Contents

Topic
y y y y y y y y y

Page#

General Muhammad Zia ul haq 3 Martial Law 3,4 The Case of Zulifkar Ali Bhutto 4,5 General Zia ul Haq Islamaisation 5,6 Referendum of 1984 6,7 Law Against Ahmadiyya in 1984 7 Dismissal of Junejo Governmt and call for new election 7,8 Death 9 Biblography 10

Bhutto called fresh elections. They managed to contest the elections jointly even though there were grave splits on opinions and views within the party. Bhutto and members of his cabinet were arrested by troops under the . Despite this there was high voter turn out in national elections however as provincial elections were held amidst low voter turn out and an opposition boycott the PNA declared the newly elected Bhutto government as illegitimate. Distinguished by his role in the Black September in Jordan military operation in 1970. He initially ruled as Chief Martial Law Administrator.General Muhammad Zia ul haq. 1977. General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq was the sixth President of Pakistan from July 1977 to his death in August 1988. Firebrand Islamic leaders such as Abul Ala Maududi called for the overthrow of Bhutto's regime.Political and civil disorder intensified which led to more unrest. His tenure saw the disbanding of the Baloch insurgency. Zia major domestic initiatives included the consolidation of the fledgling nuclear program. After widespread civil disorder. but later installed himself as the President of Pakistan in September 1978. he was appointed as Chief of Army Staff in 1976. However. he is most remembered for his foreign policy. the subsidizing of the Mujahideen movement during the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan which led to the Soviet Russian withdrawel from Afghanistan. Martial Law . Nevertheless a compromise agreement between Bhutto and opposition was ultimately reported. Yet on July 5. denationalization and deregulation and the state's Islamization. he overthrew ruling Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto on 5 July 1977 and became the state's third ruler to impose martial law. His endorsement of the Pakistan Muslim League the founding party of Pakistan initiated its mainstream revival. On 8 January 1977 a large number of opposition political parties grouped to form the PNA. They proceeded to boycott the provincial elections. which was initiated by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. First they claimed rigging for 14 seats and finally for 40 seats in the National Assembly. and PNA participated in those elections in full force. The PNA faced defeat but did not accept the results alleging that the election was rigged.

However in October 1977. He announced the postponement of the electoral plan and decided to start an accountability process for the politicians. The High Court had given him the death sentence on charges of the murder of the father of Ahmed Raza Kasuri a dissident PPP politician. The Supreme court ruled four to three in favour of execution. After assuming power as Chief Martial Law Administrator General Zia promised to hold National and Provincial Assembly elections in the next 90 days and to hand over power to the representatives of the nation. elections later" PNA policy was adopted. Despite the case where by Bhutto was held behind the murder of Ahmed Raza Kasuri the trial is considered to have been biased against Bhutto who it is generally believed to have been framed in the case. Today it is widely accepted as a politically motivated judicial murder. This severely tainted his credibility as many saw the broken promise as malicious. Thus the "retribution first. He also stated that the constitution of Pakistan had not been abrogated but had been temporarily suspended. Despite many clemency appeals from foreign leaders requesting Zia to commute Bhutto's death sentence Zia dismissed the appeals as trade union activity and upheld the death sentence. A white paper document was issued incriminating the deposed Bhutto government on several counts. The hanging of an elected prime minister by a military man was condemned by the international community and by lawyers and jurists across Pakistan. A Disqualification Tribunal was formed and several individuals who had been members of parliament were charged with malpractice and disqualified from participating in politics at any level for the next seven years. On 2 December 1978 on the occasion of the first day of the Hijra to enforce the . General Zia ul Haq Islamaisation.order of General Zia. On 4 April 1979 the former Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was hanged after the supreme court upheld the death sentence as passed by the Lahore high court. Zia said that he changed his decision due to the strong public demand for the scrutiny of political leaders who had engaged in malpractice in the past . The case of Zulifkar Ali Bhutto.

