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ECED 4502 FINAL EXAMINATION Winter 2010

Useful Information
(Not all of this information is necessarily required today!)

DTFT Synthesis Equation DTFT Analysis Equation


π ∞
1
x[ n ] =

jω jωn
∫ X ( e ) e dω X ( e jω ) = ∑ x[n]e − jωn
−π n = −∞

Parseval’s Theorem
∞ π DFT Exponential Factor
1 jω 2
∑ x[n]
2
E = =
2π ∫ X (e ) dω
WN = e − j (2π N )
n = −∞ −π

Z-transform Properties
Z-transform of a sequence x[n] Z 1
∞ x[−n] ↔ X (1 / z ), ROC =
Rx
X ( z) = ∑ x[n]z −n Z
n = −∞
z on x[ n] ↔ X ( z / z o ), ROC = z o R x

Marks: Total marks out of 66

Question Marks

1 10

2 14

3 12

4 15

5 15

Total 66

Dalhousie University E&CE Department


ECED 4502 Final Examination Winter 2010

Q1. The following continuous-time signals xc(t) are sampled to obtain the corresponding
discrete-time signals x[n]. Specify a choice for the sampling period T that is consistent with
each pair of xc(t) and x[n]. In addition, indicate whether your choice of T is unique. If not,
specify a second possible choice of T consistent with the information given.

(a)   = 
10 , 
 = 

⁄4

 ⁄
(b)   = , 
 =
 ⁄

Dalhousie University E&CE Department


ECED 4502 Final Examination Winter 2010

Q2.- Consider the six-point sequence



 = 6
 + 5
− 1 + 4
− 2 + 3
− 3 + 2
− 4 + 
− 5
shown in the figure below

(a) Determine !", the six-point DFT of 


.
Express your answer in terms of #$ = % &'⁄$ .
(b) Plot the sequence (
, n = 0, 1, …, 5, that is obtained by computing the inverse six-
point DFT of #" = #$&) !".
(c) Use any convenient method to evaluate the six-point circular convolution of x[n] with
the sequence ℎ
 = 
 + 
− 1 + 
− 2. Sketch the result.
(d) If we convolve the given x[n] with the given h[n] by N-point circular convolution, how
should N be chosen so that the result of the circular convolution is identical to the result
of the linear convolution?

Dalhousie University E&CE Department


ECED 4502 Final Examination Winter 2010

Q3.- The system function of a causal LTI system is


1 − , &
+, =
3
1 + , &
4
The input to the system is
1 

 = - . /
 + /−
− 1
3
(a) Find the impulse response of the system, h[n].
(b) Find the output y[n].
(c) Is the system stable? That is, is h[n] absolutely summable?

Dalhousie University E&CE Department


ECED 4502 Final Examination Winter 2010

Q4.- We want to implement a causal system H(z).with the pole-zero diagram shown below. For
all parts of this problem, z1, z2, p1 and p2 are real, and a constant gain that is independent of
frequency can be absorbed into the K term in each flowgraph.

Im{z}
z-plane

Re{z}

(a) Fill in the following flowgraph in terms of the variables z1, z2, p1 and p2.

Dalhousie University E&CE Department


ECED 4502 Final Examination Winter 2010

(b) Fill in the following flowgraph in terms of the variables z1, z2, p1 and p2.

(c) Give the values of B, C, E, F, and write the system of linear equations needed to find the
values of A, D and G in terms of the variables z1, z2, p1 and p2.

(d) For each of the three parts above, indicate the structure implemented.
Specify: direct or transposed, type I or II, parallel or cascade, section order, as it applies.

Dalhousie University E&CE Department


ECED 4502 Final Examination Winter 2010

Q5.- (a) Describe the characteristics of the impulse response h[n] of a causal linear-phase FIR
filter. What is mathematically required for it to have linear phase?

(b) How many types of FIR linear-phase filters can we have? Identify each of them based
on the number of coefficients M and symmetry.

(c) What is the delay introduced by a linear-phase FIR filter with M coefficients?

(d) H(z) is the system function of a linear-phase FIR system. Describe and draw the four
possible arrangements in which we can find the zeros of H(z) in its z-plane pole-zero plot.

(e) Describe how the zero location of H(z) can affect the type of filter that we are able to
design. For instance, can we always design a high-pass filter using any of the linear-phase
FIR filter types? Explain.

Dalhousie University E&CE Department


ECED 4502 Final Examination Winter 2010

Properties of the Discrete Fourier Transform

Dalhousie University E&CE Department