale behind this technique is not difficult to understand. it is assumed that only the large cycles drive the crack when the crack is small. This corresponds to the crackgrowth threshold in growth rate tests and to the fatigue limit in S–N tests.8(a). 2. In a variable-amplitude history. stress range is zero and the fatigue life is infinite. both of which reduce to 5·0 if m is taken to be 3·0) for cycles below the . Between these two extremes. proponents of the technique recommend using a bilinear S–N curve to predict number of cycles to failure for inclusion in damage summations. which cycles are damaging and including only those cycles in the damage summation. An approach supported by Haibach (1970) and by Tilly & Nunn (1980) involves a fracture-mechanics-based modification to the Palmgren-Miner approach. To use the technique directly. it is necessary to calculate the stress intensity range for changing crack lengths and to use this information to determine whether a cycle is damaging. The modification to the Palmgren-Miner approach proposed by Haibach and by Tilly & Nunn involves predicting. the amount of crack growth per cycle increases as the crack length increases. but application is considerably more complex than application of the linear models. For a constant load range. To overcome these difficulties. the slope of the S–N curve is changed from m to some value greater than m (Haibach proposes (2m−1) and Tilly & Nunn propose (m +2). Albrecht has used this technique to accurately predict fatigue life for a limited number of tests. A small cycle is omitted from the damage summation when the fatigue crack is small and included when the crack has grown to near failure. Calculation of the stress intensity range for components encountered in normal engineering practice can be extremely difficult and stress intensity range thresholds are not well-defined. there will be no growth. The amount of crack growth produced by a load cycle depends on load range and crack length.

2. Complex cycles in Fig. Gurney performed fatigue tests using the loadtime histories shown in Fig. 2. Omitting some of the cycles from the summation for some portion of the fatigue life increases the predicted fatigue life.4) where NB is the number of complex cycles to failure. 2.9. Haibach’s model can be used to calculate number of cycles to failure for the stress-time history shown in Fig.J.8(b) are composed of one major and four minor cycles.8(a). A model completely independent from the Palmgren-Miner approach has been proposed by Gurney (1981.34 F. The Palmgren-Miner model significantly underestimated fatigue lives for these tests. a complex cycle was applied repeatedly until the specimen failed. In Gurney’s fatigue tests. The curve is not shifted as far to the right for this model as for the Albrecht model because the Albrecht model assumes that cycles below the fatigue limit are never damaging. Gurney noted from his data that the logarithm of the number of complex cycles to failure varied linearly with the ratio of minor cycle stress range to major cycle stress range. Based on this observation.9 to the right. The technique still suffers from the need for accurate knowledge of the fatigue limit. if all cycles are assumed damaging. Considering only cycles below the fatigue limit: N1=4×1016(50)−5=128×106 Considering only cycles above the fatigue limit: N2=4×1012(200)−3=0·5×106 Combining cycles above and below the limit: NB(4/128×106+1/0·5×106) NB=492308(complex N=(5)(492 308)=2·46×106 =1·0 cycles) (all cycles) It was shown earlier that for the same stress-time history.10. When the stress range is high. 2. As seen in Fig.ZWERNEMAN constant-amplitude fatigue limit. while this model assumes that the damage produced by small cycles is reduced.8(b): (2. 2. some of the small cycles are initially below the crack growth threshold and are not included in the summation. fatigue life is estimated at 2·35×106 cycles or 5% less than the estimate based on Haibach’s model. Each of the different histories in the figure is treated as one complex cycle. changing the slope of the S–N curve for long fatigue lives produces an effect similar in appearance to that produced by the Albrecht model. Gurney showed that the number of complex cycles to failure can be calculated as: . all cycles are above the fatigue limit and are included in the damage summation. 1983). When the stress range is low. Accuracy of the technique has been demonstrated for a limited series of tests. moving the lower portion of the curve in Fig. A complex cycle is composed of the major cycle and any number of minor cycles. 2. If the fatigue limit can be defined as in Fig.

1985) confirm Gurney’s finding that the Palmgren-Miner model can be unconser vative for some load-time histories.5) than with the Palmgren-Miner damage model.FATIGUE DAMAGE ACCUMULATION 35 FIG. (2. so could be more unconservative for Gurney’s data than is the Palmgren-Miner model.5) where NB is the number of complex cycles to failure. and Tilly & Nunn produce fatiguelife estimates greater than or equal to the estimate produced by the PalmgrenMiner model. NC is the number of constant-amplitude cycles to failure at the major cycle stress range. Zwerneman has proposed that crack growth caused by minor cycles in a variable-amplitude load-time history is dependent on the mean level of that cycle relative to the mean of the major cycle and on the number of minor . The models proposed by Albrecht. 2. Fatigue lives for Gurney’s data are in better agreement with eqn (2. and Pi is the ratio of minor cycle range to major cycle range. Haibach. Ei is the total number of cycles per block equal to or exceeding pi times the maximum stress in the cycle.10 Load-time histories used by Gurney. n is the number of sizes of minor cycles. Tests performed by Joehnk (1982) and Zwerneman (1983.

Use of these models is justified only if the loadtime history under consideration matches the history used in developing the model. while the second half-cycle involves removal of that force. The stress distribution near the crack tip becomes more complex when cyclic loads are applied (Rice.3 Interaction Models An infinitely sharp crack and fully elastic behavior are assumed in deriving expressions for the stress intensity factor. High stresses near the crack tip must cause the material in this area to yield. The plastic zone shown ahead of the crack tip is the zone of material which has yielded under the applied tensile stress. Notice that the plastic zone extends beyond the point where the elastic curve intersects the yield stress line. The stress distribution that would exist for a finite-yield material is labeled as elasticperfectly plastic in the figure. This ‘mean stress effect’ has not been formally incorporated in a damage model. The material at the crack tip must yield in compression. where it has been demonstrated (Fisher et al. Non-linear damage models described in this section are capable of improving fatigue-life estimates for some load-time histories. the lost elastic stress near the crack tip must be replaced by this extension of the plastic stress zone. In cyclic loading. 2. Of course. the plastic zone is assumed to be circular. This obviously cannot occur in a real material with a finite yield stress. the first half-cycle involves application of a force. As shown in Fig.ZWERNEMAN cycles between major cycles. but can be seriously inaccurate when applied to data from other researchers using different load-time histories.. 1970) that the mean level of cycles in constant-amplitude tests has no effect on fatigue life. the compressive stress cannot actually reach infinity. This dependence on mean load level is much greater than observed by conducting multiple constant-amplitude tests with each test at a different mean.11. tbese assumptions result in elastic normal stresses at the crack tip approaching infinity.12.36 F. The application of the compressive force will theoretically produce an infinite negative stress at the crack tip. To simplify this discussion. 1967). . In order to satisfy statics.J. The removal of a tensile force is equivalent to the concurrent application of a compressive force of the same magnitude as the tensile force. 2. The models tend to work very well for experimental data generated by the researcher proposing the model. Compression yielding due to unloading is illustrated in Fig. Fatigue life is unconservatively estimated by the Palmgren-Miner model if the mean level of the minor cycles is high and there are few minor cycles between major cycles. in the same way as the tensile force produced an infinite positive stress at the tip. The fictitious compressive force completes the unloading half of the load cycle by cancelling the tensile force. The dependence has been observed even in tests on steel weldments. 2.3.

responds elastically to the application and removal of load. zero . the elastic material seeks to return to its original undeformed position.FATIGUE DAMAGE ACCUMULATION 37 FIG. When external load is removed. The size of the plastic zone depends on the amount of stress the material can withstand before yielding. Going from tensile yield to compressive yield requires twice as much applied stress as going from zero stress to tensile yield stress. since the stress direction in this zone reverses as load is applied and removed. 2. This small plastic zone is referred to as the reverse plastic zone. The unloading plastic zone shown in Fig. In the plastic zones. stress in the small plastic zone must go from compressive yield to tensile yield. however. Both the forward and reverse plastic zones move ahead of the crack tip as a crack grows across a plate. The plastic zones ahead of the crack tip are generally small relative to the overall plate width.12(a) is much smaller than the loading plastic zone.11 Stress distribution in an elastic-perfectly plastic material. which has not experienced stresses of a sufficient magnitude to cause yielding. If the cyclic loading continues with the reapplication of a tensile half-cycle. The larger plastic zone which forms ahead of the crack tip with the initial application of load is referred to as the forward plastic zone. 2. Therefore. The bulk of the plate. the unloading plastic zone is smaller than the loading plastic zone.

the material immediately ahead of the crack tip exists in residual compression.38 F. stress does not mean zero deformation. As can be seen in Fig. when crack tip unloading stress is zero. crack tip strain is greater than zero. (b) Cyclic stress-strain curve for material near crack tip. 2. The application of an overload causes . The plastic zone seeks to remain in its expanded form by spreading apart the surrounding elastic material. Residual stresses and strains ahead of the crack tip are believed to be the cause of a crack-growth phenomenon known as retardation. Retardation is a reduction in growth rate following the application of an isolated overload.12(b). The elastic material seeks to return to its original form by compressing the expanded plastic zone. 2. (a) Stress distribution for loading and unloading. This compressive force is supplied by the elastic material surrounding the plastic zone.J. 2.ZWERNEMAN FIG. A compressive force is required to reduce crack tip strains back to zero.12 Stresses and strains produced by cyclic loading. The phenomenon is illustrated in Fig.13. The important end result is that for an externally unloaded specimen. The plastic and elastic portions of the plate must exist in a state of equilibrium.

plastic deformation ahead of the crack tip in excess of plastic deformations produced by constant-amplitude cycling.FATIGUE DAMAGE ACCUMULATION 39 FIG. in turn. (a) Load-time history. This.13 Crack growth retardation caused by an overload. like the residual stress model. The stress concentration produced by a blunt crack is less than that produced by a sharp crack. 1963). resulting in a retardation of growth rate. The residual stress model attributes retardation to the high compressive residual stresses which develop ahead of the crack tip following the application of an overload (Hudson & Hardrath. 1961. 2. (c) Crack-growth rate versus stress-intensity range. The crack closure model (Elber. (b) Crack length versus number of cycles. results in higher than normal compressive stresses ahead of the tip. attributes retardation to residual deformations ahead of the crack tip. Three popular retardation models incorporate this idea of plastic deformation at the crack tip as the cause of retardation. 1971). The difference in the two models is the way in which these residual deformations are assumed to act as growth retarders. The residual stress model maintains that residual deformations retard crack growth by producing residual . 1967). The crack tip blunting model attributes crack growth retardation to blunting of the crack tip by an overload (Rice.

a is crack length. Cp increases.14. Wheeler introduces a retardation parameter Cpi: (2. The retardation parameter is calculated as shown below: Cp=(Ry/(ap−a))m′ for (a+Ry)<ap Cp=1. (ap−a) is the distance from crack tip to elastic-plastic interface. a0 is the original crack length. it is not possible to rearrange and integrate the crack-growth-rate equation to find number of cycles to failure (Paris & Erdogan. As a approaches ap. An analytical model developed by Wheeler (1972) employs the residual stress model to account quantitatively for retardation due to cycle interaction.40 F. To account for crack-growth retardation. In the closure model. The deformed material behind the tip causes the crack to close at a stress greater than zero.7) where an is the total crack length after n cycles.8) This retardation parameter varies from zero immediately following an overload to 1·0 when no overload is influencing crack growth. retardation occurs after the crack has advanced into the overload plastic zone. Wheeler was able to fit his model to crack-growth-rate data by adjusting the value of the shaping exponent m′.ZWERNEMAN compressive stresses ahead of the crack tip.J. Development of the Wheeler model begins with the basic crack-growth-rate equation: (2. Also. The crack closure model maintains that residual deformations retard growth by closing the crack behind the tip. It can be seen that Cpi is a minimum immediately after the application of the overload when (ap−a) has its maximum value.6) When applying this equation to a variable amplitude load-time history. The influence of the overload vanishes when the current yield zone moves through the overload yield zone. The physical meaning of these terms is illustrated in Fig. and m′ is the shaping exponent. and ′ Ki is the stress intensity range for cycle i. The exponent must be determined empirically for every material used in fatigue applications.9) where Ry is the extent of the current yield zone. consideration must be given to the fact that load is a discontinuous variable. there is some variation of m′ with . Wheeler solves this problem by summing crack growth cycle by cycle: (2. 2. The major weakness of the Wheeler model is in this shaping exponent.0 for (a+Ry)>ap (2. ap is the crack length plus the width of the overload plastic zone. Since load is a discontinuous variable. 1963).

The models differ in the way the overload effect is forced to decay. the Willenborg and Wheeler models are conceptually identical. Willenborg then makes the assumption that residual stress due to the overload is equal to ′ ap minus the current maximum stress. The effect of the overload decays as the crack moves through the overload plastic zone.12) where Ryap is the plastic zone size needed to expand the current plastic zone outside the overload plastic zone. 2. K is the stress intensity. and σ y is the yield stress.13) The residual stress is subtracted from the current maximum and minimum stresses to calculate effective applied stresses: . 1974) is conceptually similar to the Wheeler model. ac. The overload is effective in retarding crack growth until the current crack length.14: ap=ao1+Ryo1 (2. The technique is demonstrated below: (2. plus the current plastic zone is greater than ap.11) where ao1 is the crack length immediately after the overload application. A model developed by Willenborg (Engle & Rudd. and σ ap is the stress required to produce Ryap. and Ryo1 is the overload plastic zone radius. (σ c)max: σres=σap−(σc)max (2. Development of the Willenborg model begins with the expression for the radius of the plastic zone at the tip of a fatigue crack: (2.10) where C1 is a constant dependent on plane stress or plane strain conditions. but the Willenborg model avoids the shaping exponent problem. Wheeler employs an empirical reduction factor while Willenborg bases the decay on the difference between the stress needed to expand the current plastic zone outside the overload plastic zone and the stress currently being applied. Referring to Fig. To this point. The retardation is maximum immediately following the overload. The need for this empirical shaping exponent in the Wheeler model seriously damages the model’s usefulness for ordinary analysis purposes. Both models retard crack growth with a compressive residual stress zone.FATIGUE DAMAGE ACCUMULATION 41 load spectra.

The crack closure model has been analytically reproduced by Newman (1977. 1981) using two different approaches. The model was less accurate for the block load stresstime histories.15) In addition to a possible reduction in stress range. The effective stress intensity range shown above is used in the standard crackgrowth-rate equation: (2.J. and service stress-time histories. based on twodimensional elastic-plastic finite-element methods. This effect would be accounted for through the constant C in the crack-growthrate equation. Specimens used in these tests were made from aluminum and steel alloys. the model’s reliance on several empirical constants limits its usefulness. This constant varies with the ratio of minimum stress to maximum stress in a cycle for some materials.14) Notice that the effective stress range is reduced below the applied stress range only if the minimum and/or the maximum effective current stress falls below zero. The Willenborg model predicted fatigue lives within 200% for the isolated overload and service stress-time histories. . block load. the compressive residual stresses could reduce growth rate by lowering the mean level of the stress cycle. The Willenborg model has been used as the basis for a program developed by Engle & Rudd (1974) to estimate fatigue life of aircraft. but computation time required to solve problems of interest prohibits the use of the method for the general case. Engle’s program has been used to estimate fatigue lives for specimens tested under isolated overload. shows that compressive yielding occurs in material behind an advancing crack tip at load levels above the minimum. The finite-element model more accurately matches observed behavior.ZWERNEMAN (2. This level of accuracy corresponds to the scatter band generated in constant-amplitude tests on similar samples. Significant strain does not occur ahead of the tip until sufficient load is applied to remove these compressive stresses. Unfortunately. The second approach is less computationally sophisticated and has been used to predict crack growth under aircraft spectrum loading.42 F. The first approach. The second approach is based on stress superposition and strip-yield approximations.

. the non-linear models proposed by Albrecht.14 Wheeler residual stress model. the range pair method described in Section 2. the Willenborg model as described by Engle could be used. or Tilly & Nunn could be appropriate. If a higher level of computational sophistication is desired. If the load-time history contains few large cycles separated by many small cycles and the minimum load level for the small cycles is near the bottom of the load-time history.2 is preferred over other methods. All of these models provide fatigue-life estimates greater than or equal to the estimate that would be provided by the Palmgren-Miner model. The disadvantage to this technique is that it obscures sequence effects. This method counts the entire load-time history and allows mean load levels to be calculated for each cycle. The Willenborg model provides especially good correlation with experimental data when crackgrowth retardation is significant. Haibach. The choice of damage models is dependent on the load-time history being considered.FATIGUE DAMAGE ACCUMULATION 43 FIG. 2.4 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DESIGN To count cycles. 2.

and Tilly & Nunn. Such cycle-by-cycle monitoring would be difficult for tests conducted at or near threshold growth rates. however. For the general case. These studies should be conducted on both the macroscopic and the microscopic level. additional crack-growth studies are needed. and the retarded growth rates observed by Albrecht. the same is true for the non-linear models. Haibach. If.J. current understanding of fatigue-crack growth is not sufficient to specify how many cycles make up ‘many’ or ‘few’ so that precise criteria can be established for selecting between the models proposed by Albrecht. the same is true for the interaction models and the non-linear models proposed by Albrecht. The model is very simple to understand and apply. Unfortunately. Joehnk. 2. the fatigue life estimate will be unconservative. conventional crack-growth-rate tests can be used to better define the transition between the accelerated growth rates observed by Gurney. the fatigue life estimate will be acceptably accurate. the fatigue life estimate will be conservative. Cycle-by-cycle monitoring could also help to resolve the question of whether cycles below the crack growth threshold are damaging when they are part of a variable-amplitude load-time history. cycle-by-cycle monitoring of damage produced by variable-amplitude loading could provide information relevant to the influence of the mean level of cycles on growth produced by those cycles. and Tilly & Nunn.5 SUGGESTIONS FOR ADDITIONAL RESEARCH To improve our present ability to estimate fatigue life under variable amplitude loads. In general. Haibach. and Tilly & Nunn. the non-linear model proposed by Gurney is appropriate. and the mean of the small cycles is high relative to the mean of the large cycles. On the macroscopic level. If the model is applied to a history containing large cycles separated by few small cycles.ZWERNEMAN If the load-time history is made up of large cycles separated by few small cycles and the mean level of the small cycles is at or above the mean of the large cycle. the non-linear and interaction models increase the level of sophistication of calculations without providing a parallel improvement in accuracy of fatigue-life estimates. If the model is applied to a history containing an isolated overload.44 F. and the model proposed by Gurney. but may be possible with the aid of scanning electron microscopy or through the study of acoustic emissions emitted during cycling. Gurney’s model provides fatigue-life estimates that are less than or equal to estimates provided by the Palmgren-Miner model. the model is applied to a general service loadtime history such as could be measured on a highway bridge and all cycles in the history are assumed to be damaging. the Palmgren-Miner model is the preferred fatigue-damage model. Haibach. . On the microscopic level. and the accuracy of fatiguelife estimates is comparable to those of the more sophisticated models. and Zwerneman.

ENDO. . Soc. J.W. N. Roy. Research Report. 74–369. Proc. 147–67. Japan. C. American Society for Testing and Materials. M. Proceedings of the 1974 Symposium on the Mechanical Behaviour of Materials. Highway Research Board. Fatigue. Washington.. & I. J. HAIBACH. The Society of Materials Science. J. P.C. J. & MCNAMEE. E. (1983). A386. & RUDD. K. T. FISHER. D. Las Vegas. (1986) A criterion for omission of variable amplitude loading histories. & ZHONG. (1974). pp. The University of Texas at Austin. ASTM STP 486..A. (1982) Estimation of the Fatigue Life of a Welded Steel Highway Bridge from Traffic Data. (1988) Estimation and correlation of fatigue lives for random loading.F. National Research Council. Analysis of crack propagation under variable amplitude loading using the Willenborg retardation model. Damage Tolerance in Aircraft Structures. HIRT. (1983). T. Structural Div. R. DOWLING. ELBER. The Welding Institute.M. D. Department of Civil Engineering. Mechanical Behavior of Materials. K. 179–85. HOADLEY. Transportation Research Board. Master’s Thesis. (1961) Effects of Changing Stress Amplitude on the Rate of Fatigue Crack Propagation in Two Aluminum Alloys. P. BARSOM. HUDSON.pp. ASTM STP 536. American Society for Testing and Materials. Brighton. (1970) (Contribution to Discussion) In Fatigue of Welded Structures.C. NASA Technical Note D-960. TAKAHASHI. D. pp.W. (1979) Fatigue-limit effect on variable-amplitude fatigue of stiffeners. FRANK. 71–87.FATIGUE DAMAGE ACCUMULATION 45 REFERENCES ALBRECHT. (1973) Fatigue-crack growth under variable-amplitude loading in ASTM A514-B steel. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 8(4). (1974) Damage evaluation of metals for random or varying load—three aspects of rainflow method. HEULER.M. ASCE.FRIEDLAND. AIAA/ASME/ SAE 15th Structures.L. & MATSUISHI. Int. 225–30. A. Nevada. In Progress in Flaw Growth and Fracture Toughness Testing.. (1971) The significance of fatigue crack closure. Journal of Materials. Fatigue Tests on Fillet Welded Joints to Assess the Validity of Miner’s Cumulative Damage Rule.M. 2.. K. J. Washington. 105(ST12). T.E.. DOWLING. AIAA Paper No.R. Washington. The Welding Institute. xx–xxii. 7(1). (1972) Fatigue failure predictions for complicated stress-strain histories.. April. N.KOBAYISHI. J. 230–42. Vol.R.. Steel Bridge Members Under Variable Amplitude Long Life Fatigue Loading. & SEEGER. National Research Council. H.W. GURNEY. & HARDRATH.R. M. GURNEY. Some Fatigue Tests on Fillet Welded Joints Under Simple Variable Amplitude Loading. W. National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 102..M.. Int. Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference.M... National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 267..MITSUNAGA. ENGLE. London. 393– 408. England. MERTZ. 2657–75. P.C. D. K.. (1970) Effect of Weldments on the Fatigue Strength of Steel Beams. Fatigue. Proceedings of the Conference. J. T.E.H. (1981). B. FISHER.10(13).

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using both the modified Goodman and the Gerber formulae. It is shown that residual stresses can significantly alter the S–N curve for welded joints. In particular. Mechanical and Environmental Engineering.SARKANI Department of Civil. it is shown that. residual stress affects the mean stress of small-amplitude cycles. The George Washington University.and variable-amplitude loadings. NOTATION A* Ay Dj K m N Ny Largest stochastic amplitude Applied stochastic stress amplitude equal to the yield stress Fatigue damage due to cycle j Constant of the S–N curve Inverse slope of the S–N curve Number of cycles to fatigue failure Number of cycles to fatigue failure when the applied stress range is twice the yield stress Constant-amplitude stress range having tensile mean Equivalent constant-amplitude stress range having zero mean S S′ . Using simple hypotheses for the initial stress state and simple stress-strain behavior. USA SUMMARY This chapter deals with the effect of residual stresses due to welding on fatigue life under both constant. the effect of mean stress for small amplitudes. under constant-amplitude loading. Finally it is shown that consideration of residual stresses changes the S–N curve enough to cause substantial modification of variable-amplitude fatigue-life predictions by the commonly used Rayleigh approximation method.Chapter 3 EFFECT OF RESIDUAL STRESSES ON THE FATIGUE OF WELDS S. is investigated.

mean. ultimate. and the results are plotted as the so-called S–N curve. Despite a large volume of work carried out to date. Finally. In order to predict fatigue life under service load.1 INTRODUCTION Fatigue is a common mode of failure for a broad range of civil engineering structures. Highway bridges and offshore structures are two examples which are generally made up of welded members and for which fatigue failure can be disastrous. This chapter deals with the determination of the S–N curve and with the extent to which variable-amplitude fatigue-life predictions can be affected by the procedures used in getting that curve. m. there are still questions as to the best way to do each of these steps in variableamplitude fatigue prediction. Unfortunately. it deals with the nature and magnitude of the effects of residual stresses which may be introduced by welding. Using simple hypotheses about the residual stress distribution and stress-strain behavior of the material. y. it is shown that the variable-amplitude fatiguelife . applied. using the Rayleigh approximation. Such constantamplitude tests are run at each of two or more amplitude levels. particularly when such structures are made up of members that are connected by welds.EFFECT OF RESIDUAL STRESSES ON THE FATIGUE OF WELDS 49 Se Sr Sv S′v T t X(t) v0 σ σ Equivalent stress range having zero mean Applied stress range having tensile mean stress Variable-amplitude stress range having tensile mean Equivalent variable-amplitude stress range having zero mean Time at which fatigue failure is expected Time Stochastic stress Rate of zero crossing of stochastic stress Standard deviation (SD) Stress (subscripts: a. Welded joints provide a particular challenge since they contain one of the more common locations for fatigue-crack growth. u. The change in mean stress then alters the resulting S–N curve significantly. More specifically. The service fatigue life is predicted by dividing the variable-amplitude service loadtime history into cycles of constant amplitude and then using the S–N data to predict the damage done by each constant-amplitude cycle. there are many uncertainties involved in predicting fatigue failure for such structures under service load conditions. but they are secondary to the present discussion. yield) 3. and there also exists uncertainty regarding the initial stress distribution and the physical properties of the weld material. use is generally made of the results of laboratory tests using constant-amplitude loadings. it is shown that residual stresses can have a significant effect on the mean stress at critical locations in a joint when that joint is subsequently subjected to small-amplitude cyclic loading.

provided that there remain many cycles which are above the fatigue limit. One of the simplest and most widely used analytical techniques for estimating fatigue life under variable-amplitude loading is the so-called Rayleigh .2) is (3.2 BACKGROUND In order to predict the fatigue life of a structure due to any complicated loading history.2) one must first identify the cycles and determine their ranges.2) Note that this gives the accumulated damage to be unity at the time of failure in the constant-amplitude tests. The corresponding approximation of the number of cycles to failure is (3. but is much less obvious in other situations. The Palmgren-Miner hypothesis (Palmgren. Equation (3. where S denotes the range (double amplitude) of either the loading process or the response and N denotes the number of cycles until failure.3) in which E(Dj) is the expected or mean value of the incremental damage per cycle and fs(s) is the probability density function of the stress ranges. one needs to know the fatigue behavior of that structure under constantamplitude loadings.4) Finding the time t=T at which failure is expected requires an estimate of the number of cycles per unit time in the variable-amplitude process. Knowledge of the S–N relationship enables one to compute the average incremental damage Dj caused by a single cycle with stress range Sj: (3. Empirical data of this type can usually be approximated quite well by an equation of the form N=KS−m (3.1) where K and m are constants related to the material properties. This shortcoming is considered to be relatively unimportant in predicting fatigue life for realistic variable-amplitude loadings.1) ignores the existence of any fatigue limit (or endurance limit) which gives a minimum range necessary to cause damage. This is quite easy for a very narrowband process. 1924. 3. Miner. The probabilistic form of eqn (3. This implies that the damage due to any loading cycle is a function of the stress range in that cycle only.SARKANI predictions can be substantially altered for loadings that have small standard deviations.50 S. 1945) is that variable-amplitude failure also occurs when the accumulated damage is unity when eqn (3. The constant-amplitude results are usually designated the S– N curve. Under variable-amplitude laoding. in order to use eqn (3.2) is used to find the damage in each cycle.

recent experimental measurements (Sarkani & Lutes. and decreases rapidly as the distance from the weld-toe is increased. 1988. since the fatigue cracks are typically initiated at the weld toe. the expected value of the damage is (3. It is logical to expect. In particular. This technique is based on the assumption that the damage caused by any stochastic stress X(t) is the same as the damage caused by a very narrowband normal stress with the values of standard deviation. and the estimated failure time is (3. that the welding may have left considerable residual stress. though. which is part of this postulated region of tensile residual stress. This is particularly significant for fatigue. Based on the above assumptions. Finally. it is natural to begin with the assumption that mean stresses are also zero. so that the material at some particular point in a specimen might have a significant mean stress. 1982) indicate that the magnitude of these weld-toe residual stresses is close to the yield stress of the base metal. it is important to determine the combined effect of residual stresses and the applied loading on the fatigue of the joint. When applied loading is symmetric about zero. Thus. σ x. equal to those of the original process.7) 3.5) in which fA(a) is the probability density function of the peaks. one has (3.6) where ′ (•) denotes the gamma function. for a joint geometry in which the cracks initiate around the weld toe. perfectly plastic stress-strain curve and that the yield stress has not been affected by the welding. 1954). Two cases are considered: (a) when the amplitude of the applied .1 shows the effect of the residual stresses on two different load cycles. v0. and rate of zero-crossing. the magnitude of a stress range is taken to be twice the value of a. Figure 3. Berge & Eide.3 INFLUENCE OF RESIDAL STRESS The above discussion has said nothing about the effects of mean stresses. Even though it is very difficult to accurately determine the magnitude and distribution of residual stresses around the weld toe. under the simplifying assumptions that the base metal has an elastic. Since the peaks of a very narrow-band normal process are Rayleigh distributed. it seems likely that the thermal shrinkage of the weld material caused very large tensile residual stresses in the base metal immediately adjacent to the weld.EFFECT OF RESIDUAL STRESSES ON THE FATIGUE OF WELDS 51 approximation method (Miles.

i. i. Application of further cycles of the loading would cause the weld-toe stress to vary between points D and B.SARKANI FIG. from B to D. even though the nominal stress is varied from zero to yield.e.e. upon application of the first quarter-cycle of loading. As the second and third quarter-cycles of the loading are applied. the changes in strains (both nominal and local) are proportional to the load and the nominal stress. 3. It is assumed that the gross behavior of the specimen is linear.1. the local weld-toe stress remains at yield as the local strain is increased from A to B. the weld-toe mean stress is zero. Thus. from A to B.e. Consider Fig. the local weld-toe stress varies from yield to point D.(b) illustrates the effect of application of a loading cycle with amplitude less than the yield stress of the base metal. 3. However. Thus. from A to B. both nominally and at the weld-toe of the specimen. the local weld-toe stress remains the same as before while the local strain is increased from point A to point B. nominal stress at the weld-toe is near the yield stress. Note that it is being assumed that unloading is linear. upon application of the second and third quarter-cycles of the loading. where the applied cyclic nominal stress has amplitude close to the yield stress. Upon the application of the first quarter-cycle of the loading. the weld-toe local stress and nominal stress both change from tensile yield stress to compressive yield stress. which is equal to the yield stress minus the stress range of the applied loading cycle.1 Hypothesized effect of residual stresses.1(a). application of further cycles of loading will continue to vary the local weld-toe . in this case. and (b) when the applied nominal stress at the weld-toe is less than the yield stress of the base metal. Figure 3.52 S. i. even though localized yielding occurs. Similar to the previous case. Again.

EFFECT OF RESIDUAL STRESSES ON THE FATIGUE OF WELDS 53

stress between points D and B. In this case the mean weld-toe stress remains equal to σm=σy−σa (3.8) where σ m=weld-toe mean stress; σ y=yield stress of base metal; σ a=amplitude of applied nominal stress cycles. Based on Fig. 3.1(a), it is reasonable to assume that weld residual stresses should not effect the fatigue life of a specimen subjected to a symmetric loading containing large tensile nominal stresses. This generally applies to the large constant-amplitude loadings used to define the low-cycle end of the S–N curve. However, for stresses on the high-cycle end of the S–N curve (nominal stress amplitude less than yield), the presence of tensile residual stress causes a tensile mean stress level, as shown in Fig. 3.1(b). Such tensile mean stresses can significantly reduce the fatigue life. There are a number of methods available to account approximately for the effect of mean stress on fatigue life of a specimen subjected to cyclic loading. These methods are based on experimental observations. For a given stress range and mean stress, such methods provide the methodologies for calculating an equivalent stress range with zero mean stress. The most widely used correction methods are the modified Goodman (Goodman, 1899; Muvdi & McNabb, 1980) and the Gerber parabola (Gerber, 1874; Muvdi & McNabb, 1980). The modified Goodman correction is based on the following equation: (3.9) The Gerber equation is (3.10) where Sr=applied stress range having tensile mean stress; Se=equivalent stress range having zero mean; σ m=mean stress; σ u=ultimate stress of the material; σ y=yield stress of the material. In order to examine the magnitude of the change for typical welded joints, the S–N curve of eqn (3.1) is rewritten as (3.11) in which Ny is the fatigue life when the applied stress range is Sy i.e. twice the yield stress of the specimen material. Comparison of eqns (3.1) and (3.11) indicates that Using the models previously presented for taking into account the effect of residual stresses, eqn (3.11) can be converted to an equivalent zeromean S–N curve as follows:

54 S.SARKANI

FIG. 3.2 Influence of mean stresses on S–N curve.

(3.12) Setting f=1 and 2 would represent the equivalent zero-mean S–N curve based on the modified Goodman and the Gerber corrections, respectively. Note that when f is set equal to a large positive number, eqn (3.12) reduces to the original S–N curve of eqn (3.11). Close examination indicates that eqn (3.12) is no longer a straight line on the log-log plot. However eqn (3.12) is attractive because it can easily be implemented for variable-amplitude fatigue-life predictions, as will be demonstrated later. Equation (3.12) is plotted in Fig. 3.2 for three different f values which would correspond to corrections based on the modified Goodman, the Gerber and no correction for mean stresses. In these plots, σ y=50 ksi, σ u=77·5 ksi, Ny=20000 and m is set equal to 4. These are typical values for welded joints. (Note: 1 Ksi=6·9 N/mm2) In order to determine which one of the above correction procedures more closely predicts the effect of mean stresses on the fatigue of welded joints, Sarkani and Lutes (1988) carried out an experimental investigation. The specimens they used were welded plate tees. Their study began by obtaining the S–N curve as is done customarily in fatigue studies. However, in addition to the usual S–N curve tests, they tested several specimens under constant-amplitude loading which had previously been subjected to a few large cycles, so that residual stresses were

EFFECT OF RESIDUAL STRESSES ON THE FATIGUE OF WELDS 55

FIG. 3.3 Influence of residual stresses on S–N curve.

redistributed or ‘wiped out’ at the point of crack initiation. The few large cycles had the nominal stress amplitude equal to the yield stress of the specimen material, whereas all the other cycles until failure had a smaller nominal stress amplitude equal to 40% of the yield stress. Because of the effect of the few large-amplitude cycles, the new data points were considered to represent fatigue with no mean stress effect. They then corrected their original S–N for the effect of residual stresses by employing the simplified model presented above in conjunction with modified Goodman method and the Gerber parabola. The original and corrected S–N curves are shown in Fig. 3.3. Also shown in Fig. 3.3 are the data points which are considered to be fatigue lives with no mean stress effect. It was concluded that the Gerber correction adequately predicts the effect of residual stresses on the constant-amplitude fatigue lives in terms of elevated mean stresses. 3.4 VARIABLE-AMPLITUDE FATIGUE-LIFE PREDICTIONS From the preceding discussion, it is clear that residual stresses present in welded specimens alter the S–N curve predicted for specimens without residual stresses. Futhermore, this change is particulary significant for the small-stress portion of the S–N curve. The next step is to determine whether the alteration in the S–N curve is large enough to significantly effect the fatigue lives predicted under variable-amplitude situations.

56 S.SARKANI

The three S–N curves to be considered are that corrected by the modified Goodman method, that by the Gerber method and the one obtained by assuming that residual stresses have no effect (eqn (3.11)). Recall that these three S–N curves are supposed to give the fatigue lifetime without means stress, in spite of the different assumptions made in obtaining the curves. When considering the effect of residual stresses, it is reasonable to use one of the corrected S–N curves and consider mean stresses in any variable-amplitude loading for which fatigue life is to be predicted. If one uses the uncorrected S–N curve, then it is consistent to ignore mean stresses in the variable-amplitude loadings as well. The common Rayleigh approximation will now be used to predict variableamplitude fatigue lives using the three S–N curves. Comparison of the results will give an indication of the consequences of the assumptions about residual stress. Even though this ignores questions about the accuracy of the Rayleigh approximation for certain service loads, the comparison of the S–N curves and the relative effects of residual stresses is nonetheless valid. Probabilistic fatigue-life prediction can be considerably more complicated if one uses any of the correction methods to obtain an equivalent stress range for each range in a variable-amplitude time history, since Rayleigh distribution of stress ranges will be lost. However, one can still use the S–N curve of eqn (3.11) to obtain variable-amplitude fatigue-life estimates. Also, if the mean stress at any specific time is taken to be a function of the largest cycle prior to that time, then the damage will be non-stationary. These complications can be simplified if the residual stresses at the crack-initiation point are assumed to have been removed. Since variable-amplitude loadings contain large stress cycles, then this large cycle, if applied early during the loading process, can remove the residual stresses and subsequently remove the mean stress on the following variableamplitude loading cycles. Let Ay denote the applied stress amplitude that brings the nominal stress in the specimen to the yield level of the material. Recall that the assumed stress-strain behavior gives removal of the residual stress at the location of crack initiation upon application of a stress of amplitude Ay. It is pertinent to consider how frequently one should expect the stress amplitude to exceed Ay or any specified fraction of Ay. These numbers for the recurrence interval of Ay, 0·75Ay, 0·50Ay and 0·25Ay, have been computed from the assumed Rayleigh distribution of amplitudes with various standard deviation (Sd) values and are given in Table 3.1. From Table 3.1 it is clear that when Sd is small it is much less likely that an amplitude of Ay will occur early in the stochastic loading. For Sd/Ay=0·15, for example, on average an amplitude equal to Ay will occur once in every 447×107 cycles. Now for a given variable-amplitude stress range Sv, assuming that the largest stress amplitude that occurs throughout the loading process is A* and furthermore assuming that A* occurs early during the loading process, allows one to obtain the equivalent zero-mean stress range Sσv as follows:

EFFECT OF RESIDUAL STRESSES ON THE FATIGUE OF WELDS 57

(3.13) Now the Palmgren-Miner hypothesis is employed to calculate the fatigue damage caused by Sσv. To accomplish this, use is made of the zero-mean

TABLE 3.1 RECURRENCE INTERVAL FOR STRESS EQUAL TO A* A*=0·25Ay A*=0·5Ay A*=0·75Ay A*=Ay

0·05 0·10 0·15 0·20 0·25 0·30

268×103 23 4 2 2 1

518×1019 268×103 259 23 7 4

721×1046 164×1010 268×103 1131 90 23

723×1084 518×1019 447×107 268×103 2981 259

S–N curve of eqn (3.12). In particular, a constant-amplitude stress range S can be converted to an equivalent zero-mean constant amplitude stress range S′ given by (3.14) Now setting the right-hand side of eqns (3.13) and (3.14) equal to each other and solving for S in terms of Sv allows one to obtain the damage Dv due to a cycle Sv in terms of the S–N curve of eqn (3.12). Setting f = 1 and 2, one can obtain S in terms of Sv for both the modified Goodman and the Gerber correction methods as follows: (modified Goodman) (3.15a) (Gerber) (3.15b) (3.15C) Using eqns (3.15a) or (3.15b) for equivalent constant-amplitude stress range, one can obtain the damage Dv due to a variable amplitude cycle Sv. Assuming that the original stress range, Sv i.e. not corrected for effect of residual stress, is twice the amplitude, and that the amplitude is taken to have a truncated Rayleigh probability distribution (since the largest amplitude that can occur is A*), results in the following expression for the expected number of cycles to failure:

16) using the uncorrected stress ranges.5)): (3. particularly when the SD of the stochastic stress process is smaller.3 it is clear that the effect of correction for residual stress becomes much more significant when the SD of the stress process is smaller and when A* approaches the yield stress of the base metal. then it is assumed that all the residual stresses are removed under the variable-amplitude loading.2 and 3. Let N0. From Tables 3. it is very unlikely that an amplitude equal to or larger than Ay would .SARKANI (3. The effect of the modified Goodman correction is more severe that that of the Gerber correction. neglecting the effect of residual stress.15a) and (3. it also becomes much less likely that a large value of A* will occur early in the stochastic loading. Tables3. i. However. one must note that when the SD is small. Also shown in Tables3. N1 and N2 corresponding to various A* values (the largest amplitude of the stochastic stress process) for several values of the standard deviation of the stochastic stress. Note that when A* reaches the yield stress of the specimen material.3 represent values of N0. ignoring the residual stress in the variableamplitude fatigue-life calculations would cause a conservative error of 283% if one used the Gerber correction. On the other hand.17b) in which Note that fA(a) is the truncated Rayleigh distribution (see eqn (3.2 and 3.e. for m=3. i. eqns (3.2 and 3. N1 and N2 denote lifetimes predicted from eqn (3.e. σ u=77·5 ksi and Ny=20000. SD/Ay=0·05 and assuming A*=Ay. it is explicity assumed that the largest amplitude throughout the random loading does not exceed A* and furthermore that A* occurs early during the loading process so that it results in some removal of the residual stresses. For example.15b). for this situation. one gets (3. Note that the results in these tables are based on σ y=50 ksi.16) in which for the modified Goodman correction the mth moment of the stress ranges can be calculated as (3.3 are the recurrence intervals of A* which are given in the final column of these tables.58 S. and those corrected for the effect of residual stresses by the modified Goodman and the Gerber methods.17a) for the Gerber correction.18) In the above formulation.