As a preliminary measure to establish an Islamic society in Pakistan. It is often argued that since Sharia is God's law and states certain punishments for each crime. In legal terms Islamic law being usually referred to as Sharia.islamic system in Pakistan in a nationwide address Zia accused politicians of exploiting the name of Islam: "Many a ruler did what they pleased in the name of Islam. For robbery the right hand of the offender from the wrist and his left foot from the ankle should be amputated by a surgeon. Under the offences against Property (Hudood Ordinance) Ordinance 1979 the punishment of imprisonment or fine or both as provided in the existing Pakistan Penal Code for theft was substituted by the amputation of the right hand of the offender from the joint of the wrist by a surgeon. 5000 . Although the hud punishment were imposed but the Islamic law of evidence was not implemented and remained British in origin. Both was provided in that law." After assuming power the government began a program of public commitment to enforce Nizam-e-Mustafa a significant turn from Pakistan predominantly Anglo-Saxon law. Under the zina rdinance the provisions relating to adultery were replaced so that . The term is used to describe laws that define a certain level of crime classification. Crimes classified under Hudud are the most severe of crimes such as murder theft and adultery. It has been argued by some that the Hudud portion of Sharia is incompatible with humanism or human rights. There are minor differences in views between the four major Sunni madhhabs about sentencing and specifications for these laws. Although the punishments were imposed the due process witnesses and prosecution system remained un-Islamic Anglo-Saxon. In 1977 however the drinking and selling of wine by Muslims was banned in Pakistan and imprisonment of six months or a fine of Rs. they are immutable. As in Islamic law Hudud can only be given if four witnesses saw the crime happen in reality hardly anyone can be punished by Islamic Hud laws as very rarely can the conditions for punishment be met.General Zia announced the establishment of Sharia Benches. Drinking of wine and all alcoholic drinks was not a crime under the PPC. Inherited from the British.

Referendum of 1984 General Zia eventually decided to hold elections in the country. The question asked in the referendum was whether the people of Pakistan wanted Islamic Sharia law enforced in the country. Also despite pressure from the government to vote only 10% of those eligible to vote . Zia had the overwhelming majority of the votes cast. A cognizable offence punishable with imprisonment or fine or with both. But before handing over the power to the public representatives he decided to secure his position as the head of state. He also managed to get several amendments passed most notably the Eighth Amendment which granted reserve . The Pakistan penal code and the Criminal Procedure code were amended through ordinances in 1980 1982 and 1986 to declare anything implying disrespect to the Islamic prophet Muhammad Ahl al-Bayt Sahaba and Shaar-iIslam. Zia-ul-Haq decided to hold elections in the country in February 1985 on a non-party basis. However they were marred by allegations of widespread irregularities and technical violations of the laws and ethics of democratic elections. After being elected Presiden. Before handing over the power to the new Government and lifting martial law Zia got the new legislature to retroactively accept all of Zia actions of the past eight years including his coup of 1977. Most of the opposing political parties decided to boycott the elections but election results showed that many victors belonged to one party or the other. To many his nomination of Muhammad Khan Junejo as the Prime Minister was because he wanted a simple person at the post who would act as a puppet in his hands. And if they are married they shall be stoned to death provided 4 impeccable witnesses can witness the act of penetration. To make things easier for himself the General nominated the Prime Minister from amongst the Members of the Assembly. But in reality the referendum was an embarrassing failure.the women and the man guilty will be flogged each of them with one hundred lashes if unmarried. A referendum was held on 1 December 1984 and the option was to elect or reject the General as the future President. According to the official result more than 95% of the votes were cast in favour of Zia-ul-Haq thus he was elected as president for the next five years.