A*=0·25σ y 0·05 42·6×106 0·10 7·1×106 0·15 4·4×106 0·20 3·8×106 0·25 3·5×106 0·30 3·4×106 (b) m=3.LIFE PREDICTIONS N0 (cycles) N1 (cycles) (neglecting (corrected for residual stress) residual stress.1×106 3·9×106 113·5×106 10·4×106 2·5×106 1·2×106 0·8×106 0·7×106 149·4×106 14·0×106 3·2×106 1·1×106 0·5×106 0·3×106 162·9×106 15·4×106 3·5×106 1·2×106 0·5×106 1·98 1·39 1·28 1·25 1·24 1·23 5·00 3·38 2·25 1·80 1·64 1·57 10·17 7·53 5·27 3·54 2·64 2·23 18·02 14·14 10·71 7·70 5·29 1·58 1·24 1·17 1·15 1·15 1·14 2·67 1·96 1·52 1·34 1·27 1·24 3·51 2·64 2·02 1·62 1·41 1·31 3·83 2·90 2·23 1·77 1·48 268×103 23 4 2 2 1 518×109 268×103 259 23 7 4 721×1046 164×1010 268×103 1131 90 23 723×1084 518×107 447×109 268×103 2981 .2 VARIABLE-AMPLITUDE FATIGUE. A*=σ y 0·05 42·6×106 0·10 5·3×106 0·15 1·6×106 0·20 0·7×106 0·25 0·3×106 84·1×106 9·8×106 5·7×106 4·7×106 4·4×106 4·2×106 213·1×106 18·0×106 3·7×106 1·6×106 1·1×106 0·9×106 423·8×106 40·1×106 8. for SD/Ay=0·25 it is very likely that the stochastic stress would exceed Ay long before fatigue failure. On the other hand. One may also note that introduction of an endurance limit into S–N curves.3×106 2·4×106 1·0×106 0·6×106 766·8×106 75·2×106 16·9×106 5·1×106 1·8×106 N2 (cycles) N1/No N2/N0 A* recurrence (corrected for interval residual stress. A*=0·75σ y 0·05 42·6×106 0·10 5·3×106 0·15 1·6×106 0·20 0·7×106 0·25 0·4×106 0·30 0·3×106 (d) m=3. modified Goodman) (a) m=3. ignoring the residual stress would cause a conservative error of 48% based on the Gerber correction.EFFECT OF RESIDUAL STRESSES ON THE FATIGUE OF WELDS 59 actually occur. Gerber) 67·2×106 8·8×106 5·2×106 4·4×106 4. A*=0·50σ y 0·05 42·6×106 0·10 5·3×106 0·15 1·6×106 0·20 0·9×106 0·25 0·6×106 0·30 0·6×106 (c) m=3. For this situation. would have a significant effect on the damage predictions for small SD TABLE 3. and subsequently into variable-amplitude fatigue-life calculations.

5×l06 84·1×106 11·3 2·7×106 1·1×106 0·6×106 2303·7×106 95·5×106 12·8×106 3·0×106 1·0×106 2·31 1·45 1·32 1·29 1·27 1·27 8·15 4·46 2·49 1·92 1·73 1·64 21·18 13·44 7·68 4·24 2·92 2·40 45·75 31·74 20·68 12·22 6·86 ·75 1·27 1·20 1·17 1·16 1·16 3·54 2·24 1·58 1·37 1·3 1·26 5·13 3·36 2·20 1·69 1·44 1·32 5·76 3·82 2·60 1·89 1·51 268×103 23 4 2 2 1 518×1019 268×103 259 23 7 4 721×1046 164×1010 268×103 1131 90 23 723×1084 518×109 447×107 268×103 2981 . A*=σ y 0·05 400·0×106 0·10 25·0×106 0·15 4·9×106 0·20 1·6×106 0·25 0·6×106 924·1×106 56·9×106 29·6×106 24·1×106 22·0×106 21·0×106 3258·8×106 111·5 13·3×106 4·7×106 2·9×106 2·3×106 8472·7×106 336·0×106 38·0×106 6·8×106 2·2×106 1·2×106 18298. modified Goodman) (a) m=4.3 VARIABLE-AMPLITUDE FATIGUE-LIFE PREDICTIONS N0 (cycles) N1 (cycles) (neglecting (corrected for residual stress) residual stress. modified Goodman) 0·30 0·2×106 0·8×106 N2 (cycles) N1/No N2/N0 A* recurrence (corrected for interval residual stress. Gerber) 0·3×106 3·84 1·32 259 TABLE 3. A*=0·25σ y 0·05 400·1×106 0·10 39·3×106 0·15 22·4×106 0·20 18·7×106 0·25 17·3×106 0·30 16·6×106 (b) m=4.SARKANI N0 (cycles) N1 (cycles) (neglecting (corrected for residual stress) residual stress. A*=0·75σ y 0·05 400·0×106 0·10 25·0×106 0·15 4·9×106 0·20 1·6×106 0·25 0·8×106 0·30 0·5×106 (d) m=4.5×106 793·6×106 102·1×106 19·1×106 4·4×106 N2 (cycles) N1/N0 N2/N0 A* recurrence (corrected for interval residual stress Gerber) 699·2×106 49·9×106 26·7×106 21·9×106 20·1×106 19·2×106 1415·1×106 56·1×106 8·5×106 3·4×106 2·2×106 1·8×106 2050. A*=0·5σ y 0·05 400·0×106 0·10 25·0×106 0·15 5·4×106 0·20 2·5×106 0·25 1·7×106 0·30 1·4×106 (c) m=4.60 S.

It was concluded that residual stress aifects the mean stress of applied loading on the joint. 3. for some other stochastic loadings. modified Goodman) 0·30 0·3×106 1·5×106 N2 (cycles) N1/N0 N2/N0 A* recurrence (corrected for interval residual stress Gerber) 0·4×106 4·44 1·26 259 values. It is not clear at this point whether the residual stress effect should be considered in design codes. 1984. Comparison of results in Tables 3.3 also indicates that. the effect of residual stress on the constant-amplitude fatigue S–N curve was investigated. It was shown that the effect of residual stress is particularly . Wirsching & Light.. but it could very well mask the effect of other factors which could be of considerable research interest. as the value of m increases. 1980) and the experimentally measured effect of weathering (Albrecht and Sidani. the bandwidth effects predicted by rainflow analysis (Lutes et al. On the other hand. it is not clear that one should rely on this possible benefit in order to increase the allowable level of design stress within a structure. In effect. Finally. Overall. the effect of residual stress becomes more significant. For instance. Careful consideration must be given to the probability of occurrence of large loads in the intended service conditions and initial distribution and magnitude of residual stresses. 1986) are generally of a smaller order of magnitude than the effect of residual stresses as presented here. Futhermore. the Gerber formula for correcting the resulting mean stress gives results agreeing with experimental findings. Even though the model presented here indicates that the occasional application of yielding stress does extend fatigue life.5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Several recent experimental investigations have concluded that the magnitude of residual stress present at the crack-initiation location of welded joints is close to yield stress of the base metal.EFFECT OF RESIDUAL STRESSES ON THE FATIGUE OF WELDS 61 N0 (cycles) N1 (cycles) (neglecting (corrected for residual stress) residual stress. the effect of residual stresses is not necessarily significant compared to other uncertainties in practical fatigue-life prediction. it appears that there exists a range of stochastic loads for which it is likely that the mean stresses will be near zero throughout most of the variableamplitude fatigue life. and for which neglecting the effect of residual stresses gives significant errors. Using simple hypotheses.2 and 3. the effect of residual stress on variable-amplitude fatigue life was investigated. the endurance limit would remove the damage caused by the small-amplitude cycles and it is in this region that the correction for residual stresses is most significant.

J. LUTES. Paper 19823. J.Z. Maryland. Deut. Cumulative damage in fatigue. Residual stress effects on fatigue of welded joints. David P. . HU. 339–41. Residual Stresses and Stress Interaction in Fatigue Testing of Welded Joints.W. (1945). MINER.2). 115–131. Aeronautical Sci. Structural Div. WIRSCHING. M. New York. S. 6 101. (1899).J. ASCE. (1984). Engineering Mechanics of Materials. & ZIMMERMAN. GOODMAN. S-L. & McNABB. O. a doctoral student at George Washington University. J. (1980). J. Structural Div. Kihl. ASCE. 114(ST. Green and Company. BERGE.D. 2585–601. MUVDI. REFERENCES ALBERCHT.(1874). 1988). Paper 22231. MacMillan.I. (1982). J. GERBER.Lutes of Texas A&M University for initially introducing him to the topic of stochastic fatigue. & EIDE. J. Fatigue under wide band random stresses. CORAZAO.. L. Civil Engineering Report.. London. P. J. for his assistance throughout the preparation of this chapter. College Park. Fatigue Strength of 8-Year Weathered Stiffeners in Air and Salt Water.H. 1593–607. 106(ST7). Die Lebensdauer vo Kugallagern. Paper 15574. Mech. ASTM STP 776.J. Ver. SARKANI. (1988). Ing. (1954).62 S. University of Maryland. Some of the material presented here was drawn from a paper by the author and Professor Lutes (Sarkani & Lutes. (1924). Longman. 110(ST11). Ingr. Thanks are also extended to Mr. Structural Div. Ver. M. 68. On structural fatigue under random loading. W. PALMGREN.C. 462–74. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The author would like to express his sincere thanks to Professor Loren D. Mechanics Applied to Engineering. M. & SIDANI. Appl. (1980).D. M. ASCE. pp.SARKANI significant for variable-amplitude loadings that have small SD values typical of service conditions. BAYER Archit. & LIGHT. 12 A159– A164. B. L. 753–62. J.B. S. & LUTES. MILES. (1986).A.W. A. P.. Stochastic fatigue damage accumulation. J.

Kawasaki Steel Corp. Secondly.KAWAI Research and Development Center. Osaka. fundamental crack patterns occurring in thin-walled plate girder bridges are discussed. is discussed. the fatigue cracking observed in heavy-duty crane girders. Japan SUMMARY The fatigue behavior of plate and box girder structures subjected to repeated loading is presented. Osaka University. Chiba. fatigue cracking of two types of box girder monorail guideways is considered. Japan & I.OKURA Department of Civil Engineering. laboratory tests and observations of model or actual structures carried out by the authors.. Finally.Chapter 4 FATIGUE CRACKING IN PLATE AND BOX GIRDERS Y. Osaka University. such as welded crane girders in workshops and apron girders of unloaders in harbors. Osaka.MAEDA Emeritus Professor. NOTATION a Width of a rectangular plate or interval between adjacent vertical stiffeners b bfr bfs bie boe Cv Height of a rectangular plate or web depth Width of an upper flange of a runway rail Width of an inner flange of a stiffening frame Effective width of an inner flange of a stiffening frame Effective width of skin plate as an outer flange of a stiffening frame Coefficient related to contact pressure distribution of a pneumatic tire . based on the results of analyses. Japan Y. First of all. including cracking at the connections of cross-beams to the main girders of highway bridges.

respectively (IQ/Ig)[l/(2s)]3 Coefficient for adjusting the thickness of a tie-pad to its effective thickness Web slenderness ratio b/tw Coefficient Local strain range Rotations of concrete slab and of cross-beam.OKURA d Dc e E If Ig IQ IR J JR. kbl. kml23.64 Y. n Nc po P ′P R Ri s tfr tfs tw tT w0′. kb3. w0 max wp x. km3. respectively Factor ′ σ /′ P Constants Maximum running speed of a monorail vehicle Span length of a plate girder Positive integers Number of cycles when fatigue cracks are observed Air pressure of a pneumatic tire Magnitude of a wheel load Load range Ratio of in-plane bending stresses σ o min/σ o max Radius-of-curvature of an inner flange of a stiffening frame Spacing between main girders Thickness of an upper flange of a runway rail Thickness of an inner flange of a stiffening frame Web thickness Thickness of a tie-pad Initial deflection and its maximum of a plate. kbl23 kv l m. y Z σ σ σ ′σ σ s0′σ g σ Distance between a vertical loading point and a webto-flange welded joint Flexural rigidity of a concrete slab Magnitude of rail misalignment Young’s modulus Moment of inertia of an upper flange Moment of inertia of a main girder Moment of inertia of a cross-beam Moment of inertia of a rail JR+Jf+Jw St. Venant’s torsional rigidities of a rail. upper flange and web.MAEDA. respectively . Jw k kml.KAWAI AND I. respectively Width of a pneumatic tire Abscissa and ordinate. Y. Jf.

respectively σd Local bearing stress at a flange-to-web weld σe σ 2E/[12(1–v2)σ 2] σ fb Plate-bending stress in an upper flange of a runway rail σl Longitudinal stress in a lower flange σm Membrane stress produced in a connection plate at a cross-beam connection σo In-plane bending stress at the junction of flange and web σ o max′ σ o min Maximum and minimum of in-plane bending stress σ o. Interaction between the longitudinal girder and the transverse framing will . the behavior of secondary members has not always been as obvious. and particularly to improvement of fatigue provisions in bridge design codes like AASHTO (1989). a great deal of research has been carried out on the effects of repeated loading on welded structures such as bridges. As well as knowledge obtained from the observations of actual structures. these studies have led to a better understanding of fatigue behavior of plate and box girders. crane runways. These members interact with the main members and are subjected to more cycles of a higher stress range than anticipated. Traditionally. However. fatigue cracking and fatigue resistance of girders have been considered in relation to design details and initial defects or cracks due to geometrical discontinuities or poor quality welds during fabrication. monorail guideways. BS5400 (1980) and EUROCODE 3 (1990). respectively σr Radial stress in a curved flange σσ Circumferential stress in a curved flange ′ σ bf Fatigue strength of fillet welds subjected to platebending stress ′ σo Range of in-plane bending stress (σ o max–σ o min) σ cr Shear buckling strength of a rectangular plate simply supported along four edges σo In-plane shearing stress σ o max Maximum of in-plane shearing stress σ o 4. The most remarkable fatigue problem of girder structures in recent years is cracking from secondary stresses due to the repetition of web deflection. etc.FATIGUE CRACKING IN PLATE AND BOX GIRDERS 65 v Poisson’s ratio σb Plate-bending stress at web panel boundaries σ b max′ σ b min Maximum and minimum plate-bending stresses which are caused by σ o max and σ o min.1 INTRODUCTION During the past decade. A lowfatigue-strength detail or built-in defects may produce only a single significant crack.

OKURA produce secondary and displacement-induced stresses at the connections to the main members.KAWAI AND I. (1970). 4. Fatigue cracks in thin-walled plate girders. As shown in Fig. there are possibilities of the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks along the fillet welds around the web panel boundaries.66 Y. Mueller & Yen (1968). Patterson et al. (a) In girders under bending.2 THIN-WALLED PLATE GIRDER As pointed out by Goodpasture & Stallmeyer (1967). It propagates towards the tension flange. 4. 4.MAEDA. depending on loading conditions. which may cause many fatigue cracks simultaneously in the overall structure. It grows FIG. This crack is initiated at the toe on the web side of the fillet weld connecting the web to the compression flange. and Yen & Mueller (1966). Penetration of the crack into the tension flange leads to the .1. (b) Girder in shear. – Type 1 crack. the following three types of fatigue cracks occur. the fatigue cracks are classified as follows. The fatigue cracks of the secondary members and the displacement-induced fatigue cracks are discussed and some recommendations are provided as to how the problems may be avoided or minimized to insure the intended performance. 4. Maeda (1971). Y.2. gradually along the weld toe with loading cycles. – Type 2 crack. (a) Girder in bending. Toprac & Natarajan (1971). depending upon structural conditions. This crack is observed at the toe on the web side of the fillet weld connecting the vertical stiffener to the web. As shown in Fig. when a thin-walled plate girder is subjected to repeated loading. the crack is caused by the plate-bending stress at the weld toe due to out-of-plane deformation of the web under in-plane bending.1.

4.3. estimated by beam theory at each cracking point. 4. Its initiation is due to incomplete penetration of the fillet weld or to discontinuities on the weld surface.2. and then branch out into the web in directions approximately perpendicular to the tension field. Plate-bending stress due to web deflection. because the relation between applied load and plate-bending stress is not clearly defined. fixed at y=0 and b against out-of-plane deflection. near to the corners where a diagonal tension field is expected to be anchored. The characteristics of Types 1 and 4 cracks are peculiar to thin-walled plate girders and the design parameters are described in subsequent sections.1 Bending The finite deflection analysis of a rectangular plate under in-plane bending was carried out by the finite-element method (FEM) to show the effects of an initial web deflection on the plate-bending stresses along the web panel boundaries (Maeda & Okura. – Type 3 crack. on the web side of the fillet welds. 4.2. as shown in Fig. As the crack is produced on the tension side of the neutral axis of the girder. 4. Referring to Fig. 1990). the plate is simply supported at x=0 and a. (b) In girders under shear. The allowable stress ranges for them are specified in the fatigue design of various codes (AASHTO. Types 2 and 3 cracks are the most common cracks in rolled beams or built-up girders. Of the cracks mentioned above. The cause of cracking is. with the corresponding allowable stress range. Thus.FATIGUE CRACKING IN PLATE AND BOX GIRDERS 67 FIG. and . it is possible to predict their initiation by comparing the range of applied in-plane bending stress.2. due to out-of-plane deformation of the web under in-plane shear. Type 4 cracks are initiated at the toe. Then the girder will lose its load-carrying capability because of the diminished tension field action. However. EUROCODE 3. its propagation speed is faster than that of a Type 1 crack. 1989. They propagate along the weld toe. collapse of the girder. the plate-bending stress at the weld toe. it is still difficult to predict the initiation of Type 1 cracks. This crack occurs at the fillet weld connecting the web to the tension flange. 1981. BS5400. 1983). 1980.

3. free to move in the in-plane direction.4 shows the relation between the in-plane bending stress σ o and the plate-bending stress (σ b. can be obtained. Y.MAEDA. Since the σ o versus σ b relation is non-linear. It is assumed that the plate has an initial deflection in the following form: w0=w0 max sin(mπx/a) sin(nπy/b) (4. while the initial deflection shapes for m=2 and 3 increase the plate-bending stress greatly. the σ o max versus σ relation varies with the ratio R of the in-plane bending stresses defined by R=σo min/σo max (4.2) is expressed as . v=Poisson’s ratio.68 Y. respectively.2). E= Young’s modulus. Figure 4. The condition to prevent Type 1 cracks is as follows: (4. Therefore. It can be seen that the initial deflection shape for m=1 restrains the increase in plate-bending stress.KAWAI AND I. σ =b/tw=web slenderness ratio. 4. and ′ σ fb is the fatigue strength of fillet welds subjected to plate-bending stress. at the edge y=b of a square plate.3) Therefore the range of in-plane bending stress ′ σ o to satisfy enq (4. The fatigue strength ′ σ fb was obtained by Maeda (1978) and Mueller & Yen (1968). The relation between the in-plane bending stress σ o and the plate-bending stress ′ b was formulated for the initial deflection shapes defined by m=2 and 3 in eqn (4.1) by Maeda & Okura (1984). the relation between the maximum in-plane bending stress σ o max and the web slenderness ratio σ satisfying eqn (4. and m and n are positive integers.2). and tw=web thickness. The following notation is used in the figure: σ e=σ 2E/{12(1−v2)/σ 2}.1) where w0 and w0 max are the initial deflection and its maximum value respectively. Rectangular plate under inplane bending. solving the σ o versus σ b relation subject to eqn (4.OKURA FIG.2) where σ b max and σ b min are the maximum and minimum plate-bending stresses which are caused by the maximum and mininum in-plane bending stresses σ o max and σ o min.

4. Relation between in-plane bending stress and plate-bending stress. (2. (2. ∆σo=σo max−σo min=σo max(1−R) (4.5(b). n)=(1. Type 1 cracks do not occur below the allowable stress ranges for Types 2 and 3 cracks. Type 1 cracks occur below the allowable stress ranges for Types 2 and 3 cracks for σ >200. The allowable stress ranges for Types 2 and 3 cracks.FATIGUE CRACKING IN PLATE AND BOX GIRDERS 69 FIG. and Yen & Mueller (1966).6 shows the relation between the in-plane shearing stress σ o and the plate-bending stress σ b for the initial deflection shapes defined by (m. and below the allowable stress range for Type 3 cracks for σ >200. in BS5400 (1980). 1). it is necessary to limit the web slenderness ratio to 200 for stiffened plate girders to prevent Type 1 cracks. Figure 4. For in each of Figs 4. 4. Toprac & Natarajan (1971).5(a) and (b). The finite out-of-plane deformation of a square plate under combined in-plane shear and in-plane bending was analyzed by FEM (Okura & Maeda. 4.2 Shear Actual plate girders which are subjected to shear are necessarily subjected to coexistent bending. Patterson et al (1970). are also given in the figures. 1991). as shown in Fig. Figures 4. 2) in eqn (4.2. 2).1). Figure 4. as shown in Fig. specified as Detail Classes E and C respectively.5(a) and (b) give the classification of cracking at 5×105 cycles and at 2×106 cycles. However. 1985).4. Therefore. Mueller & Yen (1968). 1) and (1. It is seen that the plate-bending stresses become closer to one another with increase in the in-plane shearing .5 shows the relation between ′ σ o and σ for the girders tested in bending by Maeda (1971). respectively. 4.4) The variation of ′ σ 0 with R is smaller than that of σ o max for test girders (Okura et al.5(a).

KAWAI AND I. 1) in eqn (4. and on the cracking. is small. Y. 1985. (b) Classification for 2×106 cycles.1) (Maeda et al. The relation between the in-plane shearing stress σ o and the plate-bending stress σ b was formulated for the initial deflection defined by (m. the influence of the shape of initial web deflection on the increase in the plate-bending stress.MAEDA.5. 1985). n)=(1. in plate girders under shear.OKURA FIG. From the equation for the σ o versus σ b relation. stress. Type 4 cracks may be prevented by keeping the applied maximum in-plane shearing stress below the shear buckling strength of a rectangular plate simply-supported along four edges (Okura et al..70 Y. . Okura & Maeda. 1991).Relation between ′ σ o and σ .. 4. Hence. (a) Classification for 5×105 cycles.

Moreover. There is one filled circle below the horizontal line σ o max/σ cr=1·0. Mueller & Yen (1968). This crack is initiated at the end of a fillet weld between the connection plate and the top flange of the main girder. 4. – Type 3 crack. and grows downwards along the weld toe on the connection plate side. there are several open circles above the horizontal line and the shear buckling strength σ cr generally represents a conservative estimate. 4. At this filled circle (Toprac and Natarajan. while they were not at open circles. – Type 2 crack. 4. This crack is initiated at the upper scallop of the connection plate.7 shows the relation between σ o max/σ cr and σ for the girders tested by Goodpasture & Stallmeyer (1967). The fatigue cracks observed in the plate girder bridges of the Hanshin Expressway in Osaka are classified as shown in Fig. Type 4 cracks were initiated at filled circles before 2×106 cycles.3 CONNECTIONS IN PLATE GIRDER HIGHWAY BRIDGES Fatigue cracks occurs at the connections of cross-beams to main girders in many plate girder highway bridges in the urban area of Japan. 1971). This crack is initiated at the end of the fillet weld connecting the connection plate to the main girder web. Toprac & Natarajan (1971).6. and Yen & Mueller (1966). which is close to two million cycles.8. Patterson et al. Figure 4. In Fig. Type 4 cracks were detected at 1·626×106 cycles. and grows diagonally through the connection plate itself. Relation between in-plane shearing stress and plate-bending stress.7. . Here. – Type 1 crack. and ′ cr is the shear buckling strength of a rectangular plate simply-supported along four edges. ′ o max is the applied maximum in-plane shear stress. 4. (1970).FATIGUE CRACKING IN PLATE AND BOX GIRDERS 71 FIG.

. This crack is initiated and grows along the toe on the web side of the fillet weld between the top flange and the web of the main girder. – Type 4 crack. 4.OKURA FIG. 4. Okura & Fukumoto.8.72 Y. Field stress measurements were carried out for an existing plate girder bridge of the Hanshin Expressway to determine the stress states at the cross-beam connections (Okura et al.KAWAI AND I.7. Fatigue cracks at a cross-beam connection in a plate girder highway bridge.MAEDA. FIG. 1988).Relation between σ o max/σ cr and σ . 1987. Y..

It revealed that the membrane stress σ m and the plate-bending stress σ b. Rotations σ s0 and σ g. FIG.9. 4.10. Then.10).. 4. and are as follows (Okura et al.10).FATIGUE CRACKING IN PLATE AND BOX GIRDERS 73 FIG. . The structural parameters governing the cracking at the cross-beam connection were deduced from eqn (4.. Kb3 and Kbl23 are constants which relate the local stresses to the rotations. 1989a. 4. 4. and Km1. where σ s0 is the rotation of the concrete slab due to the slab-deformation caused by wheel loads (see Fig. respectively. Kbl. 4. Km3.9. σ g is the rotation of the cross-beam due to the vertical displacements of main girders (see Fig.5). σ is a coefficient depending on the position of a vehicle in the direction of the roadway width. the relationship between the local stresses and the rotations of the concrete slab and cross-beam was formulated as follows (Okura et al. 1988).b): (a) For the concrete-slab rotation: Dc/s (b) For the cross-beam rotation. Kml23. Local stresses σ m and σ b. as illustrated in Fig. were the stresses governing the initiation of Types 1 and 4 cracks.

IQ is the moment of inertia of a cross-beam. Y. 1989a. where Dc is the flexural rigidity of the concrete slab. In Fig.12 shows the relationship between IQ/s2 and the number of bridges in which Type 4 cracks were observed.KAWAI AND I. becomes small. 4.MAEDA. No cracks occur in the bridges with . is small in plate girder bridges with IQ/s2=3·1 cm2 (Okura et al. and Z=(IQ/Ig){l/(2s)}3. since a decrease of the parameters increases σ s0 and σ g. Relationship between IQ/s2 and the number of bridges in which Type 1 cracks were observed.74 Y. 4. The plate girder bridges with smaller values of the above structural parameters are more susceptible to cracking. Figure 4.b). Type 11 cracks occur in the bridges with This indicates that Type 1 cracks can be initiated by the concreteslab rotation σ s0 alone. l is the span length of a main girder. which causes Type 1 cracks. s is the spacing between main girders. The influence of σ g on the local stress σ m. the number of bridges suffering from cracking gradually decreases. resulting in an increase in the local stresses ′ m and σ b. Ig is the moment of inertia of a main girder.11 shows the relationship between IQ/s2 and the number of bridges in which Type 1 cracks were observed.OKURA FIG. since the influence of σ g on the local stress σ b.11.. however. which causes Type 4 cracks. With the increase in IQ/s2.11. Figure 4.

Prestressed concrete girders with a span length of 22 m are usually used for the guideway girders.14(a). the bending moment and shear force have opposite signs to those in Fig. 4.4 BOX GIRDERS FOR MONORAIL GUIDEWAYS 4. 4. The parallel girders are connected by cross beams of I section. or at a crossing above a river. Relationship between IQ/s2 and the number of bridges in which Type 4 cracks were observed. Wheels of monorail vehicles run on the top flange of the girders.1 Straddle-type Guideway girders for straddle-type monorails are now under construction in Osaka. Figure 4.14(b). 4. 4.13. Hence. built at the intersection with an existing road. As shown in Fig. alternating . the bending moment has the same magnitude but opposite sign at the girders G1 and G2. As shown in Fig. when the load is applied to girder G1. 4.14 shows schematically the bending moment and shearing force acting on a cross-beam. as shown in Fig. and is zero at the middle of the cross-beam. When. the load is applied to the girder G2. 4. they are narrow box girders 660 mm wide and 2·2–3·3 m in height.12.14(a).4.FATIGUE CRACKING IN PLATE AND BOX GIRDERS 75 FIG. however. Steel girders are. Japan.

Models CP and TP were proposed as connection details to improve the fatigue strength at the cross-beam connection in Model ST.13. 4. was provided at the intersection of the top flange of . Guideway girders for straddle-type monorail.MAEDA.OKURA FIG. 4. 1989). A part of the girder below the middle of the plate for running of stabilizing wheels. were included in the specimens. Y. a corner plate. three types of specimens were designed. stresses are induced at the cross-beam connections when monorail vehicles run on the G1 and G2 girders alternately. as shown in Fig.14.76 Y.. based on the results of a FEM analysis (Maeda et al. and a part of the cross-beam with a length of half the spacing between two girders. Bending moment and shearing force acting on a cross-beam. FIG. In Model CP specimens. as shown in the figure.KAWAI AND I.15. To investigate the fatigue strength of the cross-beam connections. 4.

15. . The top of the girder of the test specimens was fixed to a rigid floor. The size of the corner plate of Model CP specimens. Three types of specimens. In Model TP specimens. were both limited by the clearance of monorail vehicles. and the increased depth of the cross-beams of Model TP specimens. the cross-beam with the track girder web. 4. and alternating loads were applied vertically to the end of the cross beam.FATIGUE CRACKING IN PLATE AND BOX GIRDERS 77 FIG. it was possible to conduct fatigue tests on the right and left sides of the same specimen.

On the other hand. were converted to the strain range ′ σ The value of the factor k. The distributions of the strains are linear from about 10 mm ahead of the weld toe. defined as k=′ σ /′ P.78 Y.1 VALUES OF k Model ST k(μ /kN) 5·0 .16.KAWAI AND I. as illustrated in Fig. 4. ′ P is the range of load. fatigue cracks were TABLE 4. Nc is the number of cycles at which fatigue cracks were detected.MAEDA. obtained by extrapolation of the straight lines. ′ σ versus Nc relation. the k values of Model TP specimens are about half of that for Model ST. fatigue cracks were initiated at the upper edge of the corner plate. a hole is required in the diaphragm for fabrication work. The influence of such a hole on cracking was investigated in Model TP2L.1. The strain values at the weld toe. is a measure of the improvement of the connection detail. Y. A crossbeam connection with larger values of k is more susceptible to cracking. which was obtained as follows: Figure 4. ′ σ is the range of the local strain measured at the cross-beam connection. Except for Model TP2L.17 shows the distributions of the strains measured near the intersection of the top flange of the cross-beam with the girder web. 4. in Model ST and TP specimens. Figure 4.16 shows the relation between ′ σ and Nc. Here. Their initiation was very sensitive to the shape of the upper edge of the corner plate.OKURA FIG.18. In Model CP specimens. fatigue cracks were initiated at the intersection of the top flange of the cross-beam with the girder web. The results showed that. When a Model TP connection detail is used at the cross-beam connection. The k values for Models ST and TP are shown in Table 4.

FATIGUE CRACKING IN PLATE AND BOX GIRDERS 79

FIG. 4.17. Measured strains at cross-beam connection. Model TPIR TP1L TP2R TP2L Note: k=′ σ /′ P k(μ /kN) 2·9 2·4 2·8 4·2

initiated at the corners of the hole in the diaphragm and along the fillet welds at one corner of the diaphragm above the rib plate, after the fatigue cracks occurred at the intersection of the top flange of the cross-beam with the girder web. Thus, the improvement of the connection detail by Model TP is very effective, but the hole for fabrication work must be covered by a steel plate. 4.4.2 Suspended-type Two types of guideway girders for a suspended-type monorail are shown in Fig. 4.19, with stiffening frames inside or outside the skin plate. Both are thin-

80 Y.MAEDA, Y.KAWAI AND I.OKURA

FIG. 4.18. Fatigue cracks observed in Model TP2L specimen.

walled open box girders with a longitudinal slit at the lower flange to let suspension links of monorail vehicles pass through. Wheels of monorail vehicles run on the runway rails. Lateral loads due to wind or meandering of the vehicles act on the guideway rails. The skin plate acts as flanges and webs of the box girder. The stiffening frames restrain the cross-sectional deformation of the box girder and also support the runway rails. It was pointed out by Hikosaka et al. (1982) that the stiffening frames and runway rails were susceptible to cracking. As shown in Fig. 4.20, two types of cracks may be initiated at the corner of the stiffening frame, produced by the circumferential stress σ σ and radial stress σ r. Such local stresses can be estimated by in-plane curved beam theory, using the effective widths boe and bie, given by the following equations for the skin plate and for the curved inner flange of the stiffening frame, respectively: boe=0·6b (4.6) (4.7) where and Ri, tfs and bfs are the radius of curvature, thickness and width of the curved inner flange of the stiffening frame, respectively. Equation (4.7) was obtained by Anderson (1950). In the fatigue design of the stiffening frame, such

FATIGUE CRACKING IN PLATE AND BOX GIRDERS 81

FIG. 4.19. Stiffening of a suspended monorail guideway.

FIG. 4.20. Two types of fatigue cracks in a stiffening frame.

dimensions as the radius of curvature, thickness and width of the curved inner flange must be determined, so that both the circumferential stress σ σ and the radial stress σ r can satisfy the corresponding allowable fatigue strengths given in Fig. 4.21 (Yamasaki & Kawai, 1983). As shown in Fig. 4.22, cracking may occur at two locations of the runway rail. The cracking in the lower flange at the intermediate ribs, which are provided to prevent local deformation of the upper flange of the rail, is caused by the longitudinal stress σ l in the lower flange. This longitudinal stress is given by superposing the local stress due to individual wheel loads on the overall bending stress and warping torsional bending stress due to the total vehicle loads. The local stress due to the individual wheel loads can be estimated by treating the rail as a three-span continuous beam supported by the stiffening frames. The cracking in the upper flange of the runway rail in Fig. 4.22 is caused by the plate-bending stress σ fb which is produced every time the individual wheels run through between the adjacent intermediate ribs. The thickness of the upper flange may be designed as a T-shaped welded joint subjected to repeated platebending stress. Introducing the effects of contact pressure distribution of a pneumatic tire into the equation by Senior & Gurney (1963), the following equation is obtained for the plate-bending stress σ fb:

82 Y.MAEDA, Y.KAWAI AND I.OKURA

FIG. 4.21. S–N curves for fatigue design of a stiffening frame.

FIG. 4.22. Two types of fatigue cracks in a runway rail.

(4.8) where tfr and bfr are the thickness and width of a runway rail respectively, wp and po are the width and air pressure of a pneumatic tire respectively, Cv is a

FATIGUE CRACKING IN PLATE AND BOX GIRDERS 83

coefficient related to contact pressure distribution of a pneumatic tire, and Kv is the maximum running speed of a monorail vehicle in kilometers/hour. Sadamasu (1969) proposed 0·017h/km for Cv. 4.5 HEAVY-DUTY CRANE GIRDERS 4.5.1 Welded Crane Runway Girders In recent decades, many studies have been carried out on fatigue behavior of welded crane runway girders (Senior & Gurney, 1963; Maas, 1972; Demo & Fisher, 1976; Nishiyama et al., 1978, 1980, 1983; Reemsnyder & Demo, 1978; Umino & Mimura, 1982). Referring to Fig. 4.23, fatigue cracks that have been observed in welded crane runway girders are summarized as follows: (1) Runway girder Type a crack: upper flange-to-web welded joint Type b crack: upper flange-to-transverse stiffener welded joint Type c crack: welded joint in lower flange Type d crack: lower flange-to-secondary member welded joint (2) Back girder (wall girder and lateral bracings) Type e crack: lateral bracing member Type f crack: welded joint of gusset plate (3) Supporting members Type g crack: connection bolts between runway girder and post Type h crack: bearing plate on building post The characteristics of Types a and b cracks in the runway girder and of Types e and f cracks in the back girder are presented in more detail below. Types a and b cracks are mainly caused by repeated local stresses due to wheel loads of a travelling crane. Referring to Fig. 4.24, the local stress at the flange-to-web welded joint for Type a cracks, is given by summing the bearing stress σ d and plate-bending stress σ b. The former stress is due to the direct force of wheels, and the latter is due to eccentricity between the centers of wheel loading and the web plane. By modifying the formulae proposed by Parks (1952) and Oxfort (1963) with the results of experimental studies by Nishiyama et al. (1980), eqns (4.9) and (4.11) are obtained for σ d and σ b, respectively: (4.9) (note: σ d in MPa, P in N, and tw, d and e in mm) where P is the magnitude of a wheel load, e is the rail misalignment, and d is the distance between a virtual loading point and a web-to-flange welded joint, which is given by

4. tw and tT in mm. Jf and Jw are St.84 Y. FIG.10) (note: d. IR and If in mm4) where Ir and If are the moments of inertia of the rail and the upper flange respectively. Local stress at flange-to-web weld. P in N.OKURA FIG. a. tw. Y.23. . 4. b and e in mm.KAWAI AND I. tT is the thickness of a tiepad.11) (note: σ b in MPa. and JR. (4. Venant’s torsional rigidities of the rail. and σ is the coefficient for adjusting the thickness of the tie-pad to its effective thickness.24. and σ in mm−1) where J=JR+Jf+Jw. Typical fatigue cracks observed in crane runway girders. J in mm4. (4.MAEDA.

The structural details of the upper part of the girder have to be designed so that the total stresses σ d and σ b can meet the allowable fatigue strength given by Maeda (1978) for fillet welds subjected to plate-bending stress.11) are effective for e between 0 and 5tw. 4. the apron and runway girders are either a twin box-girder or a mono box-girder.9) and (4. tw and b in mm. 1978). 4. and ′ = (note: σ in mm−1. 4.2 Apron Girders in Unloaders An unloader for removing cargo from a ship is shown in Fig. 4.5. since they are produced by the three-dimensional behavior of the whole of a crane runway girder. 1976. since they are subjected to severe repeated loading. they suffer from cracking at the following locations: Type a crack: flange-to-web welded joint Type b crack: connection of a rail to a flange . 4. They are caused by locally induced stresses not generally considered in the design practice of crane runway girders.26.General view of unloader. satisfactory conclusions are not yet available and further investigation is required. There are some studies on the relationship between the local stresses and structural behavior of a crane runway girder (Nishiyama et al. As shown in Fig. upper flange and web. It is very difficult to predict such local stresses.25. A study of fatigue damage of crane runway girders carried out by the Society of Steel Construction of Japan JSSC.27. As shown in Fig. However. respectively.25. Equations (4. revealed that Types e and f cracks were initiated more often than any other types of cracks.FATIGUE CRACKING IN PLATE AND BOX GIRDERS 85 FIG. The apron girder and runway girder in the unloader are susceptible to cracking. and J in mm4)..

4. Two types of apron and runway girders. Y.11).26.6 CONCLUSIONS Recent findings concerning fatigue cracking in plate and box girders have been presented in relation to stress analysis in design.9) to (4. General patterns and characteristics of deformation-induced fatigue cracking in thinwalled plate . it is recommended that the gap between the flange surface and the bottom of the rail should be kept small. 4.KAWAI AND I.27.MAEDA. The local stress for cracking can be estimated by eqns (4. 4.86 Y. (b) Mono box-girder type. Type c crack: weld to connect a diaphragm to a skin plate Type a cracks have the same features as those of Type a cracks in welded crane runway girders. To prevent Type b cracks.OKURA FIG. Typical fatigue cracks in unloader girders. (a) Twin box-girder type. FIG.

Structural Eng. Eng. H. Y. I. Studies SRS No. Commission of the European Communities. 328. Y. (1971) Ultimate static strength and fatigue behavior of longitudinally stiffened plate girders in bending.R. G. Structal. 1–8. The effects of detail design and fabrication on the fatigue cracking of two types of welded girder in a crane runway and an unloader have also been discussed.. D.. EUROCODE 3 (1990) Chapter 9. ASCE. (1989) Standard Spe. (1976) Analysis of fatigue of welded crane runway girders. 58–66..C. (England). Japan.16. Steel. OKURA. 49–58. (1978) Fatigue cracks of deep thin-walled plate girders. Concrete and Composite Bridges. J. D. Y. pp.. D. J. 9–22 (in Japanese). JSSC (1976) Report of the investigation on fatigue damage of crane runway girders. & STALLMEYER. 35. 5 January. MAEDA. (1983) Influence of initial deflection of plate girder webs on fatigue crack initiation. have been considered in relation to the interaction between overall and local effects. MAEDA. & FISHER. 162.G. 12(128). & OKURA. March. Furthermore. BSI(1980) 5400:Part 10. MAEDA. 12.. British Standards Institution. IABSE.E. 102(5). London Colloquium. Kyushu University.).Evans ed. cations for Highway Bridges. Transpoftation Research Board.. K. Washington. C. MAEDA. 149s-159s. Iron and Steel Engineering. Edited draft issue 3. 295–306. University of Illinois. London. Technology Reports of Osaka University.C. cracking observed at the connections of cross-beams to the main girders of highway bridges has been identified as one of the major fatigue problems in bridge maintenance. DEMO. Cardiff. Y. Wales./Earthquake Eng. The Design of Steel Bridges-Conference Discussion. KAWAI. 269–82. London. ANDERSON. pp. Struct. Proc. London. (1972) Investigation concerning craneway girders. Bridge Engineering. J. (1984) Fatigue strength of plate girder in bending considering out-of-plane deformation of web. Div. & OKURA. REFERENCES AASHTO. Y. (H.A. D. pp. 91–100. Cracking in box girders has been illustrated by reference to straddle.. & HIRANO.and suspended-type monorail guideways. HIKOSAKA. pp.FATIGUE CRACKING IN PLATE AND BOX GIRDERS 87 girders subjected to repeated bending and shear.E. 1 (2). (1985) Formulation of finite out-of-plane deformation of rectangular plate in shear. 120–8. C.9–12. March. (1982)An experimental and theoretical study on the static behavior of curved guideways for suspended monorail system. I. Inst. Washington. . H. 14th edn. I. I.&TAKEMI. (1967) Fatigue Behavior of Welded Thin Web Girders as Influenced by Web Distortion and Boundary Rigidity. pp.W. Society of Steel Construction of Japan. & OKURA. (1950) Flexural stress in curved beams of I. Y.W. MAAS. Mech. MAEDA. Proc. The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. GOODPASTURE.. 919–33. MAEDA. (1981) Interaction between initial web deflection and fatigue crack initiation in thin-walled plate girders.and box section. JSCE. Memoirs of Faculty of Engineering. Design of Steel Structures. 42(2). Y. University College.

& YUBISUI. (1983) Fatigue damage in bearing supports of crane runway girders. Trans.. (1968) Girder Web Boundary Stresses and Fatigue. H. Y./Earthquake Eng. 51–8 (in Japanese). 5(1). K. OKURA. Technical Journal of Public Works Research Institute.. Bull. No. TAKIGAWA. Y. 29.. H. J. HONGO. I. 37. Technology Reports of Osaka University. Der Stahlbau. REEMSNYDER. Y.A. I. Structural Eng. H.T. Y.. Structural Eng. H. Helsinki. MUELLER. J. 13th Congress. HIRANO. No. Japan. JSCE. (1988) Fatigue of cross beam connections in steel bridges. H. Proc. H. 89s-97s. Symposium on Structural Engineering. Proc. H. (1980) Experimental study on local stresses in upper part of crane runway girders due to rail misalignment. I. 1207–10 (in Japanese).S. & ISOZAKI. 127. Y. H. Japan. (1987) Stress measurement at cross beam connections of plate girder bridge. Berlin. MASUDA. Proc. (1988) Local stresses at cross beam connections of plate girder bridges. Annual Conference of Architectural Institute of Japan. I. I. PATTERSON. OKURA..155. pp. Welding Research Council. Structural Eng. TAKEMOTO. Y. (1989a) Structural parameters governing fatigue cracking at cross-beam connections in plate girder highway bridges. D. YEN.A. & FUKUMOTO. I.K. Y.J.. OKURA. and FISHER. K.T.A. Japan Society of Civil Engineers. I. 423s–426s.W. (1963) Zur Beanspruchung der Obergurte Vollwandiger Kranbahnträger durch Torsionsmomente und durch Querkraftbiegung unter dem örtlichen Radlastangriff.S.S. Technology Reports of Osaka University. P. R. B. IABSE. OKURA. Phil. YUBISUI. CORRADO.OKURA MAEDA. & FUKUMOTO. E. I. KAWAI. 151–60. (1978) Static loading tests on crane runway girders. April. JSCE.88 Y.. Ministry of Construction. M. London.. & YEN... JSCE. 11(8).. 32(12). Bull.MAEDA. . NISHIYAMA. Annual Conference of Architectural Institute of Japan. SADAMASU. R. Proc. J. HONGO. Welding Research Council. (1970) Fatigue and Static Tests of Two Welded Plate Girders. 52–6. 39 289–96. T. OKURA. & FUKUMOTO. K.. Series A. & DEMO../ Earthquake Eng.KAWAI AND I. NISHIYAMA. 1335–9 (in Japanese). J. JSCE. (1985) Analysis of deformation-induced fatigue of thinwalled plate girder in shear. Y.&KAWAI. HIRANO. Y. H. R. 377s-384s. J. 360–7. 404(1–11)./Earthquake Eng. TAKEMOTO. Proc. Iron and Steel Engineering. 425–34 (in Japanese). OKURA. 741–6.A.. OKURA. (1989b) Structural parameters governing fatigue cracking in highway bridges. U.. F. OXFORT. & KAWAI. pp./ Earthquake Eng. & HONGO. 244(886).. B. (Submitted). (1978) Fatigue cracking in welded crane runway girders: causes and repair procedures. Y. PARKS. (1991) Fatigue of thin-walled plate girders. (1989) Fatigue test of cross beam connections in steel track girders for straddle-type monorail. 3–5 (in Japanese). NISHIYAMA. (1969) Contact pressure of a running pneumatic tire. Structural Eng. pp. & MAEDA. M. Royal Soc.. 6(2).. (1952) The stress distribution near a loading point in a uniform flanges beam. & FUKUMOTO. K... B. HUANG. 2(2)..T. & YEN. TAKEMOTO. OKURA. FUKUOKA. TAKIGAWA.

YEN. pp.A. H. No. (1982) Fatigue research on welded crane runway girders. Y. England. (1966) Fatigue Tests of Large-size Welded Plate Girders.FATIGUE CRACKING IN PLATE AND BOX GIRDERS 89 SENIOR. & MIMURA. 97(4). B. & MUELLER. 1203–25. IABSE Lausanne Colloquium. (1963) The design and service life of upper part of welded crane girders. Bull. of Japan Society of Civil Engineers.G.. YAMASAKI. & NATARAJAN. 78–81. 15.A. A.R. J. . & KAWAI. 141(10). TOPRAC.T. Structural Engineer. (1971) Fatigue strength of hybrid plate girders. Structural Div. Trans. Welding Research Council. & GURNEY. (1983) Fatigue strength of stiffening frame in guideway beams for suspended monorail system. T. 118. 577–84. M. J. UMINO. 301–12. S. A. ASCE. T.

X fr. NOTATION Ac Ab b fr fr. Parametric analyses of two-span-continuous. from Category E to Category B. multigirder bridges have shown that improvements in cover plate design. make them virtually fatigue-proof for highway truck loading. USA SUMMARY Adhesively bonding a cover plate to the tension flange of a steel girder and high-strength bolting the ends to prevent debonding has been shown experimentally to increase the fatigue life by a factor of 20 over that of welded cover plates.Chapter 5 FATIGUE STRENGTH OF ADHESIVELY BONDED COVER PLATES PEDRO ALBRECHT Department of Civil Engineering.A Fb Fsr Fv Kf m Gross cross-sectional area of cover plate Gross cross-sectional area of bolt Intercept of S–N line Calculated stress range Fatigue strength of Detail X Fatigue strength of Category E details Fatigue strength of Category A details Allowable bending stress Allowable stress range Allowable shear stress for slip critical joints Fatigue notch factor Slope of S–N line . The number of end bolts should be that needed to develop the cover plate’s portion of the maximum moment at the theoretical cut-off point. which raise the fatigue strength to that of Category B. University of Maryland.E fr.

(4) corrosion protection of reinforcing bars for concrete structures. 1986) and static strength (Albrecht & Sahli.FATIGUE STRENGTH OF ADHESIVELY BONDED COVER PLATES 91 Mr n N Nd NE Nx Pb Pc s S Sc Bending moment range Number of bolts Number of cycles Number of design cycles Mean number of cycles to failure of Category E details Mean number of cycles to failure of Detail X Shear force in bolt Tensile force in cover plate Standard deviation Section modulus of beam without cover plate Section modulus of beam with cover plate 5. and (5) strengthening of concrete members with externally bonded steel plates. consisted of 355-mm (14-in) deep rolled beams. 5. They reported elsewhere the results of tests on the fatigue strength (Albrecht & Sahli. (2) coating and surfacing. The present study examines the fatigue strength of steel beams with adhesively bonded cover plates. replacing mechanical fasteners with adhesives prolongs the fatigue life. The writer and his coworkers have explored ways of extending the application of adhesives by testing bonded structural details that are commonly found on steel bridge construction (Albrecht et al. their application so far has been limited.1 INTRODUCTION The aerospace industry is extensively bonding components and members fabricated from metals and composites for two main reasons.2. shown in Fig.1 Specimens The 17 beams Bl through B18 (beam B16 had no cover plates). First.1. US standard . 5. epoxy resins have been applied to bridge construction and rehabilitation in the following areas: (1) epoxy/aggregate mortar. bonding lightweight composites to underlying structures greatly reduces the weight of components. (3) bonding of secondary members.. 1988) of bolted and adhesively bonded splices of tension members and beams. Although epoxy resin adhesives were introduced to the construction industry at about the same time as to the aerospace industry.2 TEST PROGRAM 5. 1984). Secondly. To date.

92 PEDRO ALBRECHT FIG. the cover plate ends on beam B4 closest to mid-span and both cover plate ends on beams B5 to B18 were clamped to the flange with two 19-mm diameter ASTM A325 High-Strength Bolts for Structural Steel Joints. and Ab is the gross area of bolt. Pb is the bolt shear force. If the bolts alone had to develop the cover plate’s portion of the maximum moment at the theoretical cut-off point.1) the applicable allowable stresses from the Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges adopted by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). and the cross-sectional properties of the test beam. one on each side of the center line of symmetry. They were tested on a 4570-mm span under 2-point symmetrical loading.1) in which Pc is the cover plate force. designation W14×30. Sc is the section modulus of beam with cover plate. The initial plan was to bond only the cover plates to the flange.1. weighing 440 N/m (30 lb/ft). Fv is the allowable shear stress for slip critical joints of blast-cleaned low-alloy steel. Accordingly. Coverplated beam specimens. The W14×30 section has 10mm×171-mm flanges and a 7-mm thick web. with which the cover plate ends . Fb is the allowable bending stress. the two high-strength bolts. gives n=4·4. Substituting in eqn (5. After the tests of beams Bl to B3 had shown that the cover plate ends were gradually debonding. Ac is the gross area of cover plate. the required number of bolts would be (5. Two 13-mm×171mm×1143-mm long cover plates were adhesively bonded to the tension flange. 5. S is the section modulus of beam without cover plate.

1 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF A588 GRADE B STEEL SPECIMENS Component Yield point (MPa) Tensile strength Elongation 200.2. The adhesive cured on contact with the accelerator.2. composites and engineering thermoplastics. The measured tensile properties and chemical composition of the A588 Grade B steel beams and cover plates are given in Tables 5. an acrylic structural adhesive for bonding metals.2) in which Mr is the bending moment range at the cross section through cover plate end. and S is the gross section modulus of W14×30 beam without cover plates. represent about one-half of the bolts needed to develop the cover plate’s portion of the maximum moment. 152 mm away from the loading points. and were cycled at stress ranges of 145 and 189 MPa (lMPa=1 N/mm2).FATIGUE STRENGTH OF ADHESIVELY BONDED COVER PLATES 93 on beams B5 to B18 were clamped. TABLE 5. The bond became TABLE 5. The cover plates on beams B1 to B13 terminated in the shear span. The cover plates were bonded with Versilok 201. The minimum stress was 7 MPa in all tests. 5.2 Materials The steel for the beams and cover plates conformed to the requirements of the ASTM A588 Specification for High-Strength Low-alloy Steel with 345 MPa Minimum Yield Point to 100 mm Thick.Charpy energy (MPa) mm gage (%) at −4°C (J) 23·2 20·0 144a 106 W14×30 beam 390 535 Cover plate 462 615 aCharpy specimen size: 10 mm×7·5 mm. Those on beams B14 to B18 were extended 108 mm into the constant bending moment region and were cycled at stress ranges of 159 and 207 MPa. The stress ranges were calculated from (5. 4. The adhesive consisted of two parts.1 and 5. respectively.2 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF A588 GRADE B STEEL SPECIMENS Component C W14×30 Coverplate Composition (%) Mn 0·16 0·12 P 0·94 1·05 S 0·009 0·019 Si 0·020 0·011 Cu 0·23 0·25 Ni 0·30 0·28 Cr 0·29 0·25 V 0·54 0·47 Al 0·27 0·06 0·02 — . the acrylic and the accelerator No.

They gradually debonded during stress cycling. and the cover plates were bonded to the tension flange as follows: 1. Mecklenburg. Cure the adhesive at room temperature for at least 48 hours. 2.2). Versilok 201 was found to have low creep strength under longterm sustained loading in severe environments (Albrecht et al.94 PEDRO ALBRECHT handleable after 8–16 minutes of curing at 24°C and developed full strength after 24 hours. was 27·3 MPa with 2·2MPa standard deviation. Apply accelerator No. When needed. 9.1 Test Program The six cover plates on beams Bl to B3 were bonded but not bolted to the tension flange.. but not longer than 2 weeks. In subsequent tests. and firmly handtighten the C-clamps (Fig. before the fatigue test begins. 5. an . Wipe the surfaces with a cloth. Shot-blast (wheelabrate) the surfaces with No. 7. 1985). 5. 5.3 RESULTS 5. 1984. rapid cure at room temperature and minimal requirements for surface preparation. Clamp the cover plates to the flange with steel blocks. 330 cast steel shot to a nearwhite condition. For example. Place the cover plate on the flange. for its good shear and tension strength under rapid loading. 8. 4 on both surfaces. Install the bolts at the cover plate ends (Beams B5 to B18) and tension them to 70% of the ultimate tensile strength. 5. remove oil and crayon marks with trichloroethylene. 4.3.2.3 Bonding The contact surfaces were prepared. but this behavior did not adversely affect the fatigue strength of the cover plates in the short-term fatigue tests under cyclic loading. The mean shear strength of the adhesive. 6. after the accelerator has dried. 3. Sprinkle 0·25-mm diameter glass beads with a salt shaker on the surfaces to obtain the desired 0·25-mm bond line thickness.. et al. The Versilok 201 adhesive had been recommended by Nara & Gasparini (1981). Apply Versilok 201 adhesive on one surface. measured as part of this study with 13 quad-lap specimens under rapid loading.

Thereafter.2.3. because the cover plate had debonded from the support end (Table 5. 5. 2 from fretting cracks in the flange. and 16 did not fail. Adhesively bonded cover plate clamped to tension flange during curing. The bolt-hole cracks initiated along the bore or at the intersection of the bore with the flange surfaces. After the cover plate B4–1 had debonded from the support end. Beam B16 had no cover plates. the cover plate B4–2 was secured at the support end with two high-strength C clamps. The midspan ends of the bonded cover plates on beam B4 were bolted.3).2 Crack Initiation and Propagation There were 28 bonded and bolted midspan ends of cover plates on Beams B4 to B18. and the bonded areas clear.3. all cover plates bonded to beams B5 to B18 were bolted at both ends prior to stress cycling. but not the support ends.FATIGUE STRENGTH OF ADHESIVELY BONDED COVER PLATES 95 FIG. 9 failed from cracks that initiated at the bolt holes in the flange. ultrasonic compression wave scan of cover plate B2–1 showed that its midspan end had debonded over a 125-mm length after 1986000 cycles of 145 MPa stress range. Of those. 5. 5. The data for the cover plate B4–1 was discarded. The cracks initiated on either side of . The debonded areas are shown dark in Fig.

N Log-mean life life Mean fatigue life (×103) (×103) Category E Category B (×103) (×103) With non-bolted ends B1-1 145 B1-2 145 B2–1 145 B2–2 145 B3–1 145 B3–2 145 With bolted ends B7–1 145 B7–2 145 B8–1 145 B8–2 145 B9–1 145 B9–2 145 B13–1 145 B13–2 145 B14–1 159 B14–2 159 B15–1 159 B15–2 159 4156a 4156a 1986a 1986a 1282a 1282a 2900 4471c >5560 10012c 2568 9006c 5502c 5502c 2920 3394c 150 2130 160 2580 >2200 160 2580 >2220 121 1900 . 5. TABLE 5. Compression wave scan of cover plate end B2–1. debonded areas are dark. fr (MPa) Fatiguea life.3. Bonded areas are light.3 FATIGUE TEST DATA FOR BONDED COVER PLATES Beam no.96 PEDRO ALBRECHT FIG. Gross area stress range.

Figure 5. Thereafter. fr (MPa) Fatiguea life. The . as a result of friction between the bolt head and the cover plate. The initiation points were offset from 3 mm ahead of to 8 mm behind the normal plane. N Log-mean life life Mean fatigue life (×103) (×103) Category E Category B (×103) (×103) B4–1 189 _b B4–2 189 2239c B5–1 189 1302 B5–2 189 2130c B6–1 189 684 B6–2 189 1251 B10–1 189 2277 B10–2 189 2505c B11-1 189 1311c B11–2 189 1311c B12–1 189 842 B12–2 189 1752c B17–1 207 905 B17–2 207 905c B18–1 207 1029 B18–2 207 1168c aCover plate debonded from midspan end. as part-through or corner cracks until their length along the bore was equal to the flange thickness. They initiated in cover plate B14–1 14 mm ahead of. bCover plate debonded from support end. or test was discontinued. >1480 70 1050 >970 53 780 the line formed by the intersection of the bore with the normal plane through the center of the bolt. After a cover plate end had failed. The two fretting cracks initiated on the flange surface. cDetail did not fail. at first. Gross area stress range. The cracks initiated in about equal numbers from the bolt-hole sides facing either the web or the edge of the flange. Cracks in some beams grew simultaneously from both bolt holes. they propagated as through cracks across the flange and up into the web. and in cover plate B15–2 11 mm behind the bolt center line. nor did flange cracks propagate across the bond line and into the cover plate. The bolt-hole cracks propagated. They propagated as part-through cracks until they reached the inside flange surface and then as two-ended through cracks across the flange. No fatigue cracks initiated in the cover plate.FATIGUE STRENGTH OF ADHESIVELY BONDED COVER PLATES 97 Beam no. the flange was temporarily spliced with plates and high-strength C-clamps.4 shows a typical bolt-hole crack.

these beams cannot be said to have failed in fatigue. 5.5. one per cover plate end nearest the midspan. However. the gradual debonding of the cover plate from the ends towards mid-length in the direction of increasing bending moment is unacceptable. in an actual bridge girder. causing the girder to fail at maximum load. If.3. The fatigue lives of the cover plates are listed in Table 5. . The fatigue lives of the non-bolted cover plates on beams B1 to B3 are shown with circular symbols. and the data points are plotted in Fig. Bolt-hole crack at end of cover plate B9–1. for a total of 34 data points. The number of cycles to fatigue failure is ambiguous in this case. No cracks were observed in the tension flange or in the cover plate of these beams.98 PEDRO ALBRECHT FIG.3 Fatigue Test Data Each beam provided two data points. fatigue failure is defined as the presence of a large crack in the tension flange or cover plate. crack tip in the web was arrested by drilling a hole and installing a high-srength bolt.3. 5. Bolt installed at crack tip in web is part of temporary repair. because the cover plate would eventually separate from the girder. Such gradual debonding must be prevented. but the gradual debonding would eventually have separated the entire cover plate from the flange and limited the load-carrying capacity of the beam to that of the W14×30 section alone.4. 5. cycling was continued until the other cover plate on the same beam failed. Then. as is commonly done.

The fatigue test data were compared against the AASHTO Category B rhomboid. The rhomboid. shown in Fig. Lower confidence limit. and the 16 open triangles are for cover plates that did not fail. The data points for the two cover plate ends that failed from fretting cracks are identified with the letter F. In the latter case. the tests were discontinued for two reasons: (1) the detail had reached 10 million cycles or the upper confidence limit for Category B details without cracking. (1970) derived the Category B allowable S–N line. The 27 data points for the bonded and bolted cover plates on beams B4 to B18 are shown with triangular symbols.5. is delineated by the following four lines: 1.5.FATIGUE STRENGTH OF ADHESIVELY BONDED COVER PLATES 99 FIG. or (2) a fatigue crack reinitiated at another previously cracked and temporarily repaired detail on the same beam.3) is shown in Fig. 5.5. slope m=4·574. The data for the non-bolted ends were excluded from the regression analysis. 5. and standard deviation s=0·1983.3) for the 27 data points was found by regression analysis to have an intercept b=16·571 5 for stress range in units of MPa (N/mm2). S–N plot for bonded cover plates. 5. herein defined as the space containing 95·5% of the data points for plain welded beams from which Fisher et al. The 11 solid triangles are for cover plate ends that fatigue-cracked to failure. Equation (5.4) in which b=intercept=13·698 m=slope=3·372 . equal to the AASHTO allowable S-N line for Category B details: log Nd=(b−2s)−m log Fsr (5. The mean S–N line log N=b−m logfr (5.

100 PEDRO ALBRECHT

s=standard deviation=0·147 Nd=number of design cycles Fsr=allowable stress range 2. Upper confidence limit: log N=(b+2s)−m log fr (5.5) 3. Lower cut-off, equal to the AASHTO fatigue limit of 110 MPa for Category B plain welded beams subjected to over 2000000 cycles of loading. 4. Upper cut-off, equal to the highest stress range, fr=290 MPa, at which welded beams were tested. Category B is one of seven categories of details for which the AASHTO specifications provide allowable S–N lines. These lines are equal to the mean minus two standard deviations of S–N data for the following members that were tested in the laboratory: A, rolled beams; B, beams built up of plates that are connected with continuous filled welds; B′, members built up of plates that are connected with groove welds; C, transverse stiffeners and welded attachments 50-mm long or less; D, welded attachments 100-mm long or less; E, cover plates welded to flanges 20-mm thick or less; and E′, cover plates welded to flanges thicker than 20-mm. Details other than those listed above are assigned to the category for which most data points just exceed the allowable S–N line for that category. As Fig. 5.5 shows, all data points fell inside or to the right of the Category B rhomboid, indicating that the fatigue strength of bonded cover plates with bolted ends exceeds that of Category B details. Table 5.3 compares at each stress range the log-mean life of the bonded cover plates with the means of Category E welded cover plates and Category B plain welded beams. The latter were calculated from eqn (5.3) using the intercepts and slopes listed in Table 5.1 of Albrecht and Simon (1981). The mean fatigue life of the bonded cover plates exceeded the mean for Category B welded beams at all stress range levels. The factor increase in life over the mean for Category E welded cover plates was at least 20 for the data at the three highest stress ranges, and 35 at the lowest stress range near the fatigue limit. Six of eight bonded and bolted cover plates tested at the lowest stress range (145 MPa) did not fail, suggesting that the fatigue limit may lie about half way between the AASHTO fatigue limits for Category A rolled beams (165 MPa) and Category B welded beams (110 MPa). Clearly, bonding and end bolting has the potential of fatigueproofing cover plates in typical bridge girders (Al-brecht et al, 1983). 5.3.4 Comparison with Previous Work Since 1969, several investigators have reported results of 755 fatigue tests of cover plates on steel beams. One group of studies established the fatigue strength of various end details (Figs 5.6 (a) to (e); Fisher et al., 1970), cover plates welded to

FATIGUE STRENGTH OF ADHESIVELY BONDED COVER PLATES 101

FIG. 5.6. Welded cover plates.

thick flanges (Fig. 5.6(a); Fisher et al., 1979a; Roberts et al., 1977), and the behavior under variable amplitude loading (Figs 5.6(a) and (b); Schilling et al., 1978). The other group of studies on cover plates focused on improving the fatigue strength by grinding, shot peening, and TIG remelting (Fig. 5.6 (a); Fisher et al., 1979b), end-welding and grinding (Fig. 5.6 (f); Yamada & Albrecht, 1977), end bolting (Figs. 5.7(a) to 5.7(c); Wattar et al., 1985), and retrofitting (Fig. 5.7(d); Sahli et al., 1984). The fatigue test data for each aforementioned series of tests are summarized in Table 5.4. The factor increase in mean fatigue life of a Detail X over that of a Category E detail is defined in Fig. 5.8 as (5.6) The stress ranges for Detail X and Category E at 500 000 cycles were calculated from the corresponding mean S–N lines (see eqn (5.3)). The exponent, m=3·2 is the average slope of the S–N lines that formed the basis of the AASHTO fatigue specifications. The fatigue notch factor (5.7)

102 PEDRO ALBRECHT

FIG. 5.7. End-bolted and adhesively bonded cover plates.

gives the factor on stress range by which the mean S–N line of a Detail X falls below the mean S–N line for Category A rolled beams. The results of the calculations, listed in Table 5.4 and plotted in Fig. 5.9, show that the various techniques improved the mean fatigue life over that of Category E by the following factors: 1·5, 2·1 and 4·4 for ground, shot-peened, and TIG remelted toes of end welds, respectively; 6·5 for end-welding and grinding the cover plate to a 1:3 taper; 19 or more for bolting the non-welded ends with enough bolts to develop the cover plate’s portion of the maximum moment at the theoretical cut-off point; and 18 and 13, respectively, for retrofitting with a bolted splice the non-cracked and cracked ends of welded cover plates. In comparison, bonding and end bolting cover plates (Fig. 5.7(f) increased the fatigue life by a factor of 20 in the finite-life regime and by a factor of 35 near the fatigue limit. Evidently, the combined use of adhesive and bolts can greatly increase the fatigue life. In this case, the adhesive transfers the longitudinal shear stress from the flange to the

TABLE 5.4

FATIGUE STRENGTH OF ADHESIVELY BONDED COVER PLATES 103

COMPARISON OF PREVIOUS AND PRESENT FATIGUE TEST DATA FOR COVER PLATE ENDS Symbol in Fig. 5.9 Series No. of details tested Stress range at 500000 cycles fr,x (MPa) Fatigue notch factor, Kf Fatigue life increase, Nx/NE Comments

Square-ended, prismatic cover plates (Fisher, et al., 1970) CR, CW 103 98 3·57 CR, CW 100 CT CB CB CM All 30 30 30 30 193 109 101 102 79 102 100 3·22 3·49 3·44 4·41 3·45 3·51

0·94 1·31 1·01 1·06 0·48 1·05 1·00

Welded end Unwelded end Welded end Welded end Unwelded end Welded end Welded end Toe cracks

End-welded and ground cover plates (Yamada & Albrecht, 1977) CG 26 180 1·94 6·54 Ground, shot-peened, and TIG remelted end welds (Fisher et al., 1979b) GA 8 115 3·06 1·53 PA TA 16 16 127 159 2·77 2·20 2·12 4·40

Cover plates subjected to variable amplitude loading (Schilling et al., 1975) B&C 27 98 3·58 0·93 B&C 45 103 3·40 1·10 Var. ampl.

Full-size coverplated beams (Fisher et al., 1979a; Roberts, et al., 1977) B 38 84 4·19 0·56 End-bolted cover plates (Wattar et al., 1985) 6-bolt 4 … 6-bolt 4-bolt 2-bolt 16 12 12 … … … 1·35 1·40 1·30 1·56 21 19 24 13 Cleaned

Retrofitted cover plates (Sahli et al., 1984)

104 PEDRO ALBRECHT

Symbol in Fig. 5.9

Series

No. of details tested

Stress range at 500000 cycles fr,x (MPa) … …

Fatigue notch factor, Kf

Fatigue life increase, Nx/NE 18 13

Comments

B A

14 15

1·42 1·58

Noncracked Precracke d fr159 MPa fr=145 MPa

Adhesively bonded cover plates (present study) B 19 … B 8 …

… …

20 35

FIG. 5.8. Calculation of fatigue notch factor and increase in fatigue life.

cover plate, while the clamping effect of the bolts prevents debonding of the cover plate ends. End-bolting bonded cover plates is about equally effective in increasing the fatigue life as end-bolting welded cover plates (Wattar et al., 1985). In both cases, coverplated highway bridge girders would eventually fail from bolt-hole cracks or fretting cracks, but the increase in fatigue strength virtually fatigueproofs the cover plate ends for truck loading as will be shown in Section 5.5. The only other known fatigue tests of long attachments adhesively bonded to steel beams are those reported by Nara and Gasparini (1981). In that study 14mm×229-mm×1220-mm long cover plates were bonded to the tension flange of two W14×30 steel beams (Fig. 5.7(e)), with the same adhesive as was used in the present study. The two beams were subjected to 6000000 cycles and 3 500 000 cycles of 138 MPa stress range. Measured curves of load versus midspan deflection had indicated a progressive decrease in beam stiffness with stress

Epoxy adhesives typically have an ultimate strain less than about 1/20 of the ultimate strain of structural steel. The writer calculated the change in stiffness as a function of debonding length and compared the results against the measured changes in stiffness reported by Nara & Gasparini (1981). adhesives cannot deform plastically. See Table 5. The strengths of the two connecting elements were not additive. The above findings suggest that. the adhesive failed at a load equal to or less than the load needed to cause the steel beam to yield in bending at the edge of the bond line.FATIGUE STRENGTH OF ADHESIVELY BONDED COVER PLATES 105 FIG. cycling caused by debonding from the ends. Second. This problem was solved in the present study by clamping the ends with highstrength bolts. the resistance of the splice was controlled by either the ultimate shear strength of the adhesive or the ultimate shear strength of the bolts. 5.4 COVER PLATE DEVELOPMENT Two important observations were made in a companion study on the static strength of bolted beam splices with adhesively bonded contact surfaces (Albrecht & Sahli. under static loading. the reported changes in stiffness indicated that the cover plate ends on the beam cycled 6000000 times had debonded over a length of 320 mm. a beam with an adhesively bonded cover plate can fail suddenly when the flange near the theoretical cut-off .4. First. According to the calculations. whichever was higher. 1988). Unlike steels. Comparison of mean fatigue strength of all data sets with mean of Categories A through E′ data.9. 5.

four two-span continuous highway bridges. which is much greater than the moment at the theoretical cut-off point. Full cover plate development by the bolts reduces the bending stresses in the tension flange. 24·4–24·4 m. Six girders equally spaced 2·39 m apart. To demonstrate the benefits of adhesive bonding cover plates in lieu of welding. (4) progressive yielding of the steel beam towards midspan. . 142·4. and (6) failure of the steel beam at the point of maximum moment. In this case. The range of spans for which rolled girders are suitable can be extended by welding cover plates to the flanges in regions of high bending moment. 4. As a result. To prevent the occurrence of a progressive static failure. and may even allow the formation of a plastic hinge in the steel beam at the theoretical cut-off point. 2. the cover plates must be extended beyond the theoretical cut-off points for maximum stress to points where the stress range induced by the live load at the extreme fiber of the rolled girder is equal to or smaller than the allowable stress range for Category E.1). Composite construction (positive moment region only). 6. given by eqn (5. enables the adhesive to transfer the reduced longitudinal shear stresses away from the regions of stress concentration at the cover plate ends. The disadvantage of welded coverplated girders is that the cover plate ends have very low fatigue strength. Span length: 21·3–21·3 m. (2) shift of the longitudinal shear transfer from the adhesive to the bolts. rolled wide flange sections are frequently used for girders in short-span highway bridges. rolled beam with cover plate. and 142·4 kN. 5. (5) unzipping of the central portion of the bonded cover plate. AASHTO HS-20 loading consisting of a 3-axle truck with axle loads of 35·6. and 30·5– 30·5 m.5 APPLICATION TO HIGHWAY BRIDGES For reasons of economy. yielding of the flange could trigger the following sequence of events: (1) shear failure of the adhesive at the cover plate end. 27·4–27·4 m. with the following details. which are not designed to develop the cover plate’s portion of the bending moment. 5. allowable stress design. the number of bolts should be increased from one-half (as tested herein) to the full number of bolts needed to develop the cover plate’s portion of the bending moment at the theoretical cut-off point. 13·4 m wide roadway. were analyzed: 1.106 PEDRO ALBRECHT point begins to yield if the ends are clamped with less than the number of bolts needed to develop the cover plate’s portion of the bending moment. thus increasing the moment-carrying capacity of the girder. (3) shear failure of the bolts. 3. 20-cm thick reinforced concrete slab.

The right end of the 10-mm×250-mm cover plate for maximum positive moment on the bottom flange was extended to point . Envelopes were constructed for the maximum and minimum moments at each tenth point along the length of the girders. These stress ranges correspond to the safe fatigue limit below which the details are not expected to fail irrespective of the applied number of cycles. Accordingly.FATIGUE STRENGTH OF ADHESIVELY BONDED COVER PLATES 107 7. The bonded and end-bolted cover plates were terminated at the cut-off points for maximum stress. Cover plate cut-off point: (1) for maximum moment.2) in which Mr is the algebraic difference between maximum and minimum moment and 5 is the section modulus of beam without cover plates. Steel: Fy=250 MPa. assume Category B for bonded and end-bolted cover plate. 1. 10.5 SIZE OF GIRDER AND COVER PLATES FOR TWO-SPAN CONTINUOUS BRIDGES Span length (m) Positive moment: bottom 21·3–21·3 24·4–24·4 27·4–27·4 30·5–30·5 Rolled section Negative moment: top and bottom W36×l35 W36×160 W36×l82 W36×245 10×250 13×250 19×250 16×275 19×250 32×250 44×275 32×350 Cover plate thickness and width (mm) Figure 5.10(a)).10 shows the arrangement of the (a) bonded and end-bolted and (b) welded cover plates in the 21·3–21·3 m long bridge. 5. The low fatigue strength of the welded cover plates required extensions of the cover plates to points where the calculated stress range was equal to the allowable stress range of 18 MPa. that is ‘over 2000000 cycles of loading’ producing the maximum stress range at the cover plate end (AASHTO Art. 8. and Category E′ for welded cover plate. TABLE 5. AASHTO Fatigue Specifications.2. and (2) for fatigue. 9. 10. since fatigue did not govern the design in this case (Fig. The fatigue analysis was performed for loading case I.17. Article 1. the allowable stress ranges are 18 MPa for Category E′ and 110 MPa for Category B. -two times cover plate width plus 75 mm beyond theoretical cut-off point (see AASHTO Art. modular ratio n=ES/EC=8. The sizes of the 915-mm deep girders (W36 sections) and the cover plates needed to resist the maximum positive moment in the span and the maximum negative moment over the interior support are given in Table 5.7.1).3.5 for all four span lengths. The stress ranges in the beam flange at the cover plate ends were calculated using eqn (5. 12). Concrete: f’c=27 MPa. where computed stress range equals allowable stress range.

10. in this case to point No.6 CONCLUSIONS The results of the 28 tests performed in the present study showed that cover plates adhesively bonded to the tension flanges of steel beams have Category B fatigue strength under cyclic loading if the cover plate ends are high-strength . 5% lighter than girders with welded cover plates.108 PEDRO ALBRECHT FIG. has Category B fatigue strength and was not fatigue critical. 2 in Fig.10(b). For reasons of economy. The stress range at the cut-off points of the cover plates for maximum moment varied from 65 to 105 MPa. The left end of the 10-mm×250-mm cover plate was extended to point No. where it was butt-welded to the 19-mm×250-mm cover plate that was needed to resist the maximum negative moment. which was buttwelded to the 19-mm×250-mm cover plate. and 30·5– 30·5-m spans were similar to that for the 21·3–21·3 spans shown in Fig.Cover plate arrangement for 21·3–21·3-m two-span continuous bridge. This design was chosen because it was the most economical. 5. No. All values were lower than the allowable stress range for Category B details. Both the top and bottom flange splices of the negative-moment cover plates were located at the theoretical cutoff point for the thinner plate. depending on the cover plate end and span length. The top flange cover plate for maximum negative moment also had to be extended. For all spans. The designs of the bridge girders with 24·4–24·4-m. 5. 5. 3 (Fig. the lengths of the bonded and end-bolted cover plates were governed by maximum stress. 5.10. 27·4–27·4-m. The ground and tapered butt weld. made prior to welding the combined plate to the flange.10(b)). 5. In addition to being fatigue proof. girders with bonded and end-bolted cover plates are. The length of the welded cover plates was always governed by fatigue. 1. this extension was done with a lighter 10-mm×250-mm cover plate. on average.

to permit yielding of the flange at the theoretical cut-off point under static loading without triggering a progressive debonding failure.C.H.. 72–94. P. & MCNAMEE.A. A. ALBRECHT. D. ALBRECHT. ASCE. Ph. MECKLENBURG. Convention. . However.C.S.F. F. ASTM STP 981. CRUTE. Munse Symposium on Metal Structures. WATTAR. Although end bolting bonded cover plates may prevent creep. A. Effect of Weldments on the Fatigue Strength of Steel Beams. J. Report No. S. ALBRECHT. (1984). P. When this was done. W.H. D. P. B. D.R. Washington.H. & SAHLI. Philadelphia. ALBRECHT.W. adhesives with better durability over a 50-year service life are generally needed. Pennsylvania. (1983). ALBRECHT. P. Structural Div. it is sufficient to clamp the cover plate ends with one-half of the number of bolts needed to develop the cover plate’s portion of the maximum bending moment at the theoretical cut-off point.C.. It is emphasized that the Versilok 201 adhesive. 1984. Fatigue notch factors for structural details. HIRT. M. Federal Highway Administration. Use of Adhesives to Replace Welded Connections in Bridges. Towards fatigue-proofing cover plate ends. As the aerospace industry’s success with bonding components suggests.. (1970). Symposium on Fatigue in Mechanically Fastened Composite and Metallic Joints. 1987). A. 229–51. & EVANS. & SAHLI. pp. FHWA/RD-84/037. ALBRECHT. D. (1987). Analysis and Design. Fatigue strength of bolted and adhesive bonded structural steel joints... NCHRP Report No. J. Static strength of bolted and adhesively bonded joints. Pennsylvania. American Society of Civil Engineers. pp. American Society for Testing and Materials. B. 107(7). & SAHLI. P. (1981). the ends should be clamped with the number of bolts required to fully develop the cover plate.87/029 Federal Highway Administration.. National Research Council. Philadelphia. J. Proceedings of W. 24–44. the widespread application of adhesives to bonding civil engineering structures is only a matter of time. From the viewpoint of fatigue strength. multigirder bridges has shown that improvements in cover plate design which raise the fatigue strength to that of Category B also make them fatigue-proof to truck loading. Report No. New York.. Symposium on Adhesively Bonded Joints—Testing.. 1279–96. WANG. 102. like many other adhesives. Washington. the fatigue life was 20 times longer than that of welded Category E cover plates. & SAHLI. Application of Adhesives to Steel Bridges. A.H.M. has low creep strength at temperatures and relative humidities that are high but still within the range of those found in service environments (Albrecht et al. Transportation Research Board. Washington. & HONG. REFERENCES ALBRECHT. & SIMON. (1988). P. (1986). M. FRANK.FATIGUE STRENGTH OF ADHESIVELY BONDED COVER PLATES 109 bolted to the flange to prevent gradual debonding. FISHER. ASTM STP 927.H. K. American Society for Testing and Materials. Analysis of four two-span-continuous..

W. & PENSE. P. ROBERTS et al. 45K1–114. NCHRP Report No. Lehigh University. (1985). Fatigue strength of retrofitted cover plate ends. (1979a). K. (1981). Washington. J. J. Washington.W. H. Determination of Tolerable Flaw Sizes in Full-Size Welded Bridge Details.110 PEDRO ALBRECHT FISHER.C. C. & EVANS. PB 86 142 601. ASCE. J. D. NCHRP Report No.W. MECKLENBURG. Washington..W. F. ASCE. Ohio. K. P. & PENSE.C. Report No. Fatigue of Welded Steel Bridge Members Under Variable-Amplitude Loading. Fatigue behavior of two flange details. National Research Council. ALBRECHT. J. Retrofitting Procedures for Fatigue Damaged Full-Scale Welded Bridge Beams. 1374–88.D. 781–91.T. National Research Council.. D. FISHER. Interim Report. D.C. Detection and Repair of Fatigue Damage on Welded Highway Bridges. End-bolted cover plates. D. Fritz Engineering Laboratory Report No. WATTAR.. Bethlehem.. SULLIVAN. (1977). 206. Structural Eng. A. KLIPPSTEIN. J.. B. M. NTIS Report No. (1985) Screening of Structural Adhesives for Application to Steel Bridges. & GASPARINI. HAUSAMMANN. . Structural Div. 1235–49. ALBRECHT. SAHLI. & SAHLI. ALBRECHT. 111(6). SCHILLING. P.C. Cleveland. H. G.F. D.. & VANNOY. & ALBRECHT. FHWA-RD-77–170.G. HAUSAMMANN. A. M. BARSOM. (1977). (1978). Transportation Research Board. A.. NARA.. & BLAKE. Pennsylvania. Federal Highway Administration. J.M.H. Federal Highway Administration.H. YAMADA. P. 103(4). (1984)... Transportation Research Board.. Department of Civil Engineering. (1979b). 188. A. D.H. 110(6). H. ASCE. Fatigue Resistance of Adhesively Bonded Structural Connections. Report No. Case Institute of Technology.W. 417–3(79). Washington. Structural Eng.

However.1 INTRODUCTION The need for an offshore platform is usually established by a requirement to provide an offshore facility which consists of an operational deck. A review of available knowledge on the fatigue behaviour of tubular joints is beyond the scope of any single document. supported above sea level. This has been necessary so that the offshore industry can.TOLLOCZKO Offshore Engineering Division. UK SUMMARY This chapter introduces the reader to the very complex problem of offshore tubular joint behaviour and fatigue design.A. Ascot. with reasonable confidence. in the near future. The first is that the supporting structure is fabricated onshore and then transported and installed .Chapter 6 FATIGUE OF TUBULAR JOINTS IN OFFSHORE STRUCTURES J. Tubular joint design is an area which has attracted substantial research on a worldwide basis. The design of the supporting structure parallels in many ways that of a land-based structure but with two additional requirements. having a specified working area and capable of carrying a predefined load.J. 6. this chapter addresses the general parameters which influence fatigue and also discusses a number of these parameters with particular reference to experimental techniques and recent data. The Steel Construction Institute. design and install structures to resist the continuous cyclic loads generated by winds and waves. The rationalisation and refinement of tubular joint fatigue design will continue for many years to come but it is unlikely that all the factors influencing the fatigue behaviour of tubular joints will be fully understood.

TOLLOCZKO offshore. Jackets and topsides have to be designed to be self-supporting during fabrication. which are formed by welding the contoured end of one tubular member (brace member) onto the undisturbed outside of the other (chord member). flare booms/towers. The second is the requirement to design the structure to resist cyclic wave loading so as to prevent structural fatigue failure during its life. high buoyancy and high strength-to-weight ratio. decks. waves and currents. and the completed platform structure. This type of platform consists of a prefabricated steel support structure (jacket). is usually due to waves. modules. The structure is fixed to the seabed by piles. These give the best compromise in satisfying the requirements of low drag coefficients. In view of the large number of structural states and loading conditions that have to be considered in a design. The resulting joint .1. bridges. transportation and installation. A moderately large topside module may have 120 members and a medium-size jacket may have 2000 members.J. It is usual in offshore structural design to analyse primary units such as jackets.112 J. which are designed to provide adequate resistance against lateral loading from wind. The main criteria considered in the design of a jacket and topside are: (a) Fabrication (b) Loadout (c) Transportation (d) Lifting and/or Launching (e) Temporary Stability (f) In-place (g) Damaged The in-place loading condition. operational requirements and environmental loads. Most steel offshore support structures are three-dimensional frames fabricated from cylindrical steel members. that extends from the seabed to above the water surface. with a prefabricated steel deck located on top of the support structure (topside). Tubular joints.A. The effect of the interaction between the topside and jacket and between the jacket and foundations is also included in the design of the assembled structure. extensive use of computers becomes necessary to analyse the structures and check the strength of the members and joints. This therefore makes the assessment of fatigue life a primary design criterion. The entire assembled installation has to withstand loading due to self-weight. construction and maintenance of steel offshore structures. as three-dimensional space frames for all the applicable structural states and loading conditions. are a major source of difficulty and high cost in the design. which generally governs the design of jacket structures. 6. By far the most common type of offshore platform in current use is the steel jacket structure. illustrated in Fig.

Piles. Typical North Sea steel-piled self-contained drilling/production platform. 5. Drilling derrick. 1.J. 6. Module support frame. 6. 3. Launch runners. Jacket substructure.1. Pile sleeves. 2.TOLLOCZKO 113 FIG. .A.J. 4.

adopt this reference system. in the horizontal conductor framing system.1 Joint Types and Geometric Notations The number. is as likely to be influenced by fatigue requirements as static strength considerations.3. size and orientation of members meeting at a joint vary significantly according to the configuration and size of the structure.114 J. Many of the codes.TOLLOCZKO FIG. 6. joints are generally classified by the system of notation shown in Fig. K-braced and diagonally braced structures. It should be noted that this classification refers only to geometry. A two-dimensional example of each structure is shown in Fig. 6. and in particular the American Welding Society Code D1. 6.J. Some connections are checked by implication. the area of design which has undoubtedly received the most attention is that of fatigue. A jacket concept study which determines the form the structure will take. and it is not unusual to have up to eight brace members intersecting onto one chord member. At the other extreme.2 TUBULAR JOINTS IN OFFSHORE STRUCTURES 6. most joints will be of the T or DT configuration because of the regular orthogonal grid of conductors.2. The configuration is normally chosen to provide the best horizontal and torsional resistance to the particular environmental forces under consideration. Jacket configurations include X-braced. configurations can get very congested.A. Several design codes. Every welded connection which sees cyclic stresses due to environmental loading is assessed and designed such that a satisfactory fatigue life is attained. Because of the harsh environment to which North Sea structures are subjected. as it is normal to reduce computation time by checking the worst of a group. depending on the position and number of legs.2. KT and YT joints (see Fig. 6. and in particular .2. some of these will be double joints and have members in more than one plane.3) and. Typical jacket framing configurations.1(1986). Associated with the main legs of a large jacket structure there are likely to be many K. 6. For ease of reference.

the first two classes indicate the relative .J.A.3. Joints are placed in the following four categories for design purposes: (1) (2) (3) (4) Simple welded joints Complex welded joints Cast steel joints Composite joints Each joint type presents different design and fabrication problems. the American Petroleum Institute Code API RP2A (1987).TOLLOCZKO 115 FIG. As well as describing the detailing of the joints.J. require consideration of both the applied loads and the joint configuration to determine the design classification. Preferred notation for joint configurations. 6.

4. Definitions of eccentricity and gap for KT joints are given in Fig. This higher-strength is termed the ‘joint can’.e. The geometric notation and non-dimensional parameters describing simple joints are given in Fig. 6. in the connection area. Further. diaphragms.116 J.TOLLOCZKO ease of design. These terms are illustrated in Fig. a joint must be formed by welding two or more tubular members in a single plane without overlap of brace members and without the use of gussets. Another parameter which is sometimes used is σ . is the ratio of the wall thickness of the brace to that of the chord. It is a measure of the likelihood that the chord wall will fail before the brace cross section fractures. simple joints may (and generally do) contain a short length of thicker-walled tube.e. is the ratio of the brace diameter to the chord diameter (i.e. The basic dimensions which describe a simple joint are: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Chord outside diameter D Brace outside diameter d Chord wall thickness T Brace wall thickness t Included angle between chord and brace σ Gap g between brace toes (for K and KT joints) Chord length L. Gap parameter σ . 6. defined as the distance between end restraints or points of contraflexure of the chord To facilitate the design and assessment of simple joints the above joint parameters must be rendered dimensionless.6. In general the following nondimensional geometric parameters are used for design and assessment purposes: Chord length parameter σ . is defined as the ratio of chord length L to chord radius D/2 (i. 2L/D) and gives an indication of chord beam bending characteristics. This gives an indication of the principal length of the chord plug.A. defined as σ /sin σ . is defined as the ratio of the gap to chord diameter. To be considered ‘simple’. stiffeners or grout. d/ D) and describes the compactness of the joint. Chord thinness ratio σ . sometimes of higherstrength material. Wall thickness ratio σ . To prevent excessively high local stresses and to provide adequate static strength. . is the ratio of the chord radius to the chord wall thickness (i.5. This parameter describes the proximity of other brace members to the subject brace member for joints with more than one brace. Diameter ratio σ . The remainder of this section details joint types and nondimensional geometric ratios for joints classified as ‘simple joints’. 6.J. D/2T) and gives an indication of the thinness and radial stiffness of the chord. the terms ‘crown’ and ‘saddle’ are introduced to facilitate the description of position on the intersection periphery.

TOLLOCZKO 117 FIG. Simple joint: geometric notation. • The weld introduces a geometrical discontinuity.4. giving rise to ‘notch’ stresses. The stress field around a tubular joint arises from three main effects: • The basic structural response of the joint applied load. 6. . • To maintain continuity at the intersection. the tubular walls deform giving rise to the ‘deformation’ stresses. the intersection details and the associated weld are of a complicated geometry even for the simplest type of tubular joint. This results in major distortions of the nominal stresses adjacent to the intersection. 6.2 Local Joint Behaviour As described previously.J.2. This is termed the ‘nominal’ stress. tubular joints are formed by the intersection of brace and chord members.A.J. There are almost an infinite number of combinations of joint geometries. sizes and types for both simple and complex joints. Because of the circular member cross sections. The stress distribution around the joint and the maximum ‘hot-spot’ stress play a critical role in fatigue design.

therefore.118 J. The maximum stress.g. The weld also stiffens the walls of the tubular locally. disregarding the weld and weld profile (e. The bending and membrane stresses in the chord wall and the maldistribution of the nominal stress give rise to the deformation stresses. The stresses at the intersection can vary greatly owing to the stress ‘raisers’ identified above. This results in a maldistribution of the nominal stress near the intersection. ‘Local’ deformation stresses are due to the effect of the geometry of the joint. Points 1 and 2 displace along the brace axis by similar amounts owing to the constant axial stiffness of the brace.5. The presence of the weld has an effect on the deformation stresses owing to its local stiffening effect. 6. These stresses are calculated by carrying out a global analysis of the structure. This leads to the notion of ‘gross’ and ‘local’ deformation stresses.7. as well as the local stiffening offered by the weld (e. Under tension loading in the brace. ‘Gross’ deformation stresses are due to the overall geometry of the joint. as obtained from thin-shell finite-element analysis). as measured by strain gauges on a steel model). a local region with stresses varying rapidly in three dimensions. Simple joint: definition of eccentricity and gap for KT joint. Notch stresses are the result of the geometric discontinuity of the tubular walls at the weld toes where an abrupt change of section occurs. 6. can .TOLLOCZKO FIG.A. Nominal stresses arise due to the framing action of the jacket structure under applied external loads. known as the ‘hot-spot’ stress. a larger force will be required at the saddle than at the crown. The notch stresses decay through the wall thickness and there is. Deformation stresses are best illustrated by the example of a simple T-joint in Fig. To maintain compatibility at the intersection. Since the stiffness of the chord at the saddle (Point 2) is greater than at the crown (Point 1).g.J. the chord will deform and introduce bending and membrane stresses in the chord wall. and thus affects the local stresses in the tubulars up to and beyond the position of the weld toe.

J. The ratio of ‘hot-spot’ stress to the nominal stress is known as the stress concentration factor (SCF). which considers the growth rate of an existing defect at each stage of its propagation. 6.6. greatly exceed the nominal stress. The first method.3.J. which is currently in general use in design. relies on empirically derived relationships between the applied stress ranges and fatigue life (S−N approach).1 General Two basic approaches are available for the fatigue-life assessment of structural components. The second method is based on linear elastic fracture mechanics. The current practice limits the use of the fracture .3.3.A. The calculation of SCFs is discussed in Section 6. 6. Typical tubular joints.TOLLOCZKO 119 FIG. which is generally used to describe the relationship between the stress at any point at the intersection to the nominal brace stress.3 FATIGUE RESISTANCE DESIGN OF TUBULAR JOINTS 6.

A. S–N curves and the associated design approaches recommended by design codes and guidance documents such as the American Petroleum Institute Code RP2A (1987) and the Department of Energy Guidance Notes (1984) have been derived from an examination of available test data. These recommendations are updated regularly to reflect any changes that may be warranted as new data become available.J.120 J. The influence of . This geometry determines the SCF and governs the hot-spot stress location where fatigue cracking would be expected to initiate for a particular type of loading. The following sections are primarily concerned with the S–N approach and address the fatigue limit state from the resistance standpoint. mechanics approach for appraisal of existing joints with known defects and the specification of tolerable defect sizes during the fabrication stage.7. 6. Deformation stresses in a T joint under tension load.TOLLOCZKO FIG. Examination of design codes and other published guidance documents such as UEG UR33 (1985) give the following parameters which affect fatigue strength: (a) The geometry of the tubular joint and weld.

TOLLOCZKO 121 chord wall thickness on fatigue life is also an area which is currently receiving a lot of interest (thickness/size effect). 6.4 within the context of identifying their influence on fatigue life from recently published data. the fatigue strength of a tubular joint may be influenced by the ratio R (ratio of trough applied stress to peak applied stress).e.3 and 6. discussed and assessed in Sections 6. Random sea conditions are usually described in the short term. hammer peening. a number of these parameters are introduced.J. i. (d) Post-fabrication processes applied to the tubular joint in order to improve fatigue life or some other aspect of performance. it is necessary to determine the stress response over the range of sea conditions which the structure can expect to experience during its life. mean level and distribution of applied loads.2 Applied Loads Before carrying out a fatigue analysis at a tubular joint. by one of the many . seawater temperature and frequency of testing compared with wave frequency. (b) The type. Three areas are relevant: – Air-well above the splash zone. The procedures adopted during fabrication will determine the local material properties. amplitude. 3. While the discussion of all these aspects is beyond the scope of this chapter.3. over a period of a few hours. (c) The fabrication process. These include – PWHT (post-weld heat treatment) – weld toe grinding. – corrosion protection (e) The environment in which fatigue cracks initiate and grow. The static load present in a chord member of a tubular joint owing to dead load or buoyancy. The applied nominal stress history is increased at the hot-spot and these hot-spot stresses promote fatigue cracking at or near the welds. for example. can influence fatigue performance. In addition to the above parameters.A. the residual stress pattern and the distribution of defects.J. These factors will control the initiation period of the fatigue-failure process. etc. although such air could have a high water vapour and salt content – Mixed air and seawater—splash zone where immersion is con trolled by wave height and tide – Seawater—complete immersion (f) Static chord load. overall profiling.3. TIG dressing.

but also in their acceptance by designers. 6. . mean wave direction. The generally preferred method is the use of parametric equations to calculate the SCF/maximum stress range at a joint.3. Section 6. Analytical techniques currently used for calculating long-term stress distributions fall into the following categories: (1) Deterministic methods (2) Spectral methods A detailed review of these methods is beyond the scope of this chapter. their status and reliability are discussed in Section 6. the use of parametric formulae is mainly applicable only to simple joints. mean zero-crossing period. Airy and stream-function theories. These include the use of design formulae. The method has the obvious advantage of simplicity and does not incur the significant cost and time penalties associated with FE analysis and testing.J.A.3.3.3 addresses the areas of uncertainties associated with FE analysis. However. Model testing is used primarily to obtain the strain-stress distributions at an intersection. the most commonly used are the Stokes. For joints not covered by the current formulae. The proportion of time for which each seastate persists (ideally measured at the site over a number of years) completes the description of the sea.1 Hot-Spot Stress Concept as Determined by Experimental Models Various methods are available for determining hot-spot stresses/stress concentration factors (HSS/SCF) to be used in fatigue design.TOLLOCZKO direction wave spectrum formulae. The remainder of this section discusses the measurement of SCFs from experimental models. This expresses the wave loading as a function of local water particle velocity and acceleration. FE analysis and testing need to be considered. which is then extrapolated to obtain the strain-stress at the weld toe. Since the use of parametric formulae is generally preferred.122 J. etc.3. Hydrodynamic loading on tubular jacket structures is calculated using Morison’s (1950) equation. and even then the confidence with which they can be used is questionable.3 Local Joint Behaviour 6. These give the amplitude of a component wave at each frequency and direction in terms of parameters such as significant wave height. The methods vary not only in their accuracy and reliability.3.3.2. finite-element (FE) analysis and testing.3. Various wave theories exist for calculating particle motion in regular waves.

the actual position of the maximum stress under a unique loading mode is not usually known. Such stresses decay rapidly as crack growth takes place along the weld toe.8. However.8. 6. owing to cost and time restraints. This is a sensible approach since the ‘notch’ stresses are not easily measurable. The interpretation of this data provides the HSS/SCF values to be used in design.J.A. owing to the rapid three-dimensional variation of ‘notch’ stresses over a few millimetres near the weld toe. in this case.TOLLOCZKO 123 FIG. Stresses within the ‘notch’ region may also be influenced by weld geometry and weld bead size. a set of rosette gauges are placed around the intersection in the first instance. Strain gauges are used to obtain the strain and stress distribution around the tubular joint intersection. Once the location of peak stress is identified. Typical strain gauge layout. It is generally accepted that the S–N curve should itself take into consideration any ‘notch’ effects so that the design ‘hot-spot’ stress need only reflect the deformation stress. For joints where the position of the maximum stress is known. the location of the extrapolation gauges does not present a problem. Ideally. Frequently. these phenomena form only a small part of the total fatigue life of a tubular joint.J. extrapolation gauges can then be mounted. . 6. the maximum stress is calculated from measured values at adjacent points. The interpretation of measured strain data is open to debate. Although the ‘notch’ stresses are undoubtably important in describing fatigue-crack initiation and early growth at the ‘hot-spot’. The approach to interpretation should rest on the primary argument that the resulting ‘hot-spot’ stress should be compatible with an appropriate S–N curve. A typical layout of gauges is shown in Fig. It is usually good practice to locate the positions of maximum stress around the intersection prior to the placing of extrapolation gauges to determine the stresses at the weld toe.

The method of curvilinear extrapolation also needs to be clearly defined. When addressing the above factors. some form of stress extrapolation to the weld toe is necessary.J. This is particularly relevant to the influence of the weld on the ‘hot-spot’ stress definition. • Consideration needs to be given to whether maximum principal stresses. For this reason the effect of weld profile must be ascertained if realistic results are to be obtained. A sensitivity study of the influence of design methods on fatigue life would obviously be appropriate. Variation of weld profile and weld tolerances cannot be satisfactorily simulated on acrylic models. The UK Department of Energy Guidance Notes (1984) T-curve. The use of acrylic allows weld details to be either included or excluded. although not taking into consideration ‘notch’ effects. If the maximum principal stress philosophy is used. or more logically to determine the relationships between the various methods available for ‘hot-spot’ stress analysis and the current S–N curves. T and DT joints). However. A further disadvantage in . The position of gauges and type of extrapolation will determine the magnitude of ‘hot-spot’ stress and which stress raisers are included in the measured value. The methods used for extrapolation are yet another subject for debate. it is necessary to consider their implications on current design S-N curves. taking into consideration the various wave directions and the resulting principal stress directions at the ‘hotspot’. Stresses perpendicular to the weld toe may be a favoured option in view of the fact that the crack driving forces are also in this direction.124 J. It is apparent from the above that certain factors need to be considered when considering experimental test data. These fall under the categories of linear and curvilinear extrapolation.A. for joints with inclined braces where linear extrapolation may be unconservative in determining ‘hot-spot’ stress. These fall into the following categories: • The stress distribution around a tubular joint. maximum principal strains. for example. Models without any weld fillets yield the ‘gross’ deformation strains at the intersection. individual strain components or strains perpendicular to the weld toe should be extrapolated to obtain ‘hot-spot’ stress values.g.TOLLOCZKO It is generally agreed that. Care should be exercised when using acrylic instead of steel models. then the shear stress component should be considered in deriving SCFs. This would be appropriate in the use of orthogonal joints (e. the use of the current T-curve may be inappropriate. • The methods of extrapolation of strain gauge readings to the weld toe. has been derived from test results based on linear extrapolation of the maximum principal stress to the weld toes. • The positioning of strain gauges relative to the weld toe. whereas the S–N curves used in design are based on ‘local’ deformation and include ‘notch’ stresses. It may therefore be necessary either to derive new S–N curves for particular joints. where the principal planes are essentially perpendicular to the weld toe.

it is apparent that the variations in SCF/‘hot-spot’ stress definitions and derivations are also passed on to these various formulae. These differences can be shown by considering a simple T-joint.3. such as finite-element analysis. The existing formulae show considerable differences in the influence of individual joint parameters on SCFs.J.A.) Since the formulae are derived from the methods discussed in Sections 6. usually 1 minute. However. which may result in crazing of the surface if solvents are brought into contact with it. or application of resistance foil strain gauges. these problems can be overcome and acrylic models have been used extensively in recent years. 6.1 and 6. This may cause difficulty during assembly of the tubes after machining of brace ends.3. There are also significant differences in the validity ranges of these formulae.3. Any strain gauge reading must therefore be taken after a set time. The published formulae cover the following simple joint types: T ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ Y ′ ′ K/YT ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ KT ′ ′ ′ ′ X/DT Kuang (1977)* Gibstein (1978)* Wordsworth(1981)+ UEG UR33 (1985) Buitrago (1984)* Efthymiou (1988)* ′ ′ ′ * Formulae derived by FE methods +Formulae derived from acrylic model tests (Note: The reader should refer to the individual references for actual formulae. the .TOLLOCZKO 125 using acrylic is that it creeps under load (and variable temperature). These have been developed by various authors and are based on either acrylic model tests of simple joints or on theoretical work. It can be seen that the validity ranges vary considerably and. application of brittle lacquer.2 SCF Parametric Equations The designer relies heavily on available formulae for the calculation of SCFs. It is.3.3. The Young’s modulus must be determined at the time the gauges are read. and comparing the variation in SCF at the chord saddle with σ ratio under axial loading (Fig.3. which is covered by all six formulae. Acrylic tubing can contain residual stresses. The rate of creep is approximately 3% per minute after 1 minute of application of load. 6.3.J. therefore. not surprising that the use of these formulae results in variations in calculated values of SCF for the same joint. more significantly.9).

These significant differences are typical and can be shown to exist for other joint parameters and types.TOLLOCZKO predicted SCFs range from 6. their use provides the most realistic method of HSS/SCF measurement.5 to 10 at a σ equal to 0·6 depending on which formula is used.4.4 present data from a total of 24 T/Y/H joint tests. . Recently reported SCF data extracted from the UKOSRP II (1987) project and the SIMS 87 Conference (1987) are presented in Tables 6.1 to 6.A. Tables 6.1 to 6. The method adopted in both references was to compare available SCF test data from realistically constructed steel tubular joints with predicted values using the appropriate current formulae. The implications for fatigue design of using these formulae is that calculated SCFs may be unconservative in some cases. Although there are still certain areas of uncertainty regarding steel model tests. It is necessary to determine the method of derivation and the reliability of these formulae in predicting SCFs and also in the prediction of fatigue life. This has been reported by Lalani (1986) and Tolloczko and Lalani (1988).J. and have been collated following the restrictive constraints adopted in UEG UR33 (1985). Work has been undertaken to look at the basic reliability of current formulae.126 J.

A comparison between measured and predicted SCFs.J.A.9.10 to 6. The following points are worthy of note from examination of the figures: • The recent data are superimposed on the database of SCF results reported in UEG UR33 (1985). .J. 32 non-overlapping K joint tests.TOLLOCZKO 127 FIG. Chord saddle SCF variation with σ ratio. 6. 8 stiffened T joint tests and 25 overlapping K joint tests. These equations have been selected for comparison since they were shown by Lalani (1986) to be potentially the most reliable. is given in Figs 6.14. as predicted by the UEG UR33 (1985) equations and Efthymiou (1988) equations. A total of 352 different SCF values are available for various load cases and locations.

Y AND H JOINTS 128 J.1 NEW TUBULAR JOINT SCF DATA FOR T.TABLE 6. .J. c=crown. (2) Two values denote readings at the two saddle or crown locations for each specimen.A.TOLLOCZKO (1) s= saddle.

TOLLOCZKO 129 (1) Both braces have same included angle.2 APPING K JOINTS NEW TUBULAR JOINT SCF DATA FOR NON-OVERL J. .TABLE 6.J.A.

J.TABLE 6. . (3) Specimen numbers ending with Gl provided with two ‘light’ internal ring stiffeners.TOLLOCZKO NEW TUBULAR JOINT SCF DATA FOR RING-STIFFENED T JOINTS (1) s=saddle.3 130 J.A. c=crown. (4) Specimen numbers ending with G2 provided with two ‘heavy’ T section ring stiffeners. (2) Specimen T223CV unstiffened.

A.TOLLOCZKO 131 (1) The two brace values reflect SCFs on the 90° and 45° brace respectively.4 NEW TUBULAR JOINT SCF DATA FOR OVERLAPPING K JOINTS J. (3) All SCF values normalised to nominal stress in 90° brace for balanced axial load tests.TABLE 6.J. (2) Load type is balanced axial unless otherwise stated. .

TOLLOCZKO FIG. • The new data do not significantly change the reliability trends described by Lalani (1986) for simple joints. • Only the UEG and Efthymiou equations are considered. the UEG UR33 equations predict SCFs which can be expected to be exceeded in 16% of cases. • Both sets of equations exhibit scatter in their prediction ability.Reliability of UEG equations for T/Y/H joints. . 6. both sets of equations exhibit good reliability.132 J.10.e. the corresponding figure for the Efthymiou equations is 24%. in contrast. i. i. It follows that the main conclusion drawn by Lalani still holds true following inclusion of the new SCF data for simple joints.e.A.J. for the reason described above.

Reliability of Efthymiou equations for T/Y/H joints. In Fig. 6. . • The UEG equations do not cater for overlapping joints. It can be seen that the Efthymiou equations predict safe SCFs for overlapping joints. 6.3).J.14 the accuracy of the Efthymiou equations for overlapping joints is shown.11.TOLLOCZKO 133 FIG.J.A. the low ratios of test result to prediction are primarily a reflection of the low SCFs that occur in overlapping joints (see Table 6.

6.3.134 J.3.J.Reliability of UEG equations for non-overlapping K/YT joints.12. There are. 6. still a number of uncertainties with this type of analytical work. however.3 SCF Finite-Element Analysis Stress analyses of tubular joints can be performed by FE methods and the results used to calculate SCFs.TOLLOCZKO FIG. A number of computer programs of an acceptable standard have been developed. and these have been used to produce parametric SCF formulae and to analyse problem joints in offshore structures. These concern: • Modelling of the welds .A.

6. it is not certain how localised the effect of the approximation is.13. Spurious local bending of the member walls may be induced.J. • Representation of the boundary conditions • Techniques for the determination of SCFs from the computed stress distribution • Load interactions Most finite-element models of tubular joints consist entirely of shell elements. At the present time.TOLLOCZKO 135 FIG. there is considerable approximation since the weld is not modelled.A. At tubular intersections. although the calculated stress levels are likely to be higher.Reliability of Efthymiou equations for non-overlapping K/YT joints.J. To overcome these .

TOLLOCZKO FIG. Reliability of Efthymiou SCF equations for overlapping K/YT joints. since the behaviour of the tubular joint represented by the FE model must be consistent with the assumptions of the fatigue analysis. Finite-element models usually have short chords.A. with the chord length parameter a typically having a value of about 11. Diaphragms may be added at the free ends of the chord to provide pinned supports. Depending on the choice of S–N curve for the subsequent fatigue analysis. Depending on the .136 J.J. This too requires clarification. This introduces the effect of local deformation stresses (but not ‘notch’ stresses) into the model. 6. problems. the intersection region can be modelled using three-dimensional elements. this may not be appropriate.14.

J. The stress at the weld toe can be obtained by extrapolation of the stress distribution in the region of stress linearity. in accordance with the procedure used in the UKOSRP tests (1987). such an approach requires a revision of the manner in which SCFs are presented. particularly at the weld intersection. this procedure may be hard to justify. However. Consequently. and further assessment is required on the influence of a and end conditions.J. The method of stress extrapolation should also be consistent. these may artificially prevent ovalisation of the ends of the chord. The simultaneous application of loads to other members of a joint will influence the SCF of that member due to the interaction of the stress fields of neighbouring connections. In view of the approximations in the modelling of the intersection regions with shell elements. perhaps following the procedure described by Buitrago (1984). . crown SCFs in T/Y joints increase steadily with ′ . so that the deformed shape is realistic. The second technique involves plotting the stress distribution along a line perpendicular to the weld toe and obtaining the stress there by interpolation. SCFs are determined for loads applied to individual members only. Diaphragms are introduced to facilitate the imposition of boundary conditions for the FE analysis and often a restricted length of chord is introduced. In T/Y joints. sometimes lying outside the weld and sometimes lying inside it. End diaphragms in short chords reduce deformations. A study in which the different techniques of extracting SCFs from the results of an FE analysis are compared would clearly be useful and would demonstrate whether the differences are significant. At present time. for example. Alternatively. although other methods may be more suitable. By allowing for load interactions.A. but this may not always be possible because physical models (which are used to determine S– N curves) and analytical models differ. The definition of ‘hot-spot’ stress should be consistent with the S–N curve used. these lines of nodes do not necessarily coincide with the weld toe.TOLLOCZKO 137 configuration of elements and/or boundary conditions. However. The outer surface stresses at nodes along the tubular intersections are sometimes used. this results in lower saddle SCFs on both the chord and brace. The stresses at the weld toe can be obtained by two different techniques. there are different ways of determining SCFs from the calculated stress distributions. based on engineering judgement. fatigue lives may be altered appreciably. Both these aspects are known to influence the SCFs at the tubular intersections. the stresses at the weld toe can be used. Prescribed displacements rather than applied loads can be applied to the free ends of members. which will invariably lead to slightly different SCFs. Linear or curvilinear extrapolations can be used. The length of the chord influences beam bending. and better approximations can be obtained using brick elements local to the intersection.

4. and the S–N curves are based on test data. Typical S–N curve.J. Each stress cycle experienced by the joint will have an associated stress range ′ f.A. The ordinate describes the stress range and the abscissa describes the number of cycles to failure.4 Fatigue Life Assessment (S−N Method) 6. the model assumes that irreversible damage occurs with each stress cycle and that damage accumulates linearly to a fixed level at which failure occurs. where Ni is the corresponding number of stress cycles to failure under constant-amplitude loading of ′ fi Fatigue failure occurs as soon as the linear cumulative damage of the cycles in the variable-amplitude loading sequence has reached a fixed level. For the ith stress cycle with stress range ′ fi. In essence.15. To carry out fatigue-life predictions.3. One such fatigue damage model is that postulated by Miner (1945).138 J. 6.1 General There are two basic approaches used in the fatigue-life assessment of tubular joints. A typical S–N curve is given in Fig. The second method is based on linear elastic fracture mechanics and considers an analysis of crack propagation at the point under consideration. .3. an increment of damage equal to 1/Ni occurs. 6. a linear fatigue damage model is used in conjunction with the relevant S–N curve.e.TOLLOCZKO FIG. i. The first method relies on the use of empirically derived S–N curves which relate the stress range at a point under consideration to the number of cycles to failure. The long-term distribution of relevant stress ranges is established for each potential crack location around the periphery of the intersection of a tubular joint. Logarithmic scales are conventionally used for both axes.15. 6.

and Ds is the damage summation failure limit.1) where ni is the expected number of cycles of the various stress ranges ′ fi in the design spectrum which are assumed to occur in the design life of the structure. 6. These are.A.J.3 Failure Criteria During the fatigue testing of tubular joints. this value is sometimes chosen to reflect the safety levels required for the particular joint under consideration.2 Stress Range The fatigue design is normally based on the ‘hot-spot’ stress range concept. Ni is the corresponding number of cycles to failure under constant amplitude loading obtained from the relevant S-N curve. However. (iii) monitoring strain gauges. (c) N3: End of test. (ii) test rig limitations. (ii) internally-applied air pressure. detected by (i) visual means. fatigue crack propogation/failure is classified under three primary headings.4.4.3. but far enough away from it not to be influenced by the ‘notch’ stress. The recommended S–N curve is based on this definition. the effects of ‘notch’ stresses and residual welding stresses are appropriately reflected in the choice of curve. The value of Ds is often taken as unity. defined as (i) extensive cracking. in chronological order: (a) N1: First discernible surface cracking.TOLLOCZKO 139 (6. . In essence. usually detected from visual inspection or strain gauge monitoring adjacent to that portion of the weld toe where the ‘hot-spot’ stress is measured. The nominal brace stress ranges are increased at the intersection by appropriate stress concentration factors (SCFs).3. the relevant stress range to be used in design is defined as the maximum principal stress range obtained by linear or curvilinear extrapolation to the weld toe of the maximum principal stress distribution near the weld toe. 6. (b) N2: First through-thickness cracking.J. SCFs and their definition are discussed in detail in previous sections.

recommend specific size/thickness correction factors. the joint does not reach the fracture limit state). are non-damaging. a number of other justifications can be stated: (i) Such a crack should be both detectable and repairable. failure within the context of fatigue design is defined as the number of cycles to first through-thickness cracking. API RP2A presents two curves. leading to damage of other joints.140 J.e.J. providing that crack instability does not occur first (i.2) where f=fatigue strength of joint under consideration (N/mm2). The size correction takes the form: f=fb(32/T)1/4 (6. the X′ curve is recommended. is likely to be well in excess of that observed in the laboratory.4. in jacket structures in service. Examination of this figure and the recommendations in the two documents reveal the following. . Apart from the fact that the degree of scatter observed from tests is less. (iii) Such a crack should be small enough for the jacket structure not to have to shed load.4 Available Design S–N Curves Figure 6.16.3.TOLLOCZKO (iii) member pull-out. 6. The X curve is recommended for joints in which the welds merge smoothly with the adjoining base metal. i. (a) Basic S–N curves. An endurance limit at 2×108 cycles is specified. N3 is also liable to considerable differences since the definition of this failure criterion changes with each specimen and the place of testing. (ii) The structure should be capable of tolerating such a crack without the intervention of catastrophic fracture. the X and X′ curve. fb=fatigue strength using the basic T curve derived from tubular joints with chord wall thickness of 32 mm (N/mm2). on the other hand. and it is assumed that all stress cycles below 35 N/mm2 or 23 N/mm2 for the X and X ′ type weld profiles. The Guidance Notes. For welds without such profile control. it is assumed that the curves are sufficiently devalued that the effect of wall thickness is largely negated if profiled welds are specified. N1 is liable to considerable error and. The so-called ‘thickness and size effect’ is taken by API to be appropriately reflected in these two curves. respectively.16 presents the family of S–N curves derived from experimental data and recommended by both the American Petroleum Institute (API) Code RP2A (1987) and the Department of Energy Guidance Notes (1984). Therefore. as shown in Fig. In service conditions.e. 6. In general the relevant life of a joint is defined as N2. (iv) surface cracking around about 80% of the periphery of the joint. joints are usually repaired before this condition arises.A.

the document recommends an increase in fatigue life by a factor of 2.16 illustrates S–N curves for various wall thicknesses. and the beneficial bilinear correction applied at 107 cycles is not allowed. on the argument that whilst a threshold may exist under constant amplitude load conditions. 6. S–N curves recommended by API RP2A and the UK Guidance Notes. or excessive cathodic protection conditions. appropriate reductions to the allowable cycles should be considered’.16. For unprotected joints exposed to seawater.J. (b) Influence of environment. free corrosion. (c) Weld improvement technique. No other benefit is recommended. T=wall thickness of the joint under consideration (mm). a lower limiting value of T=22 mm is imposed for calculating fatigue lives of joints with lesser thicknesses. when damage caused by high stress cycles is likely to render the low stress cycles damaging in subsequent load cycles. apart from a comment that ‘For splash zone. No upper limit is imposed. The curves are bilinear in format. The API curves explicitly allow the designer to take benefit for properly profiled welds. No quantitative guidance is presented for other conditions. However.A. The Guidance Notes do not provide any quantitative recommendations regarding weld profile benefit.J. . a penalty factor of 2.TOLLOCZKO 141 FIG. Figure 6.0 is imposed. The Guidance Notes curves are valid for adequate corrosion protection conditions. The API RP2A curves presume effective cathodic protection. and do not encompass a threshold endurance limit. this trend may not be valid under variable-amplitude load conditions.2 if controlled local machining or grinding of the weld toe is carried out.

i. (6. is presented below with particular reference to the available design S–N curves and the influence of size.9 is defined as the maximum stress obtained by linear extrapolation to the weld toe of the stress distribution near the weld toe. n=number of cycles applied at a given stress range.3.5 to 6.1). For the fatigue lives.5 to 6.142 J.9. These have been defined in Section 6.4.TOLLOCZKO (d) Damage summation model. The new data encompass: • • • • • • • • • 4 axially loaded H joints 3 axially loaded T joints 3 balanced axially loaded simple K joints 6 axially loaded stiffened T joints 15 balanced axially loaded overlapping K joints 2 balanced axial plus moment loaded overlapping K joints 4 axially loaded toe ground H joints 4 axially loaded PWHT T joints 6 in-plane moment loaded X joints in air or seawater and 10 in the as-welded. 6.e. The hot-spot stress range noted in Tables 6.3.3) where Ds=cumulative fatigue damage ratio. The assessment of this data. together with that presented in UEG UR33 (1985). post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) and environment on fatigue life.3. This model is in the same form as given in eqn (6. three levels of failure have been recorded. but far enough away from it not to be influenced by the notch stress. Both documents recommend the same damage model. .5 New Fatigue Data New fatigue data extracted from the UKOSRP II (1987) and SIMS 87 (1987) are presented in Tables 6.J. N=number of cycles for which the given stress range would be allowed by the appropriate S–N curve. TIG dressed or shot-peened condition • 4 axially loaded T joints in seawater and cathodically protected.A.

17 and 6. give an even greater difference. The evidence presented in Fig. It can be seen that all the data fall on the safe side of the design curves. Similar conclusions can be drawn from Fig.17 and 6. The tubular diameters also increase with increasing thickness. 6. 6. 32 mm. at the high stress cycle range. • All the data lie above the relevant API X′ curve.18 present the new as-welded data in the standard S–N format (hot-spot stress range against life to through-thickness cracking).18 indicates that the data are approximately parallel to the slope adopted in the Guidance Notes.16). in Air. the allowable cycles using the API X curve is approximately 50000 under constant-amplitude conditions. even after application of post-weld heat treatment. This is due to the differences in slopes adopted in the two documents and the size correction factors introduced in the Guidance Notes (see Fig.J. The new data fall within the scatterband of the data collated within the UEG UR33. The size effect is present. 6.19 shows the new tubular joint as-welded data plotted in the S–N format.3.6. Similar comparisons using data for the 16-mm joints. The relevant design curves from both API RP2A and the Guidance Notes are also shown in these figures. As-Welded.1 Constant-Amplitude.J. 6. including the 76-mm data. Superimposed on the graphs are the data from the UEG UR33 (1985) design guide. Analysis of New Data 6.20) joints.19) and PWHT (Fig. Data are separately identified according to the specimen wall thickness (16 mm and 32 mm in this case) to enable the size corrections recommended by the Guidance Notes to be assessed. The data cover joints with wall thicknesses of 16 mm. The figures appear to indicate that the effects are different.TOLLOCZKO 143 6. the corresponding value using the Guidance Notes 32-mm curve gives 200000 cycles. the two curves deviate appreciably. 6. Of interest is the comparison of potential size effects for as-welded (Fig.6.3. which lends support to the case that stress .3. a fourfold increase.20. which shows a plot of the new PWHT tubular joint data. for example.A. Tubular Joint Data Figures 6.6. at a stress range of say 200 N/mm2. 6. Examination of the figure reveals the following: • There is a distinct indication that fatigue strength reduces with increasing size. 40 mm and 76 mm. For 32-mm thick joints. It is of interest to note the safety margin provided by the API X′ curve.2 Influence of Size Figure 6.

Insufficient tubular joint data are available to quantify the size effect throughout the range of thicknesses which occur in practice. at least in part. responsible for the size effect.J.5 .144 J. However. T AND K JOINTS UNDER CONSTANT-AMPLITUDE LOADING TABLE 6.TOLLOCZKO levels local to the weld toe and through the wall thickness are. AXIALLY LOADED H. reference NEW TUBULAR JOINT FATIGUE DATA FOR AS-WELDED.A.

(4) For specimen K5. . bracket brace stress range value relate to maximum value at entire intersection.6 NEW TUBULAR JOINT FATIGUE DATA FOR AS-WELDED.A. OVERLAPPING AND STIFFENED JOINTS UNDER CONSTANT-AMPLITUDE LOADING J. loading relate to tension in 90° brace and compression in 45° brace. (5) For specimens K4-K6. (7) For specimens LA2–3 and LA2–4.5. AXIALLY LOADED.TABLE 6. (6) For specimens in LA and LB series. t is given in brackets after T.J.TOLLOCZKO 145 (1) For Gl and G2 type stiffeners. t=8 mm. see Table 6. IPB loads also applied. (2) *=cracks for G2 stiffener specimens ran under the weld between the root and chord toe. (3) **=hot-spot stress range relates to appropriate inter-section value.

TOLLOCZKO TABLE 6.7 NEW TUBULAR JOINT FATIGUE DATA FOR POST-WELD TREATED H AND T JOINTS UNDER CONSTANT-AMPLITUDE LOADING (1) *=specimens relate to ground end of H joints.146 J.J. (2) **=post-weld heat treated. .A.

(5) Fy=540 N/mm2.A.8 NEW TUBULAR JOINT FATIGUE DATA FOR AS-WELDED AND POST-WELD TREATED X JOINTS UNDER CONSTANT-AMPLITUDE LOADING (a) Brace 1 in air.TOLLOCZKO 147 . J.J. (b) Brace 2 in sea water. (1) ′ HSS=′ ′HS×l·2× E.TABLE 6. (4) Shot-peened. (3) Tig-dressed. (2) As-welded.

148 J.J. .9 NEW TUBULAR JOINT FATIGUE DATA FOR AS-WELDED T JOINTS TESTED IN SEA WATER UNDER CONSTANT-AMPLITUDE LOADING (1) *=tests in seawater.167 Hz. CP level 850 mV.A. at 0. with respect to Ag/Ag=l electrode.TOLLOCZKO TABLE 6.

TOLLOCZKO 149 FIG. In order to present all the available data (both tubular joint and weldments) on a common basis. 6.18.A. constant-amplitude. can be made to the wealth of weldment data which are available. aswelded). 6.17.J. FIG. 16 mm Tubular joint fatigue data (in air. as-welded).J. many of which are new and were generated recently. the following approach has been adopted: . 32 mm Tubular joint fatigue data (in air. constant-amplitude.

the fatigue strength at 0·5×106 cycles.J. 6. Influence of thickness using the new as-welded tubular joint data. 6.TOLLOCZKO FIG. as-welded data-sample size 22 (see Fig. 6. For weldment data. (b) For each set. 76-mm wall thickness. as-welded data-sample size 39 (see Fig. reported in UKOSRP II (1987) and SIMS (87) (1987)—sample size 188 in total.A. 1×106 cycles and 2×106 cycles was calculated. R ratios and load/non-load carrying attachments.150 J. a eastsquares analysis was undertaken. . (a) For each set of points relating to a specific thickness.17) 32-mm wall thickness.20).19. the following sets were encompassed: • • • • • 16-mm wall thickness. 32-mm wall thickness.18). as-welded and PWHT conditions. PWHT data-sample size 3 (see Fig. 76-mm wall thickness. 6. PWHT data-sample size 4 (see Fig. 6. 6.19). (c) All the fatigue strengths were normalised to 32 mm to reflect the value adopted in the Guidance Notes. as-welded data-sample size 4 (see Fig. the following sets were encompassed: • 32 sets of new data covering various wall thicknesses. • 15 sets of data reported in UEG UR33 (1985) covering various wall thicknesses. For tubular joints.20). R ratios. This resulted in the identification of relative fatigue strengths.

This observation lends support to the continued use of the (32/T)1/4 derating function.20. therefore. Similar trends can be demonstrated for 0. Influence of thickness using the new PWHT tubular joint data. it is now generally accepted that weld profiling does not completely negate size effect. The American .5×106 cycles and 1×106 cycles and are not reported here.21 demonstrates categorically that a size effect exists. Neither document properly accounts for both size and profile effects.TOLLOCZKO 151 FIG. • The data fall within the scatterband noted for 16-mm wall thickness tubular joints to achieve a 98% probability of survival.25 for relative fatigue strengths normalised to 32-mm wall thickness.21 for 2×106 cycles. Figure 6. both size and profile effects should ideally be reflected in the design process.A. and. provided the size correction is taken into account.J. • None of the individual test results (totalling more than 300 datapoints) fall below the relevant design S–N curves. Examination of this figure reveals the following: • The tubular joint data and the weldment data fall within the same scatterband. • The size effect is adequately represented by the Guidance Notes recommendation of an inverse slope of 0. The relative fatigue strengths thus derived are presented in Fig. The size effect issue has been the subject of considerable research and debate over the past decade. the Guidance Notes recognise and quantify size effects.J. Significant advances have been made in the understanding of the mechanisms which govern this apparent reduction in fatigue strength with increasing size. 6. 6. The API RP2A curves recognise and quantify weld profile effects.

to date.22 and 6. Welding Society Code D1. Exploitation of the benefits of PWHT has. 6.152 J. This observation is in line with UEG UR33 (1985).3 Influence of Post-Weld Heat Treatment Figure 6. the PWHT process has a significant fatigue benefit when compared with the as-welded condition.A.23 present the new as-welded and PWHT tubular joint data in conventional S–N format for the 32-mm and 76-mm wall thickness specimens. • demonstrating that the lack-of-fit stresses introduced during jacket fabrication are insignificant. The figures indicate that. for both sizes of tubular joints.6. have been significantly relieved. following PWHT.J.TOLLOCZKO FIG. Influence of thickness—relative fatigue strength at 2 million cycles for all data. not been possible because of difficulties in the following: • determining that the residual stresses.3. • identifying the level of reduction of residual stresses for the specimens tested.21. • demonstrating that a major part of the expected stress history in service would be compressive in action. which demonstrated that residual stresses play a part in the development of fatigue cracks. 6. The extent of their influence is dependent on the applied load cycles and the R ratio.1 (1986) provisions go some way in reconciling and recognising both effects. .

Influence of PWHT using the new 32 mm tubular joint data.6. It is therefore apparent that joints with cathodic protection may require treatment in the same manner as freely corroding joints. Notwithstanding the above. Use of this design curve for protected joints would reinstate the desired level of safety for these joints. tests with cathodic protection clearly indicate that the fatigue life to through-thickness cracking is reduced when compared to joints tested in air.24 shows the new tubular joint as-welded data plotted in the standard S– N format.24 is the Guidance Notes curve for unprotected joints.A. Also included in Fig. Although the data are limited.TOLLOCZKO 153 FIG.22. .4 Influence of Environment Figure 6.J. 6. and calls into question the applicability of plate data to identify environmental effects. Whilst both the air and protected data points lie above the design curve. The data covers three joints tested in air and four joints tested in seawater with cathodic protection at a level of −850 mV (Ag/AgCl). This behaviour is in marked contrast to that expected from an analysis of welded plate specimens. 6. it seems prudent that efforts should be directed towards overcoming the noted difficulties so that all the potential benefits of PWHT can be exploited in the design of those joints in which fatigue life is a limiting criterion.3. 6.24 is the relevant Guidance Notes curve recommended for joints with cathodic protection. 6. Included in Fig.J. a reduced degree of safety for the joints with cathodic protection can be noted. It should be noted that the previously held belief in industry that adequate protection restores the in-air behaviour was essentially based on an assessment of welded plate data.

6.24. Influence of PWHT using the new 76 mm tubular joint data.J. 6. it would appear that further research work on the effects of cathodic protection should concentrate on tubular joints and not on welded specimens. FIG. Influence of environment using the new 32 mm tubular joint data.24. 6.23. From the evidence noted in Fig.154 J.TOLLOCZKO FIG. .A. although it is recognised that this would have a major impact on the cost of tests.

FM techniques are consistent with conventional S–N methods and Miner’s rule. Under closely controlled conditions. seldom justifies the order-of-magnitude increase in the cost which is involved. FM will be used in the design of more complex joints and in the assessment of defects in offshore structures. crack-growth constants and stress-intensity factor solutions is beyond the scope of this chapter. A review of crack-growth mechanics.3. however.7 Fatigue-Life Assessment (Fracture-Mechanics Method) Fracture mechanics (FM) is applied to the assessment of crack-like defects. For quick and simple defect assessments.J. In this application. In the role of determining an underwater inspection programme. permitting an optimised inspection plan to be formulated. it may be considered that FM techniques represent an essentially ‘exact’ science. Whilst advances . FM techniques are much more powerful than S–N methods for a number of reasons. Furthermore. Initial reference to the overview of FM given in UEG UR33 (1985) shows that FM analysis methods. once fully developed and accepted by industry. whilst an S–N analysis gives a single number—the fatigue life—the corresponding FM analysis gives the crack growth characteristic. very detailed studies of individual components.TOLLOCZKO 155 6. there are many unknowns and analytical results become less exact.4 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH A review and assessment of the parameters influencing fatigue and also new data recently generated have been presented in the previous sections. whether the fatigue life will be shortened by intervening fracture. which is vital when planning an inspection programme. Whilst having the advantage of being economical to perform. fracture mechanics studies in the offshore industry have tended to lie at extreme ends of the spectrum in terms of the complexity of the analyses. However. frequently involving finite-element analyses. will provide a powerful fatigue-life assessment tool.J.A. 6. The improvement in accuracy. For members and joints under fatigue loading. In this application. it provides an alternative means of calculating fatigue lives. particularly for welded structures in an offshore environment. under actual conditions. Although unlikely to replace the S–N fatigue design method. design curve methods have been widely used. FM techniques are best suited to performing comparative studies. that is. FM techniques provide the means for assessing crack stability. Firstly. However. To date. At the other extreme. offer greater accuracy. particularly when the uncertainties of defect characteristics and loading are considered. FM crack-growth laws. FM analysis is able to rank the joints in order of their fatigue lives and defect tolerance. the gross simplifications in the assessment procedure greatly undermine confidence in the results.

many areas of uncertainty still warrant further investigation. This will be accelerated by the operating companies seeking more confidence in designs so as to reduce the requirements for costly underwater inspection and repairs. Some of these are listed below: (i) Identification of experimental errors inherent in SCF measurements. This has been necessary so that the offshore industry.156 J.J. loading and in-service environment results in no two joints ever being the same and hence the design methods developed are generally and necessarily conservative. costing many millions of pounds. with reasonable confidence. (iii) Identification of weld profile and thickness/size effects through studies of notch stress and through-thickness stress levels.TOLLOCZKO have been made in the area of fatigue. (ii) Hindcast forecasting studies. The consequences of fatigue failure can indeed be catastrophic. . particularly the influence of cathodic protection. However.5 CONCLUDING REMARKS The subject of offshore tubular joint fatigue design is one which has attracted substantial reseach on a worldwide basis. It is therefore apparent that research and experimentation will continue in this area for many years to come. (v) Generation of further tubular joint data on complex joints. It is hoped that the preceding sections of this chapter have given some indication to the reader of the complexity of the fatigue behaviour and design of tubular joints. (vii The fatigue-life assessment of tubular joints using fracture mechanics ) techniques with particular reference to developing techniques and methodologies suitable to engineering applications. The rationalisation and refinement of tubular joint fatigue design will continue. the more common consequence of fatigue failure is the requirement to repair cracking at great expense to the operating company. correlating predicted hot-spot stress ranges using the available parametric SCF equations with measured fatigue lives. 6. design and install structures to resist the continuous cyclic loadings generated by winds and waves. (vi) Development of non-destructive techniques to determine residual stress levels in tubular joints. (iv) Further investigations into corrosion fatigue. but it is unlikely that all the factors influencing the fatigue behaviour of tubular joints will be understood for a long time. The influence of geometry.A. particularly with North Sea developments. manufacturing methods. can.

DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (UK) (1984) Offshore Installations: Guidance on Design and Construction. Paper OTC 5306.TOLLOCZKO 157 REFERENCES AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE (1987) Recommended Practice for Planning. 17th edn. CIRIA.. HMSO.A & LALANI. . WORDSWORTH P.A.B. Paper 26. Appl Mech.. Texas. London. Offshore Technology Conference. API RP2A. Paper TS13.J. 159–64. 189. (1987) The fatigue behaviour of overlapping joints. August 1977. 149–54. ANSI/ AWS D1. OTJ (88). J. Trans. CIRIA. HMSO. Delft. J. Fatigue in Offshore Structural Steels. Offshore Technology Conference. Offshore Technology Conference. MINER. M. Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms. London. M. (1985) Improved fatigue life estimation of tubular joints. Offshore Technology Conference. SIMS 87 (1987) Proceedings of the 3rd International ECSC Offshore Conference on Steel in Marine Structures. (1978) Parametric stress analysis of T joints. Paper OTC 5662. 12. M. UKOSRP II (1987) Summary and Task Reports. UEG Publication UR33. MORISON. Petroleum Trans. LALANI. (1977) Stress concentrations in tubular joints. London. ASME. (1988) The implication of new data on the fatigue life assessment of tubular joints. UEG. EFTHYMIOU. AIME. Cambridge.G. AMERICAN WELDING SOCIETY (1986) Structural Welding Code—Steel. Offshore Tubular Joint Conference. M. (1988) Development of SCF formulae for use in fatigue analysis.J. (Modifications in SPE Journal. European Offshore Steels Research Seminar. M. (1981) Stress Concentration Factors at K and KT Tubular Joints.J. 287–99.1–86. Texas. TOLLOCZKO. Proceedings of the 3rd International ECSC Offshore Conference on Steel in Marine Structures (SIMS 87). Paper OTC 4775. Institute of Civil Engineers. the Netherlands. Paper OTC 2205. J. London. LALANI. J. the Netherlands. Delft. Texas. KUANG. BUITRAGO. (1950) The forces exerted by surface waves on piles. GIBSTEIN. Westminster. M. (1984) Combined hot-spot stress procedure for tubular joints. Texas.A. J. UEG UR33 (1985) Design of Tubular Joints for Offshore Structures.A. (1945) Cumulative damage in fatigue.

Case studies which illustrate some of the causes off fatigue cracking being experienced in highway bridge structures and the methods used to repair and retrofit the welded details are examined. USA SUMMARY This chapter briefly reviews the major factors governing the fatigue strength of welded details. USA & C.FISHER Joseph T. ATLSS Engineering Research Center.W. Director. Lehigh University. Lehigh University. Stuart Professor of Civil Engineering.Chapter 7 CASE STUDIES AND REPAIR OF FATIGUE-DAMAGED BRIDGE STRUCTURES J. NOTATION a b c C da/dn E(k) Fe Fg Fs Fw H K KT ′K r Crack size Width of hanger Crack width Crack-growth constant Crack-propagation rate Elliptic integral of the second form Crack shape correction Stress gradient correction factor Correction for free surface Correction for finite width Weld leg size Stress-intensity factor Stress-concentration factor Stress-intensity range Radius of rivet hole .C.MENZEMER ATLSS Scholar. Examples of severe corrosion and the inability to detect corrosion cell activity are summarized.

A typical set of fatigue design curves is shown in Fig. 1986). no fatigue crack propagation would be expected to occur.2 reveals horizontal cut-offs for each of the design curves. Welded structural joints behave differently because of the variation in the local stress fields around the weldments. several studies were conducted to examine member behavior under this type of loading (Schilling et al. Details which fail from internal discontinuities will generally have higher allowable stress range values as there is no geometrical stress concentration more severe than the discontinuity itself. For stress range cycles below this limit.. Stress range versus life behavior of welded details can be adequately described by straightline relationships on log-log scale plots. 7.2. Inspection of Fig.1 INTRODUCTION The two primary factors governing the fatigue strength of welded steel details are the applied stress range and detail type (Fisher et al. lowerbound design curves are associated with a specific probability of survival at a given confidence level. As a result. Details which provide the lowest fatigue resistance usually involve connections which experience fatigue-crack growth from weld toes and terminations where there is a large stress concentration. As bridges are subjected to variable-amplitude loadings. which represent the constant-amplitude fatigue limit. A large number of experimental programs have generated fatigue data which were used in the development of design guidelines (Keating & Fisher. All welding processes introduce small defects in or around the weldment. although proper fabrication will minimize both the number and size of the initial flaws. . Figure 7. Structural joints with similar stress concentration and discontinuity conditions are grouped into a single category. 7. Constant-amplitude fatigue limit values decrease with the severity of the detail. as well as the inherent variability in the distribution of initial discontinuities. The lower bound is normally established such that it is at least two standard deviations below the mean.1 is a typical plot of fatigue data for short web attachments.REPAIR OF FATIGUE-DAMAGED BRIDGE STRUCTURES 159 Sr Sre tcp tf tp σi ′ σ σ Stress range Effective stress range Cover plate thickness Flange thickness Plate thickness Frequency of occurrence of stress range cycles Sri as a fraction of the total cycles Angle for calculated stress intensity Radius of retrofit hole Stress 7. 1974). Each curve corresponds to a type of detail. 1970..

FIG..MENZEMER FIG.C. 1978. 7. 7. life could be estimated by employing a cumulative damage law such as that originally proposed by Miner’s. Fisher et al. . An important conclusion from these studies was that if any of the stress range cycles in a loading spectrum exceeded the constantamplitude fatigue limit.2.1. Laboratory fatigue data for web attachments.FISHER AND C.W. 1983).160 J. Fatigue design curves.

producing a large stress gradient in the small portion of web. a number of the failures in this category have developed because the groove-welded component was considered a secondary member or attachment. The large cyclic stress near the web flange weld and the weld termination at the end of the connection plate produces fatigue cracking in a relatively small number of stress cycles. including suspension. As a result.REPAIR OF FATIGUE-DAMAGED BRIDGE STRUCTURES 161 FIG. Figure 7. the cracks form parallel to the primary stress field and are not detrimental to the performance of the structure provided they are discovered and retrofitted before turning perpendicular to the applied stresses.3. Examples of distortion-induced cracking. 1978). A typical example of distortion-induced cracking is depicted in Fig. In addition. When distortion-induced cracking develops in a bridge component.3. In general. 1984. As the floorbeam rotates under traffic loading. The largest category is a result of outof-plane distortion in a small. In some instances. the segment of web is pulled out-of-plane.4 shows a typical stress gradient which was measured in one structure (Fisher. Displacement-induced cracking has developed in a wide variety of structures.2 FATIGUE CRACKING OF WELDED BRIDGE DETAILS Since the early 1960s. tiedarch. The second largest category of fatigue-damage to bridge members and components comprises large initial defects or cracks. . fatiguecrack propagation has resulted in brittle fracture (Fisher. 7. and box-girder bridges. 7. large numbers of cracks develop nearly simultaneously because the cyclic stress is high and the number of stress cycles needed to produce cracking is relatively small. A majority of the fatigue cracks can be placed into one of two broad categories. unstiffened segment of girder web. a number of localized failures have developed in steel bridge members owing to fatigue-crack propagation. two-girder floorbeam. Defects in this category have resulted from poor-quality welds that were produced before non-destructive test methods were well established. 7. weld quality criteria were not established and non-destructive test methods were not employed. 1986). An unstiffened segment of girder web is created at the end of the floorbeam connection plate when a positive attachment between the girder flange and connection plate is not provided.

5. except the interior facia beam of the eastbound roadway. Beams of span 10 are rolled sections of A242 steel (σ y=310 MPa (45ksi)). Constructed in 1956–1957. 1976.6.3. Fisher. Both eastbound and westbound bridges of span 10 were selected for major stress history studies during this time. Connecticut. Inspection of several other adjacent beams revealed cracks which had extended halfway through the tension flange thickness. Other small cracks were also observed. The extensive numbers of cracks that developed at the ends of the welded cover plates were primarily due to the large volume of truck traffic and the unanticipatedly low fatigue resistance of the details.C.162 J.W. A majority of the remaining failures resulted from the use of low-strength details that were not anticipated to have such a low strength at the time of the original design. Follow-up inspections conducted in 1973. 1970. 1986). A typical framing plan is shown in Fig. Fatigue cracking was first observed in 1970 (Fisher et al. Fatigue-crack growth resulted in fracture of a beam tension flange as shown in Fig. 7. 7. Measured stress gradient.3 LOW FATIGUE STRENGTH DETAILS— YELLOW MILL POND BRIDGE 7.FISHER AND C.1 Structure Description and History of Cracking The Yellow Mill Pond Bridge is located on Interstate-95 (I-95) Bridgeport.4. All beams. the bridge was opened to traffic in 1958 and consists of 28 simple span cover-plated steel beam bridges. 1979 and 1981 revealed additional crack growth from the cover-plated details. 7.. Three lanes of roadway traffic are carried in each direction. 7.MENZEMER FIG. are fitted with .

single cover plates on the compression flange and two cover plates on the tension flange (Fig.5).3. In addition to strain measurements. Figure 7. Beams located . lane positions. it was estimated that 35 million trucks had crossed the eastbound and westbound structures between 1958 and 1976.5.2 Stress History Measurements Both eastbound and westbound bridges of span 10 were selected for two stress history studies by the State of Connecticut and the US Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Root mean cubed or Miner’s effective stress-range values were determined for all strain gages which had been placed directly under the web on the tension flange. Primary cover plates for the exteror facia beams of both roadways are full length. adjacent to the cover plate terminations: (7. with a follow-up study continuing from April 1973 to April 1974. An initial investigation was conducted in 1971. 7. Span 10 framing plan. vehicle distributions.REPAIR OF FATIGUE-DAMAGED BRIDGE STRUCTURES 163 FIG. coupled with an FHWA Loadometer survey. 7.1) Measurements indicated that the effective stress range varied from 7·6 MPa to 13·6 MPa (1·1 ksi to 1·98 ksi) for the gages close to coverplate ends. 7.7 shows a typical stress-range histogram for cover plate details from the westbound structure. and truck weights were recorded. Limited additional measurements were acquired in 1976. Composite stress-range response spectra were constructed using the various sets of strain measurements. From recorded information on truck traffic.

W.8 stress cycle events per truck passage resulted. Careful examination of individual stress response records for single truck passages showed that more than one stress cycle event occurred for each truck crossing. 7.7. corresponding to a total of 63 000 000 cycles after 18 years of service. FIG. Stress-range histograms. Cracked girder at cover-plate termination. 7.164 J.C.6. Approximately 1.MENZEMER FIG. .FISHER AND C. under the outside roadway lanes tended to have larger recorded stress range values.

Usually. 1974) have shown that the secondstage fatigue-crack propagation behavior can be adequately described by a thirdorder power law of the form. 7.8. in the zone of high stress concentration at the weld toe. 7. (7. a number of small defects grow along the weld toe and coalesce into a primary crack front. as all welding processes give rise to sharp discontinuities in the form of slag inclusions.3.REPAIR OF FATIGUE-DAMAGED BRIDGE STRUCTURES 165 FIG.3) Values for the correction factors can be found in a number of handbooks and other publications (Paris & Sih. Discontinuities.3 Fatigue-Crack Growth Analysis Studies on welded steel details (Fisher et al. subjected to remote tension loading (Albrecht & Yamada. Broek. Cracks which formed at the cover-plate weld toes were modeled as semielliptical surface .2) The presence of initial cracks or defects in or around the weldment is presumed. etc. Calculation of stress-intensity factors for cracks in complex structural joints can be formulated by application of correction factors to the solution of a through crack in an infinite plate. 1982. act as potential crack sites. 1965. Tada et al. porosity.8. 7. 1987).. Empirical relationships for both the coalescence of cracks and minor-to-major semidiameter axis ratios have been determined for different details. 1977). A set of such relationships is shown in Fig.. Crack-size relationships. (7. Time spent in crack initiation is assumed to be negligible.

10) With an initial crack size equal to 0·75 mm (0·03 in) and the effective stress range as 13 MPa (1·9 ksi).C.9) c=5.8) (7.W.11) This is consistent with the larger fatigue cracks which formed between 1958 and 1976. A composite stress-range spectrum for the worst stress conditions .5) (7.166 J. the number of cycles to grow a crack 25 mm (1 in) deep was estimated as (7.FISHER AND C. Figure 7.9 is an S–N curve derived from laboratory data on thick cover-plated details. 7. S–N curve for cover-plate details.4) (7.46 a1·133 (inch) (7.MENZEMER FIG.7) (7.9. cracks in the flange under remote tension. Correction factors and crack size relationships were taken as (7.6) (7.

REPAIR OF FATIGUE-DAMAGED BRIDGE STRUCTURES 167 monitored in 1971.10). and 1976. 7.8 stress cycle events/truck. Beam flanges of the upper level of the bents are continuous into the column.1 Structure Description and Inspection Results The Central Artery carries I-93 traffic through Boston. 1989). and assuming 1 stress cycle event/ truck.9. 7. For each of the two girder floorbeam superstructures. The cope openings in the box-beam webs at the beam-column connection points are covered with small plates which are filletwelded to the box beam webs. yielded an effective Miner’s stress range of 13·1 MPa (1·9 ksi).3. Many smaller cracks observed in other beams at lower effective stress range levels are compatible with tests conducted under variable-amplitude loading. Plotted as an open circle. the entire structure was retrofitted by hammer peening the weld toes at smaller cracks and installing bolted splices at larger cracks. Weld-toe peening introduces local compressive stresses around the weldment surface. A viaduct structure.11 shows the I-beam-to-column connections which contain closure plates fillet welded to the edges of the I section and column flanges. Larger fatigue cracks observed in the structure are consistent with data developed on a number of cover-plated beams tested in the laboratory. the data point falls below the lower-bound fatigue resistance. longitudinal girders form composite action with the reinforced-concrete decks. double . Application of the observed 1. Figure 7. consists of bilevel rigid steel frame bents which support two girder floorbeam structures on each level (Demers & Fisher.4 LACK OF FUSION AND DISTORTION— I-93 CENTRAL ARTERY 7. Massachusetts and surrounding communities. 7. located in the northern area of the Artery. Webs of the I beams are groove-welded to the columns. thereby reducing the applied stress range and prolonging the life of the detail. results in the filled circle plotted in Fig.4 Retrofit Procedures In 1981. while beam flanges (both box and I) and box beam webs are connected via full-penetration groove welds with back-up bars. 7. 1973. This suggests that the crack-growth threshold is lowered by stress cycles exceeding the constantamplitude fatigue limit and that a proportionally larger number of smaller stress cycles contribute to damage propagation. Columns of the rigid bent supports are box sections. while transverse beams are either box or I sections (Fig. Both top and bottom flanges of the longitudinal girders are coped by flame cutting to permit a bolted.4.

In addition. Grinding into the fillet weld throat in the cracked corner region of the closure plates exposed the crack which had extended into the groove weld connecting the top flange of the transverse beam to the column. The cracks shown in Fig. as illustrated in Fig. Fatigue cracks were found along the longitudinal girder web to flange weld at the flange terminations and vertical cracks were observed in the girder web at the re-entrant corner of the bottom copes. as shown in Fig.W. Inspection of the rigid frame bent revealed cracks in the fillet welds at several corner joints where the transverse beam closure plates were joined to the bent column flange. Inspection of the structure revealed several areas which contained fatigue cracks. The connection angles are fitted to both the top and bottom flanges of the transverse beams. These cracks typically extended along the angle fillet of the girder-transverse bearn end connection. angle web connection with transverse beams of the bent. Cracking was also observed along the bolt fixity line of a few end connection angles. Flanges of the floorbeams are also coped to permit bolting to connection plates which are fillet-welded to the longitudinal girder webs. 7.12 were found only at locations where the longitudinal girder web was bolted full-depth to the connection angles.12. 7.168 J. lateral displacement of several longitudinal girder bottom flanges at transverse beam connections was observed. Other bents revealed cracks at the web cope closure plates of the transverse box beams.10. as shown in Fig.C. 7. Other locations.MENZEMER FIG.14. where the girder web was not bolted full-depth to the connection angles. 7.FISHER AND C. Grinding of the fillet weld .13. 7. exhibited no evidence of cracking. Further grinding exposed the crack which extended from the back-up bar through the groove weld thickness. Typical bent in viaduct.

throat into the beam flange exposed cracks extending from the back-up bar into the groove weld thickness. Typical I-beam-to-column connection. 7. 7. In addition.REPAIR OF FATIGUE-DAMAGED BRIDGE STRUCTURES 169 FIG. coping greatly reduced the section modules for in-plane bending and left an unstiffened segment of girder web between the flange terminations and the bolt .11.4.2 Field Measurements and Probable Causes of Failure Coping by flame cutting the longitudinal girder webs resulted in high tensile residual stresses along the cut edge as well as a re-entrant corner.

Hence. A majority of the current design guidelines do not account for the effect of longitudinal forces when evaluating the fatigue resistance of bridge members. At locations where the longitudinal girders were not bolted full-depth to the connection angles.MENZEMER FIG. This resulted in no lateral displacement. no out-of-plane web distortion. the bottom flanges had an initial lateral displacement.W. Electrical resistance strain gages were installed in four bents during the first set of field tests. and on the box webs or closure plates in cross sections adjacent to the bent. Significant differences in stress-range values for corner gages on the same transverse beam flange were attributed to axial bending caused by longitudinal traction/braking forces. the axi-mum stress range on one corner gage was 93 MPa (13·3 ksi). which caused large cyclic stresses to develop in the cope region. the girder web could rotate in-plane without develop ing significant compression in the lower portion of the girder. fixity line of the longitudinal girders. connection restraint resulted in additional lateral displacement of the bottom flange. As such.12. As the end of the girder rotated under traffic loading. fatigue cracks in the web copes of the longitudinal girders. ages were placed on the transverse beam top flanges. In locations where a full-depth bolted connection for the longitudinal girder was provided.170 J. while the other corner gage recorded a value of 45 MPa (6·4 ksi). as well as cracks along the bottom edges of the connection angles were all distortion induced. Fatigue cracks in girder cope. and no fatigue cracking in the cope or connection angles. Partial penetration fillet welds at the corner joints of the bent transverse beams produced a fabricated lack-of-fusion defect perpendicular to the beam primary .C. On one bent.FISHER AND C. A maximum stress range of 90 MPa (12·9 ksi) was measured for the web cope locations. crack extension would continue unless sufficient retrofit measures were taken. 7.

7. at least one corner gage exceeded the threshold for each . 7.REPAIR OF FATIGUE-DAMAGED BRIDGE STRUCTURES 171 FIG.13. In addition. stress field. and with maximum measured stress-range values in the variable spectrum exceeding the crack growth threshold of 31 MPa (4·5 ksi). propagation would be expected. Bolted connection of girder to transverse beam with no detectable cracking. Crack in closure plate weld at rigid frame connection. FIG.14. Large initial defects and cracks are low-fatigue-resistance details.

The lack-of-fusion defect in the closure plate detail was modeled as a loadcarrying fillet weld. the recorded strain data were used to develop a cycle/hour frequency for each gage so that estimates of past service life could be made. In addition. Effective stress-range spectra were determined using Miner’s rule for several truncated minimum stress-range values. 7.12) where A1 and A2 are functions of H/tp. 7.15). As the maximum stress range in the spectrum exceeds the threshold. along with an S–N curve derived from laboratory data on thick cover plates and web attachment. 7. The resulting stress range versus cyclic life is plotted in Fig.4. effective stress-range values with the corresponding results of the cumulative service life cycles are plotted for gages adjacent to the corner joints on the instrumented bents.16. the effective stress range is less. 7. as a number plot around the 14 MPa (2 ksi) level . This suggests that crack extension would occur in at least one location for every transverse beam-to-column joint. In addition. Several gages plot to the right of both the resistance curves.C. A crack growth rate which follows a third-order power relationship was assumed.172 J.3 Crack-Growth Analysis Measured stress-range spectra were used in the evaluation of the fatigue resistance and crack development at the box corner connections of the steel bent. Observed cracking is consistent with the model.FISHER AND C.15. and w is equal to H+tp/2.W.MENZEMER FIG. cross section measured. Model for lack-of-fusion crack. and the applied stress intensity was estimated from (Frank & Fisher 1979) (7. with crack growth from the weld root (Fig. At other gage locations. cracks would be expected to develop at these and other box corner connections.

fatigue-crack reinitiation from the retrofit holes and continued propagation along the bolt fixity line would result. Othewise. the live load forces would be transferred by the bolted splices.4 Retrofit Procedures Retrofits recommended for fatigue cracking in the longitudinal girders included the drilling of holes at the end of the cracks to blunt the tips. a second set of . To verify the effectiveness of the retrofit procedures. Predicted curve for the lack-of-fusion crack. so fatigue cracking would not be expected for some time. If fatigue cracks in the groove welds continued to propagate and eventually led to fracture of the top flange-to-column connection. for 2–6 million cycles. 7. Angles were bolted to the inside longitudinal girder web and flange and to the connection angles (Fig.16.17) to prevent lateral motion of the bottom flange and reduce the bending stress on the girder web. 7.18). Further retrofit was required to prevent the lateral displacement of the bottom flange and minimize the out-of-plane distortion in the web cope. Damage accumulation is much slower at these locations. Short sections of wide flange shapes were modified by partial removal of the web and were bolted to the flange of the transverse beams and webs of the columns (Fig. Several rows of bolts were removed from the girder connection to reduce the compression in the web and move the flange towards normal alignment.REPAIR OF FATIGUE-DAMAGED BRIDGE STRUCTURES 173 FIG. Transfer of the live load forces from the beam top flange to the column had to be ensured for an effective retrofit of the beam-column connections of the bent. 7.4. 7.

deck truss bridge whose members are either built-up riveted sections or rolled structural shapes.5 CORROSION—I-95 OVER THE SUSQUEHANNA RIVER 7.174 J. field tests was made.5. they also demonstrated that the bolted collar was effective in resisting the live load. The structure is a multiplespan. 7.C. Retrofit angles bolted to both girder and transverse beam. .20). Stress-range spectra were observed on one corner joint without the retrofit collar and after the bolted splices were installed. and both form composite action with the reinforced-concrete deck.W.FISHER AND C. All of the floorbeams are supported by the top chord of the main deck trusses as shown in Fig. In addition.17. These measurements demonstrated that the bolted retrofit collars reduced the cyclic stress at the corner connection by 75%. 7.1 Structure Description I-95 crosses the Susquehanna River in Maryland.MENZEMER FIG. 7. Hangers are riveted box sections (Fig. Transverse floorbeams and longitudinal stringers make up the floor system. 7.19. Suspended truss spans contain pin and hanger assemblies.

both low-level vibration of the hanger and bending of the hanger web were observed.21. 7. 7. Large dynamic responses occurred periodically in all gages mounted on the hanger and were on the order of the yield point (Fig. .22). Initial strain measurements were acquired on a single cracked hanger. a crack had reinitiated from a prior retrofit hole which had been placed to arrest crack growth. Significant amounts of corrosion product were found between the corner angles of the hanger sections and both web and flange plates. In one hanger web. Retrofit collars for the transverse-beam-to-column connection.5. In addition to the tension cycles. as well as on the gusset at the pin elevation (Fig.18. with typical cyclic stress values of 10·5 MPa (1·5 ksi). 7. Several sets of field measurements were made on the structure between 1985 and 1987. 7. as shown in Fig.23).REPAIR OF FATIGUE-DAMAGED BRIDGE STRUCTURES 175 FIG. 7. Small-tension stress cycles developed in all the strain gages mounted on the hanger.2 Inspection Results and Field Measurements Inspection of the structure revealed fatigue cracks emanating from the rivet holes in several box sections. Environmental corrosion was also found between the gusset and hanger plate connection.

FISHER AND C. For comparison.3 Probable Causes of Failure and Retrofit Procedures Field inspections and strain measurements demonstrated that the development of corrosion caused pin fixity which.176 J. 7. both the bending of the hanger webs and the large dynamic responses were minimized. Susquehanna River bridge. led to the introduction of bending in the hangers. several other hangers were instrumented. Typical values varied up to 76 MPa (11 ksi). Cracked hanger locations with lubricated assemblies experienced a maximum stress range of 35 MPa (5 ksi).5. Final field measurements were conducted after all pin assemblies had been lubricated. thereby assisting and accelerating the corrosion process.9 ksi) was recorded for a cracked hanger flange plate in a second location where only one of the two pins was lubricated. Unlubricated pin assemblies showed stress range values up to 76 MPa (11 . At locations where pins had been lubricated. 7.C. water and debris to fall and collect on the pin and hangers.19.MENZEMER FIG.3 ksi) was observed for the original cracked hanger web. in turn. unlubricated pin assemblies had hangers which experienced significant axial and bending stresses. A cyclic stress range of 55 MPa (7. A subsequent set of field measurements was made after pins of the originally damaged hanger were lubricated. The hanger connections are located directly below open roadway expansion joints which allow salt. In contrast. The constant-amplitude fatigue limit for riveted members is approximately 48 MPa (7 ksi).W. A maximum stress range of 30 MPa (4.

REPAIR OF FATIGUE-DAMAGED BRIDGE STRUCTURES 177 ksi) which is consistent with the observed cracks. was recommended as a routine maintenance practice.20. Measured stress-range values for lubricated assemblies were less than 35 MPa (5 FIG. Pin and hanger assembly. Lubrication of the pins was effective in minimizing hanger bending and dynamic effects by reducing pin fixity and as such. . 7.

MENZEMER FIG. . 7. 7.178 J. A longer-term correction would require a redesign of the pin connection as well as effective control of water and debris by the elimination of open expansion joints. However. This level of stress range would not produce fatigue cracking in a virgin hanger.21. FIG.22.C. ksi).FISHER AND C.W. continued propagation of smaller cracks which might exist under rivet heads would occur. Fatigue crack from rivet hole. Corrosion at the pin connection.

15) or Sr>29 ksi (7. Hence. For a crack tip near the edge of a rivet hole. For a crack to reinitiate.18) .13 must be exceeded. fatigue cracking will not be expected to occur at any of the arrest holes.23. the stress intensity factor range becomes (7.13) For a 19·1-mm (3/4-in) arrest hole and a 152-mm (6-in) crack. 7.REPAIR OF FATIGUE-DAMAGED BRIDGE STRUCTURES 179 FIG.5 mm (0·375 in). Cracked hanger plates were retrofitted by the drilling of holes to blunt the crack tips. a crack would have been expected to form at the prior arrest holes.14) With a ligament width of 622 mm (24.16) This stress-range level was exceeded prior to lubrication of the pins owing to the observed large dynamic stress excursions. (7. this becomes (7. With the significant reduction in stress range for lubricated joints. the cracks will propagate at a slower rate owing to the reduction of applied stress range. (7. Strain-time response for dynamic excursion. 7. If small cracks exist under the rivet heads.17) For a hole radius of 11·9 mm (0·47 in) and an existing crack of 10·2 mm (0·4 in). the stress-intensity range is given by (7. the relationship given in eqn.5 in) and a root radius of 9.

FISHER. realistic models and analysis procedures for member interaction and connection behavior are needed to reduce the occurrence of distortion-induced fatigue cracking.W. Martinus Nijhoff. FISHER. J.W. (1985) Hundreds of bridges and thousands of cracks. FISHER. DEMERS. welding can be used.6 CONCLUSIONS As replacement costs for highway bridges are often prohibitive.. 542–6. Civil Eng. although care should be exercised so that low-fatigue-resistance details do not result. Elementary Engineering Fracture Mechanics. an applied stress range of 17 MPa (2·4 ksi) or greater will propagate the cracks at a slow rate. & FISHER. Metals Park.W. P. 55. J. (1984) Fatigue and Fracture in Steel Bridges.W. coupled with implementation of new design tools. Ohio. New York. (1977) Rapid calculation of stress intensity factors. New York. crack propagation will develop.180 J. C. & YAMADA. American Society for Metals. (1986) Failures of bridge components. Once corrosion is identified as a problem. A majority of fatigue-damaged details can be repaired by drilling holes. code revisions and effective technology transfer will help to minimize future structural deficiency problems. 64–7. 103(ST2).W. As such. Structural Div. it is often desirable to repair and retrofit existing structures to maximize the benefit from limited funds. (1977) Bridge Fatigue Guide-Design and Details. extensive repairs are often reqired. Massachusetts. Wiley Interscience. or bolting splices over the damaged areas to strengthen the connection.. 5(4). (1989) A Survey of Localized Cracking in Steel Bridges. Bethlehem. FISHER. .R. FISHER. ASCE. Vol. BROEK. (1982). & MERTZ. D. In some instances. REFERENCES ALBRECHT. ATLSS Report #89–01. Boston. American Institute of Steel Construction. 7. J. Examination of the causes of fatigue cracking and corrosion. 377–89. 11. Identification of low-fatigue-resistant details and effective methods for detail classification would ease the burden on designers and limit the incidence of fatigue cracking. For a riveted section with tension from dead load.W. the crack growth threshold is approximately 4·5 MPa (4 ksi-in).. J.MENZEMER When the stress intensity range becomes larger than the crack-growth threshold. J. weld-toe peening. Simple. Civil Eng. Metals Handbook. Canadian J. Lehigh University. J. ASCE. K.FISHER AND C.W. D.. (1978) Fatigue cracking in bridges from out-of-plane displacements. J.C.

W. (1970) Effect of Weldments on the Fatigue Strength of Steel Beams.C. & BLAKE. & FISHER. Washington. J.W. & MCNAMEE.C.. G. American Society of Testing Materials. ALBRECHT.J. KLINGERMAN. K. KLIPPSTEIN. Pennsylvania. J. H. A.A. Report 286.H. & FISHER. TADA. Structural Div..R. & MCNAMEE. (1986) Evaluation of Fatigue Tests and Design Criteria on Welded Details. Philadelphia. .. & ZHONG. Louis. Washington. National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 267. BARSOM. Missouri..G. FRANK.. Washington.T. D. P. St. National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 147. D.C. J. National Cooperative Highway Research Program.. 105(ST9) .M. National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 186. J.. Del Research Corporation.T. FISHER. P. D. (1978) Fatigue of Welded Steel Bridge Members Under Variable Amplitude Loading. D. K.C.W. National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 102. (1979) Fatigue strength of fillet welded cruciform joints. C.C. J. (1974) Fatigue Strength of Steel Beams with Welded Stiffeners and Attachments.W. P. & IRWIN. G. D. SCHILLING. 1727–40. & SIH. YEN.M..M.W.H. (1987) The Stress Analysis of Cracks Handbook. B. J. M. J.. K. FRANK.REPAIR OF FATIGUE-DAMAGED BRIDGE STRUCTURES 181 FISHER. PARIS. FISHER. D. PARIS. ASTM STP 391. G.. (1983) Steel Bridge Members Under Variable Amplitude Long life Fatigue Loading.H. ASCE. HIRT. B.. MERTZ. P. KEATING. B.B. Washington. Paris Productions. (1965) Stress Analysis of Cracks.

Chapter 8 REINFORCED-CONCRETE FRAMES SUBJECTED TO CYCLIC LOAD C. is drawn from the earthquake-engineering literature.1) poses two separate problems. and design considerations. static loads. which is different for multiple-load applications from that for single. Recent advances in the fields of modeling and analyzing concrete frames for such loading are reviewed.1) As structures are rarely subjected only to static loads. the demand placed on a structure’s capacity to resist load needs to be determined.MEYER Department of Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics. analysis techniques. USA SUMMARY This chapter summarizes important facts known about the response of reinforced concrete frames to cyclic loads. The other task consists of determin ing the structure’s capacity or resistance.1 INTRODUCTION Structural design is based typically on the requirement that the structural strength or resistance S exceed the load effect Q.e. 8. This is especially true for a highly non-linear material such as reinforced concrete. that is. Since the most severe of such loads result from destructive earthquakes. The first one involves the determination of the load effect. exclusively to loads that do not change in time. Columbia University. which suffers progressive damage as it is being exposed to a history of repeated . which can be considered a low-cycle fatigue phenomenon. while properly accounting for the complications caused by the repeated application of load. much information on the behavior characteristics. i. The response of concrete frames to severe cyclic load is accompanied by a gradual process of strength and stiffness degradation. the condition of eqn (8. S>Q (8.

except within certain regions of continuous multispan bridges. 8. Cyclic load categories. The dead weight. which may reach a point where the structure cannot any longer resist the imposed load.1(b). (b) Load fluctuation.1): (8. When considering realistic loads on structures. load applications. In the fatigue analysis of structures it is common to introduce a parameter R defining the ratio of minimum to maximum stress or load amplitude (see Fig. Stress reversals are not very common in this case. If we consider building structures which are subjected to lateral loads. (c) Load swell. establishes a base load level. say of a highway bridge. the situation may be different. 8. and any temporary traffic or live load constitutes a more or less significant deviation therefrom. There are virtually no steady-state horizontal . (a) Static load. (d) Load reversal. it is important to distinguish whether only moderate stress fluctuations or complete stress reversals are the result. Most structures which are subjected to gravity-type loads experience load histories of the type shown in Fig. 8.2) Common sense and experience tell us that a material subjected to a load history with R=−1 (complete load reversal) is likely to suffer more damage than one subjected to a load history with only moderate or no amplitude fluctuations.R–C FRAMES SUBJECTED TO CYCLIC LOAD 183 FIG. This damage manifests itself in a gradually advancing stiffness and strength degradation.1. everything else being equal.

because of the precompression caused by the gravity load.184 C.MEYER loads. The most important sources of lateral loads on buildings are wind. and earthquakes. with load reversals being unlikely. Gravity loads produce stresses both in the girders (shear forces and bending moments) and in the columns (mostly axial forces). it may very well be that no moment reversals will occur (R>0). In the columns. because the energy dissipation through inelastic action can . however. potential dynamic amplification. the actual stresses in the steel and concrete do not necessarily change signs. but the load itself is not of cyclic nature and therefore is not considered here. Horizontal loads applied to either side of a building frame cause bending moments in both the beams and the columns. The important exception is the case of across-wind oscillations caused by vortex-shedding (see Fig. so that temporary loads are more likely to involve complete reversals. Since in the beams these moments are superimposed on the gravity load moments. blast.e. with superimposed pressure fluctuations due to gusting (Simiu & Scanlan. 8. and the duration of a seismic disturbance. 8. Blast loads consist typically of a single impulse. The result is not unlike the load history of Fig. 1978). Earthquake ground motions are basically of a cyclic nature and the loads they cause are among the most destructive known.1(b). which creates one of the most challenging tasks for the structural engineer. Structures are generally designed to respond linear elastically to wind loads. i. But also here we have to distinguish between different cases. In earthquake-resistant design. unless the lateral loads are large compared with the gravity loads. which will cause structural vibrations. entirely elastic response is often neither feasible nor desirable. Wind loads are typically characterized by a steady-state pressure. It is the combination of repeated load application. complete moment reversal is more likely to take place (R=−1) yet.2).

A second important problem is caused by the degradation of strength and stiffness that concrete experiences under repeated load applications. Findings from experimental investigations will be covered as well as important lessons learned from post-earthquake investigations. The final section will discuss the implications of this new technology for the design of reinforced-concrete frames against lateral loads.R–C FRAMES SUBJECTED TO CYCLIC LOAD 185 FIG. namely reducing the seismic loads through inelastic behavior on the one hand and keeping overall displacements. By paying careful attention to reinforcing details it is possible to turn the essentially brittle concrete into a rather ductile material. 8. This analysis task is of extraordinary difficulty and requires careful calibration of the mathematical models against experimentally obtained data. Next. be utilized to limit both the seismic loads and important structural response quantities. especially if complete load reversals and inelastic action are involved. constitutes one of the main challenges of earthquakeresistant design. It is the objective of this chapter to present a concise overview of what is known about the response of reinforced concrete frames to cyclic loads.2. often expressed in terms of ductility ratios. The resulting ‘ductile concrete’ has become an increasingly popular building material in seismic regions of the world. a summary of the current state of the art in numerical simulation of concrete frame response to cyclic loads will be given. . Across-wind oscillations. but our capabilities of modeling reinforced concrete for such analyses have now reached the point where they can be utilized in selected situations in lieu of expensive experimental investigations. Balancing these two design objectives. within acceptable bounds on the other hand.

1974. (2) The stiffness associated with unloading is initially not much different from the stiffness under initial loading. loads or deformations are applied to the test specimens relatively slowly.. Ma et al. These investigations range from quasi-static tests of single members to pseudo-dynamic tests of full-scale buildings. the University of Illinois (Hwang.g. 1982).2 OBSERVED RESPONSE OF R-C FRAMES TO CYCLIC LOAD Mother Nature is a stern but very effective teacher. e. Significant test series involving reinforced-concrete members subjected to cyclic loads have been conducted at numerous institutions. 8. a considerable number of laboratory investigations have been performed to systematically study the factors that determine reinforced-concrete response to cyclic load and to translate the observations and conclusions into practical guidelines for design. Ignoring the strain-rate effect is more problematic.. 1976 and Bertero & Popov.3 shows the load-deflection curve for a cantilever beam tested at UC Berkeley under cyclic loading of increasing amplitudes (Ma et al. This fact has to be recalled when data obtained from quasi-static tests are interpreted and utilized. However. These investigations have led to a wealth of knowledge. the yielding of the steel causes a considerable drop in stiffness. 1976). 1978). the University of California at Berkeley (Bertero et al.1 Quasi-Static Tests of R–C Members In quasi-static experiments. In fact. Lessons learned from post-earthquake investigations are invaluable and form the basis of much of our knowledge. 1975. The following observations can be made from this and similar experimental results: (1) The load-deflection curve is fairly linear up to the yield moment.. because both concrete and steel have been observed to experience strength and stiffness increases up to 10% and even 20% under strain rates common for earthquake-type loads. the farther the load excursion . and the University of Michigan (Scribner & Wight. Figure 8. The neglect of inertia effects is acceptable because these can readily be transformed into equivalent static forces. Thereafter. 1977). thereby ignoring both the inertia effects and any influence that the strain rates of actual loadings may have on the material response.186 C.MEYER 8. But from a modern engineering standpoint we can do and should do better than wait for the next earthquake to happen as a full-scale test of new design concepts. An actual earthquake will decide with incorruptible impartiality and often deadly accuracy which building types and construction details are appropriate and which ones are not. Atalay & Penzien. A brief overview of some of the important points will suffice here.2. to name a few.

(3) The stiffness associated with reloading is even more affected by the extent of previous non-linear load excursions than that for unloading. In the example of Fig. As a result. This can be explained as follows. because the beam behavior was controlled largely by flexure.3 are rather stable and convex. In fact. This can be restored only partially by providing closely spaced lateral reinforcement. (6) Failure is generally due to buckling of the flexural reinforcing bars. the more noticeable is the stiffness decay upon unloading. at which point the only significant source of shear resistance is dowel action. Upon load reversal. (8) In spite of special precautions. Under combined bending and shear. after they have undergone considerable plastic deformations.3.R–C FRAMES SUBJECTED TO CYCLIC LOAD 187 into the inelastic range. After crack closing. The associated part of the load-deflection curve has very small slope (stiffness). After unloading. because in this example the influence of shear was much more significant.4 is striking. large deformations due to bond deterioration (bar pull-out) were observed in most experiments after several load reversals. 8. (7) A considerable increase of a beam’s energy dissipation capacity is possible if equal amounts of steel are provided for the positive and negative reinforcement in the critical regions. 8. a second set of diagonal cracks forms. 8. diagonal cracking develops. roughly orthogonal to the first one. and relatively little load is needed to close it completely. The hysteresis loops of Fig. (5) If more load cycles were applied for each load amplitude. The contrast with the load-deflection curve of Fig. Much of this stiffness degradation can be attributed to the Bauschinger effect and bond deterioration. the ductilities achieved with such . a crack is only partially closed. this is a low-cycle fatigue phenomenon and results from the gradual accumulation of damage (concrete cracking and bond slip) until failure. the stiffness increases considerably. especially after extensive yielding of both top and bottom reinforcement. the energy dissipation capacity of flexural members is greatly reduced in the presence of high shear forces. as compared to members with less reinforcement in the bottom layer of the beam. Such buckling failures can be delayed by reducing the spacing of the lateral reinforcement. until renewed yielding of the steel again causes a stiffness decrease. because vertical flexural cracks may eventually extend over the entire cross section. strength degradation would be more noticeable. no strength decay is noticeable prior to the final load amplitude of over 2 in (5 cm). at an angle of approximately 45° with the beam axis. (4) For small numbers of load cycles with constant amplitude. Diagonal shear reinforcement was found to overcome this problem and to permit large plastic hinge rotations. the beam behavior is remarkably stable. that is until then approximately the same load is required in successive cycles to produce the same deflection.

.188 C.5. 1976)..6 (Atalay & Penzien. as shown in Fig. FIG. as shown in Fig. Load-deflection diagram for cantilever beam with low shear (Ma et al. Load-deflection diagram for cantilever beam with high shear (Ma et al.3. it impacts on the member’s moment capacity.. First. 8. 1975). 1976). 8. 8. were comparable with those of compact steel beams (Bertero et al. as is best illustrated in .MEYER FIG. 8.4. affects the member behavior in several ways. The presence of an axial force in addition to shear and bending. special web reinforcement. 1974).

All of the above observations were made regardless of the confinement of the concrete that may be provided by lateral reinforcement such as continuous spirals or closely spaced stirrups. Hysteresis loops for well-confined concrete members are much more stable. A significant effect of axial force application is the increase in concrete strain. . 8. Whereas previously opened cracks are slower to close when the axial force decreases (or even turns tensile). confinement plays a similar role to that it plays for monotonic loading. This reduction in ductility. thus leading to a noticeable stiffness increase.69%. accompanied by large crack widths and a reduction of shear strength. owing to the overturning moment associated with lateral load. which seeks to avoid inelastic column behavior during seismic disturbances in the first place. and as a result. It delays the strength and stiffness degradation mentioned earlier. In columns. The strain at peak stress increases moderately. and one with 2. leads to instability. the axial force varies as a function of time. as measured by the area under the stress-strain curve. is increased enormously. is the main rationale for the ‘strong column-weak beam’ design criterion. under which the strength of concrete is known to increase considerably. (1) It causes an increase in the concrete’s strength. which can reduce the member’s energy absorption capacity. together with the P–σ effect. In Fig. The restraint of lateral strains creates a three-dimensional state of compression. Next. As a result. (3) Under cyclic loading. even in a monotonic load test. under increasing displacement amplitudes. the axial force causes an additional bending moment (P−σ effect). the energy dissipated by the specimen. which. 1987).8 the hysteresis loops of two column specimens are juxtaposed (Ozcebe & Saatcioglu. and assign the task of energy dissipation to inelastic deformation of the beams only. Such confinement reinforcement affects the behavior of reinforced-concrete members in three ways. The reason for this behavior is the delay of large-scale cracking following the peak stress. Similar effects can be observed in beams with large differences between negative and positive reinforcement. The effect of the confinement steel is dramatic. thereby giving the material a ductility which the normally brittle concrete does not have. the energy dissipation capacity of such members is increased by large amounts. but the strain-softening branch of the stress-strain curve has a much smaller negative slope than that for an unconfined concrete specimen. one with a confinement steel ratio of 1.R–C FRAMES SUBJECTED TO CYCLIC LOAD 189 conventional interaction diagrams. The result is a momentrotation curve such as the one shown in Fig. which translates into a decrease of residual strain capacity available for further loading. 8. Such an asymmetric response may lead to a large accumulation of plastic strain in the reinforcement. 54%. an increase in axial compression causes the cracks to close sooner. 1987).7 (Abrams. (2) It increases the concrete’s deformability.

Load-deflection diagram for beam with special web reinforcement (Bertero et al.190 C. 8. The most .. 8. 8.5. 1974).9).MEYER FIG.2 Frame Subassemblies The question of whether conclusions derived from individual member tests can be used directly to predict the response of entire buildings prompted the investigation of so-called frame subassemblies (see Fig.2.

at the University of Illinois a series of 10-story building frames (approximately one-tenth scale) have been tested on the shaking table (Healey & Sozen. and Buffalo–New York have provided valuable insight into the response of structures to ground motion. coupled with high shear stresses. Such bond deterioration. which is known to influence greatly the overall response of R–C frame buildings. The single most critical factor was found to be bond deterioration within the joint panel zone. to pull through. 1978). and at UC Berkeley a two-story building model of approximately half scale was studied (Clough & Gidwani. causes an early strength and stiffness degradation of beam– column joints. significant feature of such tests. with beam reinforcement yielding in tension at one face of the column and in compression at the other column face. Urbana–Illinois.R–C FRAMES SUBJECTED TO CYCLIC LOAD 191 FIG. Load–deformation diagram for column (Atalay & Penzien. is the beam–column joint. The importance of these investigations derives from the fact that they permit detailed monitoring of structural response to earthquake-type loads under closely controlled conditions and thus can serve . For example. Weight restrictions limit the scope of such studies to scale models. It generally does not require many load cycles. 1976). not present when working with single members. the earthquake research laboratories at the Universities of Berkeley–California.3 Other Tests A very instructive testing method was made possible with the introduction of shaking tables. 8. visible in severely pinched hysteresis loops. which means greatly reduced energy dissipation capacity. 1975). 8. In the United States.2.6.

after the 1985 Mexico City earthquake. Moment-rotation relation for column axial force–deflection variation (Abrams. Whereas public attention generally focuses on those structures which suffer severe damage or even collapse. 1987). 8. shaking table tests. 8. scale-model tests. and a pseudo-dynamic test of a full-scale seven-story reinforced concrete building in Tsukuba (Wight.7.MEYER FIG. much has been written and said about the more than 200 multistory buildings that . 1991).2. This well-coordinated research effort resulted in a better understanding of concrete behavior under cyclic load and raised the confidence level for mathematical models to simulate such behavior. 1985). both for scale and full-scale buildings. The most comprehensive single investigation was sponsored by the United States and Japan as a joint research effort and involved a series of quasi-static component tests.4 Post-Earthquake Observations Each earthquake which subjects concrete structures to severe ground shaking has the potential to expand our knowledge of their response to such loads (Moehle & Mahin. the fact is that most structures behave rather well.192 C. For example. as benchmark cases for the verification of numerical models and analysis procedures as well as novel design concepts.

At the time of this writing the in-depth investigations . The Olive View Hospital. 1987). Each earthquake teaches us lessons on mistakes made in the past and to be avoided in the future. yet hundreds of thousands of buildings were subjected to the earthquake. barely completed. fared so poorly during that earthquake that it had to be torn down. (a) 1. collapsed. Effect of confinement reinforcement on column degradation (Ozcebe and Saatcioglu. 8. and most of them responded very satisfactorily. because it was the first full-scale test of a densely populated area with many modern reinforced-concrete buildings engineered to resist seismic loads.54% confinement steel ratio.R–C FRAMES SUBJECTED TO CYCLIC LOAD 193 FIG.8. One of the most significant examples was the San Fernando Earthquake of 1971. Much of what is now known about proper reinforced-concrete design was learned as a result of the investigations prompted by that earthquake.69% confinement steel ratio. for example. (b) 2. The Loma Prieta Earthquake of 1989 promises to be comparably consequential.

MEYER FIG. discontinuities of vertical structural elements have frequently led to failure. A common problem is associated with infill walls rising only up to the window sills and thus effectively reducing the column heights. Similarly. irregularities of any kind can cause problems. For example. Such short columns may not be able to develop their flexural strengths before failing in shear. but a wealth of information is expected to result from these. Frame subassemblies (Bertero & Popov. damage is likely to concentrate in this first story. can improve the building response by contributing to both stiffness and strength. A common type of this discontinuity is a shear wall that extends over the entire height of a building except for the first story. Among the fundamental rules for aseismic construction are the requirements that the structural system have a simple. flexible frames with masonry infill. 1977). and compact layout and offer redundant load paths in case of local distress. of the effects of this earthquake have barely begun. Also the role of nonstructural components is important. but which it is wiser to avoid. Discontinuities tend to increase loads or deformations often with severe concentrations of stress or strain at the discontinuities. For example.9. changes in story height and heavy concentrated masses. especially if they do in fact influence the structural response. which can be solved with proper detailing. Numerous . if properly designed and detailed. Examples are setbacks.194 C. 8. regular. A most essential ingredient of the continuity requirement is that both structural and non-structural elements be properly tied together so as to permit a continuous load path from the position of large masses such as floor slabs to the vertical load-resisting elements and from there to the foundations. but if improperly designed they may fail prematurely or otherwise impair the structural efficiency. for example on mechanical floors. As a result.

lateral drift deformations have to be limited by providing sufficient stiffness. which are representative of the seismicity of the building site. The P–σ effect can give rise to instability. For most applications. and well constructed. the uncertainty of seismic ground motions alone precludes detailed and potentially costly analyses. to ensure that all inertia loads are safely carried into the walls and columns. Much has been written to justify the use of such simplified analysis methods. Finally. particularly for tall and slender buildings.3 FRAME ANALYSIS 8. Otherwise. cannot constitute much more than educated guesses. the response of a given structure to specified loads. Excessive drift deformations not only cause large damage to building contents and endanger occupants. a determination has to be made as to what degree of accuracy of the calculations is warranted.R–C FRAMES SUBJECTED TO CYCLIC LOAD 195 instances of failure or heavy damage have been observed. but also endanger non-ductile structural elements as well. The value of non-structural components and building contents typically exceeds that of the structure proper. To limit the potential of damage. For practical purposes. it is appropriate to employ accurate models and analysis techniques which realistically simulate the stiffness and strength degradation of concrete members during strong inelastic load cycles. If these three conditions are met. and their damage can constitute a considerable economic loss. thereby endangering building occupants or pedestrians on sidewalks. (2) the load– deformation relationships of the struc ture and its components are strongly nonlinear. the response predictions. in a rational way. The fact is that buildings behave well only if they have been properly designed. well detailed. The analysis problem considered here is made particularly difficult by two factors: (1) the loading (due to earthquake ground shaking) is of a highly random. But in the case of tall buildings and other important structures. Part of this requirement is that adequate diaphragm action can develop both in the roof and the floor slabs.3. with the principal argument that buildings designed on such a basis have behaved rather satisfactorily in earthquakes. then the sophistication of the analysis method employed is indeed of .1 General The purpose of structural analysis is to predict. drift control is important in preserving the vertical stability of a frame. in which cladding elements or unreinforced brick walls were torn loose. especially if based on over-simplified models and analysis methods. unpredictable nature. it may be preferable to predict analytically the margin of safety against serious damage or collapse. 8. This is true for preliminary designs and most routine designs of conventional buildings. When ground acceleration histories are available.

it uncouples the differential equations so that they can be integrated independently of each other. it is also possible to first solve the associated eigenvalue problem and then use the modal matrix to transform eqns (8. i.e. 1983). the earthquake ground motion. respectively. velocity. But it is the essence of the engineering approach that structural response be predicted beforehand as accurately as possible so that any subsequent design decisions can be based on a rational foundation. K are. i. damping. It is true. C.196 C. i. If the structural response is linear (i. The equations 8. and acceleration histories of the structure’s degrees of freedom. Clough & Penzien.e. that in practical design situations the use of advanced analysis techniques is generally limited to special or important structures or for evaluation of a completed or existing design. one may employ a direct integration scheme.3. are. 1975). in which all n equations are integrated simultaneously in the time domain. Moreover.3 assume that the ground motion has only translational and no rotational components. K remains constant).3) where M. They represent a set of n coupled ordinary differential equations. 1982). or generated synthetically using random vibration techniques (Shinozuka & Tan. be represented by deterministic acceleration histories such as may have been recorded during actual earthquakes. where n is the number of degrees of freedom of the structure. the mass.2 Time History Analysis If a sufficiently accurate mathematical model of a reinforced-concrete building is available and the building response is linear. (8. The methods employed by these programs are described in texts on structural dynamics (e. then the computation of this response to load is a relatively routine process and involves the application of wellestablished computer programs. the displacement. 1971.e. x. respectively. 1975.e. Bathe. it is known that the structural response is controlled only by a relatively small number of significant modes. I is the identity matrix and is the ground acceleration history.3) to so-called natural coordinates (Clough & Penzien.g Newmark & Rosenblueth. though. and stiffness matrices of the structure.MEYER secondary importance. These are of the well-known form. But the . It is these new equations then that are integrated in the time domain. where The drawback of this method is that the m eigenvalues and their corresponding mode shapes need to be determined first in an eigenvalue analysis. only m of the n equations need to be solved. 8. Time history analyses require that the loading. This method has the advantage that the transformation results in diagonal coefficient matrices. Equations of motion are established for as many degrees of freedom as are needed to describe the stiffness and mass characteristics of the building. To solve these equations.

as in the case of inelastic behavior.3) in incremental form to reflect the requirement that the incremental dynamic forces acting on a structure during some small time step ′ t be in equilibrium. The piecewise linearization of response histories causes unbalanced forces at the end of each time step which can be resolved by using numerical analysis techniques that are beyond the scope of this chapter (Bathe. which is a computationally expensive task. it is appropriate to rewrite eqns (8. especially if K* continually changes.5) Equations (8. as is generally the case for reinforcedconcrete frames responding to strong cyclic load. the structure’s natural frequencies.e. 8.3) has to be replaced by the tangent stiffness Kt.3 Modeling of Building Components for Cyclic Load Analysis The computation of the dynamic response of a reinforced-concrete building to cyclic loading such as an earthquake can only be as accurate as the model used to represent the structure. the steel and the bond interface between the two in great detail (ASCE. or when ′ t is varied. i. 1982). this method is applicable only if the structure remains linear-elastic. Meyer & Okamura. the numerical integration scheme effectively damps out the contributions of all such modes. (8.R–C FRAMES SUBJECTED TO CYCLIC LOAD 197 determination of these eigenvalues. By selecting a value for ′ t which is much larger than the natural periods of most of the structure’s modes of vibration. the enormous effort required for realistic applications precludes this approach for most practical applications. then the constant structure stiffness K in eqns (8. 1982.4) are transformed into a set of quasistatic equilibrium equations: K* Δx=∆F* (8.4) For earthquake-type loading functions. 1986). The alternative is the use of so-called semi-empirical ‘macro-elements’.5) can be solved for the displacement increments ∆x But this task involves factorization of the effective stiffness matrix K*.e. i. This happens whenever Kt changes. In this case. Although it is possible to model for each member the concrete. Implicit algorithms such as the Newmark method are often unconditionally stable. Only the significant modes with periods well above ′ t continue to contribute to the computed structural response. is often desirable anyway. such as the Newmark method. Again. the solution remains stable irrespective of the choice for the integration time step ′ t.3. These consist of approximations for incremental accelerations and velocities with which eqns (8. for which the . it is common to integrate these equations by some implicit numerical algorithm. If the structure response is non-linear. which in general will change at each time step of integration.

10. 1989). 1989). (4) one for inelastic reloading during closing of previously opened cracks.MEYER FIG. 8. the finite sizes of the plastic regions are accounted for explicitly. used when the moment exceeds the yield moment and is still increasing. In most of these member-size models. valid as long as the moment does not exceed the section’s yield capacity. Chung et al.198 C. stiffness matrix of a single frame member is calculated on the basis of certain hysteresis rules. while the member proper is assumed to remain linear elastic (Clough et al. In more recent models (Roufaiel & Meyer. for moments decreasing after the yield moment has been exceeded. A member’s stiffness degradation progresses as a function of the degree to which the yield point has been exceeded. 1987. and (5) one for inelastic reloading after closing of previously opened cracks. Both loading and unloading stiffnesses are affected. (1970). 1972).. which have been calibrated against experimental test results. 8. Hysteresis rules (Chung et al. The transition from branch 4 to 5 is determined by a ‘crack-closing’ moment. . all inelastic action is assumed to take place within concentrated plastic hinges at the member ends. The inclusion of this detail in the model makes it possible to reproduce the pronounced pinching of the hysteresis loops that can be observed in the presence of high shear forces. which is a function of the member’s shear span-to-depth ratio. 1965. (2) one for inelastic loading. (3) one for inelastic unloading. It may be represented by linear branches of the five different types identified in Fig. Otani & Sozen. (1) one for elastic loading and unloading. The momentcurvature relationship of an R–C section is simulated using a set of rules first proposed by Takeda et al.10.

The tangent member stiffness is then determined by using standard methods of structural analysis. it is relatively straightforward to compute the member deformations (flexibility coefficients) by integrating the curvatures over the member length. Atalay & Penzien (1975) had noticed some correlation between commencement of strength deterioration and the spalling of the concrete cover. provided a sufficiently large number of load cycles is applied. Even for loads only slightly above the yield level. 8. and this deterioration accelerates as the critical load level is approached. 1982) showed that strength deterioration can start at considerably lower load levels. thereby explicitly accounting for the finite sizes of the plastic regions shown in Fig. Once the moment–curvature relationship has been derived from the stress– strain curves for steel and concrete at any member section and for any possible loading branch. 8. Frame member model. But Hwang’s experiments (Hwang.11 (Roufaiel & Meyer. Since the . and is a parameter which depends on material properties and reinforcing details. 8. In addition to stiffness degradation. it is important to include the effect the axial force has on the strength and deformation capacity. damage and strength deterioration can be observed.11. This phenomenon can be reproduced with a strength drop index Sd.12 (Chung et al.6) where ′ M is the moment capacity reduction in a single load cycle up to curvature ′ Mf is the fictitious moment capacity reduction in a single load cycle up to failure curvature is the yield curvature. illustrated in Fig.R–C FRAMES SUBJECTED TO CYCLIC LOAD 199 FIG.. R-C members experience strength deterioration under cyclic loading beyond the yield level. It is suggested therefore that strength starts to deteriorate as soon as the yield load level is exceeded. 1987). When modeling reinforced-concrete columns. 1989): (8.

200 C. yield moment is a function of the time-dependent axial force. complicate the behavior of walls under cyclic load and make the mathematical modeling task extraordinarily difficult (Meyer. 8. When assembling individual component models to produce a model of a complete building and to analyze how the structural members interact to resist load. Since it is impractical to confine the concrete over the entire section depth. Strength drop index. This danger is increased after extensive yielding of the reinforcement. flexural cracks near the base tend to be horizontal. then the other. it is often acceptable to base the yield moment capacity on the axial force caused by gravity loads alone. 1984). when only the bars temporarily resist the reversed load. Under high nominal shear stresses. 1979). an accurate model should recompute the yield moment and monotonic load–deformation curve at each time step (Keshavarzian & Schnobrich. increases the potential for shear failure. often further increased by flanges or wing walls. 1984).12. confinement is usually limited to the boundary members. . so that the wall tilts first about one edge. All of these factors. which reduces the wall’s shear capacity.. it may be in danger of buckling. In a slender column or girder. In any concrete member. this effect tends to be small.MEYER FIG. The large moment capacity of a wall. so that an efficient shear-resisting truss can develop. which is a computationally expensive undertaking. characteristic diagonal cracks control the wall behavior. but not in a wide shear wall. either globally or between stories. a number of additional factors need to be considered. 1976. as only little effective truss action can develop and a sliding shear failure becomes a possibility. When shear stresses are relatively low. among others. For practical purposes. The application of such models to structural walls has to be done with great care. the neutral axis changes its position in the cross section as the member cracks and crushes. Because the cross section of a shear wall tends to be narrow. the neutral axis tends to be close to the compression face. During cyclic loading. accompanied by significant vertical movements at the wall centerline. whose capacity is controlled mostly by the web’s compression capacity (Oesterle et al.

a simple cube of plain concrete subjected to repeated application of load up to a given strain level (Fig. ‘failure’ of the member signifies a specific level of damage. and some computer programs consider the in-plane floor deformations (Meyer. associated with a negligible residual capacity to resist further load (Chung et al. so that a value of 1 corresponds to failure. Similarly. 8. It is common to assume that floors are rigid in-plane. Most damage indices proposed in the literature (Reitherman.. A damage index can then be defined as the damage value normalized with respect to the failure level. More important. experience is limited. Consider. A standard procedure is to assume rigid connections between girders and columns. 1989). Damage of a reinforced concrete member will therefore signify a specific degree of physical deterioration with clearly defined consequences regarding the member’s capacity to resist further load. ‘Guidelines’ therefore cannot be given beyond general discussions. and there is a great deal of uncertainty about ‘correct’ pro cedures. for example. 1991).4 Modeling of Damage The response of concrete buildings to cyclic loads is inextricably tied to the concept of damage.3. and to account for joint deformations in the girder and/or column elements. Most concrete buildings are quite stiff. and there have been relatively few applications in practical design. bond slip is an important cause of joint deformation. It is advantageous to define damage at time t as . Hence. however. Each load cycle is likely to increase the amount of concrete cracking.13) (Bang & Meyer. however.R–C FRAMES SUBJECTED TO CYCLIC LOAD 201 Beam-column joints in reinforced-concrete frames are not rigid. It is up to the engineer to make the various decisions when modeling the structure and interpreting the analysis results for design purposes. so that two-dimensional models are normally used. Chung et al. 1985. if not yielding of flexural reinforcement or even crushing of concrete in compression. In particular. Because of the important influence damage has on the safety and reliability of a building in regard to some future load. is the dynamic soil-structure interaction. both for creating mathematical models and for interpreting analysis results. This assumption may not always be reasonable. At present most seismic analyses of detailed reinforced-concrete building models have been carried out for research purposes. Analyses of three-dimensional response are complex and expensive. Such models may. and the P–σ effect tends to be small unless the lateral loads are very large or damage is growing severely.. 8. it is highly desirable to quantify damage in a rational way such that it can be incorporated into the mathematical model of the building. 1987) are of an empirical nature and are tied to more or less subjective post-earthquake inspections for assessing damage. neglect some important interactions among the different frames of a building. 1989). The boundary conditions associated with the foundations influence the frame response.

In the case of reinforced concrete. (8. strength deteriorates. To eliminate arbitrariness as far as possible. (8. while Ni is the number of cycles with load amplitude i that leads to failure. the confinement steel and reinforcing details have a major effect on σ . The total energy dissipation capacity σ depends not only on the strain level but also on the details of the load history if variable-amplitude loading is applied.MEYER FIG. Figure 8.13.7) where E(t) is the energy dissipated by time t..202 C. 1987). ni is the number of actually applied cycles of load with amplitude i.8) Here. As damage accumulates (or the energy dissipation capacity is exhausted). damage does not accumulate linearly as the widely used Palmgren-Miner hypothesis suggests.14 illustrates the typical agreement between an experimental load-deflection curve and the analytically generated counterpart (Chung et al. This will be the case when the stress-strain curve for plain concrete or the moment-curvature curve for a reinforced concrete member reaches a horizontal slope. 1989). It has been . The determination of σ requires the definition of failure.6). failure may be defined to take place when all strength reserves for further loading have been exhausted. Strength degradation of plain concrete under cyclic loading (Bang & Meyer. and σ the total energy dissipation capacity of the material. 8. This process can be simulated by incorporating the damage parameter into the hysteresis law for the member through the strength drop index Sd of eqn (8. For variable-amplitude loading.

1987). (8. (Fig.e. 1989). shown that eqn (8. (a) Experiment. i. (b) Analysis.9) where σ i is a material parameter which depends on the load amplitude. Our own preliminary investigation indicates that damage in plain concrete accumulates faster in the earlier load cycles. 8. Numerical simulation of degrading R-C beam. and may likewise be represented for loading with constant amplitude i by a power law.8) does not correctly represent damage accumulation in metal structures either (ASCE. 8. 1988).. it is useful to convert the number of cycles ni with some strain level σ i to an equivalent . and a power law representation has been suggested (Kutt & Bieniek.14.15) (Bang & Meyer. (Chung et al. the strain level σ i.R–C FRAMES SUBJECTED TO CYCLIC LOAD 203 FIG. 1982). For variable-amplitude loading.

1988b.11) it is possible to trace the accumulation of damage of the material up to failure. 1988a). on the premise that ni and cause the same amount of damage. (8.15. number of cycles with a different strain level σ j. 1990). have incorporated their damage model into SARCF (Chung et al. and the program will automatically perform iterations towards those target design values. 1989).11) By generalizing eqn (8. The program user specifies acceptable values for the mean and standard or maximum deviation from the mean damage. The incorporation of a damage model into a general frame analysis program gives the design engineer a tool for design options that would be difficult to pursue otherwise.MEYER FIG. . i.. 8.e.10) from which (8.204 C. which in conjunction with a set of built-in design rules permits the execution of an automatic damage-controlled design option (Chung et al. Chung et al. a program for the seismic analysis of reinforcedconcrete frames. In order to keep damage in the building to a minimum. Damage accumulation in plain concrete (Bang & Meyer.. the program attempts to achieve a uniform level of damage (or energy dissipation) throughout the frame.

The designer has to detail the selected structural elements very carefully to ensure that the energy dissipation demand can indeed be met without premature failure. 1986). In a second approach.e. Wakabayashi. there are several design approaches (ACI-ASCE.4 DESIGN FOR LATERAL LOADS It is the ultimate objective of all structural design to devise structures that fulfill their intended purposes with a minimum risk of failure. Thus the internal forces and moments are controlled by the member strength capacities. 1975. member strengths are assigned on the basis of forces and moments determined in a linear elastic analysis.R–C FRAMES SUBJECTED TO CYCLIC LOAD 205 8. Here. the design can be safe provided that the inelastic (plastic) regions are detailed properly to preclude failure under cyclic loading and that instability does not become an issue. In fact. i. A comprehensive review of current lateral load design approaches is beyond the scope of this chapter and is addressed elsewhere (Park & Paulay. Even though the resulting inelastic deformations may be larger than the corresponding elastic deformations would be. The loads associated with major earthquakes are so severe that it is seldom feasible to provide structures with sufficient strength to remain elastic. and care has to be taken that the lateral drift associated with large inelastic deformations does not become excessive. Governed by codes such as the ACI Code (ACI. This line of . weak spots assigned to develop plastic hinges and to dissipate energy under tightly controlled conditions. Any deviations between real and assumed forces are easily accomodated through inelastic moment redistribution. and economic constraints. sufficient ductility capacities have to be ensured. lest instability ensues. In the first approach. only a brief overview of current thinking on the subject will suffice. provided sufficient ductility is available. which assures that hinges form only in the beams and not in the columns. 1989). 1988). Earthquake-resistant design deals with imposed deformations rather than loads. it is all but universally accepted practice to permit local inelastic actions to take place. 1986). with the result that damage is uniformly distributed over the entire frame and therefore can be kept down to a minimum average value. 1975) and Popov’s eccentrically braced steel frames. The standard choice for most structures subjected to static loads is strength design. a number of structural members are deliberately selected to act as ‘fuses’. There are basically three different approaches to dissipating the large amounts of energy that a damaging earthquake imparts on a reinforced-concrete building. In principle. The simplest and most common example is the strong column-weak beam concept. In capacity design (Park. given all statistical uncertainties of loads and resistances. Examples of this design philosophy are Park and Paulay’s solution for coupled shear wall buildings (Park & Paulay. a special hierarchy of member strengths is devised that assures that plastic hinges form in a prespecified sequence. all or most structural elements are called upon to share equally in the task of energy dissipation. At the same time.

(3) Since it is preferable to have plastic hinges form in the beams rather than in the columns. the columns should have flexural strengths 1. Design guidelines are given in the report of ACI Committee 352 (ACIA. (2) When detailing the joint for shear.e. Current design practice recognizes three different levels of design earthquakes. Beam–column joints are subject to high shear forces. i. both structural and non-structural damage is acceptable. is simultaneously pushed and pulled on opposite sides.206 C. It is desirable that such damage be repairable. For strong earthquakes with very low probability of occurrence. For moderately strong earthquakes of less frequency. This implies that for such load levels.SCE. 1985) and can be summarized as follows. the degradation of the concrete shear capacity under cyclic load should be recognized. This demand calls for large joint dimensions relative to the selected bar sizes. An important key to design success or failure is the attention paid to design details. It should be sufficiently stiff so that deformations remain small and damage to non-structural components is insignificant. but the structure itself should not be damaged. especially high demands are placed on the bar’s capacity to transfer bond stresses within the limited joint size. the structure’s response remains essentially elastic.4 times those of the beams framing into the same joints if these joints are part of the primary system that resists seismic lateral load. . and active or passive control mechanisms. but all of them are expected to dissipate similar amounts of energy. especially for beam–column joint regions and all other regions in which inelastic action is expected. some non-structural damage is acceptable. (4) The bending moments acting on a joint zone are such that any bar. it is permissible to activate the entire energy-dissipation capacity of the building short of reaching failure. frictional dampers. This can be achieved by lateral reinforcement or transverse members framing into the joint. vertical or horizontal. which increases the share of the load to be carried by shear reinforcement. or both. axial forces. (1) The compression forces from the columns require adequate lateral confinement of the concrete. bending moments and bond stresses and are particularly susceptible to failure under cyclic load. This design concept is easily combined with the strong column-weak beam principle. so that only beams are permitted to develop plastic hinges. under no circumstances should the structure lose its integrity or suffer collapse. To achieve this goal. Bar offsets should be avoided in joint regions. Thus. A third design approach attempts to avoid altogether the energy dissipation issue within the structure proper by relying on base isolation.MEYER thinking has been widespread among practitioners and is the basis for the damage-controlled automatic design procedure mentioned earlier. A building should resist minor but frequent earthquakes without any damage. but life safety remains the overriding design principle.

thereby increasing the structure’s reliability. In reinforced concrete. ACI Structural J. D. Berkeley. REFERENCES ABRAMS. which eventually cause failure. the failure is more gradual. detailing. 8. the survival of a structure cannot be fully assured. ASCE. This failure mode.P. in concrete there is a complex system of microcracks. EERC 75–19.5 CONCLUSIONS The response of reinforced-concrete frames to cyclic load is characterized by gradual accumulation of damage in the concrete.B. provided sufficient confinement reinforcement is present. Shear and Axial Force. ASCE COMMITTEE on Fatigue and Fracture Reliability (1982) Fatigue Reliability. which passes through various phases until one or more predominant cracks develop. . It is the inherent toughness of ductile concrete that assures the life safety of reinforced-concrete buildings. J. observed occasionally in laboratory experiments.. 84(3). M. ACI Report 442R-88.H. & PENZIEN. ATALAY. 108(ST). But if it is sufficiently confined. (1982) Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Concrete. Report No. Special Publication. NILSON. Structural Div. the random and unpredictable nature of earthquake motions. ACI COMMITTEE 318 (1989) Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete. once a crack becomes unstable. 246–54. the degradation process can be slowed appreciably. Earthquake Engineering Research Center. ACI Standard 318–89. J. But the present state of the art of reinforced-concrete design has advanced to the point where such survival can reasonably be expected if proper design. Failure of metal structures is typically a sudden phenomenon. ACI Report 352R-85. A. (1975) The Seismic Behavior of Critical Regions of Reinforced Concrete Components as Influenced by Moment. and uncertainty concerning the properties of the materials subjected to strong cyclic loads. is difficult to predict numerically because of the lack of experimental data. ASCE TASK COMMITTEE ON FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES. and construction practices are followed. ACI-ASCE COMMITTEE 352 (1985) Recommendations for Design of Beam-Column Joints in Monolithic Reinforced Concrete Structures. Whereas in metals the length of a single crack serves as a useful damage indicator. CHMN. It is also possible that the flexural reinforcement itself suffers low-cycle fatigue failure. ACI-ASCE COMMITTEE 442 (1988) Response of Concrete Buildings to Lateral Forces. University of California. Because of this failure mode.R–C FRAMES SUBJECTED TO CYCLIC LOAD 207 Concrete will invariably deteriorate under strong load reversals. ASCE. (1987) Influence of axial force variations of flexural behavior of reinforced concrete columns.

M. (1988b) SARCF—Seismic Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Frames. (1987) Seismic Damage Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Members. (1978) Experimental Study of the Dynamic Response of a Ten-Story Reinforced Concrete Frame with a Tall First Story.L. CLOUGH. M. University of Illinois. 86(3). & SHINOZUKA.. EERC 76–15. CHUNG.MEYER BANG. EERC 76–2. Structural Research Series No. E. T. BATHE. & SHINOZUKA. BERTERO. Y.. KESHAVARZIAN. V. Structural Research Series No. University of Illinois.S. (1974) Hysteretic Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Flexural Members with Special Web Reinforcement. MEYER.P. Third World Conference of Earthquake Engineering. AIAA Journal. Urbana. Report No. (1977) Seismic behavior of ductile moment-resisting reinforced concrete frames. V.M. & POPOV.Y. W. (1976) Experimental and Analytical Studies on the Hysteretic Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Rectangular and T-Beams. National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research. University of California. . C. & SHINOZUKA.. & BIENIEK. Dept. C.V.A. Technical Report NCEER-87–22. 259–71. K. & SCHNOBRICH. M. & GIDWANI. E. & MEYER. E. J. MEYER. T. In Reinforced Concrete Structures in Seismic Zones. & PENZIEN. S. & WILSON. CHUNG. 326–40. KUTT. M. (1988) Cumulative damage and fatigue life prediction. M.S. 26.J. Earthquake Engineering Research Center. (1976) Reinforced Concrete Frame 2: Seismic Testing and Analytical Correlation. MEYER. C.. Urbana.P. & WANG.P. BERTERO. (1982) Effects of Variation of Load History on Cyclic Response of Concrete Flexural Members. & SHINOZUKA. Report No. POPOV. 515.P. R. McGraw-Hill. R.208 C. of Civil Engineering. & SOZEN. National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research.W. M. (1990) Automatic seismic design of RC building frames. Y. of Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics. CHUNG. MEYER. K. (1984) Computed Seismic Response of R/C Wall-Frame Structures.S.V. Y.V. C.S. University of Illinois. Technical Report NCEER-88–44. Thesis. V. EERC 74–9. T. (1988a) Automated Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete Buildings. (1965) Inelastic earthquake response of tall buildings. Earthquake Engineering Research Center. CHUNG. E. BERTERO. 213–19. ACI Structural J. National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research. M. CLOUGH. C.D. State University of New York at Buffalo.S. M. Prentice-Hall. Berkeley. 87(3). Berkeley.J. BENUSKA.W. State University of New York at Buffalo. Berkeley. & POPOV..V. State University of New York at Buffalo. CHUNG. New York. Report No. CLOUGH.C. Y. MA.S. Y. T. University of California.. Columbia University. R. New Jersey. J. (1975) Dynamics of Structures. New Zealand. Earthquake Engineering Research Center. 450. ACI Special Publication SP-53. Dept. HEALEY. University of California. MEYER. (1982) Finite Element Procedures in Engineering Analysis.L.W.. Ph. (1989) Modeling of concrete damage. C. New York. Englewood Cliffs. (1989) Damage of Plain Concrete as a Low-Cycle Fatigue Phenomenon. HWANG. ACI Structural J. & SHINOZUKA. M. Urbana.H. Technical Report NCEER-88–24.

ASCE. 2. (1972) Behavior of Multistory Reinforced Concrete Frames During Earthquakes.. 2(3). ACI Special Publication SP-84. S. J. M. Illinois.Japan Research. EERI. S. N. R. Skokie. & PAULAY. M. Earthquake Spectra. New York. et al. 308–15. Earthquake Spectra. E. SCRIBNER. R. F. ACI Structural J. Department of Civil Engineering. SIMIU. 565–619.S. ACI Special Publication.-Japan Seminar. Swansea. R. Tokyo. 392. New York. (ed. Englewood Cliffs.. of the International Conference on Computer-Aided Analysis and Design of Concrete Structures. OESTERLE. (1986) Design of Earthquake Resistant Buildings. N. SHINOZUKA. Report No. & WIGHT. (1979) Earthquake Resistant Structural Walls—Tests of Isolated Walls. ASCE Special Publication. Portland Cement Association. & NIELSEN.G. M. C. REITHERMAN. NEWMARK. (1985) A review of earthquake damage estimation methods. (1971) Fundamentals of Earthquake Engineering.Skokie. E. 84(4).F. J. . G.H. In Inelastic Design Procedures for Reinforced Concrete Structures Subjected to Earthquakes.A. Wiley. Prentice-Hall. 113(3).S. MOEHLE. R.G. Illinois. SOZEN. C.L. (1987) Analytical modeling of hysteretic behavior of R/C frames. In Inelastic Design Procedures for Reinforced Concrete Structures Subjected to Earthquakes. Structural Div. M. OTANI. In Proc.N.Y. C. R. R. C. ed. U. (1983) Seismic Reliability of Damaged Reinforced Concrete Beams. (1970) Reinforced concrete response to simulated earthquakes. & SCANLAN. Proceedings of U. ASCE.. 109(7). University of Michigan. McGraw-Hill. Pineridge Press. Portland Cement Association. New York. WAKABAYASHI. C. J.P. WlGHT. TAKEDA. 2557–73.M. ACI Special Publication. ASCE. Structural Research Series No. J. ROUFAIEL. Structural Eng. (1984) Earthquake analysis of structural walls. 96(ST12). J. et al. & MEYER. MEYER. R. & SAATCIOGLU. New York.) (1985) Earthquake Effects on Reinforced Concrete Structures.S.. & MAHIN. T. Urbana. MEYER. UMEE 78R2. (1975) Reinforced Concrete Structures. Structural Eng. 1(4). (1986) Ductile design approach for reinforced concrete frames. Phase II. Vol. & OKAMURA. H. (1976) Earthquake Resistant Structural Walls—Tests of Isolated Walls. J. M. (1987) Confinement of concrete columns for seismic loading. (eds) (1986) Finite element analysis of reinforced concrete structures. 1617–34.A.R–C FRAMES SUBJECTED TO CYCLIC LOAD 209 MEYER. T.K. (1991) Computation of inelastic response. PARK. ASCE.K. M. (1978) Delaying Shear Strength Decay in Reinforced Concrete Flexural Members Under Large Load Reversals. EERI. Ann Arbor. & SOZEN. (1991) Observations on the behavior of reinforced concrete buildings during earthquakes. & TAN. OZCEBE. (1978) Wind Effects on Structures. OESTERLE.Damjanic et al.A. PARK. Wiley. New Jersey. & ROSENBLUETH.. University of Illinois.

The analysis indicates that very thin. This analogy has been used to develop a simple method of analysis which utilizes the post-buckling strength. and the seismic behaviour of steel plate shear wall assemblies. University of Alberta. load excursions under wind loading levels.Chapter 9 UNSTIFFENED STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALLS G. This included examination of stiffness (drift). unstiffened webs can meet normal strength and stiffness requirements. An extensive experimental programme has been used to verify the analytical results. Canada SUMMARY A number of buildings have been constructed in recent years using steel plate shear walls. An obvious analogy exists between a steel plate shear wall core and a plate girder. most notably in the United States and Japan. The consequence of the conservative approach used is that either relatively thick plates must be used or the plates must be heavily stiffened. Design practice has been to calculate the capacity of the shear wall either on the basis of attainment of shear yield or using the stress that will produce shear buckling of the plate. storey height Second moment of area of column .KULAK Department of Civil Engineering.L. NOTATION Ab Ac fQu h Ic Cross-sectional area of beam Cross-sectional area of column Ultimate frame load Panel height. Any additional strength that might be present after the web has buckled is neglected. ultimate strength.

the latter will probably govern whether the plate is unstiffened. shear walls. with Kbracing used in the upper 14 floors. In general. particularly if the amount of fabrication necessary is high. a steel plate shear wall core will be much lighter than reinforced concrete. reduces the number of different trades working at any one time. yielding reduced foundation costs. alternatively. deformation Deflection required to develop tension field Stress 9. most notably in the United States and in Japan. One is a lack of understanding of how to design the system and the other is a lack of knowledge as to the seismic behaviour of the system. braced frames. and should result in a useful increase in usable floor area. regardless of whether the main structural frame was concrete or steel. is a structure in West Germany. This is the Bayer-Hochhaus in Leverkusen. These are moment-resisting frames. shear cores have been constructed almost exclusively of reinforced concrete. the steel plate . Generally. It is a 32-storey building and the lateral load resistance is provided by steel plate shear walls in the lower 18 storeys. Resulting plate thicknesses are relatively large or. shear walls have proved to be an effective and economical bracing system for buildings in the range of 15–40 storeys. it is usual to use one of four sytems to resist lateral forces. Until recently. Two features have inhibited more widespread use of steel plate shear walls. however. stiffeners must be used at frequent intervals. The approach used by the Japanese has been strongly influenced by seismic requirements.UNSTIFFENED STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALLS 211 L P Py Qy QULT w w Qb w Qy σ σ ′ σ Panel length Axial load in column Yield load of column System yield load System ultimate load Panel thickness Ultimate wall load Yield wall load Angle of inclination of tension field Deflection of column. A number of steel-framed buildings have been built throughout the world using steel plate shear walls. It is usually quicker to erect. One of the earliest examples. For the usual dimensions involved. Both of these have the effect of reducing the economic attractiveness of the system. Current design practice in North America is to calculate the shear resistance on the basis of either the shear yield strength of the plate or the shear buckling capacity.1 INTRODUCTION In the design of high-rise buildings. In general. and so-called tubular structures.

repetitive displacement under wind load. The shear stresses shown on the element located orthogonally with respect to the girder (Fig. however. In all cases.2 BASIS OF THE ANALYTICAL METHOD Prior to buckling. 9. At this point. The Japanese approach is to assign only lateral loads to the shear wall system. one tensile and one compressive. 9. The tensile principal stress. A major difference between the approach used in the United States and that taken by the Japanese has to do with the treatment of the gravity loads. and the floor beams are the transverse stiffeners of the girder.L. 9. as shown in Fig. the building columns act as the girder flanges. The analytical method developed on this basis to describe the strength and deformation characteristics of a steel plate shear wall will be described. The shear force applied can be increased until the shear buckling stress of the panel is exceeded. 9. and quasi-seismic loading will be presented. shear walls used contain many stiffeners. The American approach.1(a)) can be replaced by an equivalent case. After buckling. the panel buckles (moves out-of-plane). Since civil engineering practice recognizes the considerable post-buckling strength that may be present in a plate girder web due to tension field action. An obvious analogy exists between a steel plate shear wall stack and a vertically oriented plate girder.212 G. The results of physical testing of large-size specimens under static loading. in general. it seemed reasonable to examine this approach for the case of steel plate shear walls.1(b). the steel plate was unstiffened in the panel region formed by the intersection of the columns and beams bounding the core. a web plate subjected to pure shear is considered to behave as shown in Fig.1. both vertical and horizontal. the element located at 45°. the steel shear wall is the web. The resisting mechanism developed in the plate is changed by the buckling action.KULAK FIG.1. The stresses on this element are the principal stresses. In the shear wall stack. is limited only by the yield strength of the material. Web plate in shear. the compressive principal stress cannot increase any further. 9. and it will continue to increase in response to the load after the web . is to include the gravity loads in the steel plate shear wall analysis. The goal is that shear buckling be precluded prior to attainment of shear yield in the plate.

They studied the intermediate case of webs falling between the two extremes of shear-resistant webs. those webs whose strength is considered to be limited by shear buckling. 9.3 METHOD OF ANALYSIS The basis of the proposed method of analysis for the static strength of an unstiffened steel plate shear wall has already been presented. in practice. Kuhn et al. The method of Wagner and Kuhn is the basis for the analytical method described below. beams. 9. hence. Their work involved some empiricism. the steel plate shear wall core (Fig. The method of analysis will take the flexural stiffness of the columns (the plate girder flanges) into account. Wagner (1931) was the first to present a theory describing the postbuckling strength which develops in thin webs subjected to shearing forces. (1952). Aluminium alloys. To summar ize. and his formulation considered only the contribution resulting from the diagonal tension field (‘pure diagonal tension’). and pure diagonal tension webs. This led Wagner to assume that the shear buckling resistance of the web was negligible. the buckles that form in the plate after the buckling stress has been exceeded do not inhibit the strength of the material in the direction of the diagonal tension field.UNSTIFFENED STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALLS 213 FIG. and reverted to a trial-and-error solution if the flanges were not infinitely stiff. a low buckling strength. and web plate in the core will be treated as a vertical plate girder. have a low modulus of elasticity and.1(c)). used almost exclusively for aircraft membranes. has buckled. 9. A number of simplifying assumptions are made: . Saying the same thing in another way. based on tests of aluminium alloy plate girder webs. Steel plate shear wall core.2. 9. expanded upon Wagner’s work and developed a theory of ‘incomplete diagonal tension’. This tension field action can provide significant postbuckling strength for the panel. web buckling often occurs at loads less than the design load. that is. up to the yield stress level (Fig.2) consisting of the building columns.

will be modelled as a series of inclined strips. assumed to act as shown in Fig. Ab and Ac are the crosssectional areas of beam and column. This assumption is justified on the basis that the difference in tension field intensity from floor to floor will. As detailed by Thorburn et al. 9. 9. Moreover. Fig. expressions are written for the work in one panel due to the tension field and due to the associated forces in the two boundary columns and one beam. in general. w is the panel thickness. each bar having an area equal to the product . either as a result of handling or due to welding distortions. and Ic is the second moment of area of the column. respectively. it can usually be expected that the plate will already be non-planar following completion of fabrication. 9. The expression for total work is then minimized by differentiating with respect to the angle of inclination. The procedure used herein was based on that developed by Wagner (1931). 9.3. the application of the principle of least work. (1983) and Timler & Kulak (1983). the angle of inclination of the tension field must be determined.4 shows the assembly of the model.1(c)). not be large.214 G. As the final step in modelling the typical panel. This neglects any beneficial effects of strainhardening and ignores the effect of the compressive stresses acting on the strip (Fig. σ .KULAK FIG. namely. (2) The tension field. The plate thickness of the web will generally be so small relative to the plate width and height that the load required to buckle the plate will be very low. respectively.3. (3) The limit of action of a single strip will be that corresponding to the tension yield strength of the strip. Strip model.1) where σ is the angle of inclination of the tension field L and h are the panel length and height.L. (4) Bending of the floor beam due to the action of the tension field is assumed to be nil for a typical interior panel. The tension field is represen ted by the series of bars inclined at angle σ . The resulting expression is (9. (1) The shear buckling capacity of the web will be neglected.

1983). is uniquely related to the boundar conditions shown in Fig. In the structure shown in Fig. The bar is assumed to be pinconnected to the surrounding frame and capable of transmitting only axial force. run between alternate column-beam intersections. The deflection of the equivalent truss . Using the inclined bar model.1). Strip model for typical storey. The forces imposed on the boundary members are used to check the capacities of those members. 9. and moment at various locations in the boundary members and the tension forces in the web plate. the distribution of forces in a given shear panel can be established. of course. it would not be inclined at the same angle ′ as the tension field. σ . Other beam or column boundaries can. The bars are obtained by dividing the plate into a series of strips of equal width. It should be noted that the angle of inclination of the tension field. The forces in the web plate are used to establish a strength Innit for the plate and to design the connection between the plate and the frame.4. but a typical 10-storey building showed that 10 strips per panel was an adequate representation (Thorburn et al.4. (The truss diagonal would. The program also calculates the lateral deflection of the system. the deflection of the steel plate shear wall system can be calculated. 9. given by eqn (9. the beams are pin-connected to continuous columns. shear. Using the inclined bar model. The deflection of the panel is checked against the drift limit. The number of strips required for satisfactory modelling depends on the particular circumstances. a plane frame program can be employed to analyse the response of a panel to an applied shearing force. 9. be modelled. of the bar width and the web plate thickness. The stiffness characteristics of a given wall can be expressed in an alternative way by replacing the tension zone of the steel plate with an equivalent truss element having the same storey stiffness.. By means of this strip representation of the plate. and the sum of all storey deflections and the effect of column shortening are combined to calculate the overall deflection of the entire structure. These include the axial force. of course.UNSTIFFENED STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALLS 215 FIG.) A similar approach was taken earlier by Japanese researchers.4.

and web FIG. 9. The deflection of the entire assembled equivalent braced structure can then be calculated using any of the common frame analysis programs. As an illustration of the forces within the tension field. defined in eqn (9. To calculate the area of an equivalent brace. and the distribution of forces within the panel are influenced by panel geometry (bay width and storey height). web thickness.4 SOME ANALYTICAL RESULTS The extent to which a tension field forms in a given panel. If geometry. it would still be advantageous to consider use of the equivalent brace system in multistorey structures in which there is frequent repetition of sizes.5 can be considered. A similar procedure would be used for other zones and then the various equivalent braces applied within their appropriate zones.1). Nevertheless. column stiffness. 9. Distribution of tension field forces.L. the frame of Fig.5. 9. column and beam areas. is itself dependent upon the panel dimensions.216 G. This last factor.KULAK system is set equal to this and a virtual-work analysis of the truss is used to compute the brace area required to give it the same lateral stiffness. Therefore. it is still necessary to model the structure as described above and use the plane frame analysis. . column. column stiffness. Here the frame dimensions. and web plate thickness. the panel stiffness. beam and plate sizes are common within a given zone. This would result in considerably less work than an analysis of the total structure using the inclined bar model. and the angle of inclination of the tension field. there would appear to be no advantage to the equivalent truss approach. beam size. the equivalent brace area could be calculated for a typical panel in this zone.

Since the permissible stiffness and strength limits are 7·32 mm and 270 MPa. design aids suggest that a web plate 3.1 mm thick would provide adequate strength and meet the drift limitation. results in a fairly uniform and well-developed stress field in the web. each resisting one-half of the total applied force. stress as much of the web as possible to the permissible limit. (It must also be noted that the former relates to factored loads. one approach is to satisfy the stiffness requirements and then to simply accept the resulting stress field in the web. the resulting structure would have to be examined to see whether it satisfies the drift limitations. respectively. and the latter to specified loads if a limit states design format is being used. 9. The resulting storey drift (including the effect of column shortening) was 6·80 mm and the maximum stress in the tension field due to the factored shear force was 220 MPa. results in portions of the ‘tension’ field actually in compression. the web is less effective in developing a tension field. column stiffnesses (I/L) greater than about 500×103 mm3 give stresses through the tension field that are approximately uniform. that is. the Thorburn et al. The design aids provided by Thorburn et al. Thorburn. Figure 9. 9.5(a). Although there is no general way of deciding which of these two sequences is preferable. the panel . The storey height is 3·66 m and the bay width in the core area is 9·00 m. experience does indicate that the design of cores in high-rise buildings is usually controlled by drift. The corresponding moment of inertia for the storey height of 3·66 m is 1850×106 mm4. To check the preliminary design. In order to produce an acceptable design. both strength and stiffness requirements must be met.5(c). As an illustrative example of building design under static loading only. Alternatively. The stress in the most highly loaded strip would be compared to the factored yield strength of the material to ensure that the stresses are within the acceptable range. The use of the very flexible column.5(b) shows that as the column stiffness is reduced. The first storey has two identical shear walls. Fig. The width of the building perpendicular to the direction of the wind is 45 m. show that for these panel dimensions. the designer’s main objective could be to make optimum use of the web material. The stiffest column. The former value is used for the deflection calculations and the latter for strength calculations. Based on axial loads only. the storey shear due to wind is 5760 kN and the factored shear load is 8640 kN.UNSTIFFENED STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALLS 217 plate thickness are held constant as the column moment of inertia is varied. et al. Fig. As a final step in this approach. Selecting a trial column section for which Ic=225×106 mm4 and Ac=48 600 mm2.) To achieve this. (1983) considered a 25-storey building located in Edmonton. a panel with a 3·5 mm thick web plate was modelled as a series of strips and analysed. the columns in the first storey of a 25-storey office building would be expected to be in this size range. For these conditions and for the first storey. Canada. The yield strength of the steel was taken as 300 MPa (N/mm2). The drift restriction is h/500 per storey.

and for the top panel the resisting element could be provided in the form of a truss or a deep girder. the web plate is lapped over the fish plate. 9.218 G. At the bottom level of a steel shear core this rigid element could be large girder. a fish plate or angles would be attached in the fabrication shop to the boundary elements and the shear wall plate bolted onto this in the field. . all of the forces in the boundary members will be available as part of the output. It should be noted that handling considerations would probably preclude use of any plate thinner than about 4·5 mm. aligned and held in place with a few erection bolts or tack welds. The second arrangement also uses a fish plate shop-welded to the boundary members. At the extreme top and bottom panels in a multistorey shear wall system. a restriction must be imposed on the panel dimensions. The vertical components of the tension field at the ends of a shear wall stack must therefore either be taken out of the core or resisted internally. the web in end panels can be proportioned in such a way that the shear stresses will not exceed the critical buckling stress for the panel.L. The conventional methods used for the design of highstrength bolts or welds can then be applied. The column must be designed for the additional axial compression and bending which result from the vertical and horizontal components of the web forces. it must be recognized that additional forces are imposed upon these members by the action of the tension field. In the field. In the former case. and then finally welded.KULAK design is satisfactory. such as is commonly done in the design of a plate girder.5 RELATED DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS When designing the beams and columns that form the boundaries of a shear wall web. Alternatively. The beam design must now accommodate an additional axial load (the member now becomes a beam– column). Connection forces can be obtained directly from the member forces in the strip model used for analysis. The former can be accomplished by providing a rigid element at the extreme top and bottom of the core in order to anchor the inclined stresses in the adjacent panels. To ensure that buckling will not occur in these ‘anchor’ panels. the vertical components of the tension field forces which act on the beams are not balanced by equal and opposite forces in an adjacent panel. Direct connection of a web plate to its beam and column boundaries can be done with either high-strength bolts in a slip-resistant connection or by using welds. and the design should include a recognition of possible instability problems if sufficient lateral support is not present. If the structure has been modelled using the inclined bar model described above and analysed using a plane frame program.

i. Following a description of these tests and presentation of the test results. the arrangement was chosen in order to provide a severe test of the effect of the beam-to-column rotations on the web plate at this corner.6 EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION The experimental verification of the analytical method included both static loading and quasi-earthquake loading cases. were also builtup sections. Including Quasi-Wind Cyclic Loading In order to substantiate the proposed analytical method. The columns. A second test of the validity of the analytical method was obtained when the specimen used for quasi-earthquake loading was loaded finally to failure.6. oriented horizontally in Fig. It represents two single-storey. The bay width was 3·75 m and the storey height was 2·50 m. and the second also included the ultimate load test of a specimen that had been already cycled under quasi-earthquake loading.6 shows the specimen tested. the horizontal members in the test specimen represent the columns. were built-up sections approximately equivalent to a Canadian section W310×129 (AISC designation: W12×87).6. The members oriented vertically in the test specimen correspond to the beams in the prototype.UNSTIFFENED STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALLS 219 9. beam-to-column connections would probably be made using web framing angles. This is consistent with the design assumption for interior beams located in shear wall stacks (Thorburn et al.1 Static Loading Case. a situation of nil bending exists for this member. The first of these also included the case of quasi-wind cyclic loading.6. 1983).e. a single largescale specimen was fabricated and tested. In the prototype structure. the beams in the prototype.2). (see Section 9. the out-of-plane behaviour of the plate under service load reversals (quasi-wind cyclic loading). The use of a symmetric model provided a condition of infinite stiffness at the interior beam located vertically at the centre of the specimen. a section approximately 310 mm deep and with a mass of 129 kg/ m.. The vertically oriented members. and the ultimate load behaviour of the system. They would be assumed to act as a simple connection.6. By having equal and opposing transverse (horizontal) components of the tensile field acting on either side of the interior beam. one-bay steel shear wall elements. 9. an analytical model for use under earthquake loading is presented. They were approximately equivalent to W460×144 (AISC designation: W18×97) sections. The major areas of interest of the testing programme were the examination of the tension field development within the web plate. 9. 9. These dimensions and framing sizes represent . The sizes of the various components in the specimen and the panel geometry are shown in Fig. Figure 9. True pin connections were used in this test specimen.

6. Because the purpose of the experimental programme was to test a thin-webbed unstiffened steel shear wall. A 5-mm web plate was selected.KULAK FIG. these loads simply correspond to the shear load on the panel delivered first in one direction and then in the other. It was connected to the adjacent framing members by means of the fish plate arrangement shown in Section A–A of Fig.6. In so far as the behaviour of the specimen is concerned.) . The overall test set-up is shown in Fig. Although the beam size chosen is somewhat larger than would be expected in actual construction practice with respect to the column size. A pin-connected clevis delivered either tensile or compressive loads from the crosshead of the 6200-kN capacity testing machine to the top of the interior beam. the thinnest hot-rolled plate readily available was used. 9.L. The web plate was aligned such that its plane coincided with the planes of the webs of the beams and columns. 9. Test specimen: static loading case.) The fabricated structure was tested as a simply supported deep beam. two shear panels were thereby tested.7. (The measured static yield strength of the plate used for the web was 271 MPa. this cross-sectional properties were necessary in order that the tension field in the web plate of this test specimen have a satisfactory boundary. (The terms ‘tensile’ or ‘compressive’ are used here only to describe the sense of the load delivered by the testing machine. The loading was applied vertically at mid-span and the reactions to the floor were transferred at the ends. reasonable structural proportions. All steel except that used for fittings was to have a yield strength of 300 MPa.220 G. Because of the symmetry. 9.

(The discrepancy between maximum load levels is accounted for by the dead load of the specimen. within measurement tolerances. It was followed by Test No. The specimen was cycled three times such that a drift limit of h/400 was reached during each excursion. The web.) The slopes of Test 2 and 3 agree well enough. The boundary conditions present in the test specimen. as fabricated. For all load applications. linear elastic behaviour is observed. and ultimate load. The . 1983) and only a summary of selected results will be given here. a cyclic loading to the allowable serviceability deflection limit. depending upon the direction of the applied load. where the loading sequence was 0 to 2145 to 0 to 2063 kN. During the load reversals carried out within the first loading procedure. Of course.8. beams. Loading of the specimen either increased or decreased the amplitude of the initial deflections. satisfactory agreement between observed and predicted behaviour was obtained for strains in the columns. The profile of the plate under load was nearly identical under successive load excursions and the plate returned to its no-load profile. and the hysteresis behaviour of Test 3 shows that the slopes between identical load excursions are essentially the same. and web plate. Following completion of the service load excursions. was not planar under no-load. 3. after each cycle. This meant that the increase in amplitude over the initial profile of this plate was only about 11 mm.) Two loading sequences were used during the testing of this specimen. A full description of the test results is available elsewhere (Timler & Kulak. and it was attained by application of a load of 2104 kN. 9. the specimen was loaded to failure by application of a compressive load from the testing machine. That expression was developed for the boundary conditions commonly present in multistorey buildings and as pictured in Fig. The very small residual deflections noted upon unloading may have been a result of yielding within the frame system. the measured initial outof-flatness was approximately 9 mm over a length of 1275 mm. both tensile and compressive forces were applied by the testing machine. 9. perfectly flat plate. This drift limit corresponded to a deflection at the centreline of the test specimen of 6·25 mm. 2 was a compression loading cycle. 9. no prediction could be made for the out-of-plane deflections of the web. but more likely they resulted from local yielding in the various parts of the loading apparatus. The larger frame displacement during the tension cycles is probably the result of elongation of tie-down bolts in the reaction fixtures. The maximum out-of-plane deflection under service load was about 20 mm. (Equation (9. deflection of the system.1) cannot be applied directly.6. Generally. as shown in Fig. measured with respect to a theoretical. and a final loading excursion until failure of the structural system was reached. A plot of load versus frame deflection for the excursions corresponding to the drift limit of h/400 is shown in Fig. were somewhat different.4. from 0 to 2145 kN. Test No.UNSTIFFENED STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALLS 221 The predicted angle of inclination of the tension field of the specimen was 51·0°.

the predicted value of the angle is 51·0°. Overall test set-up.9. Both the actual response and the predicted response are shown. A plot of load versus the lateral deflection of the frame is given in Fig.222 G. The measured value of the angle of inclination of the tension field.7.L. 9. buckles which formed at maximum load were barely discernible to an observer standing only a short distance away from the specimen.KULAK FIG. (1983) for the . was between 47° and 53° in the lower portion of the panel. 9. as obtained from strain gauge readings. The analytical model used corresponded exactly to that suggested by Thornburn et al.

9. the predicted value of the load causing first yield is 3450 kN.9. In this case. FIG. As closely as can be determined from the plot of the experimental values.8. 9. behaviour up to the load at which the first inclined bar in the model reached yield. The deflection predicted for . Specified load-versus-deflection. this was the load at which non-linearity did indeed start. Predicted-versus-experimental frame deflection: Static load case.UNSTIFFENED STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALLS 223 FIG.

This was followed by a range of gradual softening of the frame. as can be seen in Fig. In order to examine the seismic characteristics of the unstiffened steel plate shear wall arrangement. the physical tests described in this section were conducted first.9. A fillet weld tear at the web plate to fish plate connection adjacent to one of the pins was followed by a local lateral instability around the pin in a region where a flange had been cut back. The model. it is usually preferable to use physical testing as the primary method of obtaining this description. and used a 3·25 mm thick unstiffened steel plate web.KULAK the frame at the time of first yield of a bar is about 10% less than that measured in the test. the predicted curve provides an acceptable estimate of the true behaviour in the region between first yield and ultimate. There were two significant differences between this specimen and the one used for the static load case. Nevertheless. The second major difference was that. the frame will have considerable reserve strength beyond this level. that is.2 Quasi-Seismic Loading Case Although it is possible to develop analytical descriptions of the load-versusdeformation behaviour of structural elements or assemblages acting under simulated earthquake loading. a storey height of 2·20 m. An analytical model limited by the first yield load in one bar is obviously conservative. but was a connection failure. The overall behaviour of the frame shows that linear behaviour extended well beyond the serviceability load limit (3450 kN vs 2063 kN). The eccentricity of load through the fish plate appeared to contribute to both of these effects. Thus. did not take strain-hardening into account. until the ultimate load of 5395 kN was attained. an initial preload of 0·09Py . A standard web framing angle connection would provide much more lateral stability locally than that present around the pin in this test. 9. The general arrangement. another large-scale specimen was tested.6. however. as modified. 9.224 G. The connection was designed as a slip-resistant joint.L. ductile behaviour. this connection was expected to be very stiff as compared with the pinned connections used in the earlier test. and then the analytical model described in Section 9. Thus. The ultimate load did not occur as a result of behaviour of the principal elements. and test set-up were similar to those used for the specimen described earlier for the static loading case. The two-panel assembly had a bay width of 2·75 m. nor did it account for the presence of residual stresses in the framing members.7 was developed. in order to simulate the erection sequence that might be expected to occur in the field. Timler and Kulak (1983) used a model which accounted both for sequential yielding of inclined bars and for yielding of boundary members. One was that bolted connections using web framing angles connected the beams to the columns. configuration.

Full details of the test have been reported by Tromposch & Kulak (1987). Both reinforced-concrete shearwalls and K.or X-braced steel frames also exhibit the characteristic S-shaped .11 shows the complete history of the load versus displacement response for the 28 cycles of load that were applied. The second phase involved a monotonic load applied so as to attain the ultimate static capacity of the specimen. A photograph of the test specimen after testing is shown in Fig. In any multistorey building. An examination of individual loops would show that. the response is that characteristic of any steel framing system which contains elements that buckle: the curve can be described as S-shaped or pinched. including. the situation could be significantly more favourable than this. At the higher load levels. any deleterious effect introduced by the previous quasi-earthquake loading.10. in this case this slope represents (approximately) the behaviour of a single-storey frame. Because of the particular arrangement tested.UNSTIFFENED STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALLS 225 was introduced into the columns before the web plate was inserted and fastened to the boundary members. corresponding to a storey displacement of about 1/400 times the storey height. The response curve and energy absorption capability of this thin. 9. the response curve in this region could be substantially stiffer than that demonstrated in this test. these did not seem to be affecting the strength of the system and it was continuing to carry load. Thus. unstiffened steel plate shear wall under quasi-seismic loading can be compared with other structural systems for resisting lateral load. After the web had been installed. over the two-storey height. and remained horizontal as the test piece deflected vertically. It should be noted that the amount of energy absorption continued to increase throughout the 28 cycles of load applied in this test. the effect of the buckling of the web plate as the tension field forms and reforms in opposite directions is to produce the flatter portions of the curve in the central region. In one direction the web has buckled. a slowly applied cyclic load was applied. Testing was done in two phases. an additional column load of 0·12Py was applied. The web is in an intermediate stage as load is alternately applied. The bars ran from one end of the specimen to the other. the response is essentially linear for about 13 excursions. The central. This provided information about the response of the system to earthquake loading. These column preloads were obtained using prestressing bars of the type normally used in concrete structures. with gradually increasing displacements. Although several small tears in the web plate had occurred. fixed at its bottom end and with pinned beamto-column connections at the top. but in the other direction the diagonal tension field has not yet formed. for this test arrangement. The columns would be continuous and the beam-to-column connections would offer somewhat more restraint. Figure 9. Thereafter. The application of alternating load had to be terminated because the capacity of the testing machine had been reached. In the first phase. of course. flatter portion of the load-versus-deformation response curve is primarily the response of the frame alone.

L. The eccentrically braced steel frame is one example of this type of improvement (Popov. hysteresis loops. unstiffened steel plate shear wall. steps can be taken to improve the situation if a larger absorption of energy and a stiffer structure are considered essential.KULAK FIG. 9.10.11. Test specimen: quasi-earthquake case. Seismic response of thin. It has also been demonstrated that steel plate shear walls which . FIG. Of course. 9.226 G. 1980).

The relatively small increase in strength seems to indicate that the effect of the column load acting through the member displacement (P−σ ) had only a minor influence on the structural behaviour during the cyclic loading phase. In the monotonic loading phase. The boundary conditions for this specimen were not well-defined (slipresistant connections were used. 1973).UNSTIFFENED STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALLS 227 have intermediate stiffeners can produce a spindle-shaped hysteresis loop (Takahashi et al. a model that assumes pinned connections provides a satisfactory estimate of the actual response and is conservative. Tears in the welds and fish-plates that had developed during the cyclic tests lengthened only slightly under the monotonic loading. It is clear that the ultimate strength of this specimen was unaffected by its previous quasi-earthquake loading. Following completion of the alternating load portion of the test of this shearwall. When the shearwall was being loaded in the direction described as ‘compression’. 1987). A maximum midspan deflection in excess of 70 mm was reached. sightly over 6000 kN. The column axial loads had to be removed prior to failure of the specimen and there appears to be a slight increase in strength at the end of the cyclic loading and the commencement of the continuation of the load to failure. The initial portion was obtained by plotting the peak compressive loads obtained during the cyclic loading test. When the load was applied in the other direction (the ‘tension’ case).12 is a plot of the monotonic load-versus-deflection response. an analysis that assumed that the beam-to-column joints were fixed gave an excellent prediction of the actual monotonic load-response curve. not real pins as had been used in the specimen for the static test). These corner fractures appear to have been caused by the very severe buckles that took place in the corners as a result of joint slip and joint rotation. in both cases. the best representation was obtained by assuming that the joints were fixed until their theoretical slip load was reached. . It was also important to establish whether or not the frame would be able to attain its theoretical load following the simulated earthquake loading. However. after which it was assumed that they were pinned. the specimen was loaded to the capacity of the testing machine.. The initial stress in the web plate (the net of welding tensile residual stress and compressive stress due to column preload) was estimated to be about 50 MPa (Tromposch & Kulak. New tears in the welds and fish-plates occurred in the top outside corners of the test specimen. This is about 20% of the measured yield strength of the web plate material. it was loaded monotonically in order that another test result for the ultimate strength of an unstiffened shearwall might thereby be generated. Figure 9. and both welding residual stresses and stresses due to column preloading were present in the web plate.

KULAK FIG.7. Structural systems that perform well in seismic events generally also exhibit good ductility. . The amount of ductility required for a given structure is difficult to determine. A measure of the ductility of a system is defined as the ductility factor. it merely changes the failure mode.7 ANALYTICAL TREATMENT OF EARTHQUAKE LOADING 9. or displacement. developed experimentally by applying a quasi-static cyclic load in alternate directions.12. Good ductility.228 G. This factor can be defined as the maximum strain. rotation. or displacement divided by the yield strain. cannot compensate for poor energy absorption. Popov (1980) has suggested that a displacement ductility factor in the order of 6 may be necessary. Monotonic load-versus-deflection response. respectively (Popov. 9. The area enclosed by the hysteresis loop is equal to the energy absorbed by the system. For structures subjected to strong siesmic activity. rotation. 9. provides the member or frame behaviour information needed when conducting a dynamic analysis and also provides a general idea of the suitability of the system for a structure that must be designed to resist earthquakes.1 General Requirements The hysteresis curve. 1980). Systems that absorb a large amount of energy and exhibit sound and stable hysteresis loops have generally performed well in earthquakes. however.L.

a comparison with other commonly used systems will be useful. Both of these systems exhibit a degenerating pinched-loop behaviour when subjected to cyclic loads. 1980). These are a moment-resisting frame. 1980).7. It is generally the contribution of the P–σ effects that causes the failure of moment-resisting frames subjected to cyclic loading. Figure 9. three types of structural systems are commonly considered for lateral load resistance.2 Cyclic Loading Behaviour of Common Structural Systems When examining the cyclic loading response of a steel plate shear wall. A displacement ductility factor in excess of 10 is achieved. For frames. The pinched loops are the result of buckling of the yielded members before they can be recompressed.or X-bracing) is present. A recent innovation that improves the hysteresis performance of braced frames is to attach the diagonal brace to the beam a short distance away from the beam-to-column connection. It comes in many forms. 9. Hysteresis behaviour of a moment-resisting frame (after Popov.UNSTIFFENED STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALLS 229 FIG. 9. showing excellent ductility. 1980). or a simply supported steel frame containing a vertical shear wall. The load-versus-displacement loops are sound and fully developed. Moment-resisting frames generally exhibit good hysteresis behaviour. the effect of the axial load acting through the displaced distance (P−σ ) causes the stiffness to decrease at large deflections. a simply supported frame (continuous columns but simple beam-to-column connections) containing a core in which steel bracing (usually K. The . Figure 9. but the two most typical configurations are Kand X-bracing.13.13 is the hysteresis curve developed by a structural assemblage comprised of two half-columns and two beams (Popov. These too must all be compared with what is considered desirable behaviour. Because the columns are generally carrying large axial loads. The second type of lateral load-resisting system commonly used in diagonal bracing.14 is the hysteresis curve for the particular X-braced frame illustrated in the upper left corner of the figure (Popov.

1980). 9. The hysteresis performance of reinforced-concrete shear walls varies greatly. a permanent deformation remains in the reinforcement after unloading. eccentrically braced frame is designed so that the short link beam yields prior to the yielding or the buckling of the diagonal members (Popov. Hysteresis behaviour of a reinforced concrete shear wall (after Oesterle et al. The rotational ductility factor in this case is in excess of 10. depending on the configuration and the details used.. In this case. as would be expected since only the short link beams are yielding. FIG. Figure 9.15.14..KULAK FIG. This in turn results in a reduced stiffness prior to crack closure and causes the pinched loops. When the load is then applied in the other direction. the shear distortion of 0·01 radians corresponds to a lateral deflection of about 20 mm. 9. The hysteresis curves produced by cyclically loading a eccentrically braced frame are fully developed and stable. the rotational ductility factor is nearly equivalent to the . Shear walls are the third type of commonly used lateral load-resisting system. only the reinforcement is effective in resisting the applied moment prior to crack closure. The pinched loops in this case are caused by the yielding of the reinforcement.15 illustrates the shear force versus shear distortion hysteresis loops for a simple reinforced concrete shear wall (Oesterle et al. Hysteresis behaviour of a diagonally braced frame (after Popov. 1978).L. Until recently. 1978). 1980). For shear walls. shear walls were exclusively made of reinforced concrete. As load is applied in one direction.230 G.

Hysteresis behaviour of an unstiffened steel plate shear wall panel (after Takahashi et al. with the stiffness characteristics then equated to an equivalent pair of diagonal braces (Canadian Institute of Steel Construction. mounted on very stiff boundary members. 9. It is unclear whether the resulting analytical approximation was ever verified by physical tests.3 Previous Research In Japan. 1973).16 shows the hyster esis shear stress-versus-shear strain curve for an unstiffened steel shear wall panel 2·10 m by 0·90 m by 2·3 mm thick. The high seismic risk in Japan makes this a key factor in design. This arrangement produces hysteresis loop information which reflects the lateral strength of the panel only if it is assumed that the very stiff boundary members did not yield. and with idealized pinned connections. The lateral resistance was assumed to derive totally from the shear resistance of the panels.UNSTIFFENED STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALLS 231 FIG. 1975). Note that the web thickness used (2·3 mm) constitutes a very thin web panel. Figure 9. The shear walls were assumed to carry only lateral loads and no vertical loads. The first steel plate shear wall structures were designed on the basis that stresses in the panels are limited to the elastic range and that buckling of the panels does not occur. (1973) on the hysteresis properties of stiffened steel plate panels demonstrated the large ductility available and the superior hysteresis properties of stiffened shear wall panels as compared to unstiffened panels. Extensive research by Takahashi et al.17 shows the hysteresis curve for a . displacement ductility factor.7.. 1980). the stiffened steel plate shear wall has been used exclusively because of its superior hysteresis performance when compared to unstiffened panels. Figure 9.16. 9.. The structures were analysed using a form of the Wagner model. The hysteresis performance of concrete shear walls can be improved by linking slender shear walls with heavily reinforced coupling beams which act as the main energy-absorbing units in the structure (Park and Paulay.

L. the wall yield load. The assumed inclination of the tension field was that developed by Wagner (1931).17.. wQb. 9. The ductility of these specimens was very large. the theoretical hysteresis curve shown in Fig. The monotonic loadversus-deformation curve they developed is an elastic–plastic model that superimposes the frame and the plate stiffnesses. Applying load in the negative sense. heavily stiffened panel of the same geometrical configuration as that illustrated in Figure 9. The principal recommendations of these researchers were that steel plate shear wall panels be designed so that elastic buckling does not occur. Mimura & Akiyana (1980) followed this work by developing general expressions for predicting the monotonic and the hysteresis behaviour of steel plate shear wall panels. Mimura and Akiyana then developed a theoretical hysteresis curve for a steel plate shear wall panel in the following way.19 was proposed. The notation fQu. If these design recommendations are followed. Hysteresis behaviour of a heavily stiffened steel plate shear wall panel (after Takahashi et al. The maximum shear deformation was of the order of 0·1 radians for some of the specimens tested.KULAK FIG. the idealized system yield load. If the panel loading is taken to a load such as point B and then unloaded. the resulting shear wall panel will display sound. then the behaviour of the structure will be assumed to be similar to a conventional steel beam in bending. wQy. Figure 9.16. They assumed in their derivation that the steel panels developed a tension field to resist the applied loads. For cases where the shear buckling load is less than the shear yield load. Qy.18 illustrates the concept. the ultimate wall load. Line O–A–H represents the monotonic load-versus-deflection curve for the panel.232 G. 1973). and QULT represents the ultimate frame load. the unloading path will be parallel to the elastic curve to point C′. and so that when inelastic buckling occurs it does not extend across the entire panel. the . If the shear buckling strength is greater than the shear yield strength (Von Mises). Note that the heavily stiffened panel displays a superior hysteresis curve. respectively. 9. and the idealized system ultimate load. enclosing considerably more area and therefore absorbing more energy. stable hysteresis loops.

with yielding to point E. From point G.18. This distance is approximately one-half the distance O– C′. Theoretical hysteresis curve proposed by Mimura & Akiyana (1980). FIG. Load-versus-deflection behaviour. is taken as the average of the distances O– F′ and O–D′. which is equal to F–G. The distance F′–G′. The deflection C–D is that required to develop the tension field. 9. unloading to point F.19. a linear transition back to the point of last maximum . From point D. deflections would continue to be parallel to the elastic curve until shear buckling of the panel occurs at a point C. 9.UNSTIFFENED STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALLS 233 FIG. The curve then repeats itself. and redevelopment of the tension field at point G. the curve follows a linear transition back to the point of negative yield at A′.

can be considered to correspond to the buckle deformation. the number of loading cycles was small in each of the tests and therefore the stability of the hysteresis loop was not established in these tests. the final hysteresis cycle of the test frame. The reasons for assuming that it would require a deflection of one-half the permanent plastic deformation to redevelop the tension field are based on the assumptions of a tension field angle of 45°.20. 9. expanding the theoretical hysteresis curve developed by Mimura and Akiyana by several cycles shows that the theoretical curve does not degenerate at a rate similar to that observed in the test. The influence of the frame stiffness on the overall stiffness of the structure can be seen in Fig. This lateral stiffness. will result in the buckles cancelling each other and a tension field developing in the opposite sense. is assumed. the result of the difference between σ and 0·5σ . However. is much less than the deflection measured in the test.234 G. an assumption consistent with the Japanese tests. B. Poisson’s ratio effectively equal to 0·5. a deformation of 0·5σ beyond the zero-load permanent deformation. including the material properties and stiffnesses of the panel boundaries have been summarized by Tromposch & Kulak (1987). the panel height ranged from 264 mm to 599 mm and the web thickness was 1·0 mm for three of the specimens and 1·6 mm for the fourth. Thus. If a panel is displaced a distance σ and the material reaches yield. However. in the Tromposch & Kulak test (and in any real structure) the shear wall frame did contribute to the lateral stiffness of the shear wall and the observed slope in this region of the hysteresis curve was not zero. 9. would still be small when compared to that provided by the tension field of the panel. Also plotted in Fig. the hysteresis curves would follow the same form. and an initially unbuckled panel. Furthermore. a deformation of 0·5σ . a plastic tensile principal stress σ will develop in one direction and a perpendicular compressive stress of magnitude 0·5σ will develop in the other (Mimura & Akiyana. C′. Mimura & Akiyana (1980) conducted a series of four tests on plate girders in order to verify their proposed analytical model.4 Analytical Model for Cyclic Loading The analytical model proposed by Mimura & Akiyana (1980) was used as the basis for predicting the test results of Tromposch & Kulak (1987). 9. However. Test behaviour correlated reasonably well with the predicted behaviour.KULAK load. CD in Fig. The panel width ranged from 549 mm to 599 mm. Other details. For further cycles. 1980). When the load is applied in the opposite sense.19. however. 9.L.7. This results from the assumption that the boundary members provide no lateral resistance.20 is the stiffness (70·6 . this portion of the theoretical hysteresis curve has a zero slope. The deflection theoretically required to redevelop the tension field. The portion of the curve covering the displacement required to redevelop the tension field has a slope of approximately 93 kN/mm.

the load-versus-deflection curve will . Figure 9. these bolted joints were behaving more like fixed connections and the slope of the curve in the redevelopment phase was greater in the earlier cycles than in the final cycles.UNSTIFFENED STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALLS 235 FIG. the response will follow the monotonic load-versus-deflection curve past first yield to an arbitrary maximum load at point B. (4) The deflection required to redevelop the tension field is based solely on the amount of yielding experienced by the panels in each direction. (3) Given that the buckling load for a thin unstiffened panel is very low. Four assum ptions are made: (1) The stiffness of the structure during the tension field redevelopment phase can be represented by the elastic stiffness of the framing members alone. they can be assumed to be pinned. When load is applied to the structure. 9. The theoretical hysteresis curve development proposed by Mimura & Akiyana (1980) can be modified to incorporate the effects of the frame stiffness and the effects of the low panel buckling strength. Hysteresis cycle 28. Because by the final cycle the beam-to-column connections had slipped several times. In the early loading cycles. the slope during the tension field redevelopment phase will be zero. kN/mm) of two pin-ended columns alone (assuming the steel panel is absent). then the deflection necessary to produce buckling is very small and can be neglected. When the structure is unloaded from this point. The slopes of the two lines are reasonably similar. with the difference attributable to the uncertainty in the restraint provided by the bolted connections. (2) When a sufficient number of plastic hinges are produced in the boundary members to form a mechanism.21 illustrates the development of a theoretical hysteresis curve for an unstiffened steel plate shear wall using these assumptions.20.

For the first hysteresis cycle in Fig. ′ 1 is the yielded deflection from previous cycle in the direction of loading.4) . and a linear transition back to the point of the previous maximum tension. The deflection required for the tension field to develop is a distance CD′ (derivation of this distance to follow).2a). but is also influenced by the Poisson effect. the deflection required to redevelop the tension field is made up of two deflection components. As shown in eqn (9. Applying load in the other sense. The deflection required to redevelop the tension field in any given cycle (distances CD′ and GH′ in the example of Fig. that Poisson’s ratio is effectively equal to 0·5 when yielding occurs and that the angle of inclination of the tension field is equal to 45°. the deflections required to redevelop the tension fields are given by CD′= 0·5OC (9.3) GH′=OC+0·50G (9.236 G.21. The statement is then simplified as given by eqn (9.2b). a linear transition is assumed to apply up to the point of negative yield. point B. in this case 0·5′ 2. reformation of the tension field at point H. E. ′ 1 and ′ 2.21.2b) where ′ r is the deflection required to redevelop tension field.) This deflection is given by the following expression: ∆r=∆1+∆2−0·5∆2 (9.2a) or ∆r=∆1+0·5∆2 (9. During this rebuckling deflection. namely. Proposed theoretical hysteresis curve. (The actual angle of inclination is generally very close to 45°. the panel must develop a tension field in the other direction. the stiffness of the structure is equal to the elastic stiffness of the frame only. and ′ 2 is the yielded deflection just completed in the opposite loading direction from that under consideration.21) can be derived using the same assumptions made by Mimura & Akiyana. The formation of the hysteresis loops is then a continuation of the previous processes. unload elastically to point C.L. 9. unloading to point G. 9. Once the tension field has reformed (point D). yielding to point F.KULAK FIG. 9.

The discrepancy is due in part to the differences in the actual monotonic behaviour and the predicted monotonic behaviour. theoretical hysteresis curves were developed for two of the observed loading cycles obtained for the test panel. but the theoretical curve encloses about 36% less area than does the actual curve. Note that in eqn (9. The slopes of the curves in the tension field redevelopment region correlate better than they did for cycle 16. The theoretical hysteresis curves were developed using the above relationships. since the joint restraint of the actual frame is greater than the assumed restraint (pinned joints) used in the analytical model.22 provides a comparison between the theoretical hysteresis curve and the actual hysteresis curve for cycle 16.22. Theoretical and actual hysteresis curves for cycle 16. This is to be expected. 9. Again.UNSTIFFENED STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALLS 237 FIG.3) there is no ′ 1 term: for the first loading cycle the yielded deflection from the previous cycle is equal to zero. Thus. Using the relationships developed above. The two curves are reasonably similar. it is practical to develop predictions of the hysteresis behaviour of other shear walls with different configurations. the load-versus-deflection curves generated by the plane frame inclined bar model. Because the relationships developed above result in a reasonable prediction of the experimentally obtained hysteresis loops. cycle 28.23 compares the theoretical and the observed curves for the ast hysteresis cycle in this test. the two curves are reasonably similar. the predicted behaviour is less stiff than the actual behaviour during the tension field redevelopment phase. Figure 9. . and the peak cycle deflections observed in the test. with the theoretical hysteresis curve now enclosing about 20% more area than the actual hysteresis curve. Figure 9.

(A 5-mm thick panel is probably the practical minimum web plate thickness. was comparable to the frame stiffness of the test specimen. member section properties. 9. the increase in panel thickness increases the ultimate strength of the structure but does not change the basic shape of the hysteresis loop. This is mainly due to the near doubling of the frame stiffness (from 134·2 to 265·2 kN/mm). the amount of pinching and the enclosed area are similar in the two cases. The stiffness of the frame.23. This . Figure 9.24) except that the beam-to-column joints are fixed throughout the load history. 134·2 kN/mm. As a consequence. 9. Figure 9.238 G. reflect the formation of a mechanism in the frame.25 shows the theoretical hysteresis loop for a structure identical to the previous case (Fig. Three such examples follow. Using the new panel thickness. The horizontal portions of the loop. The change in the beam-to-column connection results in a stiffer and stronger structure. the angle of inclination of the tension field was calculated to be 43·7°. Theoretical and actual hysteresis curves for cycle 28. AB and CD. or different connection characteristics. as governed by handling considerations.KULAK FIG. with a considerable increase of area within the hysteresis loop (150%). The beam-to-column joints and the support locations were all assumed to be pinned throughout the load history. 9.) All material properties and member section properties were similar to those used in the analysis of the test specimen. As can be seen from Fig.24.L.24 is a hysteresis loop developed for a structure identical to the specimen tested by Tromposch & Kulak (1987) except that the web thickness is increased from 3·25 mm to 5 mm. The hysteresis loop was developed based on the deflections taken in cycle 28 of the conducted test and the theoretical load-versus-deflection curve developed by the plane frame model.

FIG.24. 9. Theoretical hysteresis loop for a 5-mm thick panel and fixed joints. mechanism will result in an increase in the amount of pinching in the hysteresis loops at higher load levels. The total vertical load . the hysteresis behaviour of a panel in a configuration typical of a multistorey building is examined. 9. The column and beam sections used are the same as used in all previous cases.25. Finally.26 illustrates the plane frame model used to evaluate the hypothetical shear wall structure. Figure 9. Theoretical hysteresis loop for a 5-mm thick panel and pinned joints.UNSTIFFENED STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALLS 239 FIG. The panel thickness is set equal to 3·25 mm with a yield strength of 242·5 MPa.

26) are assumed to be fixed joints. This is due to the very low frame stiffness (32·11 kN/mm). 9. with a small enclosed area of about 60% of the area enclosed by actual hysteresis loop (Fig.23). two shear walls are assumed to resist the total lateral force Q. 9. All beam-tocolumn joints are assumed to be pinned joints but all member nodes along line AB (Fig. is approximately equal to the column load applied to the test specimen.27. The area enclosed under this curve is 3·3 times greater than the area under the previous hysteresis . The applied lateral loads are of equal magnitude for the first and second floors and the lateral load applied to the top floor is one-half the magnitude of the load applied to the lower floors.L. This is provided so that the tension fields in the panels above can develop fully. At any level. except for the use of rigid beam-to-column connections. using the maximum deflections recorded during cycle 28 of the reported test.28.240 G. applied to the columns. is shown in Fig. Note that the loop is severely pinched. An identical structure. was analysed and the resulting theoretical hysteresis loop produced is shown in Fig. (The lower storey of a typical shear wall would normally consist of a very stiff anchor panel. 9.KULAK FIG. 350 kN per floor. Example three-storey structure.26. 9. The hysteresis loop developed for the lower storey of this structure. 9.) The panels were divided into only seven tension members in order to reduce the computations involved.

27. Fig. . Theoretical hysteresis loop for the bottom storey of the three-storey example structure—pinned joints.UNSTIFFENED STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALLS 241 FIG.28. Initially. FIG.27. 9. This is due to the large increase in the frame stiffness achieved by fixing the beam-to-column connections. 9. the concept of using fixed beam-to-column connections may seem undesirable. Theoretical hysteresis loop for the bottom storey of the three-storey example structure—fixed joints. fixing only two connections per shear wall stack per floor results in an increase of 230% in the amount of absorbed energy for this arrangement of beams and columns. 9. however. loop.

these hysteresis loops continue to follow approximately the same load-versus-deflection path for each subsequent cycle. the behaviour is similar to that displayed by conventional steel cross bracing or by conventional reinforced-concrete shear walls. It is apparent that the behaviour of an unstiffened steel plate shear wall panel is unlikely to achieve the ideal behaviour shown by the eccentrically braced frame or by the momentresisting frame.KULAK 9.10 CONCLUDING REMARKS An obvious analogy exists between a steel plate shear wall core and a plate girder. The hysteresis behaviour of a steel plate shear wall is dependent on the resistance of the panels to buckling. The amount of area enclosed by the hysteresis loops is very large and the loops are very stable. 9.13) is very close to the ideal behaviour described.7. The amount of pinching and the stability of the loops is dependent on the structural details and reinforcement details used.L. The observed hysteresis behaviour of the unstiffened steel plate shear wall can be compared with the structural systems described above. some pinching of the loops will occur. following the same path for each of the higher loading cycles. The analysis indicates that very thin. 9. This type of hysteresis behaviour is also displayed by the eccentrically braced frame and by the heavily stiffened steel plate shear wall. the members yielded in tension cannot be recompressed without buckling.5 Comparison of Hysteresis Behaviours When examining the hysteresis behaviour of any structural system. 9. If the panels buckle before yielding occurs. This structural system must deflect by a larger amount to absorb the same amount of energy (enclosed area) as a system which displays the same monotonic load-versus-deflection response but has fully developed hysteresis loops. Pinched hysteresis loops are also a characteristic of reinforced-concrete shear walls. The hysteresis behaviour of a moment-resisting frame (Fig. The pinched loops are not due to buckling of members but are the result of the change in stiffness due to the cracking of the concrete and the yielding of the reinforcement. Ideal hysteresis behaviour is one that maximizes the enclosed area while minimizing the final deflection. it should be compared with what is considered ideal behaviour. unstiffened webs can meet the normal strength and stiffness requirements . This analogy has been used to develop a simple method of analysis which utilizes the post-buckling strength of the system. or.14) displays this type of behaviour. Pinched hysteresis loops are the typical behaviour of structures that have members that buckle when subjected to compressive loads. Ideal hysteresis behaviour also displays loops that are stable and nondegenerating. Conventional steel cross bracing (Fig. However. more simply.242 G.

TIMLER. Willowdale. A. R. Structural Eng. Edmonton.. load excursions at wind loading levels. University of Alberta. C. Y. ultimate strength. KUHN. Skokie. ASCE. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The work described in this chapter is based upon the theoretical and experimental studies carried out by the author’s students.E. Wiley.G. FIORATA.. M. Ontario. The experimental programme reported in this chapter used representative sizes and fabrication techniques to verify the model. University of Alberta. G. (1980) Load Deflection Relationship on Earthquake Resistant Steel Shearwalls Developed Diagonal Tension Field. THORBURN. and the seismic behaviour of steel plate wall assemblies. & KULAK. pp. Part I—Methods of Analysis. (1983) Experimental Study of Steel Plate Shear Walls. 185–191. R.. W. Department of Civil Engineering. T. Structural Engineering Report 114. Y. 106(7) 1451–74. P. (English translation). Willowdale. Jane Thorburn.A. L. (1975) Reinforced Concrete Structures. TAKAHASHI..L.J. PCA Research and Development Construction Laboratories.P. (1978) Hysteretic Response of Reinforced Concrete Structural Walls. T.Montgomery. H. H. Illinois.C. (English translation) Canadian Institute of Steel Construction.R. The steel shear wall system is not difficult to analyse and it appears to offer the potential for economies in both material and construction.P..D. Structural Engineering Report 107. D. Ontario. KULAK. & MONTGOMERY. L. Department of Civil Engineering. The author expresses his appreciation to all of these people. G. The examination has included stiffness (drift). P. (1952) A Summary of Diagonal Tension. Lisbon. Washington. MIMURA. E. TAKEDA.J. J.G. Peter Timler and Eric Tromposch. PARK. & LEVIN. & PAULAY. (1980) Seismic behaviour of structural subassemblages. Edmonton. & TAKAGAI. Dr C. Some of the original ideas in the development of the shear wall model are the contribution of the author’s former colleague. & CORLEY.UNSTIFFENED STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALLS 243 for the core of a high-rise building. & AKIYANA. (1973) Experimental Study on Thin Steel Shear Walls and Particular Steel Bracings Under Alternative Horizontal Loading. ARITIZABAL-OCHOA.J. Preliminary Report IABSE Symposium on Resistance and Ultimate Deformability of Structures Acted on by Well-Defined Repeated Loads. . New York. It should be considered for use both in new structures and in the retrofitting of existing structures.L. TAKEMOTO. J. POPOV. PETERSON.. OESTERLE. NACA Technical Note 2662. J.. REFERENCES CANADIAN INSTITUTE of STEEL CONSTRUCTION (1980) A Guide to the Structure of B-class Japanese Buildings. (1983) Analysis and Design of Steel Shear Wall Systems.

Structural Engineering Report No.L.W. 604. (1931) Flat Sheet Metal Girders with Very Thin Metal Webs. DC. G.244 G. University of Alberta. E. NACA Technical Memo. Part I— General Theories and Assumptions. . WAGNER. & KULAK. Department of Civil Engineering. 145.L. Washington. H. (1987) Cyclic and Static Behaviour of Steel Plate Shear Walls. Edmonton.KULAK TROMPOSCH.

13–16 plate/box girders. 95–100 apron. 73–101 Crack growth analysis. and interaction model. adhesives and. 106–7 Albrecht’s model. 103–25 Box girder fatigue cracking. 28–32 level crossing technique for. 99 Bending. damage to. 46 Cycle counting. 78–82 shear. 26–8 Corrosion. 132 Concrete. 82–6. in unloaders. 108–12 fatigue testing. monorails. 142 Adhesively-bonded cover plates. 98–100 welded runways. 106–7 Acrylic tubing. 99 twin box. 49 Crack growth. 111–12 Bonded cover plates. 85 Cycle-by-cycle crack growth summation. 239–41 Chord saddle. 64– 70 Apron girders. 95–8 Cross-beam rotation. plate shear walls. 108. tubular joints. 98–100 mono box. 112–14 materials for. bridges. accounting for. 95–100 Crane girders. of bridges. and Newman. 228–30 Concrete-slab rotation. 7. 50–1 Amplitude. and fatigue life prediction. 105–6 Cover plates. 5 adhesively bonded cover plates. 86–95 Bridges. 143–4 Chord thickness. 44–5 Crack initiation. with plate girder fatigue. 85 245 Constant-amplitude history. 41– 9 Crane fatigue cracking. 108–12 Cracks. 119–20 highway bridges. 185–7. 196–202 Coverplated beam specimens. in. 103–25 bonding. 177–203 Buckling. 10–13 Crack tip stress. 114–19 Crack closure model. 103–25 bonding. 36–7. 106–7 welded. 120–3 repair of. 29–30 . 86–95 Box girders. 193–4 Crack growth retardation. 207–9 Acrylic adhesives. 80–2 Bolt-hole cracks. 107–8 crack initiation. 108–12 crack propagation.INDEX Across-wind oscillation. 120–3 materials for. 107–8 development.

140–1. unloaders. 62. 231 Detailing. 103–25 Finite analysis. 28. fatigue-resistant. 32–5 non-linear. 149–53 Elastic-perfectly plastic stresses. 14–18 Distortion-induced cracking. 9–10 structural engineering applications. 50–1 models for. R-C frames. 50– 1 lateral loads. 265–73 Earthquakes. 144. 8–9 Fabrication. 73–101 welded bridge details. 190–1 apron. 7–9 detailing. 8 erection. 4–6 stress range. 6–7 Gerber formula. variable amplitude. 55. 64–70 Fatigue notch factor. 205–35 Cyclic loading analytical model. 13–16 see also Crack growth Fatigue cracking plate/box girders. 7–8 Fatigue strength. 8–9 structural systems. 31 Cycle counting—contd. 265–73 common structural systems. 13–16 fatigue and. 41–2 Engle-Rudd program. 155–60 Fatigue life prediction. 95–100 monorails. 86–95 thin-walled. 10–16 applications. 218–19 Efthymiou equation. 66–7. 30. and. 32–49 research into. range pair. 3. 29. 1–23 Fatigue life. for offshore structures. 29 Cyclic load. 247–53 Damage modelling. 180–2 Fatigue damage accumulation. 118 Fatigue-resistant design. and SCF. 259 Discontinuities. 8–9 ‘fail-safe design’. and fracture mechanics. See Reinforced-concrete frames Gauges. See Fracture mechanics Fracture mechanics. 192–3 Geometric notations. 25–53 design for. 20–2 structural engineering. 3–4 geometry and. of tubular joints. 3–4 Erection. 29. 177–203 Fatigue. 6–7 large welded steel structures. 274 model for. 4–6 Geometry. 51 Fatigue-damage bridge structures. 152–5 FM. 35–41 See Fatigue damage models Design fracture damage accumulation. cranes. 180–1 Earthquake loading. 3–7 factors affecting. 5. 76–83 . 258–74 cyclic loading behaviour. 32–49 interaction. 70 Girders. 64. and fracture mechanics. 130–4 Geometrical effect magnitudes. 41–9 linear. and fatigue life. 6–7 Fatigue life assessment. 16– 22 Frames. and fracture mechanics. 1–23 qualitative tool design. 1–23 Fatigue crack growth. 8–9 fabrication. 8 Fatigue assessment. 10–13 crack growth. 258–61 hysteresis behaviour comparisons. 30 rainflow.246 INDEX peak. 8 Diagonal bracing. 32 reservoir. 48 Environment. 18–20 quantitative design. 98–100 bridges. 82–6 Girders—contd. 227–31 Damage models. 16–22 crack accounting. and fatigue life. 258–61 quasi-wind. adhesively-bonded cover plates.

39–40. 39–40 Haibach model. 40–1 Offshore structures. 228 linear damage. 25– 53 ‘Local’ deformation. 41–9 Joints. 259 Kuhn theory. 232 Peak counting technique. 35 Load-deflection curves. 57–8. 28–32 Plastic zones. 188–96 crack growth analysis. 38–9. 61–2. 36. See Offshore structures Palmgren-Miner linear damage model. 132–3 complex. 134–7. 10–13 Plate girder bridge connection fatigue. 207 ‘Gross’ deformation. 95–100 Highway bridge cover plates. 240 Lack-of-fusion cracks. 191–3 field measurements.). 231–3 Lateral loads. 50–1 Haibach model. 65. 136–7 Low fatigue bridge strength details. 86–95 Newman crack closure model. 132–3 composite. 136–7 Guideway girders. 32–5 applications. 130–4 cast steel. 29–30 Linear damage model. 120–3 Hot-spot stress concept. 85–6 Plate girder fatigue cracking. 196–202 field measurements. 55. 15 Park-Paylay solution. 197–200 retrofitting. 82–6 thin-walled. 139–42 Hysteresis behaviour. 127–75 Oil platform. 76–82 Plate shear walls. 132–3 local behaviour. 11 Interaction models. 39–41 Gurney model. 32– 5. in offshore structure. 50–1 Heavy-duty crane fatigue cracking. 240 Infinitely wide plate cracking. 64 Gravity loads. 82–4 cross-beam rotation. 222 Non-linear damage model. 35 root mean square. 207 Level crossing counting. 191–3 retrofitting.). 35 Palmgren-Miner. varying amplitude. 194–6 I-95 Susquehanna River Bridge (Md. 193–4 curve prediction. 170–1 Qualitative design tools. 49 Newmark method. 36–7 Gurney model. 36–41 Paris law. 237–76 PWHT tubular joints. 37–8 Zwerneman model. 139–55 K-braced load resistance. 4–6 Lateral load designs. 32–4 root mean cube. 38–41 Tilly-Nunn approach. 200–2 ‘Incomplete diagonal tension’ theory. 82– 6 concrete-slab rotation. fatigue damage. steel plate shear walls. and fatigue. 86–95 Gurney load-time histories. 194 Large welded steel structures.INDEX 247 Goodman formula. 73–86 Plate girders highway bridge. 18–20 . 41–5 Plate cracks. 35–41 Albrecht’s model. 193–4 failure causes. 210–14 Loads. 166–8 post-weld heat treatment. 85 crack types. 38–9 Palmgren-Miner model. 98–100 Monorail box girders. 274 Hysteresis rules. 258–74 comparative. 182–7 Mono box girder. 50. 223–4 I-93 Central Artery Bridge (Mass. 32–4 non-linear damage.

187. 58. 112–14 Palmgren-Miner model. 44–5 Retardation parameter. 247–53 Rails. 35 Runway girders. 171–2 failure criteria. 64. 220–1 Reservoir. 64 coverplates. See SCF Stress intensity factor. 20–2 Quasi-seismic loading. 5 S–N curves. 205–35 analysis. fatigue strength parameters. 139–55 joint types. 227 earthquakes and. and. plate girders. 222–7 damage modelling. 78–80 shear. 16–22 fatigue life. 55–71 Residual stress model. 32 Rayleigh approximation method. 155–60 available curves. 209–16 subassemblies. 130–4 new data. 218–19 quasi-static tests. 12–16 Stress-range models. 158–60 Steel plate shear walls. and. 4–7 Small weld-induced discontinuities. 50–1 T-joint deformation. fatigue assessment. 31 Range pair counting. and fracture mechanics. 26–8 Shear. 76–82 crack types. 80–2 bending. 173–4 SCF finite-element analysis. 130–4 hot-spot stress. 152–5 SCF parametric equation. and tubular joints. 49 Strip models. specific joint types. 140–1 Strength-drop index. 29. 55. 220–31 building components analysis. 29 Residual stress. 59–64 hypothesized.248 INDEX Quantitative design. 49 Structural engineering. 194–6. 80–2 Tilly-Nunn model. 36–8 S–N methods. 81–2 Short-crack behaviour. 67 Reinforced-concrete frames. 196–202 Suspended-type monorail box girders. 253–8 Quasi-static R-C member testing. 166–71 S–N method. 160–72 new data. 95–8 SCF finite-element analysis. 157–8 fatigue resistance design. 1–23 applications of. 137–73 Tubular joint fatigue—contd. 241–3 Strip yield approximations. 29. in tubular joints. 157 Twin box girders. 92–5 Thin-walled plate girders. 67 Tubular joint fatigue. 45–9 Retardation models. 225 Stress concentration factor. and. 37–8. 172–3 geometric notation. 152–5 SCF parametric equation. 209–16 Quasi-wind cycling loading. 155–60 stress range. 44–5 Wheeler model. and fracture mechanics. 142–51 size effects. 57. 59–61 weld fatigue. 15 Simplification. 134–7. 139–42 joint behaviour. See Monorail box girders Rainflow counting. 57–8. 237–76 Straddle-type monorail box girders. 61–2. 35 Root mean square model. 142–52 Service load-time history. 18–22 Stress superposition. 30. 98–100 . 76–8 bending. 137–8 fracture-mechanics method. 127–75 applied load. 7–9 Susquehanna River Bridge. 135– 6 Truncated Rayleigh distribution. 200–2 Root mean cube model. 216–17 time history analysis. 46 Retrofitting. 138–9 environment and. 3–7 fatigue-resistant design. 145–8 research directions in. 86–92 Strain gauge layout. offshore structures.

240 Web attachment. 55–71 Weld-induced discontinuities (small). 144. and. 149–53 Unloader girders. 47–8 Willenborg model. 5 Weld-toe discontinuities. 50–1 . 183–5 Zwerneman model. 259 Yellow Mill Pond Bridge (Conn. 68–9 Variable-amplitude stress range. 16–18 Welded bridge fatigue cracking. 98–100 Unloading plastic zone. 120–3 UEG UR33 equations. 178–9 Web deflection. 95–8 Welded steel structures. 180–2 Welded crane runway girders. 26–53 Versilok-201.).INDEX 249 Two-dimensional elastic-plastic finiteelement method. 47–8 X-braced load resistance. 77 Web plate. and residual stress. 4–6 Wheeler model. 106–7 Viaduct bents. 64–70 Yariable-amplitude fatigue-life prediction tables. 47–50 Wheeler model. 182–7 fatigue-crack growth analysis. 40–1. and. 237–76 Variable-amplitude fatigue-life prediction. 188 Wagner theory. and shear. 187 stress history. 45–9 Willenborg model. 65 Varying-amplitude loads. 239–40 Weld fatigue. 42–3 Unstiffened steel plate shear walls. 49 Two-span continuous highway-bridge cover plates. 185–7 retrofitting.