Dismissal of Junejo Governmt and call for new election. As time passed the legislature wanted to have more freedom and power and by . Any person of the Quadiani group or the Lahori group who call themselves Ahmadis or by any other name who directly or indirectly poses himself as Muslim or calls or refers to his faith as Islam or preaches or propagates his faith or invites others to accept his faith by words either spoken or written or by visible representations or in any manner whatsoever outrages the religious feelings of Muslims shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years and shall also be liable to fine. General Zia-ul-Haq promulgated Ordinance on 26 April 1984 banning members of the Ahmadiyya community from performing some of their religious ceremonies and prayers. Another addition to the laws was Ordinance in 1984.powers to the president to dissolve the National Assembly. 1984. The government could not function in a constitutional manner Law Against Ahmadiyya in 1984 . Article 298-C of the new law states. This effectively resulted in classifying the Ahmadiyya community of Pakistan into a minority group in law. Most prominently the judicial killing of Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. this amendment considerably reduced the power he'd previously granted himself to dissolve the legislature at least on paper. Zia was also considered anti-Shia. The text of the amendment permitted Zia to dissolve the Assembly only if 1 the Cabinet had been toppled by a vote of no confidence and it was obvious that no one could form a government or 2. Because during his reign many Shia Muslims personalities and politicians were killed. Although before Zia rule in 1974 Pakistans National Assembly under Zulfikar Ali Bhutto it was declared that Ahmadis are classified as non-Muslims for the definition of the law. But it was not sufficient in stopping the missionary activities of the Ahmadiyya community. However. Under this the Ahmadiyya were barred from calling themselves Muslims or using Islamic terminology or practising Islamic rituals. He declared This Ordinance may be called the antiIslamic activities of the Ahmadis Ordinance.

General Zia-ul-Haq promised to hold elections in 1988 after the dismissal of Junejo government. However since media in Pakistan was brutally gagged in his days none of his corruption could be documented and brought to lime light by the print media. With Bhutto popularity somewhat growing and a decrease in international aid following the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan Zia was in a repetitively difficult political situation. Zia loyalists in the military were called to form an interim government. Zia justified his actions and diverted attention from his corruption by focusing on how the further Islamization of Pakistan had been negligently delayed by Junejo and his government. Zia played the Islam card to defend himself and the generals against any accusations of misrule and corruption. . Apart from many other reasons Prime Minister Junejo decision to sign the Geneva Accord against the wishes of General Zia and his open declarations of removing any military personnel found responsible for an explosion at a munitions dump at Ojhri Camp on the outskirts of army headquarters in Rawalpindi earlier in the year proved to be some of the major factors responsible for his removal.Rumors about the differences between Prime Minister Muhammad Khan Junejo and Zia were rife. The late Zulfikar Ali Bhutto daughter Benazir Bhutto had returned from exile earlier in 1986 and had announced that she would be contesting the elections. Gen Zia-ul-Haq and his generals had made millions from the illicit heroin trade and underhand weapons deals besides huge embezzlement in funds diverted towards the Afghan war. On 29 May 1988 General Zia dissolved the senate and the National Assembly and removed the Prime Minister under article 58(2)b of the amended Constitution. When accused of trying to cover-up the Ojari camp incident on May 29. 1988 he invoked an amendment that he had recently added to the Pakistani Constitution that allowed him to dismiss the Prime Minister or dissolve the National Assembly and all provincial assemblies basically the entire legislative portions of the government outside of the Presidency.the beginning of 1988. He said that he would hold elections within the next 90 days.

The manner of his death has given rise to many conspiracy theories. In addition to Zia 31 others died in the plane crash including Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee General Akhtar Abdur Rehman close associate of General Zia Brigadier Siddique Salik the American Ambassador to Pakistan Arnold Raphel and General Herbert M. Wassom. It also suggested that poisonous gases were released which incapacitated the passengers and crew which would explain why no Mayday signal was given. Zia had left the small town in the Punjab province by C-130 Hercules aircraft. . Shortly after a smooth take-off the control tower lost contact with the aircraft. A board of inquiry was set up to investigate the crash. General Zia-ul-Haq died in a plane crash on 17 August 1988. the head of the U. Military aid mission to Pakistan. Witnesses who saw the plane in the air afterward claim it was flying erratically then nosedived and exploded on impact.Death. Ghulam Ishaq Khan the Senate Chairman announced Zia death on radio and TV. After witnessing a US M1 Abrams tank demonstration in Bahawalpur. It concluded the most probable cause of the crash was a criminal act of sabotage perpetrated in the aircraft.S. There is speculation that America india or an alliance of them and internal groups were behind the attack.

Shabir syed Publication.Biblography Burki.BHUTTO and ZIA. AYUB. sang-e-meel .Shahid javed Pakistan Fifty year of Nationhood Publisher Vanguard Books pvt Ltd. Hussain.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful